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1/13/2014

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Receiving parameters at
Installation
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Safety Concerns
Electrical Hazards
Potentially High Voltages
High Short Circuit Currents
Remove personal metal objects
Use insulated tools
Wear full eye protection
Do Not make / break live circuits
Observe circuit polarities
Avoid exposed high voltage points
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Chemical Hazards
Batteries contain sulfuric acid electrolyte
harmful to skin and eyes
corrosive to metals
electrically conductive
Have immediate access to a Spill Kit
Protect your person from electrolyte contact and immediately
wash body area and neutralize if contact occurs.
Neutralize any spill
Safety Concerns
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Fire Hazards
VRLA Batteries can contain an explosive mixture of gas
Assure adequate ventilation
No smoking
No sparking
Dissipate personal static charge
Safety Concerns
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A. Visual Inspection
Proper Ventilation
Container Damage or Excessive Deformation
Terminal Damage or Corrosion
Case to Cover Seal Integrity
General Cleanliness
Receiving conditions
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Open Circuit Voltage (OCV)
OCV should be above 12.7V. Unit found below this level are need to
refresh immediately.
Units found below 12.54V are need to test further before put into
service.
Impedance
New battery/cells impedance should be within 20% of average or from
the base value.
Units found above this range should be tested further before put into
service.
As cell Aged, impedance increase indicating deterioration of internal
components / Dry out of electrolyte
Receiving conditions
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Internal Ohmic testing can be a valuable tool to assist diagnosing
batteries but need to understand what the value represents and know
the limitation.
The user should know the measurement varies depending on the
manufacturer of meter, model & measurement location.
The baseline readings can be taken after the installation and must have
proper connectors and torque.
Same meter should be used to get meaningful data.
The determination of battery conditions should be the combination of
maintenance data. (voltage, float current, acid gravity, temperature) &
impedance value.
The only surefire way to tell the batteries true healthy & the capacity to
support the system load is through measured capacity Discharge Test.
Impedance - Facts
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Standby the batteries and the accessories ready for installation
Confirm the rack is ready and safety to load the batteries
Use normal lifting system or 2 persons to carry the batteries
Allow enough space (min 12.7mm) between batteries for proper
ventilation.
Identify the polarity of the battery are in a right position.
Connect the batteries accessories with proper tools and safety.
Be conscious on the polarity during connection.
Measure the voltage and confirm the readings for every string connection
Be sure not making short connection as the discharge current will be high.
Apply the right torque level as mentioned in the battery label.
Label properly on the battery for easy maintenance and troubleshoot in
future.
Installation Guidelines
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Charge & Discharging of
VRLA Batteries
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Constant Current (CC)
An electron flow through a conductor (current) that does not vary
significantly from a preset value.
To recharge a battery at constant current level, the charging voltage
must increase as the battery cell voltages increase.
To recharge a battery, addition amount of Ah (10~30%) is required
Ahrecharge = Ahdischarged x 120%
Constant Voltage (CV)
A voltage that does not vary significantly From a preset value.
When recharging a battery at constant voltage., the current
acceptance will decline as the battery cell voltage rises. The
battery cannot be discharge at a constant voltage.
The battery voltage normally declines during the discharge.
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Charging Voltage Vs. Electrolyte SG
2.00
2.05
2.10
2.15
2.20
2.25
2.30
2.35
2.40
2.45
1.18 1.20 1.22 1.24 1.26 1.28 1.30 1.32
Electrolyte Specific Gravity
V
o
l
t
a
g
e
OC
Float
Equalize
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Constant Voltage - Current Limited
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Recharge Time (T
r
) Vs. DOD
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Boost Charge
Charging the battery at a Maximum Allowable Voltage for a defined
period to ensure the battery is at maximum capacity
Equalize Charge
The restoration of power in a battery at a Maximum Allowable Voltage for a
defined period of time. This brings all the series-
connected cells to a maximum state of charge and equalize the charging
voltage across the individual cells.
