Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 17

One-Dimensional Flow Through Soils

>

> Permeability <

<

Introduction

Why do we need to know about permeability and flow through soils?

Permeability

Soil is considered as a porous medium and the interconnected voids allow water to flow through it.

Water can flow from points of high energy to points of low energy.

Permeability

Soil is considered as a porous medium and the interconnected voids allow water to flow through it.

Water can flow from points of high energy to points of low energy.

The permeability k is used to quantify this property.

Permeability is the ease with which a liquid can flow through the pores of the soil

Ground Water

Ground Water Table
Hydrostatic condition when
there is no flow
Energy
Weight
According to the Bernoulli’s equation,
2
u
v
g
2 g
w
where
h
u
= pressure
v
= velocity
g
= acceleration due to gravity
= unit weight of water
g w

h =

+

+ Z

2
u
v
g
2 g
w
 The elevation or potential head (Z) depends on
the chosen datum.
 The velocity of flow through soils is generally
small (< 1cm/s) and we usually neglect the
2
u
v
u
+
g
2 g
g
w
w
negligible

h =

+

+ Z

h =

+ Z

Thus >>

h =

+ Z

Definition of Head at a Point
uP
(
)
hP ( )
=
+
Z P
(
)
(1)
g
w
P
Note
z(P)
z is measured vertically up
from the datum
Datum
Example: Static water table
1. Calculation of head at P
Choose datum at the top of the impermeable layer
u
(
P
)
=
4g
2
m
w
w
1m
z
(
P
)
=
1
X
5
m
thus
P
1 m
4 g
h
(
P
)
=
w +
1
=
5
m
Impermeable stratum
g
w
Example: Static water table
2. Calculation of head at X
Choose datum at the top of the impermeable layer
u
(
X
)
=
g w
w
2
m
z
(
X
)
=
4
1m
X
thus
5
m
P
g
1 m
w
h
(
X
)
=
+
4
=
5
m
g
Impermeable stratum
w
Example: Static water table
2. Calculation of head at X
Choose datum at the top of the impermeable layer
u
(
X
)
=
g w
w
2
m
z
(
X
)
=
4
1m
X
thus
5
m
P
g
1 m
h
(
X
)
=
w +
4
=
5
m
g
Impermeable stratum
w
The heads at P and X are identical. This implies that the head
is constant throughout the region below a static water table.
Example: Static water table
3. Calculation of head at P
Choose datum at the water table
u
(
P
)
=
4
g
2
m
w
w
1m
z
(
P
)
=
- 4
X
5
m
thus
P
1 m
4
g
w
h
(
P
)
=
-
4
=
0
m
Impermeable stratum
g
w
Example: Static water table
4. Calculation of head at X
Choose datum at the water table
u
( X
)
= 1 g
2
m
w
w
1m
z
(
X
)
= - 1
X
5
m
thus
P
1 m
g
w
h
(
X
)
= -
1 =
0
m
Impermeable stratum
g
w
Example: Static water table
4. Calculation of head at X
Choose datum at the water table
u
( X
)
= 1 g
2
m
w
w
1m
z
(
X
)
= - 1
X
5
m
thus
P
1 m
g
w
h
(
X
)
= -
1 =
0
m
Impermeable stratum
g
w
Again, the head at P and X is identical, but the value is different
• The value of the head depends on the choice of datum
• Differences in head are required for flow (not pressure)
2
m
1m
X
It can be helpful to consider
imaginary standpipes
placed in the soil at the
5
m
P 1 m
required
Impermeable stratum
The head is the elevation of the water level in the
standpipe above the datum

Water flow through soil

h
Soil Sample
L

Darcy found that the flow (volume per unit time) was

• proportional to the head difference h

• proportional to the cross-sectional area A

• inversely proportional to the length of sample L

Darcy’s Law

h

L

where k is the coefficient of permeability or hydraulic conductivity.

