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# 0521796768sol March 16, 2007 Page-1

S O L U T I O N S T O T H E P R O B L E M S
O F T H E B O O K
An Introduction
to Atmospheric
Thermodynamics
by
Anastasios A. Tsonis
c 2002 Anastasios Tsonis
0521796768sol March 16, 2007 Page-2
0521796768sol March 16, 2007 Page-3
C H A P T E R 3
(3.1)
m =
pV
RT
=
1013 10
2
60
287 293
= 72.3 kg
(3.2)
V
0
=
mRT
0
p
=V
0
=AT
0
=A=3.663 cm
3
K
1
(rst sample)
A=7.326 cm
3
K
1
(second sample)
Curves are:
rst sample V = 3.663 T
second sample V = 7.326 T
(3.3)
(a) V =
nR

T
p
= 0.0000821 T (m
3
K
1
)
= 82.1 T(cm
3
K
1
)
so V = 82.1 T(V in cm
3
)
(b) V = 41.05 T
(3.4)
per unit V:
_
_
_
0.95 M
CO
2
=41.8
0.05 M
N
2
= 1.4
43.2
So by mass:
CO
2
:
41.8
43.2
=96.76%
N
2
:
1.4
43.2
=3.24%
Then it follows
M =

m
i

m
i
M
i
= 43.2 g mol
1
R =
R

M
= 192.5 J kg
1
K
1
3
0521796768sol March 16, 2007 Page-4
4 SOLUTIONS TO THE PROBLEMS OF CHAPTER 3
(3.5)
x =
6.022 10
23
22 400
= 2.6884 10
19
(3.6)
(1) p, V, T p
1
, V, T

(T

> T =p
1
> p) [isochoric]
(2) p
1
, V, T

, V

, T

(V

> V =p

< p) [isothermal]
(pV = constant is a hyperbola)
p, V, T
p , V, T
p
1
, V, T
p
V
(3.7)
(1) p, V, T
(2) p, 2V, 2T
(3) 2p, 2V, 4T
(4) p, 4V, 4T
pV = constant is a hyperbola
0521796768sol March 16, 2007 Page-5
SOLUTIONS TO THE PROBLEMS OF CHAPTER 3 5
p
2p
p
V 4V 2V
1 2
3
4
V
0521796768sol March 16, 2007 Page-6
C H A P T E R 4
(4.1)
(a) = T
_
1000
p
_ R
cp
= 213(5)
0.286
= 337.5 K
(b) q =c
p
dT =1005(298 337.5) =39 697.5 J kg
1
=9.5 cal g
1
Remove 9.5 cal g
1
(4.2)
V
f
= 1.2V
i
= 1.2
mRT
i
p
= 0.10332 m
3
T
f
=
pV
f
mR
= 324 K
Q = C
p
T = 5427 J
W = pV = 1550 J
(4.3)
(a) T
i
p
1

i
= T
f
p
1

f
=T
f
= T
i
_
p
i
p
f
_1

w = du = c
V
dT =w = c
V
T
i
_
_
p
i
p
f
_1

1
_
(b) w = pda =w = RT
i
ln
a
f
a
i
= RT
i
ln
p
i
p
f
(c) in (a)
d =0 =
1
=
2

1
=T
i
_
1000
p
i
_
0.286

2
=T
f
_
1000
p
f
_
0.286
_

_
=

1

2
=
_
p
f
p
i
_1

_
p
f
p
i
_
0.286
= 1
6
0521796768sol March 16, 2007 Page-7
SOLUTIONS TO THE PROBLEMS OF CHAPTER 4 7
in (b)

1
= T
i
1000
0.286
_
p
0.286
f
p
0.286
i

(4.4)
(a) p
1
V

1
= p
2
V

2
= =
ln
p
1
p
2
ln
V
2
V
1
= 0.67 =
0.929207
1.38029
(b) p
f
V
f
= mRT
f
=T
f
=
p
f
V
f
mR
=
400 10
2
4 0.0224
0.02897 287
= 431 K
(c)
(1) U = C
V
T = 0.02897 718 158 = 3286 J
(2) pV
0.67
= constant = constant = 7948
W =
_
V
f
V
i
7948
V
0.67
dV =
7948
0.33
[V
0.33
]
V
f
V
i
= 24 085 [0.0896
0.33
0.0224
0.33
]
= 24 085[0.45109 0.28548] = 3989 J
(3) Q = 3989 + 3286 = 7275 J
(4.5)
1 ft = 0.305 m
15000 ft = 4575 m
3500 ft =1067.5 m
_
3507.5 m = 3.5075 km
3.5075 9.8 = 34.3735 34.4
=T
3500
= 34.4 12 = 22.4

C
(4.6)
p
1
= 1 atm, V
1
= 10 l, T
1
= 27

C
p
2
= 5 atm, V
2
= 2 l, T
2
= 27

C
p
2
V

2
= p
3
V

3
=p
3
= p
2
_
V
2
V
3
_

= 5(5)

= 5
1
= 0.525 atm
T
3
V
1
3
= T
2
V
1
2
=T
3
= T
2
_
V
2
V
3
_
0.4
= 300(0.2)
0.4
= 158 K.
Thus
p
3
= 0.525, V
1
= V
3
= 10 l, T
3
= 115

