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One-Dimensional Flow Through Soils

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Introduction

Why do we need to know about permeability and flow through soils?

Permeability

Soil is considered as a porous medium and the interconnected voids allow water to flow through it.

and the interconnected voids allow water to flow through it. Water can flow from points of

Water can flow from points of high energy to points of low energy.

Permeability

Soil is considered as a porous medium and the interconnected voids allow water to flow through it.

Water can flow from points of high energy to points of low energy.

The permeability k is used to quantify this property.

Permeability is the ease with which a liquid can flow through the pores of the soil

k is used to quantify this property. Permeability is the ease with which a liquid can

Ground Water

Ground Water Table Hydrostatic condition when there is no flow
Ground Water Table
Hydrostatic condition when
there is no flow
Head Head: Head refers to the energy per unit of weight. Energy Head = Weight
Head
Head: Head refers to the energy per unit of weight.
Energy
Head =
Weight
According to the Bernoulli’s equation,
Total head = pressure head + velocity head + elevation head
2
u
v
g
2 g
w
where
h
= total head
u
= pressure
v
= velocity
g
= acceleration due to gravity
= unit weight of water
g w

h =

+

+ Z

Head 2 u v g 2 g w  The elevation or potential head (Z)
Head
2
u
v
g
2 g
w
 The elevation or potential head (Z) depends on
the chosen datum.
 The velocity of flow through soils is generally
small (< 1cm/s) and we usually neglect the
velocity head.
2
u
v
u
+
g
2 g
g
w
w
negligible

h =

+

+ Z

h =

+ Z

Thus >>

h =

+ Z

Definition of Head at a Point uP ( ) hP ( ) = + Z
Definition of Head at a Point
uP
(
)
hP ( )
=
+
Z P
(
)
(1)
g
w
P
Note
z(P)
z is measured vertically up
from the datum
Datum
Example: Static water table 1. Calculation of head at P Choose datum at the top
Example: Static water table
1. Calculation of head at P
Choose datum at the top of the impermeable layer
u
(
P
)
=
4g
2
m
w
w
1m
z
(
P
)
=
1
X
5
m
thus
P
1 m
4 g
h
(
P
)
=
w +
1
=
5
m
Impermeable stratum
g
w
Example: Static water table 2. Calculation of head at X Choose datum at the top
Example: Static water table
2. Calculation of head at X
Choose datum at the top of the impermeable layer
u
(
X
)
=
g w
w
2
m
z
(
X
)
=
4
1m
X
thus
5
m
P
g
1 m
w
h
(
X
)
=
+
4
=
5
m
g
Impermeable stratum
w
Example: Static water table 2. Calculation of head at X Choose datum at the top
Example: Static water table
2. Calculation of head at X
Choose datum at the top of the impermeable layer
u
(
X
)
=
g w
w
2
m
z
(
X
)
=
4
1m
X
thus
5
m
P
g
1 m
h
(
X
)
=
w +
4
=
5
m
g
Impermeable stratum
w
The heads at P and X are identical. This implies that the head
is constant throughout the region below a static water table.
Example: Static water table 3. Calculation of head at P Choose datum at the water
Example: Static water table
3. Calculation of head at P
Choose datum at the water table
u
(
P
)
=
4
g
2
m
w
w
1m
z
(
P
)
=
- 4
X
5
m
thus
P
1 m
4
g
w
h
(
P
)
=
-
4
=
0
m
Impermeable stratum
g
w
Example: Static water table 4. Calculation of head at X Choose datum at the water
Example: Static water table
4. Calculation of head at X
Choose datum at the water table
u
( X
)
= 1 g
2
m
w
w
1m
z
(
X
)
= - 1
X
5
m
thus
P
1 m
g
w
h
(
X
)
= -
1 =
0
m
Impermeable stratum
g
w
Example: Static water table 4. Calculation of head at X Choose datum at the water
Example: Static water table
4. Calculation of head at X
Choose datum at the water table
u
( X
)
= 1 g
2
m
w
w
1m
z
(
X
)
= - 1
X
5
m
thus
P
1 m
g
w
h
(
X
)
= -
1 =
0
m
Impermeable stratum
g
w
Again, the head at P and X is identical, but the value is different
Head • The value of the head depends on the choice of datum • Differences
Head
• The value of the head depends on the choice of datum
• Differences in head are required for flow (not pressure)
2
m
1m
X
It can be helpful to consider
imaginary standpipes
placed in the soil at the
5
m
P 1 m
points where the head is
required
Impermeable stratum
The head is the elevation of the water level in the
standpipe above the datum

Water flow through soil

h Soil Sample
h
Soil Sample
L
L

Darcy found that the flow (volume per unit time) was

• proportional to the head difference h

• proportional to the cross-sectional area A

• inversely proportional to the length of sample L

Darcy’s Law  h  L where k is the coefficient of permeability or hydraulic

Darcy’s Law

h

L

where k is the coefficient of permeability or hydraulic conductivity.