Equation (2a) may be written as q = kAi

or

v = k i

(2b)

 where i = h/L the hydraulic gradient v = q/A the Darcy or superficial velocity k the coefficient of permeability

Thus

q

= kA

(2a)

q = quantity of water flowing through soil per unit time => units (volume/time) نﺎﯾرﺳﻟا لدﻌﻣ

 Q = quantity of flow through soil قﻓدﺗﻣﻟا لﺋﺎﺳﻟا (مﺟﺣ) ﺔﯾﻣﻛ Q = qt => units (volume)

Coefficient of Permeability (k) (Factors influence) ﺔﯾذﺎﻔﻧﻟا لﻣﺎﻌﻣ ﻰﻠﻋ ةرﺛؤﻣﻟا لﻣاوﻌﻟا

k = (g w /w ) k(factors)

ﺔﻘﻠﻌﺗﻣ لﻣاوﻋ

يذﻟا ﻊﺋﺎﻣﻟﺎﺑ

يرﺳﯾ

g w = unit weight of water or fluid w = viscosity of water or fluid (note temperature)

k(factors) Porosity (Void ratio) Pore size (Particle size) Tortuosity (particle shape) Saturation

ﺔﻘﻠﻌﺗﻣ لﻣاوﻋ

ﺔﺑرﺗﻟﺎﺑ

Measurement of permeability

inlet

device

H
L
sample

Manometers

device for flow
measurement

(Peizometers)

outlet

porous disk

The volume discharge Q during a suitable time interval t is collected.

The difference in head H over a length L is measured by means of manometers.

Knowing the cross-sectional area A, Darcy’s law gives

Q = kA

H

t L

It can be seen that in a constant head permeameter::

k=

QL

AHt

(3)

Measurement of permeability
Standpipe of
cross-sectional
area a
porous disk
H
1
H
H
Sample
of area A
2
L
Standpipe
of area
a
Initially H=H 1 at time t=t 1
Finally H=H 2 at time t=t 2.
H
1
aL
l n H
(
/
H
)
H
1
2
k
=
H
Sample
2
A
t
-
t
L
of area
2
1
A
Typical Coefficient of permeability values
10 -1 10 -2
10 -3 10 -4
10 -5 10 -6
10 -7 10 -8
10 -9
10 -10 10 -11 10 -12
Gravels
Sands
Silts
Homogeneous Clays
Fissured & Weathered Clays
Typical Permeability Ranges (metres/second)
Soils exhibit a wide range of permeabilities and while particle
size may vary by about 3-4 orders of magnitude permeability
may vary by about 10 orders of magnitude.

Coefficient of Permeability (k) Order of Magnitude

Clean Gravel Clean Course to medium Sand Fine Sand Silt (Mixture of Sand & Silt) Clay

k(cm/sec) 10 2 – 1 1 – 10 -2 10 -2 – 10 -4 10 -4 – 10 -6 10 -6 – 10 -12 (Typical 10 -7 )

Empirical relationships for k

• For a homogeneous soil, coefficient of permeability k depends on the soil fabric or structural arrangement of the soil grains.

• A number of empirical relationships have been proposed linking k to void ratio and grain size for coarse-grained soils:

k (cm / sec) = CD

2

10 Hazen (1930)

• where C = a constant that is generally varies between 0.5 and 1.5. For coarse and fine sand, C 1.

• D10 = the effective particle size, in mm

(for clean sands with less than 5% passing the No.200 sieve)

Effect of Temperature on Permeability (k)
k is a function of viscosity and the unit weight of the
pore fluid,
g w
k
The viscosity of fluid, such as water, varies with temperature.
Hence, k also changes with different temperatures.
It is conventional to express the value of k at a temperature
of 20 C under the assumption that gw does not vary too
much with temperature,
  
T
 C
 
k
 k
20
 C
T
 C

=

20

C

 Effect of Temperature on Permeability (k) Variation of  T  C  20  C (water) T (C)  T  C  20  C T (C)  T  C  20  C 15 1.135 23 0.931 16 1.106 24 0.910 17 1.077 25 0.889 18 1.051 26 0.869 19 1.025 27 0.850 20 1.000 28 0.832 21 0.976 29 0.814 22 0.953 30 0.797 Seepage Force h  g Seepage force per unit volume j s = L w i = g w

Stratified Flow

Stratified Flow

Stratified Flow

Stratified Flow