C
0521796768sol March 16, 2007 Page-8
8 SOLUTIONS TO THE PROBLEMS OF CHAPTER 4
p
2
, V
2
, T
1
p
1
, V
1
, T
1
p
3
, V
1
, T
3
5 atm
1 atm
0.525 atm
p
V
Isotherm
(4.7)
p
0
= 4 atm, V
0
= 3 l T
0
= 300 K
p
1
= p
0
= 4 atm, V
1
= 5 l T
1
= 500 K
p
2
= 2 atm, V
2
= 5 l T
2
= 250 K
p
3
= 2 atm, V
3
= 3 l T
3
= 150 K
p
0
= 4 atm, V
0
= 3 l T
0
= 300 K
W = A = 2 1013 10
2
2 10
3
= 405.2 J
p
0
, V
0
, T
0
p
1
, V
1
, T
1
p
3
, V
3
, T
3
p
2
, V
2
, T
2
4 atm
2 atm
p
V 5 l 3 l
A
0521796768sol March 16, 2007 Page-9
SOLUTIONS TO THE PROBLEMS OF CHAPTER 4 9
(4.8)
U C
V
T = constant =
pV C
V
mR
=
pV c
V
R
= pV = R/c
V
(4.9) The change in U is the same (dU = 0).
Since dT = 0, the heat absorbed is equal to work done.
Thus the heat absorbed is greater in the case of the step-
like curve (which gives a greater area in the (p, V ) diagram).
(4.10)
Q = C
p
T = 1005 50 = 50 250 J
U = C
V
T = 718 50 = 35 900 J
W = QU = 14 350 J
(4.11)
p
1
V
1
= nR

T
1
=n = 0.208 moles
=m
hydrogen
= 0.208 0.002 = 0.416 10
3
kg
T
2
=
p
2
V
2
nR

586 K
T = 293
C
p
=
7
2
nR

= 6.0526 J K
1
Q = C
p
T = 1773.4 J
(4.12)
R =
R

M
R =
2c
V
5
=
R

M
=
2C
V
5m
=
R

M
=
2U
5mT
=
R

M
=M =
5mTR

2U
T
1
V
0.4
1
= T
2
V
0.4
2
=T
2
= T
1
_
V
1
V
2
_
0.4
= 685.75 K
=T = 412.75 K
=M =
5 0.088 412.75 8.314
2 17 158
= 0.044 kg mol
1
(i.e. CO
2
)
0521796768sol March 16, 2007 Page-10
10 SOLUTIONS TO THE PROBLEMS OF CHAPTER 4
(4.13) Heat transfer due to conduction
T
1
> T
2
T
2
Q
in this case W = 0
Going the other way we must do work (which means that
the environment suers a change, which means irreversible
process).
(4.14) Initial volume:
V
1
=
mRT
1
P
1
= 0.0007835 m
3
Final temperature:
T
2
=
V
1
P
2
mR
= 286.6 K
Change in temperature:
13.6

C
Amount of heat absorbed:
Q = C
V
T = mc
V
T = 2.33 cal
(4.15)
Q = 0 =
u = w =
K
m
=
_
1
2
V
2
f

1
2
V
2
1
_
= 262.5 J Kg
1
0521796768sol March 16, 2007 Page-11
C H A P T E R 5
(5.1)
Q = C
p
dT V dp
Q
T
= C
p
dT
T
nR

dp
p
_
Q
T
= C
p
_
d ln T nR

_
d ln p
_
Q
T
= 0
(5.2)
dz = Mdx +Ndy
for an exact dierential
M
y
=
N
x
for reversible processes
dU = TdS pdV (1)
dH = TdS V dp (2)
dF = SdT pdV (3)
dG = SdT +V dp (4)
U, H, F, G all are exact dierentials. Thus:
(1) :
_
T
V
_
S
=
_
p
S
_
V
(2) :
_
T
p
_
S
=
_
V
S
_
p
(3) :
_
S
V
_
T
=
_
p
T
_
V
(4) :
_
S
p
_
T
=
_
V
T
_
p
.
11
0521796768sol March 16, 2007 Page-12
12 SOLUTIONS TO THE PROBLEMS OF CHAPTER 5
(5.3) From equation (5.8), we have
s c
V
ln
_
a
f
a
i
_
1
(T = constant)
s 718 ln (2
0.4
) 200 J K
1
kg
1
(5.4) H = constant = (C
V
+ nR

)T = constant = T =
constant =pV = constant =hyperbolas.
(5.5)
dS = C
p
dT
T

V dp
T
Since
dS = 0
it follows that
C
p
dT
T
= mR
dp
p
or
c
p
dT
T
= R
dp
p
or
ln
T
2
T
1
=
R
c
p
ln
p
2
p
1
=T
2
= T
1
_
p
2
p
1
_ R
cp
= 273(10)
0.286
= 527.5 K
(5.6)
Q = W
12
+W
34
= 31 165 24 282 = 6883 J
= 1 +
Q
2
Q
1
= 1
24 282
31 165
= 0.22
(5.7)
S
Q
T
=
W
T
=
nR

T ln
V
2
V
1
T
= 8314 ln 4 = 11.5 J K
1
(expansion in a vacuum is isothermal)
dG SdT +V dp = nR

T
dp
p
=G
nR

T ln
p
2
p
1
= nR

T ln
V
1
V
2
= 3146 J
0521796768sol March 16, 2007 Page-13
SOLUTIONS TO THE PROBLEMS OF CHAPTER 5 13
(5.8)
S
i
= 2k ln
N!
_
N
2
!
_
2
(a)
S
f
= k ln
2N!
(N!)
2
S = K(2N ln 2N 2N 2N ln N + 2N)
2K(N ln N N N ln N/2 +N)
= 2KN ln 2 + 2KN ln N 2KN ln N
2KN ln N + 2KN ln N 2KN ln 2
= 0
(b) as in solved example (5.1)
(5.9)
ds =c
p
dT
T

a
T
dp =R
dp
p
=s =287 ln
8
10
=64 J kg
1
K
1
(5.10)
ds = c
p
dT
T
R
dp
p
s = c
p
ln
T
2
T
1
Rln
p
2
p
1
30 = 1005 ln
T
2
273
287 ln
950
900
=T
2
= 269 K

