Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 6

Table of Useful Integrals, etc.

e
!ax
2
dx =
1
2
"
a
#
$
%
&
'
(
1
2
0
)
*


xe
!ax
2
dx =
1
2a
0
"
#



x
2
e
!ax
2
dx =
1
4a
"
a
#
$
%
&
'
(
1
2
0
)
*


x
3
e
!ax
2
dx =
1
2a
2
0
"
#



x
2n
e
!ax
2
dx =
1" 3" 5" " " 2n !1
( )
2
n+1
a
n
#
a
$
%
&
'
(
)
1
2
0
*
+


x
2n+1
e
!ax
2
dx =
n!
2a
n+1
0
"
#



x
n
e
!ax
dx =
n!
a
n+1
0
"
#

Integration by Parts:


UdV
a
b
!
= UV "
#
$
%
a
b
& VdU
a
b
!
U and V are functions of x. Integrate from x = a to x = b

sin ax
( )
dx = !
1
a
cos ax
( )
"



sin
2
ax
( )
dx =
x
2
!
sin 2ax
( )
4a
"



sin
3
ax
( )
dx = !
1
a
cos ax
( )
+
1
3a
cos
3
ax
( )
"



sin
4
ax
( )
!
dx =
3x
8
"
3sin 2ax
( )
16a
"
sin
3
ax
( )
cos ax
( )
4a



sin ax
( )
sin bx
( )
dx =
sin a ! b
( )
x
"
#
$
%
2 a ! b
( )
!
sin a + b
( )
x
"
#
$
%
2 a + b
( )
&
where a
2
' b
2



cos ax
( )
cos bx
( )
dx =
sin a ! b
( )
x
"
#
$
%
2 a ! b
( )
+
sin a + b
( )
x
"
#
$
%
2 a + b
( )
&



sin ax
( )
cos bx
( )
dx =
!cos a ! b
( )
x
"
#
$
%
2 a ! b
( )
!
cos a + b
( )
x
"
#
$
%
2 a + b
( )
&



xsin
2
ax
( )
dx =
x
2
4
!
xsin 2ax
( )
4a
!
cos 2ax
( )
8a
2 "



x
2
sin
2
ax
( )
dx =
x
3
6
!
x
2
4a
!
1
8a
3
"
#
$
%
&
'
sin 2ax
( )
!
xcos 2ax
( )
4a
2 (



xsin ax
( )
sin bx
( )
dx =
cos a ! b
( )
x
"
#
$
%
2 a ! b
( )
2
!
cos a + b
( )
x
"
#
$
%
2 a + b
( )
2
+
&
xsin a ! b
( )
x
"
#
$
%
2 a ! b
( )
2
!
xsin a + b
( )
x
"
#
$
%
2 a + b
( )
2


xsin ax
( )
dx =
sin ax
( )
a
2
!
xcos ax
( )
a
"



xcos ax
( )
dx =
xsin ax
( )
a
+
cos ax
( )
a
2 !



cos ax
( )
dx =
sin ax
( )
a
!



cos
2
ax
( )
dx =
x
2
+
sin 2ax
( )
4a
!



x
2
cos
2
ax
( )
dx =
x
3
6
+
x
2
4a
!
1
8a
3
"
#
$
%
&
'
sin 2ax
( )
+
xcos 2ax
( )
4a
2 (



cos bx
( )
e
!ax
2
dx =
e
ax
a
2
+ b
2
( )
acos bx
( )
+ bsin bx
( )
"
#
$
%
&


Taylor Series:

f
( n)
x
o
( )
n!
x ! x
o
( )
n
n=0
n="
#


Geometric Series:

x
n
n=0
!
"
=
1
1# x


Eulers Formula:

e
i!
= cos! + i sin!
Quadratic Equation and other higher order polynomials:

ax
2
+ bx + c = 0
x =
!b b
2
! 4ac
2a



ax
4
+ bx
2
+ c = 0
x =
!b b
2
! 4ac
2a
"
#
$
$
%
&
'
'


General Solution for a Second Order Homogeneous Differential Equation with
Constant Coefficients:

If:

!! y + p ! y + qy = 0

Assume a solution for y:


Conversions from spherical polar coordinates into Cartesian coordinates:


x = r sin! cos"
y = r sin! sin"
x = r cos!
dv = r
2
sin!drd!d"
0 < r < #
0 <! < $
0 < " < 2$



y = e
sx
! y = se
sx
!! y = s
2
e
sx
" s
2
e
sx
+ pse
sx
+ qe
sx
= 0
and s
2
+ ps + q = 0
Hence y = c
1
e
s
1
x
+ c
2
e
s
2
x
Commutator Identities:

A,

B
!
"
#
$
= %

B,

A
!
"
#
$

A,

A
n
!
"
#
$
= 0 n = 1, 2,3,!
k

A,

B
!
"
#
$
=

A, k

B
!
"
#
$
= k

A,

B
!
"
#
$

A+

B,

C
!
"
#
$
=

A,

C
!
"
#
$
+

B,

C
!
"
#
$

A,

B

C
!
"
#
$
=

A,

B
!
"
#
$

C +

B

A,

C
!
"
#
$

B,

C
!
"
#
$
=

A,

C
!
"
#
$

B +

A

B,

C
!
"
#
$


Creation and Annihilation Operators


l

l, m
l
, s, m
s
= l l +1 ( ) ! m
l
m
l
1 ( ) ( )
1
2
! l, m
l 1
, s, m
s
s

l, m
l
, s, m
s
= s s +1 ( ) ! m
s
m
s
1 ( ) ( )
1
2
! l, m
l
, s, m
s 1
j

j, m
j
= j j +1 ( ) ! m
j
m
j
1
( ) ( )
1
2
! j, m
j 1


Atomic Units:



















Physical Constants:

Operators: