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MODELSPECIFICATION

FORPROTECTIVECOATINGS
FORCONCRETE
CivilEngineeringDepartment
HongKongGovernment
July1994
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c HongKongGovernment
Firstpublished,July1994.
Preparedby:
CivilEngineeringDepartment,
CivilEngineeringBuilding,
101,PrincessMargaretRoad,
Homantin,Kowloon,
HongKong.
StandingCommitteeonConcreteTechnologymembers:
R.H.Pilling(Chairman)
W.M.Chan
C.S.Chung
Y.L.Lee
W.C.Leung
K.C.Ng
P.J.Osborne
H.W.Pang
P.L.Pang
C.W.Poon
W.Y.Tang
Thispublicationisavailablefrom:
GovernmentPublicationsCentre,
GeneralPostOfficeBuilding,
GroundFloor,
ConnaughtPlace,
HongKong.
Overseasordersshouldbeplacedwith:
PublicationsSalesSection,
InformationServicesDepartment,
4thFloor,BeaconsfieldHouse,
QueensRoadCentral,
HongKong.
PriceinHongKong:HK$42
Priceoverseas:US$14(includingsurfacepostage)
Cheques,bankdraftsormoneyordersmustbepayabletoHONGKONGGOVERNMENT

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FOREWORD
This Model Specification lays down the quality of materials, the
standards of workmanship, the testing methods and the acceptance criteria
for protective coatings for concrete, appropriate to various aggressive
environments and conditions, in works undertaken for the Hong Kong
Government. It has been prepared in such a manner that the clauses
contained herein should be used as model clauses for the preparation of a
ParticularSpecificationandshouldbemodifiedoraddedtowherenecessary
tosuittherequirementsofindividualprojects.
InordertoassistinthepreparationofaParticularSpecification,notes
are provided on adjacent pages against some of the clauses to amplify the
intentoftheseclauses.
This Model Specification was produced under a consultancy study
monitored by the Standing Committee on Concrete Technology, with the
final editing and production carried out by the Standards Unit of the Civil
EngineeringDepartment.
July1994
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CONTENTS
Page
No.
GENERAL
01 Abbreviations 13
SUBMISSIONS
02 Supplyofinformation 15
03 Codingsystem 15
04 Storagelife 15
05 Methodofusingpaintcomponents 15
06 Surfacepreparationofconcrete 15
07 Dryfilmthicknessandcoverage 15
08 Overcoating 17
09 Physicalproperties 17
10 Durability 17
11 Healthandsafety 17
12 Maintenance 19
GENERALCONCRETECOATINGREQUIREMENTS
13 Surfacepreparationforuncoatedconcrete 21
14 Surfacepreparationforpaintedconcrete 21
15 Coatingapplicationfordryconcretesurfaces 23
16 Coatingapplicationfordampconcretesurfaces 25
17 Paintfinish 27
18 Qualitycontrolonsite 27
SPECIFICREQUIREMENTSFOR
CARBONATIONRESISTANCE
19 Newconstructionandolderconstruction 29
20 Backpressureactingoncoatings 35
21 Concretesubjecttograffiti 35
SPECIFICREQUIREMENTSFORCHLORIDE
RESISTANCE
22 Concretesubjecttochloridesprayandcarbonation 35
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Page
No.
23 Concretesubjecttocyclicimmersioninseawater 35
24 Concretewaterretainingstructuressubjecttosaltspray 37
25 Concretesubjecttochlorideback-penetrationfromsoil 37
SPECIFICREQUIREMENTSFORCHEMICAL
RESISTANCE
26 Resistancetosewage 37
27 Resistancetohighlyaggressivechemicals 39
SPECIFICREQUIREMENTSFOR
ACTIVE/DYNAMICCRACKBRIDGING
RESISTANCE
28 Concretesubjecttoactivecracks 39
SPECIFICREQUIREMENTSFORTIDALWORK
29 Concretesubjecttocyclicimmersioninseawater 39
30 Wetconcretesurfaces 41
APPENDICES
APPENDIX1 45
DETERMINATIONOFTHEWATERVAPOUR
DIFFUSIONRESISTANCEOFCOATINGS
1.1 Scope 45
1.2 Testsubstrate 45
1.3 Procedure:preparationofspecimens 45
1.4 Procedure:determinationofwatervapourtransmissionrate 45
1.5 Calculation 46
1.6 Reportingofresults 47
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Page
No.
APPENDIX2 49
DETERMINATIONOFTHECARBONDIOXIDE
DIFFUSIONRESISTANCEOFCOATINGS
2.1 Scope 49
2.2 Testsubstrate 49
2.3 Equipment 49
2.4 Procedure:preparationofspecimens 49
2.5 Procedure:determinationofgasflowrate 50
2.6 Calculation 50
2.7 Reportingofresults 52
APPENDIX3 55
DETERMINATIONOFTHEWEATHERING
RESISTANCEOFCOATINGS
3.1 Scope 55
3.2 Testsubstrate 55
3.3 Equipment 55
3.4 Method 55
3.5 Reportingofresults 56
APPENDIX4 57
DETERMINATIONOFTHESALTSPRAY
RESISTANCEOFCOATINGS
4.1 Scope 57
4.2 Materials 57
4.3 Procedure:preparationofspecimens 57
4.4 Procedure:determinationofsaltsprayresistance 59
4.5 Reportingofresults 59
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Page
No.
APPENDIX5 61
DETERMINATIONOFTHESALTWATER
IMMERSIONRESISTANCEOFCOATINGS
5.1 Scope 61
5.2 Materials 61
5.3 Procedure:preparationofspecimens 61
5.4 Procedure:determinationofsaltwaterimmersionresistance 63
5.5 Reportingofresults 63
APPENDIX6 65
DETERMINATIONOFTHEDYNAMICCRACK
BRIDGINGRESISTANCEOFCOATINGS
6.1 Scope 65
6.2 Materials 65
6.3 Equipment 65
6.4 Procedure:preparationofspecimens 65
6.5 Procedure:determinationofcrack-bridgingresistance 66
6.6 Reportingofresults 67
APPENDIX7 71
DETERMINATIONOFTHEWATER
PERMEABILITYRESISTANCEOFCOATINGS
7.1 Scope 71
7.2 Materials 71
7.3 Equipment 71
7.4 Procedure:preparationofspecimens 72
7.5 Procedure:determinationofwaterpermeability
bylaboratorytestrig 73
7.6 Procedure:determinationofwaterpermeability
byCLAMTester 74
7.7 Reportingofresults 74
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Page
No.
APPENDIX8 77
DETERMINATIONOFTHEBOND
STRENGTHOFCOATINGS
8.1 Scope 77
8.2 Materials 77
8.3 Equipment 77
8.4 Procedure:preparationofspecimens 77
8.5 Procedure:determinationofbondstrength 78
8.6 Reportingofresults 79
APPENDIX9 83
DETERMINATIONOFTHERESISTANCE
TOAGGRESSIVELIQUIDSOFCOATINGS
9.1 Scope 83
9.2 Materials 83
9.3 Procedure:preparationofspecimens 83
9.4 Procedure:determinationofresistancetoaggressive
liquids 84
9.5 Reportingofresults 85
APPENDIX10 87
DETERMINATIONOFWATERUPTAKE
OFCOATINGS
10.1 Scope 87
10.2 Materials 87
10.3 Procedure:preparationofspecimens 87
10.4 Procedure:determinationofwateruptake 88
10.5 Reportingofresults 89
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Page
No.
APPENDIX11 91
DETERMINATIONOFTHEIMPACT
RESISTANCEOFCOATINGS
11.1 Scope 91
11.2 Materials 91
11.3 Equipment 91
11.4 Procedure:preparationofspecimens 91
11.5 Procedure:determinationofimpactresistance 92
11.6 Reportingofresults 93
APPENDIX12 97
DETERMINATIONOFTHEALGAE
RESISTANCEOFCOATINGS
12.1 Scope 97
12.2 Materials 97
12.3 Apparatus 97
12.4 Procedure:preparationofspecimens 97
12.5 Procedure:determinationofalgaeresistance 98
12.6 Reportingofresults 98
APPENDIX13 101
METHODSFORTHEANALYSISOFCOATINGSAMPLES
13.1 Scope 101
13.2 Method:determinationofvolatilecontent 101
13.3 Method:determinationoffinenessofgrind 101
13.4 Method:determinationofviscosity 101
13.5 Method:determinationofspecificgravity 101
13.6 AdditionalTesting 101
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Page
No.
APPENDIX14 103
METHODSFORCHECKINGTHECONTINUITYOF
FILMFORMINGCOATINGSONCONCRETE
14.1
14.2
14.3
Scope
Method:determinationofthickness
Method:determinationofcontinuity
103
103
103
APPENDIX15 105
SIMPLEMETHODFORCHECKINGTHEADHESION
OFFILMFORMINGCOATINGSONCONCRETE
15.1
15.2
Scope
Method:cross-cuttest
105
105
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Notes

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GENERAL
Abbreviations 01 (1) AbbreviationsusedinthisSpecificationshallhavethefollowing
meanings:
ASTM :AmericanSocietyforTestingandMaterials
BS :BritishStandard
SISIR : SingaporeInstituteofStandardsandIndustrial
Research
DFT :dryfilmthickness
HOKLAS :HongKongLaboratoryAccreditationScheme
OPC :ordinaryPortlandcement
PVC :polyvinylchloride
R-value :equivalentairlayerthickness
S
D
-value :watervapourdiffusionresistance
SBR :styrenebutadienerubber
UV :ultraviolet
(2) AbbreviationsofunitsofmeasurementusedinthisSpecification
shallhavethefollowingmeanings:
o
C
cm
2
cm
3
cm
cm
2
/s
g
g/L
g/cm
3
g/m
2
Hz
kg
kg/m
3
kgf
kgf/cm
2
L
L/m
2
L/m
3
m
2
m
3
m
mL
mm
mol
MPa
2
m s
M
m/s
mL/m
2
s
mol/cm
3
:degreesCelsius
:centimetre
:squarecentimetre
:cubiccentimetre
:squarecentimetrepersecond
: gram
:gramperlitre
:grampercubiccentimetre
:grampersquaremetre
:hertz
:kilogram
:kilogrampercubicmetre
:kilogramforce
:kilogramforcepersquarecentimetre
:litre
:litrepersquaremetre
:litrepercubicmetre
:metre
:squaremetre
:cubicmetre
:millilitre
:millimetre
:molarity
:megapascal
:squaremetresecond
:megaohm
:metrepersecond
:millilitrepersquaremetresecond
:molaritypercubiccentimetre


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mol/s : molaritypersecond
s : second
m : micrometre
% : percentage
SUBMISSIONS
Supplyof 02 Prior to the Engineer giving approval of a particular paint type, the
Information Contractor shall supply information which will satisfy Clauses 03 to
11, and independent test certificates from a HOKLAS or similar
accredited laboratory, traceable to the paints proposed, demonstrating
that they comply with the requirements of this Specification. The
Contractorshallalsosupplyinformationonthesurfacefinish,colours,
chemicalproperties,weatheringresistanceunderexposuretosunlight,
previousandexistingapplicationsofthepaintinHongKong.Allsuch
informationshallbeindependentlyverified;anytestsorcasehistories
on structures shall have been witnessed by an independent,
accountablethird-partysuchasaHOKLASaccreditedlaboratory.
CodingSystem 03 All primers, paints and solvents to be used in the works shall be
identified by a unique coding system, relating to the batch of raw
materials from which the product was manufactured and the date of
manufacture.
StorageLife 04 Storage life shall normally be a minimum of one year. If the storage
life is known to be shorter, the expiry date must be marked on the
containerpriortodispatchfromthemanufacturersfactory.
Methodof 05 Preparationandapplicationtechniquesforallcomponentsofthepaint
UsingPaint system shall be stated. This information shall include the methods of
Components mixing to be used and the maximum dilutions, if any, by solvents or
water.
Surface 06 Recommendations for preparing the surfaces of concrete shall be
Preparation given,includingthefollowing:
ofConcrete
(a) theminimumage,
(b) themaximummoisturecontentandmeasuringmethod,
(c) the equipment to be used for preparing the concrete
surface,and
(d) thematerialssuitableforfillingdefectsintheconcrete.
DryFilm 07 The minimum and maximum DFT limits for each component of the
Thickness paint system shall be given for a temperature of 27 C. The
andCoverage correspondingcoverageinL/m2shallbequotedforpreparedconcrete
surfaces typical of low strength (Grade 20) and high strength
(Grade?40) concrete cured under site conditions, in order to achieve
recommendedDFTvalues.
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Notes

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Overcoating 08 Drying and overcoating times of the pretreatments and coats of the
paintsystemshallbegivenforatemperatureof27 Candarelative
humidityof80 5 %. I nf or mati on shoul d al so be gi ven ont he li mit
oftemperatureandhumidityatwhichpaintingworkshouldcease.
Physical
Properties
09 All components of the paint system shall be capable of unique
identificationsuchthatanysubstitution,dilutionoradulterationofthe
paint can be identified. The Contractor shall provide test data and
methodsoftestforthefollowingpropertiesofeachapplicableprimer,
paintandsolventusedinthesystem:
(a)specificgravity,
(b)volumeofsolids,
(c)viscosity,
(d)finenessofpigmentgrind,
(e)infra-redspectography,
(f)pyrolysisgaschromatographyofthebinder,
(g)ashcontentat450C.
Durability 10 (1) Thesuitabilityofthecoatingforapplicationondamp,alkaline,
cement-basedmaterialsshallbestated.
(2) The decorative life of the paint shall be stated, in terms of the
colour-fastness of the finish coat and resistance to chalking, loss of
glossandatmosphericdirtying.
(3) Thelifeofapaintsystempriortotheneedforrecoatingshallbe
at least 10 years. Examples shall be cited of where the paint system
hasachievedthislife.
(4) Thepaintsystemshallbecapableofwithstandingcleaningwith
hot water (in the range between 40C and 50C), detergent and
scrubbing action without losing adhesion, softening or changing in
colourorgloss.
Healthand
Safety
11 (1) TheContractorshallsupplyhealthandsafetydatarelatingtothe
storage and application of all components of the paint system. As a
minimum,thechecklistcontainedinTable?1shallbecompleted.
(2) The effects of solvent and vapour build-up on the environment
inthevicinityofthepaintapplicatorshallbemonitored,andtheloss
of volatiles per unit area of paint in terms of minimum air exchange
ratesinconfinedareasshallbedetermined.
(3) Thein-serviceperformanceofthepaintunderconditionsoffire
shall be given, making particular reference to the surface spread of
flame,andthetoxicityandopacityofcombustionproducts.
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Notes

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(4) The Contractor shall also supply information on the long term
effects of volatile or leachable components of the paint system upon
the environment, with particular reference to leachable heavy metal
contentssuchasmercurybasedalgicidesorleaddriers.
Table1:Checklistofhealthandsafetyinformation
PRODUCTNAME
USES
COMPOSITION
PHYSICALANDCHEMICALPROPERTIES
HEALTHHAZARDS
FIREHAZARDS
STORAGEPRECAUTIONS
TRANSPORTPRECAUTIONS
HANDLING/USEPRECAUTIONS
(includingadviceonpersonalprotectiveequipment)
DISPOSALPRECAUTIONS
EMERGENCYACTION
Fire,spillage,firstaid
ADDITIONALINFORMATION
Ecologicalhazards
Relevantregulations
AdvicetoOccupationalMedicalOfficers
References
NAME,ADDRESSANDTELEPHONENUMBEROFSUPPLIER
REFERENCENUMBER,DATEOFISSUE
Maintenance 12 (1) The Contractor shall provide information on the methods of
preparationtobeusedintheeventthatrecoatingofthepaintedsurface
isrequired.
(2) The Contractor shall state which types of paint, other than the
original product, are compatible with the finish coat for recoating
purposes.
(3) The Contractor shall provide information on the technique
whichcanbeusedtorepairlocaldamagetothecoating,withparticular
reference to colour and gloss matching of finish coats applied after a
timelapseof5years.
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(4) The Contractor shall provide information on the most
appropriatetechniquesforcleaningofthefinishcoattoremovesurface
soiling,withparticularreferencetoeaseofremovalofgraffitiorglued
posters,wherepossible,withoutdamagetotheexistingfinish.
GENERALCONCRETECOATINGREQUIREMENTS
Surface 13 (1) Surfaces to receive coatings shall be sound, free from laitence
Preparation and contamination such as oils and greases, and shall be at least 28
forUncoated daysold.
Concrete
(2) The concrete surface shall be prepared by high pressure jetting
with potable water, either with or without added abrasive, wire
brushing or by other means approved by the Engineer, to provide a
strong,hardsurface.
(3) Areas of contamination shall be removed by the use of
appropriate solvents, followed by thorough cleaning of the concrete
withpotablewater.
(4) Shrinkagecracksofwidthlessthan0.3mm,blowholesorother
defectsinthefinishedconcretesurfaceshallbefilledwithalevelling
compound compatible with the paint system to be applied; the
compound shall be knifed into defects and tight-trowelled to remove
allsurplusmaterials.
(5) Shrinkage cracks of width greater than 0.3 mm shall be sealed
by resin injection, and movement joints shall be provided at joints
betweenconcreteandblockworkasinstructedbytheEngineer.
(6) The prepared surface shall be protected against contamination
whenitistobeleftforperiodsofmorethanoneweekbeforecoating.
Surface 14 (1) The adhesion of existing paint layers to the concrete surface
Preparation shall be evaluated initially by a cross-cut test, in accordance with
forPainted Appendix?15.
Concrete
(2) Measurementsofcross-cutadhesionshallbemadeinsufficient
numbers to represent one reading per 10?m2of coated surface for the
first100?m2evaluated,thenthreereadingsper100?m2thereafter.
(3) Theadhesionofexistingpaintshallbedeemedtobesatisfactory
provided75%ofthecross-cutsurfaceremainsattachedtotheconcrete
and provided the surface is free from cracking, blistering or heavy
chalking.
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Notes
Clause15
This Clause relates to applications on building structures and civil engineering structures exposed to the weather,
awayfromtheinfluenceofmarinesprayorothersourcesofregularwetting.

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Coating
Application
forDry
Concrete
Surfaces
(4) Compatibilitytestsshallbeundertakentoestablishwhether the
newpaintwillbondtotheexistingpaint.Atrialareaof5?m2shallbe
used, cleaned in accordance with Clause?13(2), and the paint system
appliedinaccordancewiththemanufacturersinstructions.Recordsof
actualcoverageratesused onthetrialarea shallbemadeavailable to
theEngineer.After14days,pull-offtestsshallbemadeinaccordance
with Appendix?8. The DFT shall also be determined for each paint
layer, to be tested by a travelling microscope in a manner similar to
thatstatedinClause1.3(6)atAppendix1.
(5) FailuretosatisfytherequirementsofClause?14(3)or14(4)will
mean that the existing coatings must be removed by using hot air or
chemical strippers, and the surface finished by high pressure water
jetting with or without abrasive added, in accordance with
Clauses?13(2)to13(6).
15 (1) Allconcretesurfacestoreceivepaintshallbedryatthetimeof
application. Sufficient drying time shall be allowed either after
construction or after wet preparation methods, to satisfy either one of
thefollowingrequirements:
(a) Moisturemeterreadingsisconsistentlylessthan5%.
(b) There is no moisture retained behind a 1?m x 1?m
polythene sheet, taped securelyonto the concrete surface
toformasealfor24hours.
(c) Internal humidity measurements within the concrete is
?75%whenmeasuredbySeredaprobeorothermethods
approvedbytheEngineer.
(2) Prior to applying the paint, a test area shall be prepared on the
structure to be painted, except where a compatibility test has already
beenundertakeninaccordancewithClause14(4). Thecompletepaint
system shall be applied in accordance with the manufacturers
instructions, including any primers and undercoats, to an area of not
lessthan5?m2.
(3) TheactualconsumptioninL/m2ofthevariouscoatsofthepaint
system shall be recorded in the trial area, in order that due allowance
maybemadeforrough,irregularorexceptionallyabsorbentconcrete.
(4) Whenthepaintsystemhascuredfor14days,atestofsurface
adhesionshallbemadeinaccordancewithAppendix?8.Theaverage
bond of 3 dollies to the concrete, via the completed coating system,
shallbesatisfactory.Acoresampleshallbetakenfromthetestarea
formeasurementoftheDFT.ShouldtheminimumandmeanDFT
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Notes
Clause16
ThisClauserelatestoapplicationsoncoastalworkssubjecttomarinespray.

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values of the core sample be less than those specified, the coverage
ratesforthepaintshallbeproportionallyincreasedforthedurationof
theContract.
(5) If the bond strength results are not satisfactory, the concrete
surfaceshallbecleanedusinghighpressurewaterjettinginaccordance
with Clause?13(2), followed by re-application and re-testing of the
coatinginaccordancewithClauses?15(1)to15(4).
(6) Coatings shall only be applied during favourable weather
periods,whenrainfallisnotexpectedforthefollowing12hours.
(7) Thedew point shall be at least 5C lower than the temperature
oftheconcretesurfacebeforepaintingcommences.
(8) Paintingusingwaterbasedpaintsshallnotcommencewhilstthe
relativehumidityisabove85%orwhereitmaybeexpectedtoexceed
90%duringthe12hourcuringperiod.
(9) Primers, undercoats and finish coats may be applied in
accordance with the manufacturers instructions using brush, roller,
sprayor other technique to achieve the desired surface finish. Brush
applicationofprimersisthepreferredmethod,workingthepaintinto
theconcretepores.
(10) Wherebrushorrollertechniquesareused,thebrushesorroller
heads shall be used for the day only and then discarded. The
equipmentshallnotbecleanedforre-use.
(11) Where spray equipment is used, all cleaning fluid shall be
purgedfromtheequipmentusingundilutedpaintpriortopainting. All
contaminatedpaintusedforpurgingequipmentshallbediscardedand
shallnotbeusedintheworks.
(12) Except where airless spray equipment incorporating a nozzle
mixing device is employed when two-component materials are used,
eachcomponentshallbethoroughlystirredbeforemechanicalmixing
ofthewholeunitstogether;partbatchesshallnotbeused.
(13) For multiple coat applications, the manufacturers stated
minimumandmaximumovercoatingtimesfortheprevailingweather
conditions shall not be breached, and successive coats shall have
slightlydifferentcolourshadestoassistinachievinguniformcoverage.
Coating 16 (1) Paint for application onto damp concrete surfaces shall be
Application specifically formulated for tolerance to moisture during application,
forDamp cureandinservice.
ConcreteSurfaces

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Notes
Clause17
Severedryingcanbetakentobeawindvelocityof3m/sat272Cand605%relativehumidityfor6hours.
Clause18
The frequency of carrying out the quality control tests listed at Appendix 13 depends on the size of the protective
coatingcontractorwhenthequalityofthecoatingmaterialsaresuspectedtohavebeenchanged.
Thefrequencyofcarryingoutwetfilmthicknesstestisnotfixedandisperformedasrequiredbythecontractorand/or
engineertoensureadequatefilmthicknesshasbeenapplied.
Thefrequencyoftestingofdryfilmthicknessoftheprotectivecoatingbyanapprovedlaboratoryisnormally1per50
squaremetresofappliedcoating.
ThetestsoutlinedinAppendix13areusedasqualitycontrolteststocomparethepropertiesofthecoatingssamples
beforeand during coatingworks. The basicacceptance criteria is thatthe average of theresults from an individual
test is equal to the properties measured before the coating work and is within the agreed standard deviation which
maybeobtainedfromthecoatingsuppliers.
Responsibilities for tests and test results representation need to be specified in the Contract, e.g. 3 pull-off tests to
formasamplesetand onesamplesetper50 mofappliedcoatingorperproductionofonecontinuous application
shift,whicheverisless.
The bond strength measured from a site test is normally slightly lower than that obtained from a laboratory test.
However, the acceptance criterion of average bond strength being above 1.2MPa mentioned in Clause 8.5(7) at
Appendix8shouldnotberelaxedasthisshouldbeachievableforcoatingsappliedproperly.

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(2) Allconcretesurfacestoreceivepaintshallbesurface-dryatthe
timeofapplication,includinganycracksorotherdefectsthatmayhold
water.Theconcretesurfaceshallleavenomarkwhenasheetofpale
blueblottingpaperispresseduniformlyontotheconcrete.
(3) Where the requirements of Clause?16(2) cannot be satisfied,
temporaryprotectionshallbeprovidedtoencasetheconcreteandpaint
applicator and prevent moisture penetration, ensuring adequate
ventilationisprovided.
(4) The paint shall be applied in accordance with Clauses?15(2) to
15(13).
(5) Deposits of salt crystals which collect on coated surfaces must
bewashedoffwithpotablewaterandthesurfaceallowedtodry,prior
toapplyingfurthercoatsofpaint.
PaintFinish 17 Allpaintsshallbefreefromcracking,wrinklingorotherdefectswhen
exposedtoseveredryingconditions.
Quality
Controlon
Site
18 (1) Prior to commencing painting works, the Contractor shall
providesamplesofallpaintstobeusedofnotlessthanonelitreeach
in sealed containers, for testing by the Engineer, on each delivery of
painttosite.
(2) During the execution of the painting works the Engineer shall
randomly select samples of paint for comparison with the initial
samplesinaccordancewiththemethodsstatedinAppendix?13.
(3) TheContractorshallstoreallemptypainttinswhichhavebeen
used in the Works, along with site delivery tickets, for inspection by
theEngineerwhoshallthenauthorizedisposalofthetins.
(4) Forcoatingssubjecttoaggressiveliquids,thereshallbenosigns
of defects, such as pin-holes, cracking and blistering, on the surface .
The electrical continuity of the coating shall be measured in
accordancewithAppendix?14,ifinstructedbytheEngineer.
(5) Areas of coating which do not comply with the specified
minimum DFT shall have a further coat applied to make good the
deficiency. Where the manufacturers maximum overcoating time has
been exceeded, the surface shall be lightly roughened in accordance
withthemanufacturersrecommendationspriortopaintapplication.
(6) Theadhesionof thecoatingto theconcreteshall bechecked at
randomly selected locations by the cross-cut test in accordance with
Appendix?15. Should low adhesion be found, defined as more than
25% of the coating being pulled away, further investigation by dolly
pull-offtestingisrequired.

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Notes
Clause19
Thegeneralpurposeofapplyinganti-carbonationcoatingsistoprotectbuildingsandstructuresdirectlyexposedto
theatmosphereandingressofcarbondioxide,andtosatisfyaestheticconsiderations.
Thecoatinggenerictypesexpectedtohavegoodperformanceareacrylic,vinylandpolyurethane.Thegenerictypes
not likely to perform well are polyethylene, epoxy, tar epoxy, chlorinated rubber, bituminous, cementitious, silicone
andsilicate.
TherecommendedR-valuesofcoatingsystemsfordifferentconcretegradesforbothnewandolderconstructionare:
(a) New Construction Concrete R-Value
Grade (m)
15 150
20 100
25 50
35 25
45 25
The R-values quoted are designed to prevent the carbonation front reaching the steel reinforcement in a 60
yearlife cycle, assuming the cover is not less than25mm. Where the cover is less than 25mm, the R-value
mayneedtobeincreasedtoachievethe60yearlife.
(b) Older Construction Concrete R-Value
Grade (m)
15 300
20 300
25 200
35 100
45 25
TheR-valuesforoldconcretehavebeencalculatedfora5yearoldstructure,carbonatingrapidly.TheR-value
should limit further carbonation of the concrete from its present level (x mm) to (x + 5 mm) in a further 55
years.
Inconsidering olderconstruction, forstructures of age> 5years, useof the R-valuesin theabove table will
limitcarbonationtolessthan5mmover60yearslife.Foryoungerstructures(age<5years),thecarbonation
maybemorethan5mmovertheremainingyears.
The above recommended R-values for older construction are only for guidance. For old structures with
sufficient carbonation data from a detailed survey, the Engineer should make reference to the notes on p.30
andp.32inthecalculationoftheappropriateR-valuesforapplicationofanti-carbonationcoatings.
ItisimportantthatthecoatingachievestheR-valueattheminimumexpectedDFTfollowingapplicationonsite.The
targetvalueforDFT(targetmeanDFT)iscalculatedfromexperienceastheminimumDFTplus33%.
ThetargetmeanDFTshallbetheaverageDFTachievedbythecontractor.IfeithertheminimumDFTmeasuredonsite
islessthanthespecifiedminimumDFTortheaverageDFTonsiteislessthanthespecifiedtargetmeanDFT,thena
thickercoatingwillneedtobeappliedtomeetthespecifications.
The dry film thickness (DFT) shall be converted to wet film thickness (WFT), allowing for losses, to get a correct
coverage(L/m).ThetargetmeanWFTshallbeusedbythecontractor/suppliertocalculateactualcoverageratesand
nottheminimumDFTorWFTwhichiscommonlydone.

- 29 -
SPECIFICREQUIREMENTSFOR
CARBONATIONRESISTANCE
New
Construction
andOlder
Construction
19 (1) The carbon dioxide diffusion resistance of the paint system,
measuredinaccordancewithAppendix?2,shallbeexpressedinterms
ofanR-value.
(2) TherequiredminimumR-valueforthepaintsystemshallbe......
m.
(3) TheDFTusedtocalculatetheR-valueforthepaintsystemshall
betheminimumDFTtobeachievedinservice.ThetargetmeanDFT
shallbegreaterthantheminimumDFTby33%.
(4) The paint shall be applied in two coats.
shallbenotlessthan150?m.
The minimum DFT
(5) The S
D
value of the paint system at the mean DFT shall not
exceed 4?m equivalent air layer resistance and shall be measured in
accordancewithAppendix?1.
(6) Theadhesionofthepaintsystem,measuredinaccordancewith
Appendix?8,shallbesatisfactory.
(7) Thepaintsystemshallnotsupportalgalgrowth,whenmeasured
inaccordancewithAppendix?12.
(8) Wateruptakebythe paintsystemshall bezerowhen measured
inaccordancewithAppendix?10.
(9) The requirements of Clauses 19(2) and 19(6) shall also be
satisfied after 4000 hours artificial weathering in accordance with
Appendix?3.


- 30 -
Notes
Selection of Anti-carbonation Coatings for Application to Old Construction with Sufficient Carbonation Data from a
DetailedSurvey
The first step is to estimate the carbonation coefficient of the concrete, by measurement of the carbonation depth
aroundthe structure. This is done by taking themaximum carbonation recorded or a value that more appropriately
represents the carbonation state of the structure (X
o
), and substituting into equation (1) to obtain the carbonation
coefficient(D),
X
o
D= (1)
2T
o
where
D =carbonationcoefficient(mm/year)
X
o
= actualcarbonationdepth(mm)
T
o
= ageofthestructure(year)
ThesecondstepistoselecttheparametersnecessaryforestimatingtherequiredRvalueofthecoatingsasfollows:
(a) Maximumdepthofcarbonationbeforereinforcingbarbecomesactive(X
M
).
(b) Requireddesignlifeofthestructure(T
M
).
According to Engelfried
(1)
, depth of carbonation for older construction with a coating applied at some point after
constructionisgivenby:
X=(S
c
+K)

-S
c
(2)
where
Sc = carbonation resistance of the coating, expressed as an equivalent thickness of
concrete
K = 2S X +X +2DT
c o o E
T
E
= elapsedtimesinceapplicationofthecoating
Thus,inordertodeterminethenecessaryperformanceofacoating,theappropriateparametersarefedintoequation
(2),asfollows:
X
M
= (S
c
+K)

-S
c
(3)
and
K = 2S X +X +2D(T -T )
c o o M o
Byre-arrangingequation(3),S
c
canbeobtained:
X
o
+2D(T
M
-T
o
)-X
M

S
c
= (4)
(2X
M
-2X
o
)
TheR-valueforthecoatingcanthenbecalculatedasfollows,
R = S
c

c
(5)
where
- 30 -
Notes
R = equivalentairlayerresistancetocarbondioxidediffusion

c
= carbondioxidediffusionresistanceforconcrete(typically400)
- 31 -
Thispageisintentionallyleftblank

- 32 -
Notes
Example
A7-yearoldconcretestructurewasfoundtohaveacarbonationdepthrangingfrom15mmto23mm.Itwasproposed
toselectananti-carbonationprotectivecoatingtoreducefurthercarbonationtolessthan5mminthenext25years.
Solution
Designfortheworstcase,choose:
X = 23 mm
o
X
M
= 28 mm
T
o
= 7years
T
M
= 32years
UsingEquation(1),
X
o
D =
2T
o
23
=
27
= 38 mm
2
/year.
Hence,substitutingintoequation(4),
23+23825-28
S =
c
(228-223)
= 163mm
Usingequation(5),therefore,
R = 163400mm
= 65200mm
= 65m(say)
HencetheEngineershouldselectacoatingwhichhasthepropertyofR365m. Providedthatthecoatingisapplied
properlywithsufficientfilmthicknessandthatdegradationofthecoatingundernaturalweatheringwillnotreducethe
Rvalueofthecoatingtobelow 65m,thenthecarbonationfrontwillnotadvancemorethan5mminthenext25years.
IfthecoatingisexpectedtodegradetoR<65mwithinthedesignlife,thenrecoatingwillberequired.TheEngineer
willthusneedtoconsidertheneedtorecoatthestructuretoensureacontinuous,highperformancebarrierispresent.
REFERENCE:
(1) Engelfried,R.,"CarbonationofUnprotectedConcreteanditsControlbyMeansofCoatings",Defazet,V31,n9,
1977,pp353-359.
- 33 -
Thispageisintentionallyleftblank

- 34 -
Notes
Clause20
Situationsoccurwhereconcreteissaturatedononeface,butisexposedtotheairorseasprayonothers.Structures
whicharesubjecttotheseconditionsincludewatertowers,swimmingpoolsandsubways.
Wherethisoccurs,coatingsmustnotformabarriertothepassageofwatervapourthroughtheconcrete,otherwise
blisteringofthecoatingmayoccur.Thethickestareaofthecoatingwillbeatgreatestriskfromblistering,hencethe
maximumthicknessisspecifiedfortestinginaccordancewithAppendix1ofthisModelSpecification.
Coatings which are suitable for application in these conditions include the higher performance acrylics and
cementitious coatings. Coatings which are unlikely to be suitable include barrier coatings based on epoxy and
polyurethaneresins.
Clause21
PaintswhichwouldbeexpectedtocomplywithClause21aremoisturecuringortwo-componentpolyurethanebased
systems, with the property to penetrate into the concrete surface. These types of paint may not necessarily be
compatiblewithalltherequirementscontainedinClauses19&20.
Clause22
The coatings applied to structures in the splash zone and atmospheric zone should have good resistance to U.V.,
abrasion, and be suitable for application under high humidity/moisture conditions. The aesthetic considerations are
normallyofsecondaryimportance.
Suitable coating systems include acrylic and polyurethane. Epoxy and coal tar epoxy may also be used if protected
fromsunlight.Coatingsystemsnotappropriateforwetapplicationsornotsuitableforsplashzonesarewaterbased
coatingsandsoftcoatingssuchasbituminouscoatings.
Water-repellentsystemssuchassilanesarenotsuitableforlowergradeconcrete,asrapidcarbonationwouldoccur.
However,fornewconstructionofGrade45andaboveorwherecarbonationisnotaconcern,theR-valuerequirement
may be waived, allowing the use of water-repellent systems. The non-film forming water repellent system should be
specifiedtocomplywithClauses22(2) and22(3),atthemanufacturer's minimumrecommendedcoveragerate. Also,
thetreatedconcreteshouldberesistanttowateruptakewhenmeasuredinaccordancewithAppendix10ofthisModel
Specification, both before and after artificial weathering to 4000 hours in accordance with Appendix 3 of this Model
Specification.
Clause23
The coatings applied to structures in the tidal zone will be subject to abrasion from various floating objects and
possiblecontaminationbyoilsandsolvents.
Coating systems such as cross-linking high performance epoxy, coal tar epoxy and polyurethane are normally
effective for immersed conditions. Heavily modified cement based coatings may not be suitable for permanent
immersionandarenotrecommended.
Forstructuralelementssubjecttoflexuralcrackingunderload,thepaintsystemshouldbespecifiednottofailunder
1000cyclesofflexurewhentestedinaccordancewithAppendix6ofthisModelSpecificationatatemperatureof27
2C.

- 35 -
BackPressure
Actingon
Coatings
20 (1) The requirements for paints applied to new concrete or to old
concrete shall be in accordance with Clause 19, except as stated in
Clauses?20(2)and20(3).
(2) The S
D
of the paint system shall not exceed 4?m equivalent air
layer resistance at the maximum DFT, measured in accordance with
Appendix?1.ThemaximumDFTshallnotbegreaterthan1.5timesthe
targetmeanDFT.
(3) The water permeability measured in accordance with
Appendix?7, Clause?7.5(2), shall classify the coating system as
resistantattherecommendedthickness.
Concrete
Subjectto
Graffiti
21 Inadditionto anyrequirements coveredbyClauses19 and20, paints
whicharesubjecttograffitimusthavethefollowingproperties:
(a) The paint system shall be resistant to treatment with the
solventsnecessaryfortheremovalofsolvent-basedspray
graffiti.
(b) The paint system shall be resistant to high pressure
washingusedtoremovepostersandwater-basedgraffiti.
SPECIFIC REQUIREMENTS
RESISTANCE
FOR CHLORIDE
Concrete
Subjectto
Chloride
Sprayand
Carbonation
22 (1) The paint system shall comply with Clause 19 or Clause 28
exceptasstatedinClauses?22(2)and22(3).
(2) The paint system shall be resistant to the ingress of salt spray
whenmeasuredinaccordancewithAppendix?4.
(3) The paint system shall be resistant to salt spray in accordance
withClause22(2)after4000hoursartificialweatheringtoAppendix?3.
Concrete
Subjectto
Cyclic
Immersion
inSeawater
23 (1) The paint system shall be formulated for application onto
surfacedrybutsaturatedconcreteinthetidalrange.
(2) The paint system shall cure rapidly between the tidal cycles,
such that it may be immersed in seawater within 3 hours of
application.
(3) The paint system shall be resistant to the diffusion of chloride
ionwhentestedinaccordancewithAppendix?5.
(4) The minimum DFT of the paint system, tested in accordance
withClause1.3(6)atAppendix1,shallbetheminimumDFTforthe
field application; thetargetmean DFTshall beatleast 33%greater

- 36 -
Notes
Clause24
Waterrepellentsystemssuchassilanesarenotsuitableforlowergradeconcrete,asrapidcarbonationwouldoccur.
However,fornewconstructionofGrade45andaboveorwherecarbonationisnotaconcern,theR-valuerequirement
may be waived, allowing the use of water repellent systems. The non-film forming water repellent system should be
specifiedtocomplywith Clauses22(2)and22(3), atthemanufacturer'sminimum recommendedcoveragerate. Also,
thetreatedconcreteshouldberesistanttowateruptakewhenmeasuredinaccordancewithAppendix10ofthisModel
Specification, both before and after artificial weathering to 4000 hours in accordance with Appendix 3 of this Model
Specification.
Clause26
Coatings will be immersed and subject to a variety of chemicals, including possible acid attack due to sulphur
oxidizingbacteria.
Coating systems such as cross-linking high performance epoxy, coal tar epoxy and polyurethane normally perform
wellunderexposuretosewage.
Wheretheconcretestructureisexpectedtocrack,perhapsduetoshrinkageorflexuralmovement,thepaintsystem
shouldbespecifiedtobereinforcedwithglass-fibrefabric,ofdensity280-300g/mopenweavelappedby25mmatits
edges. Insuchcircumstances,theminimumDFTofthesystemwouldbeexpectedtoexceed1mm.

- 37 -
thantheminimumDFT.
(5) The paint shall be applied in two coats.
shallbenotlessthan150?m.
The minimum DFT
(6) The water permeabilityof the coating, measured in accordance
withAppendix?7,Clause?7.5(1),shallbeclassifiedaswaterresistantat
therecommendedthickness.
(7) The adhesion of the coating system, measured in accordance
withAppendix?8,shallbesatisfactory.
(8) The impact resistance of the paint system, measured in
accordance with Appendix?11, shall be such that no water penetrates
throughthecoatingaftertesting.
Concrete
Water
Retaining
Structures
SubjecttoSalt
Spray
24 (1) ThepaintsystemshallcomplywithClauses20or28,exceptas
statedinClauses?24(2)and24(3).
(2) The paint system shall be resistant to the ingress of salt spray,
whenmeasuredinaccordancewithAppendix?4.
(3) The paint system shall be resistant to salt spray in accordance
withClause24(2)after4000hoursartificialweatheringtoAppendix?3.
Concrete
Subjectto
Chloride
Back-
penetration
fromSoil
25 (1) Thepaint system shall comply with Clause 20 or 28, except as
statedinClauses?25(2)and25(3).
(2) The paint system shall be resistant to the ingress of salt spray,
whenmeasuredinaccordancewithAppendix?4.
(3) The paint system shall be resistant to salt spray in accordance
withClause?25(2)after4000hoursartificialweatheringtoAppendix?3.
SPECIFIC REQUIREMENTS
RESISTANCE
FOR CHEMICAL
Resistance
toSewage
26 (1) The paint shall be applied in two coats. The minimum DFT
shall be not less than 150?m, and the target mean DFT shall be not
lessthan200?m.
(2) ThepaintsystemcomplyingwithClause26(1)shallbetestedin
accordance with Appendix?9, using 1% sulphuric acid test solution,
andshallnotdeteriorateovera3monthtestduration.
(3) The bond strength of the paint system measured in accordance
withAppendix?8,shallbesatisfactory.

- 38 -
Notes
Clause27
Inthisenvironment,coatingsmaybeimmersedinstrongacids,alkalisandsolvents.
Coatingsystemssuchashighperformancesolventfreeepoxyandcoaltarepoxywithatleast400mDFTarelikelyto
besuitable.
Wheretheconcretestructureisexpectedtocrack,perhapsduetoshrinkageorflexuralmovement,thepaintsystem
shouldbespecifiedtobereinforcedwithglass-fibrefabric,ofdensity280-300g/mopenweavelappedby25mmatits
edges. Insuchcircumstances,theminimumDFTofthesystemwouldbeexpectedtoexceed1mm.
Clause28
Theabilityofconcretetocrack,openingtowidthsfromhairlineto0.3mm,placesveryhighstressesonpaintfilms.In
ordertobridgecrackssuccessfullythecoatingmusthaveasubstantialthickness,typicallywithaminimumDFTofat
least300m,andbeelastomericorplastomericinphysicalterms.
Elastomeric coatings for concrete are typically polyurethane based, whereas plastomeric are soft acrylic copolymer
formulations,whichcommonlyhavehighratesofdirtpick-upandmayneedcosmetictopcoats.
Alternativeapproachesareeithertoreinforceoverthecrackwithglass-fibrefabric,ortochaseoutthecrack,fillthe
chasewithsealantandthenapplyaconventionalpaint.
Itisunlikelythatcrack-bridgingpaintsystemswillperformadequatelywhenappliedoverexistingbrittlepaintfinishes.

- 39 -
(4) Waterpermeabilityofthepaintsystem,measuredinaccordance
with Appendix?7, Clause?7.5(2), shall be classified as resistant at the
recommendedthickness.
Resistance
toHighly
Aggressive
Chemicals
27 (1) The paint system shall be applied in at least two coats. The
minimumDFTshallbenotlessthan275?mandthetargetmeanDFT
shallbenotlessthan400?m,
(2) ThepaintsystemcomplyingwithClause27(1)shallbetestedin
accordancewithAppendix?9.Thecoatingshallnotdeteriorateovera
3monthtestduration.
(3) The bond strength of the paint system measured in accordance
withAppendix?8,shallbesatisfactory.
(4) The water permeability of the paint system, measured in
accordance with Appendix?7, Clause?7.5(2), shall be classified as
resistantattherecommendedthickness.
SPECIFICREQUIREMENTSFOR
ACTIVE/DYNAMICCRACKBRIDGING
RESISTANCE
Concrete
Subjectto
ActiveCracks
28 In addition to the requirements of Clauses 19 and 20, paints for
application onto concrete with active cracks shall comply with the
following:
(a) The paint system shall not fail under 1000 cycles of
flexure, when tested in accordance with Appendix?6 at
temperatures of 5 C and 27 C at the minimum
DFT.
(b) The paint system shall not fail in accordance with
Clause?28(a)afterbeingsubjectedtoartificialweathering
for4000hourstoAppendix?3attheminimumDFT.
SPECIFICREQUIREMENTSFORTIDALWORK
Concrete
Subjectto
Cyclic
Immersion
inSeawater
29 (1) The paint system shall be formulated for application onto
surfacedrybutsaturatedconcreteinthetidalrange.
(2) The paint system shall cure rapidly between the tidal cycles,
such that it may be immersed in seawater within 3 hours of
application.
(3) The paint system shall be resistant to the diffusion of chloride
ionwhentestedinaccordancewithAppendix?5.
- 40 -
Notes
Clause30
ThisClauserelatestoapplicationsonconcreteinthesplashortidalzonethatremainssaturatedbeneaththeconcrete
surface.

- 41-
(4) The target mean DFT shall be at least 33% greater than the
minimumDFT.
(5) The paint shall be applied in two coats.
shallbenotlessthan150?m.
The minimum DFT
(6) The water permeabilityof the coating, measured in accordance
withAppendix?7,Clause?7.5(1),shallbeclassifiedaswaterresistantat
therecommendedthickness.
(7) The adhesion of the coating system, measured in accordance
withAppendix?8,shallbesatisfactory.
(8) The impact resistance of the paint system, measured in
accordance with Appendix?11, shall be such that no water penetrates
throughthecoatingaftertesting.
WetConcrete
Surfaces
30 (1) Paint for application in the tidal and splash zone shall comply
withClauses29(1)to29(8).
(2) Allconcretesurfacestoreceivepaintshallbefreefromsurface
wateratthetimeofapplication.
(3) Forworkingabovewater,temporaryanti-splashprotectionshall
beprovidedtoreducetheeffectofwaveactioninre-wettingconcrete
surfaces.
(4) Paintingworksshallbeprogrammedtomeetthemanufacturers
minimumtimelimitbeforethepaintcanbeimmersedinwater.
(5) ThepaintshallbeappliedinaccordancewithClauses?16(4)and
16(5).
- 42-
Notes
ListedbelowareshortlistsofsometypesofcoatingsystemstudiedbyConsultancyAgreementNo.47/88
SHORTLISTOFANTI-CARBONATIONCOATINGS
Coatingsystem Supplier GenericType
Recommended
DFT(microns)
GranoimpactRoma Cali-EmpireLtd Acrylic 440
Granogloss Cali-EmpireLtd Acrylic 200
SBDStonepaint DodwellIndustrial Acrylic 250
SBDWeatherproof DodwellIndustrial Acrylic 250
Decadex Expandite-Interswiss Acrylic 350
Dekguard/TopcoatW FosecoIndustries Silox/Acrylic 300
Dekguard/TopcoatS FosecoIndustries Silox/MMA 140
Thorolastic ICI-Thoro Acrylic 325
Emer-Clad NewAsiaEngg Acrylic 350
IcositCosmetic SikaLtd MMA 120
Elastofil SikaLtd Acrylic 900
SHORTLISTOFCOATINGSTORESISTSEAWATERSPRAY
Coatingsystem Supplier GenericType
Recommended
DFT(microns)
HdrozoClear16 AmeronLtd Silane N/A
BergerC.R.Finish BergerPaintsLtd Chlor.Rubber 200
GranoimpactRolana Cali-EmpireLtd Acrylic 210
SBDAquapelWR DodwellIndustrial Silane N/A
HardacAcrylicSealer DodwellIndustrial Acrylic N/A
FCR851 Expandite-Interswiss Cement 2000
NitocoteEP430 FosecoIndustries Epoxy 400
EP41 LoyalEnterprise Epoxy 200
Dekguard/TopcoatS FosecoIndustries Silox/MMA 140
InterguardEF/InterthanePQ InternationalPaint Epoxy-P/U 150
IcositCosmetic SikaLtd MMA 120
Onlywhereprotectedfromsunlight
NitocoteET550
NafulanIDick
Eptar56
FosecoIndustries
UnivicEngineering
LoyalEnterprise
TarEpoxy
TarEpoxy
TarEpoxy
350
500
225
- 43-
Notes
SHORTLISTOFCOATINGSTORESISTSEAWATERIMMERSION
Coatingsystem Supplier GenericType
Recommended
DFT(microns)
Luxatar6 BergerPaints TarEpoxy 800
NitocoteEP403 FosecoIndustries Epoxy 400
NitocoteET401 FosecoIndustries TarEpoxy 500
NitocoteEP430 FosecoIndustries Epoxy 400
NitocoteET550 FosecoIndustries TarEpoxy 350
DuluxEpoxyBildcoteAR580 ICILtd Epoxy 300
IntergardEF/IntertufJJA180 InternationalPaint Epoxy-P/U 300
Concresive1447/1448,Hydrocote InterPacificLtd Epoxy 500
Eptar56 LoyalEnterpriseLtd TarEpoxy 225
EP41 LoyalEnterpriseLtd Epoxy 200
Emer-TarEpoxy NewAsiaEngineering TarEpoxy 200
Irathane PyrokIndustries Polyurethane 225
ColurietTCN300 SigmaCoatings TarEpoxy 300
PoxitarF SikaLtd TarEpoxy 150
Probond811C/EC-400 SprayEngineering Epoxy 500
Rust-Oleum9578 TopmanInternational TarEpoxy 200
Escoweld7502E UnivicEngineeringLtd Epoxy 500
MC-DUR1500ToF UnivicEngineeringLtd TarEpoxy 500
SuitableforContactwithPotableWater
NitocoteEP405 FosecoIndustries Epoxy 400
SHORTLISTOFCRACK-BRIDGINGANTI-CARBONATIONCOATINGS
Coatingsystem Supplier GenericType
Recommended
DFT(microns)
SBDWeatherproofEC DodwellIndustrial Acrylic 800
Decadex Expandite-Interswiss Acrylic 350
DekguardElastic FosecoIndustries Acrylic 400
Thorolastic ICI-Thoro Acrylic 325
Emer-CladReinforced NewAsiaEngg Acrylic 750
Irathane PyrokIndustries Polyurethane 225
Barracryl SanxozMasterBuilders Acrylic 300
IcositElastic SikaLtd Ethylene 300
Elastofil SikaLtd Acrylic 900
- 44-
Notes
SHORTLISTOFCOATINGSTORESISTSEWAGE
Coatingsystem Supplier GenericType
Recommended
DFT(microns)
Amercoat78HB AmeronLtd TarEpoxy 400
EpoxyPlusCoating DodwellIndustrial Epoxy 500
Epilux4 BergerPaints TarEpoxy 215
NitocoteEP403 FosecoIndustries Epoxy 400
NitocoteET401 FosecoIndustries TarEpoxy 500
NitocoteEP430 FosecoIndustries Epoxy 400
NitocoteET550 FosecoIndustries TarEpoxy 350
DuluxAR431-7790/7791 ICILtd TarEpoxy 200
Concresive1170 InterPacificLtd Epoxy 200
Eptar56 LoyalEnterpriseLtd TarEpoxy 225
Emer-TarEpoxy NewAsiaEngineering TarEpoxy 200
Irathane PyrokIndustries Polyurethane 225
ColturietTCN300 SigmaCoatings TarEpoxy 300
PoxitarF SikaLtd TarEpoxy 285
Poxitar SikaLtd TarEpoxy 285
Probond711C/EC-400 SprayEngineering Epoxy 500
Rust-Oleum9578 TopmanInternational TarEpoxy 200
Escoweld7502E UnivicEngineeringLtd Epoxy 500
MC-DUR1500ToF UnivicEngineeringLtd TarEpoxy 500
SuitableforContactWithPotableWater
NitocoteEP405 FosecoIndustries Epoxy 400
SHORTLISTOFCOATINGSTORESISTCHEMICALS
Coatingsystem Supplier GenericType
Recommended
DFT(microns)
NitocoteEP403
NitocoteET401
NitocoteEP430
ResicoteF7/ResilayHB
ProbondEC-400
Escoweld7502E
MC-DUR1500ToF
FosecoIndustries
FosecoIndustries
FosecoIndustries
SuiTaiLtd
SprayEngineering
UnivicEngineering
UnivicEngineering
Epoxy
TarEpoxy
Epoxy
Epoxy
Epoxy
Epoxy
TarEpoxy
400
500
400
500
500
500
500
SuitableforContactWithPotableWater
NitocoteEP405 FosecoIndustries Epoxy 400
SHORTLISTOFCRACK-BRIDGINGCOATINGSTORESISTSEASPRAY
Coatingsystem Supplier GenericType
Recommended
DFT(microns)
SBDWeatherproofEC/AquapelWR
Irathane
DodwellIndustrial
PyrocIndustries
Siloxane/Acryli
c
Polyurethane
800
225

45

APPENDIX1
DETERMINATION OF THE WATER VAPOUR
DIFFUSIONRESISTANCEOFCOATINGS
Scope 1.1 This method covers the determination of the water vapour diffusion
resistance of coatings for concrete by measuring the water vapour
transmissionthroughacoatedcomposite.
Test 1.2 Unglazedceramictilesof100x100x5mmsizeshallbeusedasthe
Substrate substrate.Thetilesshallbeofuniformqualityandfromasinglebatch,
freefromcontamination.
Procedure: 1.3 (1) The tiles and all materials shall be conditioned for 24 hours at
Preparation theapplicationconditionsof27 Cand80 5 %rel ati ve hu mi dit y
of
Specimens (2) The coating system shall be applied in accordance with the
manufacturers instructions, using all necessary primers and
undercoats,andcoverageratesshallbecheckedbyweighing.
(3) Applicationshallbebyspray,brushorroller.
(4) 10 tiles shall be prepared in one operation for all tests to be
carriedout.
(5) After coating, the specimens shall be conditioned at 27 C
and 80 5 %rel ati ve hu mi dit yf or 6 weekst o per mit nat ural l oss o
solventsandothervolatilematerials.
(6) Following conditioning, 2 tiles shall be sawn in half and the
maximum, minimum and mean DFT measured using a travelling
microscope; the mean value shall be taken from at least 30
observations.
(7) 2tilesshallbelabelledandstoredinalight-fastboxtoserveas
colourcontrolpanelsforartificialornaturalweatheringtests.
Procedure: 1.4 (1) The sample shall be set in a metal cell using silicone rubber,
Determination suchthattheuncoatedfaceshallbesealedaboveareservoirofdistilled
ofWater water.
Vapour
Transmission (2) The unit shall be placed in a desiccator at 27 C and 0%
Rate relativehumidity.Thechangeinweightoftheunitwithtimeshallbe
measuredperiodically.
(3) Themeasurementshallbecontinueduntilasteady-stateweight
losshasbeenrecordedforacontinuous3dayperiod.

46

Calculation 1.5 (1) The water vapour transmission rate for the coated tile shall be
calculatedinaccordancewiththeequation:
dG
WVT = (g/m2per24hr)
T.A
where:
WVTisthewatervapourtransmissionrate(g/m2per24hr),
dGistheweightchangeundersteady-stateconditions(g),
Aisthetestarea(m2),and
TisthetimeduringwhichdGoccurred(24hrunits)
(2) Thewatervapourdiffusioncoefficientshallbecalculatedforthe
composite, from which the diffusion coefficient for a measured mean
thickness of coating shall be obtained. The water vapour diffusion
coefficientforthecompositeshallbecalculatedfromtheequation:
WVT.t
T
d
T
= (cm2/s)
H
2
O
P
w
where:
d
T
isthewatervapourdiffusioncoefficient(cm2/s),
H
2
O
WVTisthewatervapourtransmissionrate(g/m2per24hr),
t
T
isthethicknessofthecomposite(cm),and
P
w
is the density of saturated water vapour at the test
temperature(g/cm
3
)
(3) Theperformanceofthecompositeisthengivenby:
t
T
t
t
t
c
= +
d
T
d
t
d
c
H
2
O H
2
O H
2
O
where:
t
T
isthethicknessofthecomposite(cm),
t
t
isthethicknessofthetile(cm),
t
c
isthethicknessofthecoating(cm),
d
T
is the water vapour diffusion coefficient for the
H
2
O
composite(cm2/s),

47

d
t
is the water vapour diffusion coefficient for the tile
H
2
O
(cm2/s),and
d
c
isthewatervapourdiffusioncoefficientforthecoating
H
2
O
(cm2/s)
(4) Theequivalentairlayerresistanceofthecoatingtothediffusion
ofwatervapourshallbecalculatedfromtheequation:
d
a
H
2
O
S
D
= t
c
(m)
d
c
H
2
O
where:
S
D
istheequivalentairlayerresistance(m),
d
a
isthediffusioncoefficientforwatervapourinair,which
H
2
O
isequalto0.242cm2/s)
t
c
isthethicknessofthecoating(m),and
d
c
isthewatervapourdiffusioncoefficientforthecoating
H
2
O
cm2/s
(5) The water vapour diffusion resistance of the coating shall be
calculatedasthemeanoftwodeterminations.
Reportingof 1.6 Thefollowingshallbereported:
Results
(a) Thenameofthecoatingsystemandthebatchnumbers.
(b) Thenameofthe manufacturerandHongKongsupplier.
(c) The coverage rates used for each component of the
coatingsystem.
(d) Themeasuredmean,minimumandmaximumDFT.
(e) Commentsonanyapplicationortestingirregularities.
(f) TheresultsforwatervapourdiffusionresistancevalueS
D
atthemeanDFT.
(g) Whether the samples have been subjected to artificial
weatheringandtheduration.
- 48-
Figure1.1-Set-upforWaterVapourDiffusionTest

- 49 -
APPENDIX2
DETERMINATION OF THE CARBON DIOXIDE
DIFFUSIONRESISTANCEOFCOATINGS
Scope 2.1 Thismethodcoversthedeterminationofthecarbondioxidediffusion
resistance of coatings for concrete by measuring the flow rate of a
mixtureofoxygenandcarbondioxidegasthroughacoatedcomposite.
Test 2.2 Unglazed ceramic tiles of 100?mm x 100?mm x 5?mm size shall be
substrate used as the substrate. The tiles shall be of uniform quality and
preferablyfromasinglebatch,freefromcontamination.
Equipment 2.3 Thefollowingequipmentisrequired,asshowninFigure2.1.
(a) A test chamber to receive 5?mm thick unglazed ceramic
tileswithcoatingsystemsapplied.
(b) Supplies of analytical grade 85/15 oxygen and carbon
dioxidegasblendandheliumgas.
(c) Pressurebalanceequipment.
(d) Agaschromatographandintegrator.
Procedure: 2.4 (1) The tiles and all materials shall be conditioned for 24 hours at
preparation theapplicationconditionsof27 Cand80 5 %rel ati ve hu mi dit y
of
specimens (2) The coating system shall be applied in accordance with the
manufacturers instructions, using all necessary primers and
undercoats,andcoverageratesshallbecheckedbyweighing.
(3) Applicationshallbebyspray,brushorroller.
(4) 10 tiles shall be prepared in one operation for all tests to be
carriedout.
(5) After coating, the specimens shall be conditioned at 27 C
and 80 5 %rel ati ve hu mi dit yf or 6 weekst o per mit nat ural l oss o
solventsandothervolatilematerials.
(6) Following conditioning, 2 tiles shall be sawn in half and the
maximum, minimum and mean DFT measured using a travelling
microscope; the mean value shall be taken from at least 30
observations.

- 50 -
(7) 2tilesshallbelabelledandstoredinalight-fastboxtoserveas
colourcontrolpanelsforartificialornaturalweatheringtests.
Procedure:
determination
ofgasflow
rate
2.5 (1) After conditioning, the coated sample shall be carefully placed
inthetestchamber.
(2) The gas cylinders shall be turned on and the gas flow rates
monitored to obtain the same flow rate and pressure on both sides of
thecoatedtile.
(3) Thesystemshallbeallowedtoequilibrateforatleast24hours.
(4) Thecarbondioxideandoxygendiffusionratethroughthecoated
tilecompositeshallthenbemeasuredbygaschromatography.
Calculation 2.6 (1) Thefluxrateforcarbondioxideshallbecalculatedasthecarbon
dioxidediffusioncoefficientforthecompositeusingFicksfirstlawof
diffusion:
d=
QxL
AxC
(cm2/s)
where:
disthecarbondioxidediffusioncoefficient(cm2/s),
Qistheflowrate(mol/s),
Listhethicknessofthecomposite(cm),
Aisthetestarea(cm2),and
Cistheconcentrationdrop(mol/cm
3
).
(2) Theperformanceofthecompositeisthengivenby:
t
T
d
T
CO
2
=
t
t
d
t
CO
2
+
t
c
d
c
CO
2
where:
t
T
isthethicknessofthecomposite(cm),
t
t
isthethicknessofthetile(cm),
t
c
isthethicknessofthecoating(cm),
d
T
is the carbon dioxide diffusion coefficient for the
CO
2
composite(cm2/s),

- 51 -
d
t
isthecarbondioxidediffusioncoefficientforthetile
CO
2
(cm2/s),and
d
c
isthecarbondioxidediffusioncoefficientforthecoating
CO
2
(cm2/s)
(3) Therelativecarbondioxidediffusioncoefficientforthecoating
shallbeexpressedasadimensionlessratio,asfollows:
d
a
CO
2
=
d
c
CO
2
where:
is the relative carbon dioxide diffusion coefficient of the
coating,
d
a
isthecoefficientforcarbondioxidediffusedthroughair,
CO
2
whichisequalto0.160cm2/s,and
d
c
isthecoefficientforcarbondioxidediffusedthroughthe
CO
2
coating(cm2/s).
(4) The resistance of the coating, expressed as an equivalent air
layerthickness,or"R-value",shallbecalculatedasfollows:
R = .t (m)
where:
Ristheequivalentairlayerthickness(R-value)(m),
is the relative carbon dioxide diffusion coefficient of the
coating,and
tisthemeanDFTofthecoatingundertest(m)
(5) Alternatively,theresistanceofthecoatingmaybeexpressedas
anequivalentthicknessofconcretecover,or"S
c
-value",whichshallbe
calculatedasfollows:
R
S
c
= (m)

c

- 52 -
where:
S
c
istheequivalentthicknessofconcretecover,
Ristheequivalentairlayerthickness,and

c
isthediffusionresistancefactorforconcrete,typically400.
(6) The carbon dioxide diffusion resistance parameters for the
coatingshallbecalculatedasthemeanoftwodeterminations.
Reportingof
results
2.7 Thefollowingshallbereported:
(a) Thenameofthecoatingsystemandthebatchnumbers.
(b) ThenameofthemanufacturerandHongKongsupplier.
(c) The coverage rates used for each component of the
coatingsystem.
(d) Themeasuredmean,minimumandmaximumDFT.
(e) Commentsonanyapplicationortestingirregularities.
(f) The results for carbon dioxide diffusion resistance in
termsof,RandS
c
,atthemeanDFT.
(g) Whether the samples have been subjected to artificial
weatheringandtheduration.
- 53 -
Figure2.1-Set-upforGasFluxMeasurement
- 54 -

- 55 -
APPENDIX3
DETERMINATION OF THE WEATHERING
RESISTANCEOFCOATINGS
Scope 3.1 This method covers the determination of the weathering resistance of
coatings for concrete, applied to various substrates, using a QUV
artificialweatheringcabinet.
Test 3.2 Thesubstrateshallbeoneofthefollowing:
substrate
(a) Coatedunglazedceramictilesof100x100x5?mmsize.
(b) Coated100mmcoresamples.
(c) Coatedmortarprismsof40?x40x160?mmdimension.
Equipment 3.3 Thefollowingequipmentisrequired:
(a) QUV artificial weathering cabinet fitted with UV-A
fluorescenttubes.
(b) Framestoholdconcretecoreandmortarprismspecimens
inthespecimentray.
Method 3.4 (1) Coated specimens shall be located in the specimen tray of the
QUVweatherometer.
(2) Thespecimensshallbetestedinaccordancewiththefollowing
weatheringcycle:
6hoursUV-Alightat60+_2C
6hourscondensationat50+_2C
for4000hours.
(3) Oncompletionoftheweatheringcycle,avisualinspectionshall
be made to assess the physical defects of the coating system in
accordancewiththestandardmethodsoutlinedin:
-ASTM?D?659-86forchalking,
-ASTM?D?660-87forchecking,
-ASTM?D?661-86forcracking,
-ASTM?D?714-87forblistering,
-ASTM?D?772-86forflaking,and
-ASTM?D?2616-67(1979)forcolourchange.
- 56 -
(4) The specimens shall be conditioned at 27 +_ 2C and 80 +_ 5%
relativehumidityfor2weekspriortofurthertesting.
Reportingof
results
3.5 Thefollowingshallbereported:
(a) Thenameofthecoatingsystemandthebatchnumbers.
(b) ThenameofthemanufacturerandHongKongsupplier.
(c) The coverage rates used for each component of the
coatingsystem.
(d) Themeasuredmean,minimumandmaximumDFT.
(e) Commentsonanyapplicationortestingirregularities.
(f) Visualdefectsrecordedusingstandardtechniques.

- 57 -
APPENDIX4
DETERMINATION OF THE SALT SPRAY
RESISTANCEOFCOATINGS
Scope 4.1 This method covers the determination of the salt spray resistance of
coatingsforconcretebyusingasaltspraycabinet.
Materials 4.2 Thefollowingmaterialsarerequired.
(a) OrdinaryPortlandcementcomplyingwithBS?12:1989.
(b) Oven-dry natural sand with rounded particle shape and
ZoneMgradingcomplyingwithBS?882:1983,Table?5.
(c) 20?mm graded coarse aggregate complying with
BS?882:1983,Table?4.
(d) Petroleum jelly, mineral oil or a proprietary mould
releasingagent.
(e) Epoxyresin(AralditeconcreteprimerCMxh125AB)or
equivalent.
(f) Artificial seawater, made up with 30 5?g/L sodiu
chloride salt in distilled water, complying with the
preparationmethodoutlinedinBS?3900:1985,Part?F12.
Procedure: 4.3 (1) ConcreteofGrade20/20shallbeusedtopreparethespecimens.
preparation The approximate mix proportions shall be in accordance with Table
of 4.1andtrialmixesshallbeusedtofinalizetheconcretemix.
specimens
Table4.1 Mixproportionsforconcretespecimens
OrdinaryPortlandCement(BS?12) 250kg/m
3
ZoneMSand(BS?882) 625kg/m
3
20mmGradedAggregate(BS?882) 1250kg/m
3
Water(free) 190L/m
3
Slump 75mm
28daycubestrength(TargetMean) 25MPa
(2) Concrete panels of 500?mm?x 500?mm x 50?mm shall be
fabricatedusingfair-facedplymoulds.


- 58 -
(3) Allmaterialsandmouldsshallbeconditionedat27 Cfor24
hoursbeforecasting.
(4) Aftermixing,theconcreteshallbeplacedandcompactedwithin
30 minutes into cleaned, lightly oiled moulds. The concrete shall be
finished by trowelling with a wood float, and then covered with
polythenesheetingfor24hours.
(5) After24hours,themouldshallbestrippedandthepanelsshall
bewrappedinpolythenesheetingandstoredat27 Cforatleast28
days,untilreadyforcoatingapplication.
(6) The test face shall be the moulded 500?mm x 500?mm side of
thepanel.
(7) The test face shall be prepared in accordance with the
manufacturers instructions by either wire brushing, grit blasting or
high pressure water blasting, followed byfilling of blow hole defects
as required. In the absence of instructions from the manufacturer, a
mixcomprising1:2.5OPC/ZoneFsandcomplyingwithBS?882:1983
and 2:1 water/SBR solution shall be used for filling blow holes and
defects, and shall be applied to a damp concrete surface. The filled
surfaceshallbecoveredwithpolythenesheetingandleftfor24hours
at27 Cpriortocoating.
(8) The coating shall be applied in accordance with the
manufacturers instructions, using all necessary primers and
undercoats,andcoverageratesshallbecheckedbyweighing.
(9) Applicationshallbebyspray,brushorroller.
(10) 10 panels shall be prepared in one operation for all tests to be
carriedout.
(11) After coating, the specimens shall be conditioned at 27 C
and 80 5 %rel ati ve hu mi dit yf or 6 weekst o per mit nat ural l oss o
solventsandothervolatilematerials.
(12) Followingconditioning,ten100?mmdiameterand50?mmthick
coresamplesshallbetakenfromthepanels.
(13) 2 coated core samples shall be cut in half and the maximum,
minimumandmeanDFTmeasuredusingatravellingmicroscope;the
meanvalueshallbetakenfromatleast30observations.
(14) The concrete surfaces of the core shall be encased on all sides
witha5?mmlayerofepoxyresin,exceptforthecoatedface.
(15) After the epoxy resin has hardened and fully cured, the
specimensshallbeplacedinasaltspraycabinetreadyfortesting.


- 59 -
Procedure:
determination
ofsaltspray
resistance
4.4 (1) The specimen shall be mounted in the salt spray cabinet and
shallbetestedinaccordancewiththefollowingweatheringcycle:
4hourssaltwatersprayat40C,
8hoursdryingat40Cand30%relativehumidity
for1000hours.
(2) Oncompletionoftheweatheringcycle,thecoatedsurfaceshall
bewashedwithdistilledwater.
(3) Thedepthofpenetrationofchloridethroughthecoatingshallbe
determinedindepthincrementrangesof0to5?mm,5?mmto10?mm,
and10?mmto15?mmbeneaththecoating,usingthecentral50?mmof
the specimen, by grinding and analyzing the concrete dust in
accordancewithCS1,Vol.2,Clause21.10.2.
(4) Thechloridecontentresultforthecoatingshallbecalculatedas
themeanoftwodeterminations.
Reportingof
results
4.5 Thefollowingshallbereported:
(a) Thenameofthecoatingsystemandthebatchnumbers.
(b) ThenameofthemanufacturerandHongKongsupplier.
(c) The coverage rates used for each component of the
coatingsystem.
(d) Themeasuredmean,minimumandmaximumDFT.
(e) Commentsonanyapplicationortestingirregularities.
(f) The results of the chloride content determination, given
by weight of sample for each depth increment tested for
bothcoatedanduncoatedconcrete.
(g) The results for the salt spray resistance of the coating,
expressingthecoatingasresistantatthemeanDFT,ifthe
chloride content in the 5-10?mm increment range and
deeperis0.04%,ornotresistantatthemeanDFT,ifthe
chloride content is >0.04%, both before and after
weathering.
(h) Whether the samples have been subjected to artificial
weatheringandtheduration.
- 60 -

- 61 -
APPENDIX5
DETERMINATION OF THE SALT WATER
IMMERSIONRESISTANCEOFCOATINGS
Scope 5.1 This method covers the determination of the salt water immersion
resistanceofcoatingsforconcretebyimmersinginartificialseawater.
Materials 5.2 Thefollowingmaterialsarerequired.
(a) OrdinaryPortlandcementcomplyingwithBS?12:1989.
(b) Oven-dry natural sand with rounded particle shape and
ZoneMgradingcomplyingwithBS?882:1983,Table?5.
(c) 20?mm graded coarse aggregate complying with
BS?882:1983,Table?4.
(d) Petroleum jelly, mineral oil or a proprietary mould
releasingagent.
(e) Epoxyresin(AralditeconcreteprimerCMxh125AB)or
equivalent.
(f) Artificial seawater made up with 30 5g/litr sodium
chloride salt in distilled water, complying with the
preparationmethodoutlinedinBS?3900:1985,Part?F12.
Procedure: 5.3 (1) ConcreteofGrade20/20shallbeusedtopreparethespecimens.
preparationof The approximate mix proportions shall be in accordance with Table
specimens 1.5.1andtrialmixesshallbeusedtofinalizetheconcretemix.
Table1.5.1 Mixproportionsforconcretespecimens
OrdinaryPortlandCement(BS?12) 250kg/m
3
ZoneMSand(BS?882) 625kg/m
3
20mmGradedAggregate(BS?882) 1250kg/m
3
Water(free) 190L/m
3
Slump 75mm
28daycubestrength(TargetMean) 25MPa
(2) Concrete panels of 500?mm x 500?mm x 50?mm shall be
fabricatedusingfair-facedplymoulds.
(3)All materials and moulds shall be conditioned at 27 C for 24
hoursbeforecasting.


- 62 -
(4) Aftermixing,theconcreteshallbeplacedandcompactedwithin
30 minutes into cleaned, lightly oiled moulds. The concrete shall be
finished by trowelling with a wood float, and then covered with
polythenesheetingfor24hours.
(5) After24hours,themouldshallbestrippedandthepanelsshall
bewrappedinpolythenesheetingandstoredat27 Cforatleast28
days,untilreadyforcoatingapplication.
(6) The test face shall be the moulded 500?mm x 500?mm side of
thepanel.
(7) The test face shall be prepared in accordance with the
manufacturers instructions by either wire brushing, grit blasting or
high pressure water blasting, followed byfilling of blow hole defects
as required. In the absence of instructions from the manufacturer, a
mixcomprising1:2.5OPC/ZoneFsandcomplyingwithBS?882:1983
and 2:1 water/SBR solution shall be used for filling blow holes and
defects, and shall be applied to a damp concrete surface. The filled
surfaceshallbecoveredwithpolythenesheetingandleftfor24hours
at27 Cpriortocoating.
(8) The coating shall be applied in accordance with the
manufacturersinstructions,usingallnecessaryprimersandundercoats,
andcoverageratesshallbecheckedbyweighing.
(9) Applicationshallbebyspray,brushorroller.
(10) 10 panels shall be prepared in one operation for all tests to be
carriedout.
(11) After coating, the specimens shall be conditioned at 27 C
and 80 5 %rel ati ve hu mi dit yf or 6 weekst o per mit nat ural l oss o
solventsandothervolatilematerials.
(12) Followingconditioning,ten100?mmdiameterand50?mmthick
coresamplesshallbetakenfromthepanels.
(13) 2 coated core samples shall be cut in half and the maximum,
minimumandmeanDFTmeasuredusingatravellingmicroscope;the
meanvalueshallbetakenfromatleast30observations.
(14) The concrete surfaces of the core shall be encased on all sides
witha5?mmlayerofepoxyresin,exceptforthecoatedface.
(15) After the epoxy resin has hardened and fully cured, the
specimens shall be placed in a container above a tank of artificial
seawater,readyfortesting.


- 63 -
Procedure:
determination
ofsaltwater
immersion
resistance
5.4 (1) Thespecimensshallbeimmersedinartificialseawaterandshall
betestedinaccordancewiththefollowingweatheringcycle?:
6hoursimmersioninartificialseawaterat1metredepthat27i
2C,
6hoursdryingat40Cand30%relativehumidity
for1000hours.
(2) Oncompletionoftheweatheringcycle,thecoatedsurfaceshall
bewashedwithdistilledwater.
(3) Thedepthofpenetrationofchloridethroughthecoatingshallbe
determinedindepthincrementrangesof0to5?mm,5?mmto10?mm,
and10?mmto15?mmbeneaththecoating,usingthecentral50?mmof
the specimen only, by grinding and analyzing the concrete dust in
accordancewithCS1,Vol.2,Clause21.10.2.
(4) Thechloridecontentresultforthecoatingshallbecalculatedas
themeanoftwodeterminations.
Reportingof
results
5.5 Thefollowingshallbereported:
(a) Thenameofthecoatingsystemandthebatchnumbers.
(b) ThenameofthemanufacturerandHongKongsupplier.
(c) The coverage rates used for each component of the
coatingsystem.
(d) Themeasuredmean,minimumandmaximumDFT.
(e) Commentsonanyapplicationortestingirregularities.
(f) The results of the chloride content determination, given
by weight of sample for each depth increment tested for
bothcoatedanduncoatedconcrete.
(g) Theresultsforthesaltwaterimmersionresistanceof the
coating, expressing the coating as resistant at the mean
DFT, if the chloride content in the 5-10?mm increment
range and deeper is 0.04%, or not resistant at the mean
DFT, if the chloride content is >0.04%, both before and
afterweathering.
(h) Whether the samples have been subjected to artificial
weatheringandtheduration.
- 64 -




- 65 -
APPENDIX6
DETERMINATION OF THE DYNAMIC CRACK
BRIDGINGRESISTANCEOFCOATINGS
Scope 6.1 This method covers the determination of the dynamic crack bridging
resistance of coatings for concrete based on German BAM
ZVT-BEL-OSrecommendations.
Materials 6.2 Thefollowingmaterialsarerequired.
(a) OrdinaryPortlandcementcomplyingwithBS?12:1989.
(b) Oven-dry natural sand with rounded particle shape and
ZoneMgradingcomplyingwithBS?882:1983,Table?5.
(c) Petroleum jelly, mineral oil or a proprietary mould
releasingagent.
(d) 8?mm single wire prestressing strand, cut to a length of
320?mm.
(e) PVCsleeveorrubbertubingof2?mmwallthicknessand
8?mminternaldiameter,cutto100?mmlength.
Equipment 6.3 Thefollowingequipmentisrequired.
(a) Apneumatic,leveractioncrackbridgingresistancetester
toBAMZVT-BEL-OS.
(b) A test cabinet with temperature control to 27 C, 5 M
2C and relative humidity control to 80 5 %and70
5%.
(c) Steel prism moulds of 40?mm x 40?mm x 160?mm with
PVCinsertsandslotsforprestressingstrandasshownin
Figure6.1.
Procedure: 6.4 (1) Sand-cement mortar shall be used to prepare the specimens in
preparation theproportionsstatedinTable6.1;trialmixesshallbeusedtofinalize
of themortarmix.
specimens
(2) The PVC sleeve shall be fitted onto the central region of the
prestressingstrand.


- 66 -
Table6.1 Mixproportionsformortarspecimens
OrdinaryPortlandCement(BS?12) 250kg/m
3
ZoneMSand(BS?882) 750kg/m
3
Water(free) 150L/m
3
28daycubestrength(TargetMean) 35MPa
(3) A 3?mm x 16?mm x 40?mm PVC insert and the prestressing
strandshallbeplacedintothelightlyoiledsteelmouldintheposition
showninFigure6.1.
(4) The mixed sand-cement mortar shall be carefully worked into
the mould by tamping with small plastic or steel tamping rod to
eliminateallvoids.
(5) Thesurfaceshallbestruckoffandfinishedwithawoodfloat.
(6) Allthespecimensshallbecuredunderpolythenesheetingat27
C.
(7) After 3 days curing, the mould shall be stripped and the prism
shallbewrappedin polythenesheetingand storedat27 Cfor 28
days.
(8) The floated surface of the prism shall be the test surface to
receivethecoating,asshowninFigure6.2.
(9) The coating shall be applied in accordance with
manufacturer's instructions, using all necessary primers
undercoats,andcoverageratesshallbecheckedbyweighing.
the
and
(10) Applicationshallbebyspray,brushorroller.
(11) 10 prisms shall be prepared in one operation for all tests to be
carriedout,includingspares.
(12) Aftercoating,theprismspecimensshallbeconditionedat27b
2Cand80 5 %rel ati vehumi dit yf or 6 weekstoper mit nat ural l os
ofsolventsandothervolatilematerials.
Procedure:
determination
ofcrack-
bridging
resistance
6.5 (1) The coated test specimen shall be fixed into the testing
equipment.
(2) The specimen shall be set to produce an initial crack width of
0.05?mm(W
u
)withamanualorelectronicmovementgaugesfixedto
thesideofthespecimenoverthecrack.
(3) The maximum crack width for the test shall be set to 0.3?mm
(W
o
).





- 67 -
(4) Thefrequencyofthetestfortheopeningofthecrackshallbeset
to1?Hz.
(5) Theequipmentandthecoatedtestspecimenshallbemaintained
inthetestcabinetat27 Cand80 5 %rel ati vehumi dit y
(6) The test shall be started by cycling the test specimen with the
crack opening between W
u
and W
o
in a sine wave form for 1000
cycles.
(7) After 1000 cycles, the coated surface shall be examined with a
magnifyingglasstocheckforcracks.
(8) The test shall be repeated with a new specimen of the same
coatingsystembutshallbetestedinthetestcabinetat5 Cand70
5 %rel ati vehumi dit y
(9) Oncompletionoftesting, thespecimenshallbe cutinhalf and
theDFTmeasuredusingatravellingmicroscope;themeanvalueshall
betakenfromatleast15observations.
(10) Two test specimens shall be used to determine the
crack-bridging capacity of the coating system at each temperature.
Neither specimen shall fail after 1000 cycles. The coating shall be
classified as suitable for use over dynamic cracks provided that the
filmhasnotfailedattheendofthetest.
Reportingof
results
6.6 Thefollowingshallbereported:
(a) Thenameofthecoatingsystemandthebatchnumbers.
(b) ThenameofthemanufacturerandHongKongsupplier.
(c) The coverage rates used for each component of the
coatingsystem.
(d) Themeasuredmean,minimumandmaximumDFT.
(e) Commentsonanyapplicationortestingirregularities.
(f) The results for crack-bridging resistance
temperatureatwhichtestingwasundertaken.
and the
(h) Whether the samples have been subjected to artificial
weatheringandtheduration.
- 68 -
Figure6.1- MouldforCrack-bridgingTestSpecimen
- 69 -
Figure6.2- SectionthroughCrack-BridgingTestSpecimen
- 70 -


- 71 -
APPENDIX7
DETERMINATIONOFTHEWATER
PERMEABILITYRESISTANCEOFCOATINGS
Scope 7.1 This method covers the determination of the water permeability
resistance of coatings for concrete by laboratory based and portable
in-situpermeabilitycells.
Materials 7.2 Thefollowingmaterialsarerequired.
(a) OrdinaryPortlandcementcomplyingwithBS?12:1989.
(b) Oven-dry natural sand with rounded particle shape and
ZoneMgradingcomplyingwithBS?882:1983,Table?5.
(c) 20?mm graded coarse aggregate complying with
BS?882:1983,Table?4.
(d) Petroleum jelly, mineral oil or a proprietary mould
releasingagent.
(e) Epoxyresin(AralditeconcreteprimerCMxh125AB)or
equivalent.
Equipment 7.3 (1) The laboratory based permeability cell may be of various
designs,andshallcomprisethefollowing:
(a) Astainlesssteeltopring.
(b) Astainless steel bottom plate with a hole drilled to form
thewaterinlet.
(c) Aperspexwindowtofitintothecentreofthetopring.
(d) Ataperedbrasssleeve,beingwidestattheupstreamend,
withO-ringsealsateachend.
(e) Ataperedbrasssleevewiththesamedimensionasthatin
Clause?7.3(d),exceptwithoutO-ringseals.
(f) Astainlesssteelbarasaclampfortheperspexwindow.
(g) Stainlesssteelboltstoholdthetopringandbottomplate
together.
(h) Stainlesssteelconnectingtubing.


- 72 -
(i) Equipment to produce pressurized water (see Clause 7.5
(1)(b).
(2) The portable permeability cell shall be the CLAM in-situ
permeabilitytesterdevelopedbyQueensUniversity,Belfast.
Procedure:
preparation
of
7.4 (1) ConcreteofGrade20/20shallbeusedtopreparethespecimens
andtheapproximateproportionsshallbeinaccordancewithTable?7.1;
trialmixesshallbeusedtofinalizetheconcretemix.
specimens
Table7.1 Mixproportionsforconcretespecimens
OrdinaryPortlandCement(BS?12) 250kg/m
3
ZoneMSand(BS?882) 625kg/m
3
20mmGradedAggregate(BS?882) 1250kg/m
3
Water(free) 190L/m
3
Slump 75mm
28daycubestrength(TargetMean) 25MPa
(2) Concrete panels of 500?mm x 500?mm x 50?mm shall be
fabricatedusingfair-facedplymoulds.
(3) Allmaterialsandmouldsshallbeconditionedat27 Cfor24
hoursbeforecasting.
(4) Aftermixing,theconcreteshallbeplacedandcompactedwithin
30 minutes into cleaned, lightly oiled moulds. The concrete shall be
finished by trowelling with a wood float, and then covered with
polythenesheetingfor24hours.
(5) After 24 hours, the mould shall be stripped and the panels
wrapped in polythene sheeting and stored at 27 C for at least 28
days,untilreadyforcoatingapplication.
(6) The test face shall be the moulded 500?mm x 500?mm side of
thepanel.
(7) The test face shall be prepared in accordance with the
manufacturers instructions by either wire brushing, grit blasting or
high pressure water blasting, followed byfilling of blow hole defects
as required. In the absence of instructions from the manufacturer, a
mixcomprising1:2.5OPC/ZoneFsandcomplyingwithBS?882:1983
and 2:1 water/SBR solution shall be used for filling blow holes and
defects, and shall be applied to a damp concrete surface. The filled
surfaceshallbecoveredwithpolythenesheetingandleftfor24hours
at27 Cpriortocoating.
(8) The coating shall be applied in accordance with the
manufacturers instructions, using all necessary primers and
undercoats,andcoverageratesshallbecheckedbyweighing.


- 73 -
(9) Applicationshallbebyspray,brushorroller.
(10) 10 panels shall be prepared in one operation for all tests to be
carriedout,includingspares.
(11) After coating, the specimens shall be conditioned at 27 C
and 80 5 %rel ati vehumi dityfor 6 weeksto per mit nat ural l oss o
solventsandothervolatilematerials.
(12) Following conditioning, ten 100?mm diameter by 50?mm thick
coresamplesshallbetakenfromthepanels.
(13) 2 coated core samples shall be cut in half and the maximum,
minimumandmeanDFTmeasuredusingatravellingmicroscope;the
meanvalueshallbetakenfromatleast30observations.
(14) The top coated surface and the bottom concrete surface of the
coreshall be masked withdrafting tape and thespecimen placed in a
lightlygreasedtaperedbrasssleevewithoutO-ringseals.
(15) Thevoidbetweentheconcreteandthesleeveshallbefilledwith
epoxyresin.
(16) After the epoxy resin has hardened and fully cured, the
specimensshallberemovedfromthesleeveandthedraftingtapeshall
beremovedfrombothsurfaces.
Procedure:
determination
ofwater
permeability
bylaboratory
testrig
7.5 (1) The short term water permeability resistance of the coating
systemshallbedeterminedasfollows:
(a) Thespecimenshallbeplacedinthepermeabilityrigwith
alltheboltstightened.
(b) Thewater,at2barpressure(20?mhead),shallbeapplied
through the rig to the bottom (uncoated) face of the
specimen.
(c) Thetimeforwatertoappearthroughthecoatedfaceshall
berecordedovera24hourperiod.
(d) Thewaterpermeabilityofthecoating,measuredfromtwo
determinations shall be considered resistant if no water
haspenetratedthroughthecoatingduringthetestperiod.
(2) The long term water permeability resistance of the coating
system shall be determined in accordance with Clause?7.5(1), except
thatthedurationofthetestshallbethreemonths.