2
= 269
_
1000
950
_
0.286
= 273 K
(5.11)
ds = c
p
dT
T

T
c
p
d ln = c
p
d ln T =
d

=
dT
T
=d = dT
_

T
_
or since
_

T
_
= constant
= T
_

T
_
or

=
T
T
0521796768sol March 16, 2007 Page-14
14 SOLUTIONS TO THE PROBLEMS OF CHAPTER 5
(5.12) In this case
c
p
d ln = c
p
d ln T Rd ln p
or
d

=
dT
T

R
c
p
dp
p
The airs T will increase due to conduction. So
dT
T
> 0.
If
d

> 0 but
dT
T
<
d

## , then for the air moving over

warmer surface
dp
p
< 0 which means the surface pressure
will decrease. If
d

> 0 but
dT
T
>
d

## the air moving over

warmer surface
dp
p
> 0 which will result in an increase of
the surface pressure and so on!
(5.13)
S
T
= C
V
1
ln
T
T
1
+C
V
2
ln
T
T
2
For
T
1
= T
2
=T = T
1
= T
2
=S
T
= 0
For
T
1
= T
2
=S
T
= C
V
1
_
ln
_
b +x
1 +b
_
+
1
b
ln
_
1 +b/x
1 +b
__
where
b =
C
V
1
C
V
2
, x =
T
2
T
1
and T =
C
V
1
C
V
1
+C
V
2
T
1
+
C
V
2
C
V
1
+C
V
2
T
2
.
Dene
f(x) =
S
T
C
V
1
.
Then:
df
dx
=
1
b +x

1
x(b +x)
.
Now we have that
df
dx
= 0 at x = 1.
For
x = 1, f(1) = 0 (f(x) has an extremum at x = 1).
Now
d
2
f
dx
2
=
1
(x +b)
2
_
2x b
x
2
1
_
.
The second derivative is positive for x = 1. Thus the
extremum is minimum. It follows that f(x) is zero when
x = 1 (i.e. T
1
= T
2
) and positive otherwise.
0521796768sol March 16, 2007 Page-15
SOLUTIONS TO THE PROBLEMS OF CHAPTER 5 15
(5.16)
ds = c
V
dT
T
+R
da
a
= 0 =c
V
ln
T
2
T
1
= Rln
a
2
a
1
=
ln
T
2
T
1
= ln
_
_
a
1
a
2
_
R/c
V
_
=T
2
= T
1
(0.6)
0.4
244.5 K
p
2
=
RT
2
a
2
1404 mb
(5.17)
A
Q
D C A B
C C
B
D
ABCD = AA

B A

DC

+BB

C CC

= AA

B A

CC

+BB

C
Q = W
12
W
41
W
34
+W
23
since
W
23
= W
41
= C
V
(T
2
T
1
)
it follows
Q = W
12
+W
34
(W
3
< 0).
0521796768sol March 16, 2007 Page-16
C H A P T E R 6
(6.1) & (6.2)
dU =
_
U
T
_
V
dT +
_
U
V
_
T
dV
Q = dU +pdV =
_
U
T
_
V
dT +
__
U
V
_
T
+p
_
dV
dS =
Q
T
=
1
T
_
U
T
_
V
. .
M
dT +
1
T
__
U
V
_
T
+p
_
. .
N
dV
Since dS is an exact dierential we can write
_
M
V
_
T
=
_
N
T
_
V
or

V
_
1
T
_
U
T
_
V
_
T
=

T
_
1
T
__
U
V
_
T
+P
__
V
=

V
_
1
T
_
T
_
U
T
_
V
+
1
T
_

V
_
U
T
_
V
_
T
=

T
_
1
T
_
V
__
U
V
_
T
+p
_
+
1
T

T
__
U
V
_
T
+p
_
V
=

T
_
1
T
_
V
__
U
V
_
T
+p
_
+
1
T
_

T
_
U
V
_
T
_
V
+
1
T
_
p
T
_
V
Now,

V
_
U
T
_
V
= 0,

V
_
1
T
_
T
= 0,
and

T
_
U
V
_
T
= 0.
16
0521796768sol March 16, 2007 Page-17
SOLUTIONS TO THE PROBLEMS OF CHAPTER 6 17
It follows that

1
T
2
__
U
V
_
T
+p
_
+
1
T
_
p
T
_
V
= 0
or
_
U
V
_
T
= T
_
p
T
_
V
p
for ideal gases
_
U
V
_
T
= T
_

T
_
RT
V
__
V
p =
TR
V
p = 0 =
U = f(V ) =U = f(T).
(6.4) From ice at 20

C to ice at 0

## C the amount of heat

required is
Q
1
= C
V
i
T = 5030 cal.
Thus, heat at a rate of 100 cal/min must be supplied for
50.3 min.
From ice at 0

C to water at 0

## C the amount of heat

required is
Q
2
= ml
f
= 39 850 cal.
In this case, heat at a rate of 100 cal/min must be supplied
for 398.5 min. Since heat is supplied for a total of 700 min.
It follows that an additional amount of heat of 70 000
44 880 = 25 120 cal will be supplied to water to raise its
temperature from 0

C to T
nal
according to
25 120 = C
V w
T
which gives
T
nal
= 50

C.
Since dQ/dt = 100 cal/min we have that
Q = 100t
and the three graphs should look like those that follow.
(6.5)
ln
e
sw
6.11
= 19.83
5417
T
=e
sw
(393) = 2591 mb
e
sw
(373) = 1237 mb
m
v
(initial) =
e
sw
(393) V
R
v
T
= 1.43 kg.
0521796768sol March 16, 2007 Page-18
18 SOLUTIONS TO THE PROBLEMS OF CHAPTER 6
50
0
20
50.3 448.8 700
t (min)
(C)
T
Q
448.8
0
(cal)
t (min)
44 880
44 880 70 000
Q (cal)
5030
50
0
20
T
(C)
Similarly,
m
v
(nal) = 0.72 kg.
So,
1.43 0.72 = 0.71
must escape.
0521796768sol March 16, 2007 Page-19
SOLUTIONS TO THE PROBLEMS OF CHAPTER 6 19
(6.6) The least amount of water needed is the amount of water
vapor corresponding to e
sw
(100

C). At 100

C:
e
sw
= 1000 mb (use equation 6.16)
=m
v
(100

C) =
1000 10
2
2 10
3
461.5 373
= 0.00116 kg
= 1.16 g
At standard conditions

d
= 1.293 kg m
3
=m
d
=
d
V = 0.002586 kg.
It follows that
p
2
=
m
d
R
d
T
2
V
= 1384 mb.
Thus
p
total
= 1384 + 1000 = 2384 mb = 2.35 atm
(6.7)
_
U
V
_
T
= T
_
p
T
_
V
p
= T
_
_

_
10
9
T
1.1
V
1.2
_
T
_
_
V
p
= 1.1T
10
9
T
0.1
V
1.2
p
= 1.1p p = 0.1p = 0 (i.e. it is not an ideal gas)
Thus,
dU = C
V
dT
U = Q
_
pdV
S
Q
T
(6.8) Increase the temperature to about 1000

C.
0521796768sol March 16, 2007 Page-20
20 SOLUTIONS TO THE PROBLEMS OF CHAPTER 6
(6.9)
S
1

_
Q
1
T
=
_
C
V
dT
T
=
= 5c
w
ln
T
2
T
1
= 5771 J K
1
S
2

_
Q
2
T
=
1
T
ml
v
= 30 201 J K
1
Thus,
S 30 201 + 5771 = 35 972 J K
1
(6.11) Heat absorbed from warm source
(1) Q
1
= l
f
1000 = 333.7 10
6
J
(2)
Q
2
Q
1
=
T
2
T
1
=Q
2
= 244.2 10
6
J
0521796768sol March 16, 2007 Page-21
C H A P T E R 7
(7.1) Neglecting the water vapor terms and using
T =
m
1
T
2
+m
2
T
2
2
and
T =
_
1000
p
_
k
we arrive at

_
1000
p
_
k
=
m
1

1
(
1000
p
)
k
+m
2

2
(
1000
p
)
k
2
or
=
m
1

1
+m
2

2
2
.
Similarly using equation (7.74) and q w
e
p
we arrive at
e
m
1
e
1
+m
2
e
2
m
(7.2) We know that w = w
s
(T
dew
, p) = w
s
(T
LCL
, p
LCL
). Then
e
sw
(T
dew
)
p e
sw
(T
dew
)
=
e
sw
(T
LCL
)
p
LCL
e
sw
(T
LCL
)
=
e
sw
(T
dew
)p
LCL
= e
sw
(T
LCL
)p =
p
LCL
e
sw
(T
LCL
)
=
p
e
sw
(T
dew
)
(1).
From equation (6.17)
e
sw
(T
dew
) = 6.11 exp(19.83
_
5417
T
dew
_
and
e
sw
(T
LCL
) = 6.11 exp
_
19.83
5417
T
LCL
_
_

_
(2).
21
0521796768sol March 16, 2007 Page-22
22 SOLUTIONS TO THE PROBLEMS OF CHAPTER 7
Combining (2) and (1) yields
p
p
LCL
=
exp
_
19.83
5417
T
dew
_
exp
_
19.83
5417
T
LCL
_
or
p
p
LCL
= exp
_
5417
T
LCL

5417
T
dew
_
(7.3)
e =
wp
w +
= e
i
= 7.74 mb and e
f
= 5.98 mb
From equation (6.17)
e
sw
(T) = 6.11 exp
_
19.83
5417
T
_
which gives
e
swi
= 23.4, e
swf
= 12.16.
It follows that
r
i
= 0.33, r
f
= 0.49.
Then using equation (7.16) we have that
T
dewi
= 276.5 K, T
dewf
= 272.8 K
(7.4)
Q = l
v
dm = l
v
dm
v
Q = l
v
m
d
d
_
m
v
m
d
_
=
Q = l
v
m
d
dw
(7.5) Working as in example 7.4 we nd that it is the same as the
air at 1000 mb.
(7.6) Recall equation (7.80). Following the discussion in section
7.3.2, we have that
T
1
= T
0
=
1
_
p
1
1000
_
k
T
2
= T
0
=
2
_
p
2
1000
_
k
0521796768sol March 16, 2007 Page-23
SOLUTIONS TO THE PROBLEMS OF CHAPTER 7 23
in general
= T
0
_
1000
p
_
k
.
Now
=

_
p
2
p
1
dp
p
1
p
2
=
_
T
0
1000
k
p
k
dp
p
1
p
2
= 1000
k
T
0
(p
1k
2
p
1k
1
)/(1 k)(p
1
p
2
).
Thus from equation (7.80)
T = p
k
T
0
1 k
(p
1k
1
p
1k
2
)/(p
1
p
2
)
(7.7) The lowest possible temperature will be T
w
. Then from
equation (7.22) we have
T
w
+
l
v
c
pd
w
sw
= T +
l
v
c
pd
w.
Since the air is initially very dry we can assume that w = 0.
As such
T
w
= T
l
v
c
pd
w
sw
or
T
w
T
l
v
c
pd

p
6.11 exp
_
19.83
5417
T
w
_
.
The above equation can be solved numerically to obtain
T
w
288 K.
(7.8) At high temperatures the curve is fairly linear. Thus, for the
mixture to become slightly supersaturated, both breath and
the outside air must be very close to being saturated or be
supersaturated. In any case the answer is yes but very high
relative humidities are needed.
(7.9) From equation (7.16) we estimate that r = 0.66. From equa-
tion (6.17) we nd that e
sw
(308) = 57.6 mb. Then it follows
that e = 38.0 mb and that (at p = 1000 mb) w = 24.6 g kg
1
.
Then from equation (7.22) we nd (by numerical method)
that T
w
303 K.
This makes sense because T
w
> T
dew
. The dierence between
this answer and the answer in problem 7.7 is largely due to
the fact that here w = 0.
0521796768sol March 16, 2007 Page-24
24 SOLUTIONS TO THE PROBLEMS OF CHAPTER 7
(7.10) That will be at T
dew
. From equation (7.16) we estimate that
T
dew
=
T

TRv ln r
lv
+ 1
287.4 K.
(7.11) Since the decompression is adiabatic the nal temperature
inside the cabin is
T

= 298
_
500
900
_
0.286
= 252 K
Now e
sw
(T

## ) = 1.15 mb (from equation 6.17). Then

w
sw
(T

) = 0.001434. At T = 298 K, e
sw
(T) = 31.9 and
w
sw
(T) = 0.0228. Since the cabin is a closed system w(T) =
w
sw
(T

). Thus, r = 6.29%.
(7.12) The dew point temperature of outside air with T = 258 K
is (from 7.16)
T
dew
=
T

TRv ln r
lv
+ 1
= 252 K.
This is also the dew point for the air inside the room where
T = 298 K. Thus, inside the room
ln r =
T T
dew

RvTT
dew
lv
= 3.32 or r = 3.6%.
At T = 298 K, e
sw
= 31.9 mb (from equation 6.17)
When the room reaches 50% relative humidity then the
water vapor has a vapor pressure equal to
e =
m
v
R
v
T
V
=re
sw
=
m
v
R
v
T
V
or
m
v
=
re
sw
V
R
v
T
(1)
for r = 0.5, e
sw
= 31.9 10
2
Pa, V = 100 m
3
, R
v
=
461.5 J kg
1
K
1
and T = 298 K it follows that
m
v
= 1.16 kg.
Now this is not the amount it should be added because to
is found from equation (1) for r = 0.036 and it is equal to
0.0835 kg. Thus, 1.160.0835 1.08 kg must be evaporated
for the relative humidity to become 50%.
The mass of dry air is
m
d
=
d
V = 1.293 100 = 129.3 kg.
0521796768sol March 16, 2007 Page-25
SOLUTIONS TO THE PROBLEMS OF CHAPTER 7 25
Thus
w
t
=
1.16
129.3
= 8.97 g kg
1
.
Finally
Q = l
v
m = 2.5 10
6
1.08 = 2.7 10
6
J.
(7.13) a. w, q, p
LCL
, T
LCL
, ,
v
, s (w
t
, q
t
do not apply)
b. w
t
, q
t
, r, p
LCL
, T,
e
,
w
, s
c. w, q, e, ,
v
, h
d. r, h(note
e
=
ep
,
w
=
wp
)
(7.14) At 303 K, e
sw
= 43.08 mb. Since initially r = 0.5 =
e(303 K) = 21.54 mb. It follows that the amount of water
vapor in the air inside the refrigerator is
m
v
=
eV
R
v
T
= 0.0308 kg.
In 2 m
3
there is m
d
=
d
V = 2.586 kg of dry air. So there is
m = 2.6168 kg of moist air inside the refrigerator.
To nd the temperature at which condensation begins, T

,
we use equation (6.17) for e
sw
(T

) = e i.e.
21.54 = 6.11 exp
_
19.83
5417
T

_
.
Numerical solution of this equation gives T

= 19

C (292 K).
Since the system is a closed system it follows that
m
t
= m
v
= constant = 0.0308.
Then, w = w
t
= m
t
/m
d
= 0.012 (m
t
is the total mass of
water). At 275 K, e
sw
= 6.97 mb. This vapor pressure for
V = 2 m
3
corresponds to a mass of water vapor
m

v
= 0.011 kg.
Thus m
v
m

v
= 0.0198 kg of vapor must condense to achieve
a temperature of 275 K. In order to estimate the amount of
heat given to the surroundings we proceed as follows. From
T = 303 K to T

## = 292 K an amount of heat Q

1
= C
V
T
is given away. Here C
V
= 2.6168 c
V d
(1 + 0.97w). It
follows that Q
1
20 908 J. From T

= 292 K to T = 275 K
0521796768sol March 16, 2007 Page-26
26 SOLUTIONS TO THE PROBLEMS OF CHAPTER 7
the amount of heat given away is
Q
2
= C
p
T +l
v
m
= (c
pd
+w
t
c
w
)mT +l
v
m
= (1005 + 0.012 4218) 2.6168 17 + 2.5 10
6
0.0198
46 960 + 49 500
= 96 460 J
Thus in total 117 368 J must be given to the surroundings.
(7.15) (a) We will assume an average temperature for the glass of
T = (T
1
+ T
2
)/2 where T
1
= 25

C and T
2
= 10

C. Thus,
T = 7.5

## C, which is assumed to be the dew point tempera-

ture. Then from equation 7.16, we nd that r 0.32. Thus
r
max
32%.
In (b) the windows will also have T = 25

C =r
max
= 1.0
(7.16) At T
w
e
s
(T
w
) = 17.65 mb
then
w
s
(T
w
) =
e
s
(T
w
)
p e
s
(T
w
)
= 11.2 g kg
1
.
Then from equation (7.22) we nd that
T = 28.4

C = 301.4 K
Using Poissons equation we can nd T
900 mb
T
900
=
_
900
1000
_
0.268(10.269q)
293 K.
Now e
sw
(T
900
) = 23.4 mb which gives w
s
(T
900
) = 16.6 g kg
1
.
Thus r
900 mb
= 6/16.6 = 36.14%.
(7.17) We will assume that there is enough drops to cool the air
down to 10

C. In this case T = 20

C, T
w
= 10

C, w
s
(T
w
) =
8 g kg
1
and equation (7.22) gives
w = 3.93 g kg
1
.
(7.18)
w =
mass H
2
O
mass dry air
=
0.01nM
H
2
O
0.99nM
d
6.3 g kg
1
=T
v
= T(1 + 0.61w) = T(1.0038)
0521796768sol March 16, 2007 Page-27
SOLUTIONS TO THE PROBLEMS OF CHAPTER 7 27
(7.19)

w
d
w
=
_

0

v
dz
or
d
w
=
1

w
_

0
e
R
v
T
dz. (1)
An upper limit is obtained by assuming that for any z, e
e
sw
de
sw
dz
=
de
sw
dT
dT
dz
=
de
sw
dT
. (2)
From C-C equation we have:
e
sw
T
=
R
v
T
l
v
de
s
dT
. (3)
Combining (1)(3) yields
d
w
=
1

w
l
v

_

0
T
de
s
dz
.
Now, the upper limit can be obtained by assuming that
T(z) = T
0
where T
0
is the surface temperature. In this case:
d
w

T
o
e
so

w
l
v

(7.20)
1 r =
e
s
e
e
s
(1 r)
w
s

=(e
s
e)
w
s
e
= (e
s
e)/(p e
s
)
=1 + (1 r)
w
s

=
p e
p e
s
(1)
w =
e
p e
w
s
=
e
s
p e
s
_

_
=
p e
p e
s
=
w
s
e
we
s
=
w
s
w
r (2)
from (1) and (2), it follows that
w =
rw
s
1 + (1 r)
ws

(7.21) Clear skies allow radiation to escape thus cooling the air
near the surface which leads to dew or frost.
The role of wind is not as straightforward.
0521796768sol March 16, 2007 Page-28
C H A P T E R 8
(8.2)
dT
virt
dz
= T
virt, 0
a
(a +z)
2
=
virt
= T
virt, 0
a
(a +z)
2

virt

d
=
aT
virt, 0
(a +z)
2

d
For

virt

d
= 0 =
z
c
=
_
aT
virt, 0

d
a
For z > z
c
,
v

d
< 0 stable
For z < z
c
,
v

d
> 0 unstable
(8.3)
1

virt, 0
d
v
dz
=
1
a
1
e
z/a
1

1
a
2
For
d
v
dz
= 0 =z
c
= a
1
ln
a
1
a
2
For z > z
c
,
dv
dz
> 0 stable
For z < z
c
,
dv
dz
< 0 unstable
(8.4)
=
2
_
T
virt, 0

virt
=
2
_
T
virt, 0

g
d
Period increases with temperature but the relationship is
not linear.
(8.5)
d = gdz = = g
_
z
0
dz = gz
= = gz
28
0521796768sol March 16, 2007 Page-29
SOLUTIONS TO THE PROBLEMS OF CHAPTER 8 29
dp
dz
=g
d =gdz
_
_
_
=
_
2
1
_
2
1
RT
p
dp = gz =
z =
RT
g
ln
p
1
p
2
=
R
d
T
virt
g
ln
p
1
p
2
After lifting: z =
R
d
T
v
g
ln
p
1
+dp
1
p
2
+dp
2
_