Equation (2a) may be written as q = kAi

or

v = k i

(2b)

where

i = h/L

the hydraulic gradient

v = q/A

the Darcy or superficial velocity

k

the coefficient of permeability

Thus

q

= kA

(2a)

q = quantity of water flowing through soil per unit time => units (volume/time) نﺎﯾرﺳﻟا لدﻌﻣ

Q

= quantity of flow through soil قﻓدﺗﻣﻟا لﺋﺎﺳﻟا (مﺟﺣ) ﺔﯾﻣﻛ

Q

= qt

=> units (volume)

Coefficient of Permeability (k) (Factors influence) ﺔﯾذﺎﻔﻧﻟا لﻣﺎﻌﻣ ﻰﻠﻋ ةرﺛؤﻣﻟا لﻣاوﻌﻟا

k = (g w /w ) k(factors)

ﺔﻘﻠﻌﺗﻣ لﻣاوﻋ

يذﻟا ﻊﺋﺎﻣﻟﺎﺑ

يرﺳﯾ

g w = unit weight of water or fluid w = viscosity of water or fluid (note temperature)

k(factors) Porosity (Void ratio) Pore size (Particle size) Tortuosity (particle shape) Saturation

ﺔﻘﻠﻌﺗﻣ لﻣاوﻋ

ﺔﺑرﺗﻟﺎﺑ

Measurement of permeability

Measurement of permeability inlet constant head device load H L sample Manometers device for flow measurement

inlet

constant head

device

Measurement of permeability inlet constant head device load H L sample Manometers device for flow measurement

load

H L sample
H
L
sample

Manometers

device for flow measurement
device for flow
measurement

(Peizometers)

outlet

load H L sample Manometers device for flow measurement (Peizometers) outlet porous disk Constant Head Permeameter

porous disk

Constant Head Permeameter

Constant head permeameter

The volume discharge Q during a suitable time interval t is collected.

The difference in head H over a length L is measured by means of manometers.

Knowing the cross-sectional area A, Darcy’s law gives

Q = kA

H

t L

It can be seen that in a constant head permeameter::

k=

QL

AHt

(3)

Measurement of permeability Standpipe of cross-sectional area a porous disk H 1 H H Sample
Measurement of permeability
Standpipe of
cross-sectional
area a
porous disk
H
1
H
H
Sample
of area A
2
L
Falling Head Permeameter
Falling head permeameter
Standpipe
of area
a
Initially H=H 1 at time t=t 1
Finally H=H 2 at time t=t 2.
H
1
aL
l n H
(
/
H
)
H
1
2
k
=
H
Sample
2
A
t
-
t
L
of area
2
1
A
Typical Coefficient of permeability values 10 -1 10 -2 10 -3 10 -4 10 -5
Typical Coefficient of permeability values
10 -1 10 -2
10 -3 10 -4
10 -5 10 -6
10 -7 10 -8
10 -9
10 -10 10 -11 10 -12
Gravels
Sands
Silts
Homogeneous Clays
Fissured & Weathered Clays
Typical Permeability Ranges (metres/second)
Soils exhibit a wide range of permeabilities and while particle
size may vary by about 3-4 orders of magnitude permeability
may vary by about 10 orders of magnitude.

Coefficient of Permeability (k) Order of Magnitude

Clean Gravel Clean Course to medium Sand Fine Sand Silt (Mixture of Sand & Silt) Clay

k(cm/sec) 10 2 – 1 1 – 10 -2 10 -2 – 10 -4 10 -4 – 10 -6 10 -6 – 10 -12 (Typical 10 -7 )

Empirical relationships for k

• For a homogeneous soil, coefficient of permeability k depends on the soil fabric or structural arrangement of the soil grains.

• A number of empirical relationships have been proposed linking k to void ratio and grain size for coarse-grained soils:

k (cm / sec) = CD

2

10 Hazen (1930)

• where C = a constant that is generally varies between 0.5 and 1.5. For coarse and fine sand, C 1.

• D10 = the effective particle size, in mm

(for clean sands with less than 5% passing the No.200 sieve)

Effect of Temperature on Permeability (k) k is a function of viscosity and the unit
Effect of Temperature on Permeability (k)
k is a function of viscosity and the unit weight of the
pore fluid,
g w
k
The viscosity of fluid, such as water, varies with temperature.
Hence, k also changes with different temperatures.
It is conventional to express the value of k at a temperature
of 20 C under the assumption that gw does not vary too
much with temperature,
  
T
 C
 
k
 k
20
 C
T
 C

=


20

C

=     20  C 

Effect of Temperature on Permeability (k)

Variation of

T

C

Variation of  T  C  20  C (water)

20

C

(water)

 

T (C)

   

T

C

C 

20

C

T (C)

 

T

C

 20

20

C

 
   

15 1.135

   

23 0.931

 
   

16 1.106

   

24 0.910

 
   

17 1.077

   

25 0.889

 
   

18 1.051

   

26 0.869

 
   

19 1.025

   

27 0.850

 
   

20 1.000

   

28 0.832

 
   

21 0.976

   

29 0.814

 
   

22 0.953

   

30 0.797

 

Seepage Force

 
 

h

 g

 

Seepage force per unit volume

j

s

=

L

w

i

= g

w

Seepage Force     h  g   Seepage force per unit volume j s =

Stratified Flow

Stratified Flow

Stratified Flow

Stratified Flow

Stratified Flow

Stratified Flow

Stratified Flow

Stratified Flow