- 74 -
Procedure: 7.6 The procedure from the operation manual of the CLAM In-situ
determination PermeabilityTestershallbefollowed.
ofwater
permeability
byCLAM
Tester
Reportingof 7.7 Thefollowingshallbereported:
results
(a) Thenameofthecoatingsystemandbatchnumbers.
(b) ThenameofthemanufacturerandHongKongsupplier.
(c) The coverage rates used for each component of the
coatingsystem.
(d) Themeasuredmean,minimumandmaximumDFT.
(e) Commentsonanyapplicationortestingirregularities.
(f) The results for short term resistance to water penetration
atthemeanDFT.
(g) Theresultsforlongtermresistancetowaterpenetrationat
themeanDFT.
(h) Whether the samples have been subjected to artificial
weatheringandtheduration.
- 75 -
Figure7.1- PermeabilityTestRig
- 76 -

- 77 -
APPENDIX8
DETERMINATION OF THE BOND STRENGTH
OFCOATINGS
Scope 8.1 Thismethodcoversthedeterminationofthebondstrengthofcoatings
forconcretebythedirectpull-offtest.
Materials 8.2 Thefollowingmaterialsarerequired.
(a) OrdinaryPortlandcementcomplyingwithBS?12:1989.
(b) Oven-dry natural sand with rounded particle shape and
ZoneMgradingcomplyingwithBS?882:1983,Table?5.
(c) 20?mm graded coarse aggregate complying with
BS?882:1983,Table?4.
(d) Petroleum jelly, mineral oil or a proprietary mould
releasingagent.
(e) Asteeldollyof50mmdiametertofitforthedirectpull-
offtester.
(f) Fastsetepoxyadhesive.
Equipment 8.3 TheLIMPETtesterdevelopedbyQueensUniversity,Belfast,shallbe
used.
Procedure: 8.4 (1) ConcreteofGrade20/20shallbeusedtopreparethespecimens
preparationof andtheapproximateproportionsshallbeinaccordancewithTable?8.1;
specimen trialmixesshallbeusedtofinalizetheconcretemix.
Table8.1 Mixproportionsforconcretespecimens
OrdinaryPortlandCement(BS?12) 250kg/m
3
ZoneMSand(BS?882) 625kg/m
3
20mmGradedAggregate(BS?882) 1250kg/m
3
Water(free) 190L/m
3
Slump 75mm
28daycubestrength(TargetMean) 25MPa
(2) Concrete panels of 500?mm x 500?mm x 50?mm shall be
fabricatedusingfair-facedplymoulds.
(3) Allmaterialsandmouldsshallbeconditionedat27 Cfor24
hoursbeforecasting.

- 78 -
Procedure:
determination
ofbond
strength
(4) Aftermixing,theconcreteshallbeplacedandcompactedwithin
30 minutes into cleaned, lightly oiled moulds. The concrete shall be
finished by trowelling with a wood float, and then covered with
polythenesheetingfor24hours.
(5) After24hours,themouldshallbestrippedandthepanelsshall
bewrappedinpolythenesheetingandstoredat27 Cforatleast28
days,untilreadyforcoatingapplication.
(6) The test face shall be the moulded 500 x 500?mm side of the
panel.
(7) The test face shall be prepared in accordance with the
manufacturersinstructionbyeitherwirebrushing,gritblastingorhigh
pressure water blasting, followed by filling of blow hole defects as
required. Intheabsenceofinstructionsfromthemanufacturer,amix
comprising1:2.5OPC/ZoneFsandcomplyingwithBS?882:1983and
2:1water/SBRsolutionshallbeusedforfillingblowholesanddefects,
and shall be applied to a damp concrete surface. The filled surface
shallbecoveredwithpolythenesheetingandleftfor24hoursat27t
2Cpriortocoating.
(8) The coating shall be applied in accordance with the
manufacturers instructions, using all necessary primers and
undercoats,andcoverageratesshallbecheckedbyweighing.
(9) Applicationshallbebyspray,brushorroller.
(10) 10 panels shall be prepared in one operation for all tests to be
carriedout,includingspares.
(11) After coating, the specimens shall be conditioned at 27 C
and 80 5 %rel ati ve hu mi dit yf or 6 weekst o per mit nat ural l oss o
solventsandothervolatilematerials.
(12) Followingconditioning, a50?mm diameter partialcore shall be
made at 3 test locations to a nominal depth which shall be 5?mm
greaterthanthethicknessofthecoatingundertestsoastoensurethat
the50?mmcorebitpassesintotheconcretesubstrate.
(13) 2 coated core samples shall be cut in half and the maximum,
minimumandmeanDFTmeasuredusingatravellingmicroscope;the
meanvalueshallbetakenfromatleast30observations.
8.5 (1) The coated surface of each partial core shall be degreased with
alcoholandasteeldollyshallbebondedontothecoatingusingfastset
epoxyadhesive.
(2) Aftertheepoxyhascuredandhardened,theLimpettestershall
besetoverthedollyandthepullrodshallbescrewedintothethread

- 79 -
ofthedolly.
(3) Thetestprocedureoutlinedintheoperationmanualofthetester
shallbefollowed.
(4) Afterfailure,thefailureloadshallberecorded.
(5) Themodeoffailureshallberecordedbyexaminingtheportion
adhering to the dolly as shown in Figure 8.1 and using the system
listedinTable8.2.
Table8.2:Failuremodeofbondstrengthtest
Category FailureMode
Type1 Concretebond-concreteandcoatingattachedtodolly
Type2 Primerbond-topcoatsandprimerattachedtodolly
Type3 Intercoatbond-failurebetween:
(a) primerandtopcoat
(b) topcoatsorwithincoating
(c) topcoatanddollyadhesive
Note: where combined failures occur, the percentages of each type
offailureshallbegiven(e.g.30%Type1,70%Type?3b).
(6) The adhesion of the coating system shall be considered
satisfactory when all three results produce failure which is
predominantly within the concrete substrate (>75% Type 1) and the
bondstrengthateachlocationexceeds0.7?MPa.
(7) Failures which lie predominantly at the bond line (>75%
Type?2) may indicate poor surface preparation or a reaction between
the concrete and coating, and shall only be considered satisfactory
wherethebondstrengthis31.2?MPa.
(8) Failure of the dolly adhesive to bond to the coating (Type 3c),
indicatespoordollypreparationandarepeattestshallbecarriedout.
(9) Failures predominantly within layers of the coating system
(>75%Type3aor3b)shallonlybeconsideredsatisfactorywherethe
bondstrengthis31.2?MPa.
Reportingof 8.6 Thefollowingshallbereported:
results
(a) Thenameofthecoatingsystemandthebatchnumbers.

- 80 -
(b) ThenameofthemanufacturerandHongKongsupplier.
(c) The coverage rates used
coatingsystem.
for each component of the
(d) Themeasuredmean,minimumandmaximumDFT.
(e) Commentsonanyapplicationortestingirregularities.
(f) The results for the bond strength of the coating, being
satisfactoryor otherwise, and comments on the modes of
failure,whereapplicable.
(g) Whether the samples have been subjected to artificial
weatheringandtheduration.
- 81 -
Figure8.1- PossibleFailureModes
- 82 -

- 83 -
APPENDIX9
DETERMINATION OF THE RESISTANCE TO
AGGRESSIVELIQUIDSOFCOATINGS
Scope 9.1 Thismethodcoversthedeterminationoftheresistanceofcoatingsfor
concretetoaggressiveliquids.
Materials 9.2 Thefollowingmaterialsarerequired.
(a) OrdinaryPortlandcementcomplyingwithBS?12:1989.
(b) Oven-dry natural sand with rounded particle shape and
ZoneMgradingcomplyingwithBS?882:1983,Table?5.
(c) 20?mm graded coarse aggregate complying with
BS?882:1983,Table?4.
(d) Petroleum jelly, mineral oil or a proprietary mould
releasingagent.
(e) Appropriate concentrations of the chemicals constituting
theaggressiveliquids.
(f) Epoxyresinadhesive.
Procedure: 9.3 (1) ConcreteofGrade20/20shallbeusedtopreparethespecimens
preparationof andtheapproximateproportionsshallbeinaccordancewithTable?9.1;
specimen trialmixesshallbeusedtofinalizetheconcretemix.
Table9.1 Mixproportionsforconcretespecimens
OrdinaryPortlandCement(BS?12) 250kg/m
3
ZoneMSand(BS?882) 625kg/m
3
20mmGradedAggregate(BS?882) 1250kg/m
3
Water(free) 190L/m
3
Slump 75mm
28daycubestrength(TargetMean) 25MPa
(2) Concrete panels of 500?mm x 500?mm x 50?mm shall be
fabricatedusingfair-facedplymoulds.
(3) Allmaterialsandmouldsshallbeconditionedat27 Cfor24
hoursbeforecasting.
(4) After mixing, the concrete shall be placed and compacted
within 30 minutes into cleaned, lightly oiled moulds. The concrete
shall be finished by trowelling with a wood float, and then covered

- 84 -
withpolythenesheetingfor24hours.
(5) After24hours,themouldshallbestrippedandthepanelsshall
bewrappedinpolythenesheetingandstoredat27 Cforatleast28
days,untilreadyforcoatingapplication.
(6) The test face shall be the moulded 500?mm x 500?mm side of
thepanel.
(7) The test face shall be prepared in accordance with the
manufacturersinstructionbyeitherwirebrushing,gritblastingorhigh
pressure water blasting, followed by filling of blow hole defects as
required. Intheabsenceofinstructionsfromthemanufacturer,amix
comprising1:2.5OPC/ZoneFsandcomplyingwithBS?882:1983and
2:1water/SBRsolutionshallbeusedforfillingblowholesanddefects,
and shall be applied to a damp concrete surface. The filled surface
shallbecoveredwithpolythenesheetingandleftfor24hoursat27t
2Cpriortocoating.
(8) The coating shall be applied in accordance with
manufacturers instructions, using all necessary primers
undercoats,andcoverageratesshallbecheckedbyweighing.
the
and
(9) Applicationshallbebyspray,brushorroller.
(10) 10 panels shall be prepared in one operation for all tests to be
carriedout,includingspares.
(11) After coating, the specimens shall be conditioned at 27 C
and 80 5 %rel ati vehumi dityfor 6 weeksto per mit nat ural l oss o
solventsandothervolatilematerials.
(12) Following conditioning, ten 100?mm diameter by 50?mm thick
coresamplesshallbetakenfromthepanels.
(13) 2 coated core samples shall be cut in half and the maximum,
minimumandmeanDFTmeasuredusingatravellingmicroscope;the
meanvalueshallbetakenfromatleast30observations.
Procedure:
determination
ofresistance
toaggressive
liquids
9.4 (1) Aperspexcylinderof80?mminternaldiametershallbebonded
onto the coated surface of the 100?mm core using epoxy resin
adhesive.
(2) Thespecimenand chemicalsto beusedshall beconditioned at
40 Cfor24hourspriortocommencingthetest.
(3) Thechemicalsshallbepouredintothecylindertopondontothe
coated concrete surface to a depth of 10?mm and the arrangement
maintainedat40 Cthroughoutthetest.

- 85 -
(4) The surface of the coating shall be inspected periodically for
change of colour and failure due to expansive eruption of the
cementitioussubstrate.
(5) After testing for three months, the coating shall be considered
resistanttochemicalsifnonoticeabledeteriorationhasbeenfoundin
eitherofthetwospecimenstested.
Reportingof
results
9.5 Thefollowingshallbereported:
(a) Thenameofthecoatingsystemandbatchnumbers.
(b) ThenameofthemanufacturerandHongKongsupplier.
(c) The coverage rates used for each component of the
coatingsystem.
(d) Themeasuredmean,minimumandmaximumDFT.
(e) Commentsonanyapplicationortestingirregularities.
(f) The results for the chemical resistance of the coating,
beingeitherresistantornotresistantatthemeanDFT.
- 86 -

- 87 -
APPENDIX10
DETERMINATION
COATINGS
OF WATER UPTAKE OF
Scope 10.1 Thismethodcoversthedeterminationofthewateruptakeofcoatings
for concrete by the method of BS?1881:Part?5, Initial Surface
AbsorptionTest(ISAT).
Materials 10.2 Thefollowingmaterialsarerequired.
(a) OrdinaryPortlandcementcomplyingwithBS?12:1989.
(b) Oven-dry natural sand with rounded particle shape and
ZoneMgradingcomplyingwithBS?882:1983,Table?5.
(c) 20 mm graded coarse
BS?882:1983,Table?4.
aggregate complying with
(d) Petroleum jelly, mineral
releasingagent.
oil or a proprietary mould
(e) Oil-basedmodellingclay.
Procedure:
preparation
of
specimens
10.3 (1) ConcreteofGrade20/20shallbeusedtopreparethespecimens
and the approximate proportions shall be in accordance with
Table?10.1;trialmixesshallbeusedtofinalizetheconcretemix.
Table10.1 Mixproportionsforconcretespecimens
OrdinaryPortlandCement(BS?12) 250kg/m
3
ZoneMSand(BS?882) 625kg/m
3
20mmGradedAggregate(BS?882) 1250kg/m
3
Water(free) 190L/m
3
Slump 75mm
28daycubestrength(TargetMean) 25MPa
(2) Concrete panels of 500?mm x 500?mm x 50?mm shall be
fabricatedusingfair-facedplymoulds.
(3) Allmaterialsandmouldsshallbeconditionedat27 Cfor24
hoursbeforecasting.
(4) Aftermixing,theconcreteshallbeplacedandcompactedwithin
30 minutes into cleaned, lightly oiled moulds. The concrete shall be
finished by trowelling with a wood float, and then covered with
polythenesheetingfor24hours.

- 88 -
(5) After24hours,themouldshallbestrippedandthepanelsshall
bewrappedinpolythenesheetingandstoredat27 Cforatleast28
days,untilreadyforcoatingapplication.
(6) The test face shall be the moulded 500 x 500?mm side of the
panel.
(7) The test face shall be prepared in accordance with the
manufacturersinstructionbyeitherwirebrushing,gritblastingorhigh
pressure water blasting, followed by filling of blow hole defects as
required. Intheabsenceofinstructionsfromthemanufacturer,amix
comprising1:2.5OPC/ZoneFsandcomplyingwithBS?882:1983and
2:1water/SBRsolutionshallbeusedforfillingblowholesanddefects,
and shall be applied to a damp concrete surface. The filled surface
shallbecoveredwithpolythenesheetingandleftfor24hoursat27t
2Cpriortocoating.
(8) The coating shall be applied in accordance with
manufacturers instructions, using all necessary primers
undercoats,andcoverageratesshallbecheckedbyweighing.
the
and
(9) Applicationshallbebyspray,brushorroller.
(10) 10 panels shall be prepared in one operation for all tests to be
carriedout,includingspares.
(11) After coating, the specimens shall be conditioned at 27 C
and 80 5 %rel ati vehumi dityfor 6 weeksto per mit nat ural l oss o
solventsandothervolatilematerials.
(12) Following conditioning, ten 100?mm diameter by 50?mm thick
coresamplesshallbetakenfromthepanels.
(13) 2 coated core samples shall be cut in half and the maximum,
minimumandmeanDFTmeasuredusingatravellingmicroscope;the
meanvalueshallbetakenfromatleast30observations.
Procedure:
determination
ofwater
uptake
10.4 (1) After calibrating the ISAT equipment, the circular cap shall be
sealedontothecoatedconcretepanelwithoil-basedmodellingclay.
(2) ThetestshallbeperformedinaccordancewithBS?1881:Part?5.
(3) The rate of water uptake into the coated panel shall be
determinedafter10minutes,30minutes,1hourand2hours,andshall
becalculatedtothenearest0.005?mL/m
2
s.
(4) The coating system shall be considered as resistant to water
uptake if the calculated water uptake after 2 hours is less than
0.025?mL/m
2
s.


- 89 -
(5) The test shall be repeated at a second location and the mean
resultobtained.
Reportingof
results
10.5 Thefollowingshallbereported:
(a) Thenameofthecoatingsystemandbatchnumbers.
(b) ThenameofthemanufacturerandHongKongsupplier.
(c) The coverage rates used for each component of the
coatingsystem.
(d) Themeasuredmean,minimumandmaximumDFT.
(e) Commentsonanyapplicationortestingirregularities.
(f) Therateofwateruptaketothenearest0.005?mL/m
2
s.
(g) The result for the resistance to water uptake of the
coating,expressedaseitherresistantornotresistantatthe
meanDFT.
(h) Whether the samples have been subjected to artificial
weatheringandtheduration.
- 90 -

- 91 -
APPENDIX?11
DETERMINATIONOFTHEIMPACT
RESISTANCEOFCOATINGS
Scope 11.1 This method covers the determination of the impact resistance of
coatingsforconcrete,byfallingweightindenter.
Materials 11.2 Thefollowingmaterialsarerequired.
(a) OrdinaryPortlandcementcomplyingwithBS?12:1989.
(b) Oven-dry natural sand with rounded particle shape and
ZoneMgradingcomplyingwithBS?882:1983,Table?5.
(c) 20 mm graded coarse
BS?882:1983,Table?4.
aggregate complying with
(d) Petroleum jelly, mineral
releasingagent.
oil or a proprietary mould
Equipment 11.3 (1) The standard equipment to BS?3900:Part E3, fitted with a
14?mmdiameterindentorand4.75?kgweight.
(2) AmodifiedbaseplateasshowninFigure11.1.
Procedure:
preparation
of
specimens
11.4 (1) ConcreteofGrade20/20shallbeusedtopreparethespecimens
and the approximate proportions shall be in accordance with
Table?11.1;trialmixesshallbeusedtofinalizetheconcretemix.
Table11.1 Mixproportionsforconcretespecimens
OrdinaryPortlandCement(BS?12) 250kg/m
3
ZoneMSand(BS?882) 625kg/m
3
20mmGradedAggregate(BS?882) 1250kg/m
3
Water(free) 190L/m
3
Slump 75mm
28daycubestrength(TargetMean) 25MPa
(2) Concrete panels of 200?mm x 200?mm x 100?mm shall be
fabricatedusingfair-facedplymoulds.
(3) Allmaterialsandmouldsshallbeconditionedat27 Cfor24
hoursbeforecasting.



- 92 -
Procedure:
determination
ofimpact
resistance
(4) Aftermixing,theconcreteshallbeplacedandcompactedwithin
30 minutes into cleaned, lightly oiled moulds. The concrete shall be
finished by trowelling with a wood float, and then covered with
polythenesheetingfor24hours.
(5) After24hours,themouldshallbestrippedandthepanelsshall
bewrappedinpolythenesheetingandstoredat27 Cforatleast28
days,untilreadyforcoatingapplication.
(6) The test face shall be the moulded 200?mm x 200?mm side of
thepanel.
(7) The test face shall be prepared in accordance with the
manufacturersinstructionbyeitherwirebrushing,gritblastingorhigh
pressure water blasting, followed by filling of blow hole defects as
required. Intheabsenceofinstructionsfromthemanufacturer,amix
comprising1:2.5OPC/ZoneFsandcomplyingwithBS?882:1983and
2:1water/SBRsolutionshallbeusedforfillingblowholesanddefects,
and shall be applied to a damp concrete surface. The filled surface
shallbecoveredwithpolythenesheetingandleftfor24hoursat27t
2Cpriortocoating.
(8) The coating shall be applied in accordance with the
manufacturers instructions, using all necessary primers and
undercoats,andcoverageratesshallbecheckedbyweighing.
(9) Applicationshallbebyspray,brushorroller.
(10) 10 panels shall be prepared in one operation for all tests to be
carriedout,includingspares.
(11) After coating, the specimens shall be conditioned at 27 C
and 80 5 %rel ati ve hu mi dit yf or 6 weekst o per mit nat ural l oss o
solventsandothervolatilematerials.
(12) Following conditioning, ten 100?mm diameter by 50?mm thick
coresamplesshallbetakenfromthepanels.
(13) 2 coated core samples shall be cut in half and the maximum,
minimumandmeanDFTmeasuredusingatravellingmicroscope;the
meanvalueshallbetakenfromatleast30observations.
11.5 (1) Two test specimens shall be used for each determination,
conditionedat5 Cand70 5 %rel ati ve hu mi dit y, and at 27 C
and80 5 %rel ati ve hu mi dit yrespecti vel yf or 24 hours bef oret esti ng
(2) In order to prevent flexural failure under impact load, each
specimen shall be located in a bed of sand which will absorb the
impactstresswave.


- 93 -
(3) ThetestshallbeperformedinaccordancewithBS?3900:Part?E3
withtheimpactordroppingontothepanelfromaheightof570?mmat
threestrikelocationsasshowninFigure?11.2.
(4) Thefollowingdefectsshallberecorded:
(a)
(b)
(c)
thepresenceofcrackingandextent,
delaminationofcoatingandsubstratecondition,and
theoccurrenceofchipping.
(5) Thetestpanelshallbephotographed.
(6) The continuity of the coating after the test shall be measured
using an ISAT type of tester as stated in Appendix?10 at a water
columnheadof225?mm.
(7) Thecoatingsystemshallbe consideredtobesatisfactoryunder
theimpacttestifthewateruptakeafter2hoursis0.025?mL/m2sec.
Reportingof
Results
11.6 Thefollowingshallbereported:
(a) Thenameofthecoatingsystemandthebatchnumbers.
(b) ThenameofthemanufacturerandHongKongsupplier.
(c) The coverage rates used for each component of the
coatingsystem.
(d) Themeasuredmean,minimumandmaximumDFT.
(e) Commentsonanyapplicationortestingirregularities.
(f) Adescriptionofthedefectsaftertheimpacttest.
(g) The results for water uptake of the impact area, being
classed as either satisfactory or not satisfactory after
impactatthemeanDFT.
(h) Whether the samples have been subjected to artificial
weatheringandtheduration.
- 94 -
Figure11.1- ModifiedBS3900ImpactTesterforConcrete
- 95 -
Figure11.2- TypicalFailedConcretePanel
- 96 -

- 97 -
APPENDIX12
DETERMINATIONOFTHEALGAERESISTANCE
OFCOATINGS
Scope 12.1 This method covers the determination of the algae resistance of
coatingsforconcretebasedonSISIRtestmethod.
Materials 12.2 Thefollowingmaterialsarerequired.
(a) SterilizedBoldBasalmedium.
(b) Algae culture, predominantly
culturedinBoldBasalmedium.
Tretapohila Odorata
(c) Sterilizeddistilledwater.
Apparatus 12.3 Thefollowingapparatusisrequired.
(a) Four sterilized petri dishes, of approximately 90 mm
diameter,withcovers.
(b) A shelf with fluorescent lighting such that the light
intensity incident to the test surface is 1000 to 1400 lux.
(This can be achieved by installing two 40-watt cool
fluorescent lamp tubes approximately 25?cm apart at a
horizontal level and approximately 60?cm above the test
surface).
(c) Anautoclaveof1.2to1.5kgf/cm2.
Procedure:
preparation
of
specimens
12.4 (1) Aspecialprimerorpretreatment(e.g.hydrofluoricacidetch)for
the glass shall be applied to the inner surfaces and edges of the glass
petri dishes for bonding purposes, according to the manufacturers
instructions.
(2) All chemicals, water, non-disposable containers and tools used
forthetestshallbesterilizedbytheautoclaveunderapressureof1.2
to1.5kgf/cm2for30minutes.
(3) Allmaterialsshallbeconditionedat27
toapplication.
Cfor24hoursprior
(4) The coating system shall be applied to the inner surfaces and
edges of two sterilized, petri dishes in accordance with the
manufacturersinstructions.
(5) The coverage rates for the coating shall be checked by


- 98 -
weighingandbywetfilmthicknessmeasurement(e.g.combgauge).
(6) After coating, the specimens shall be conditioned at 27 C
and 80 5 %rel ati vehumi dit yfor 6 weeksto per mit nat ural l oss o
solventsandothervolatilematerials.
(7) The DFT of the coating shall be estimated by re-weighing the
specimens.
Procedure:
determination
ofalgae
resistance
12.5 (1) The two coated petri dish specimens shall be artificially
weatheredto4000hoursinaccordancewithAppendix3.
(2) After weathering, the specimens shall be inoculated with the
algalspeciesbyadding2?mLofalgaecultureontotwocoatedandtwo
uncoated petri dishes. The culture shall be spread on the surface as
evenlyaspossible,sothatitcoversapproximately10%ofthebottom
ofthesurfaceofthepetridish.
(3) Afterinoculationwiththealgaeculture,thepetridishesshallbe
coveredwithdishcoversandsubjectedtoexposureunder fluorescent
lightingatatemperatureof27 Cusingalightingcycleof12hours
onfollowedby12hoursoff.
(4) The coating film shall be kept moist by periodically adding a
dilutedBoldBasalmediumof1partBoldBasalmediumto3partsof
distilled water by volume; normally no more than 1?mL every 2 days
shallberequired.
(5) The period of exposure shall be 8 weeks from the date of
inoculationof thealgae culture.Duringtheexposure period,the petri
dishesshallbekeptcovered.
(6) At the end of the test, the growth intensity of algae on the
coatingsamplesshallbecomparedwiththoseoftheblankcontrols.
(7) The coating shall be considered to have passed the test if the
algae culture is killed, as evidenced by the bleaching of the green
colour. Any growth shall be compared with the increase in algal
growthintheblankpetridishes.
Reportingof
results
12.6 Thefollowingshallbereported:
(a) Thenameofthecoatingsystemandthebatchnumbers.
(b) ThenameofthemanufacturerandHongKongsupplier.
(c) The coverage rates used for each component of the
coatingsystem.
(d) ThemeasuredwetfilmthicknessandestimatedDFT.

- 99 -
(e) Commentsonanyapplicationortestingirregularities.
(f) Theresultsfor thealgal resistanceof thecoatingsystem,
being classed as either resistant or non-resistant to algal
growthattheestimatedDFT.
- 100 -


- 101 -
APPENDIX13
METHODS FOR THE
SAMPLES
ANALYSIS OF COATING
Scope 13.1 This appendix covers
coatingsforconcrete.
the test methods for site quality control of
Method:
determination
ofvolatile
content
13.2 (1) A 200 mL coating sample shall be poured into a pre-weighed
disposablemetalcontainerandthesampleshallbeweighed.
(2) Thesampleshallbedriedinaventilatedovenat105 5Cfor3
hours.
(3) After allowing the sample to cool in a desiccator for 15
minutes,thesampleshallbere-weighed.
(4) Thevolatilecontentofthecoatingsampleshallbecalculatedas
follow:
W
o
-W
d
W
v
=
W
o
x100%
where:
W
v
isthevolatilecontentofthecoatingsample(%),
W
o
istheinitialweightofthecoating(g),and
W
d
istheoven-dryweightofthecoating(g).
Method:
determination
offinenessof
grind
13.3 Thefinenessofgrindofthecoatingshallbedeterminedinaccordance
with the method stated in ASTM D?1210, using a grindometer at a
temperatureof27 C.
Method:
determination
ofviscosity
13.4 Theviscosityofthecoatingshallbemeasuredinaccordancewiththe
flowcupmethodstatedinBS?3900:PartA6,1986atatemperatureof
27 C.
Method:
determination
ofspecific
gravity
13.5 The specific gravity of the coating shall be determined in accordance
with the density bottle method stated in BS?3900:Part A12, 1975 at a
temperatureof27 C.
Additional
Testing
13.6 If instructed by the Engineer, coating samples shall be sent for
labelling using infra-red spectography and pyrolysis gas
chromatography, and the results shall be compared with master data
suppliedbythemanufacturer.
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- 103 -
APPENDIX14
METHODS FOR CHECKING THE CONTINUITY
OFFILMFORMINGCOATINGSONCONCRETE
Scope 14.1 Thisappendixcoversthetestmethodsforcheckingthefilmthickness
andcontinuityofcoatingsforconcrete.
Method:
determination
ofthickness
14.2 (1) Forroughconcretesurfaces,themeasurementoffilmthickness
shallbeobtainedfromamicroscopicexaminationofthecoatedsurface
ofcoresamples,thathavebeeneitherpurpose-cutortakenfromother
tests.
(2) Spot checks shall be made by drilling a tapered hole into the
film using an Erichsen Paint Borer and measuring the thickness and
numberofcoats.
Method:
determination
ofcontinuity
14.3 (1) Thecontinuityofthecoatingshallbemeasuredusingaconcrete
resistivity meter. One lead of the meter shall be connected to the
reinforcing cage in the concrete, in contact with the bar beneath the
area of coating under test. The circuit shall be completed by using a
sponge contact unit soaked in a suitable electrolyte, which is pressed
ontothecoatedconcretesurface.
(2) The resistance readings shall be obtained from the resistivity
meter,togiveanindicationofthecontinuityofthecoating.
(3) The coating shall be considered continuous if the resistance
reading gives values in excess of 1?M. Pinholes in the coating will
reducetheresistance.
- 104 -

- 105 -
APPENDIX15
SIMPLE METHOD FOR CHECKING THE
ADHESION OF FILM FORMING COATINGS ON
CONCRETE
Scope 15.1 This appendix covers the cross-cut test for checking the adhesion of
coatingsforconcrete.
Method:
cross-cut
test
15.2 Theadhesiontestshallbecarriedoutinaccordancewiththecross-cut
teststatedinASTM?D?3359-83,exceptasmodifiedbelow?:
(a) Thecoated surfaceshall bescribed with11 parallel cuts,
made using a sharp cutting tool to BS?3900:Part?E6
against a steel straight edge. The cuts shall be spaced at
3?mmcentresandeachshallbeatleast50?mminlength.
(b) A second series of 11 cuts shall then be made,
perpendiculartothefirstseries,toformalatticepattern.
(c) A 30?mm wide adhesive tape shall be pressed over the
lattice with even thumb pressure, left for 1 minute and
thenpeeledoffsharplyinlessthan0.5second.
(d) The surface shall be inspected using normal vision and
classifiedaseitherhavingpassedorfailedthecriterionof
25%ofthesurfacehavingcomeaway.
Note: Asuitabletapehasanadhesivebondof44.6 2. 8?g/ mm
measured in accordance with ASTM?D?3330, such as
Permacel 99 by Permacel Inc., New Brunswick, USA.
3M"RedLithographicTape"mayalsobesuitable.

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