_
=
ln
p
1
+dp
1
p
2
+dp
2
= ln
p
1
p
2
=
dp
1
p
1
=
dp
2
p
2
(8.6)
T
virt
= T
virt, 0

virt
z
dp =
pg
R
d
T
virt
dz
dp
p
=
g
R
d
dz
T
virt, 0

virt
z
_
p
p
0
dp
p
= +
g
R
d

virt
_
z
0
d(T
virt, 0

virt
z)
T
virt, 0

virt
z
ln
p
p
o
=
g
R
d

virt
ln
T
virt, 0

virt
z
T
virt, 0
p = p
o
_
1

virt
z
T
virt, 0
_ g
R
d

virt
(8.7)
dp =
pg
R
d
T
virt
dz
_
p
po
dp
p
=
g
R
d
T
virt, 0
_
z
0
dz
p
p
o
=
gz
R
d
T
virt, 0
=p = p
o
e

gz
R
d
T
virt, 0
(8.9)
z(t) = A(e
t
e
t
) (1)
v =
dz
dt
= A(e
t
+e
t
)
0521796768sol March 16, 2007 Page-30
P
T
v
i
r
t
T
d
e
w
e
w
q
T

v
i
r
t
e
s
e
i
r
T
(
L
C
L
)

e
p
1
0
0
0
3
0
3
2
9
5
2
6
.
5
0
1
9
0
.
0
1
6
9
3
0
.
0
1
6
6
5
3
0
0
3
0
3
3
5
.
8
8
9
7
0
.
7
3
8
4
2
2
9
4
3
5
0
9
5
0
2
9
8
2
9
4
2
4
.
8
9
7
2
0
.
0
1
6
7
4
0
.
0
1
6
4
6
2
9
5
3
0
2
2
6
.
5
6
2
8
0
.
9
3
7
3
2
9
4
3
4
8
9
0
0
2
9
1
2
9
1
2
0
.
5
9
0
.
0
1
4
5
6
0
.
0
1
4
3
5
2
8
8
3
0
0
1
7
.
4
9
3
2
1
.
1
7
7
0
3
2
9
2
3
4
0
8
5
0
2
8
9
2
8
8
1
6
.
9
6
0
7
0
.
0
1
2
6
6
0
.
0
1
2
5
1
2
8
7
3
0
3
1
5
.
6
8
9
6
1
.
0
8
1
0
2
2
8
8
3
3
8
8
0
0
2
9
3
2
8
3
1
2
.
1
6
5
3
0
.
0
0
9
6
0
.
0
0
9
5
1
2
9
1
3
1
3
2
1
.
0
0
1
3
0
.
5
7
9
2
6
2
8
1
3
4
0
7
5
0
2
8
3
2
7
8
8
.
6
2
1
9
8
0
.
0
0
7
2
3
0
.
0
0
7
1
8
2
8
2
3
0
8
1
1
.
1
8
6
7
0
.
7
7
0
7
3
2
7
7
3
2
8
7
0
0
2
6
8
2
6
3
2
.
5
7
6
2
0
.
0
0
2
3
0
.
0
0
2
2
9
2
6
8
2
9
7
3
.
8
5
7
3
1
0
.
6
6
7
8
7
2
6
1
3
0
3
6
5
0
2
6
3
2
5
8
1
.
6
3
8
4
1
0
.
0
0
1
5
7
0
.
0
0
1
5
7
2
6
3
2
9
8
2
.
5
1
9
2
4
0
.
6
5
0
3
6
2
5
6
3
0
2
6
0
0
2
5
3
2
4
3
0
.
3
7
6
8
9
0
.
0
0
0
3
9
0
.
0
0
0
3
9
2
5
3
2
9
3
1
.
0
1
7
6
1
0
.
3
7
0
3
7
2
4
0
2
9
4
0521796768sol March 16, 2007 Page-31
SOLUTIONS TO THE PROBLEMS OF CHAPTER 8 31
STABILITY CONDITIONS
Layer d
virt
/dz Condition
1000950 < 0 Unstable
950900 < 0 Unstable
900850 < 0 Unstable // supersaturated
850800 > 0 Stable // saturated use d
ep
/dz
800750 < 0 Unstable
750700 < 0 Unstable
700650 > 0 Stable
650600 < 0 Unstable
CONVECTIVE STABILITY CONDITIONS
Layer d
ep
/dz Condition
1000950 < 0 Unstable
950900 < 0 Unstable
900850 < 0 Unstable
850800 > 0 Stable
800750 < 0 Unstable
750700 < 0 Unstable
700650 < 0 UnStable
650600 < 0 Unstable
for
t = 0, v = 1 =
A =
1
2
where =
_
g
T
virt, 0
(
virt

d
) = 0.023
or
A = 21.74
Then from equation (1), z(t = 60 sec) 81 m and v =
dz
dt
=
2.1 m/sec.
(8.10) From problem 8.7 we have that
p
l
(z) = p
l
e

gz
R
d
T
virt, l
, p
w
(z) = p
w
e
gz
R
d
T
virt, w
.
0521796768sol March 16, 2007 Page-32
32 SOLUTIONS TO THE PROBLEMS OF CHAPTER 8
At z = h,
p
l
(h) = p
w
(h) =
p
l
p
w
=
e

gh
R
d
T
virt, w
e

gh
R
d
T
virt, l
=
h =
R
d
g
ln(
pw
p
l
)
1
T
virt, w

1
T
virt, l
(8.11)
Problem 8.6: p = p
o
_
1
z
T
o
_ g
R
Problem 8.7: p = p e

gz
RTo
Problem 8.10: h =
R ln(
pw
p
l
)
g(
1
Tw

1
T
l
)
where R is the gas constant of the environment and is the
environmental lapse rate.
0521796768sol March 16, 2007 Page-33
C H A P T E R 9
(9.1)
u = ln T
w = T ln p
_
=e
u
= T

w
T
= ln p e

w
T
= p
x = Re
(u+we
u
)
y = e
we
u
x
u
= R(1 we
u
)e
(u+we
u
)
x
w
= Re
u
e
u+we
u
= Re
we
u
y
u
= we
u
e
we
u
y
w
= e
u
e
we
u
= e
(u+we
u
)
.
It follows that
J =
x
u
y
w

x
w
y
u
= R(1 we
u
) +Rwe
u
= R = constant.
Since J = constant we conclude that this diagram is an area-
equivalent diagram.
Since p = e
we
u
isobars are not straight lines.
From Poissons equation we have that for the dry adiabats
ln = ln T +k
d
ln 1000 k
d
ln p
or
ln p =
1
k
d
ln T + constant.
This equation is a straight line in a (ln p, ln T) diagram but
not in a (T ln p, ln T) diagram.
33
0521796768sol March 16, 2007 Page-34
34 SOLUTIONS TO THE PROBLEMS OF CHAPTER 9
(9.2)
u = T
w = p
k
d
_
=
u = T
w
1
k
d
= p
x = a =
RT
p
= Ruw

1
k
d
y = p = w
1
k
d
x
u
= Rw

1
k
d
x
w
= Ru
1
k
d
w

1
k
d
1
y
u
= 0
y
w
=
1
k
d
w
1
k
d
1
_

_
=J =
R
k
d
w
1
Since J =
R
k
d
w
= constant, it follows that this diagram is
not an area-equivalent diagram. Since w = p
k
d
and u = T
isobars and isotherms are constant w and u lines respectively,
and thus they are straight lines.
From Poissons equation
= T
_
1000
p
_
k
d
=
p
k
= T constant,
which in a (p
k
, T) diagram is a straight line.
(9.3)
u = T
w = c
p
ln = c
p
ln T c
p
k
d
ln p + constant =
w c
p
ln u constant = c
p
k
d
ln p =
ln p = A ln u Bw +C
where
A =
1
k
d
, B =
1
c
p
k
d
, C = constant
1
c
p
k
d
.
0521796768sol March 16, 2007 Page-35
SOLUTIONS TO THE PROBLEMS OF CHAPTER 9 35
It follows that
p = e
Aln uBw+C
x = a =
RT
p
=
Ru
e
Aln uBw+C
=
Ru
e
Aln u
e
[CBw]
=
Ru
u
A
e
[CBw]
=
Ru
1A
e
[CBw]
y = p = e
Aln uBw+C
= u
A
e
[CBw]
x
u
=
R(1 A)
e
[CBw]
u
A
x
w
=
BRu
1A
e
[CBw]
y
u
= Ae
[CBw]
u
A1
y
w
= Bu
A
e
[CBw]
_

_
=
J = R(1 A)B +
BR
A
= constant
Q.E.D.
(9.4) Since at 950 mb, T = 22.5

C and T
dew
= 15.7

C it follows
w = 12.4 =e =
wp
w+
=
11.78
0.6344
= 18.6 mb
e
sw
(22.5

C) = 27.4 mb
_
= r = 0.68
From the diagram we nd that
= 27.5
T
wp
= 18

wp
= 20

C
Now:
(1) T
w
= T +
l
v
c
pd
(w w
sw
)
T
w
T +
l
v
c
pd
_
w

p
6.11 exp
_
19.83
5417
T
w
__
Numerical solution provides
T
w
292 K 19

C
(2) T
e
= T +
l
v
w
c
pd
+wc
w
324 K = 51

C
(3) From equation (7.63) with p = 1000, T = 20

C, w = 0.016,
it follows that
ep
= 66

C.
(4) From equation (7.64) =T
ep
= 333.3 K 60.3

C.
0521796768sol March 16, 2007 Page-36
36 SOLUTIONS TO THE PROBLEMS OF CHAPTER 9
(9.5) From the sounding we nd that
p
LFC
700 mb
p
LNB
300 mb
if we assume:
< T

T > 1 K
it follows (from the equation at the bottom of page 153) that
CAPE 244 J kg
1
or
u
max
=

## 2 CAPE = 22.1 m/sec.

This is not a very large value. So, even though some
convection may develop, deep convection most likely will not.
(9.6)
p
T T
0
= 303
(k)
218
1000 mb
20 mb
p
LNB
C
B
A D
6.5 C/km
7.0 C/km
For constant lapse rate:
p(z) = p
o
_
1
z
T
0
_ g
R
d
T
or
z =
T
0

_
_
1
_
p
p
0
_
R
d

g
_
_
0521796768sol March 16, 2007 Page-37
SOLUTIONS TO THE PROBLEMS OF CHAPTER 9 37
Then
(1) z
200 mb
= 12 164 m
(2) T
200
mb = T
0
z = 218 K
(3) 218 = T
0

s
z
LNB
=z
LNB
= 13 077 m
(4) p
LNB
= p
o
_
1

s
z
T
0
_ g
R
d
s
178 mb.
Now
CAPE = R
d
_
178
1000
(T
200mb
T
0
)d ln p
= R
d
(Area of ADC Area of ABD)
Note here that we are dealing with d ln p not dp. It follows
that
CAPE =
1
2
287 85(1.72 1.6) = 1464 J kg
1
which corresponds to
u
max
= 54 m/sec.
(9.8) from 800 to 550 mb, z 2.8 km. The mass of dry air in a
volume 280011 m
3
is 2800 1.293 = 3620 kg. This means
that there is 3620 0.0027 = 9.8 kg of water in that volume.
If all precipitates it will occupy a volume m
w
/
w
= 0.0098 m
3
.
Then, since 1 1 z = 0.0098 = z 1 cm. From formula
(7.19) we nd d
w
3 cm. The dierence might arise from the
fact that in (7.19) all the atmospheric vapor is assumed to
condense.
(9.7,9.9,9.10) Use a diagram to obtain the answers.