Fast Charge
The recharge occurring at higher voltage and current capability to restore the
battery to 95% State of Charge (SOC) in one to five hours.
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Freshening Charge
The charging of batteries in storage to assure they are maintained
in a near maximum State of Charge (SOC) and to ensure there is no
deterioration of the battery plates due to self-discharge and
sulfation. This process is usually performed using the
recommended equalization or cycle service charging voltage.
Initial Charge
The charge applied to a battery when it is First installed. The initial charging
voltage is typically the same as that used for
equalization
Float Charge
Having the battery on continuous charge at a low recommended voltage to
maintain the battery at a full state of power while minimizing over-charge.
The voltage for float charge is call Float Voltage
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Initial Charge
All cells are shipped fully charged from the factory with no need for a initial
freshening or equalization charge.
The cells should be constant voltage charged at the average float voltages as
noted in Table 1 below. However, when in storage or transit for an extended
period (especially at temperatures above 77 F/25 C) or when the number of
cells is greater than 24 cells; it is recommended the battery system be given an
initial freshening charge (see Table 1) at installation.
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Cell Type
Average String
Float Voltage 77F
(25C)
Average String
Freshening
Voltage
Freshening / Equalization
Charging
Time
VPC VPC Hours
HC 2.25 to 2.30 2.35 +/- 0.02 12 16
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Notes:
a. Individual cell float voltages may vary by +0.10/-0.05 volts from the average
in a single string.
b. Initial battery charge current on the constant voltage recharge should not
exceed 25 amps per 100 amp-hour battery rating.
c. Average string float voltage must be adjusted based on temperatures which
are above or below 77F (25C)
d. Charging time will vary due to temperature if cell temperature is below 16C,
double the charge time for initial or equalize charge.
e. If a battery load test will be performed within 90 days of installation, an
initial
freshening charge followed by a 72 hour float charge (per IEEE 1187) is
required to ensure full capacity
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Equalize Charge
The restoration of power in a battery at a Maximum Allowable Voltage for a
defined period of time. This brings all the series- connected cells to a maximum
state of charge and equalize the charging voltage Across the individual cells.
19
Under normal operating conditions, it is not necessary to equalize or
freshen Liberty MSE batteries.
Equalize charge when cell OCV 2.12V during stocks or when cell float
voltage below 2.21V
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Initial Charge Records
At the completion of the initial charge and after the cells have been on float charge
for approximately one week, record voltages of the individual cells, the total battery
voltage and ambient temperature. Retain this information in your files for future
reference. This information establishes a baseline for future reference. The
information below must be recorded or refer to RS-1992 found in the Appendix.
Make a photocopy of the form and use it whenever necessary to record readings
taken on the battery.
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Initial Charge Records
Battery identifications
1. Date of readings
2. Battery total float voltage
3. Ambient operating temperature
4. Date and description of initial or last equalizing charge
5. General observations from visual inspection
6. Individual cell voltages
7. Connection resistance measurement
*Optional: One of the following for cell ohmic testers:
Impedance, Conductance or Resistance
*Cell ohmic readings may vary by 20% (when new) of the C&D Technologies
published values. This variation does not necessarily indicate a problem with
the condition of the battery.
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Dry Charged
An individually formed plate or a completed lead acid battery
drained of all electrolyte that has undergone a special drying
process. The plate or battery can then be stored for indefinite
periods of time with only minor degradation due to sulfation. At a
later date, the plate or batter is activated by the addition of the
electrolyte and application of a special charging regimen.
Opportunity Charging
Used with batteries in Cycle Services, it is the charging of the battery between
partial discharges rather than waiting for the battery to be completely discharged.
Over Charging
Continued charging of the battery after it has reached 100% capacity. This is
mainly caused by a high voltage setting of the charger or the non-regulated dc
supply
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Temperature Effects on Batteries
C&D recommends that the battery be operated at 25 C 5.5 C.
For ambient temperatures outside the recommended temperature range, the float
voltage must be adjusted by 3.6mV per C.
Add 2mV (0.002 volts) per F or 3.6mV per C below 77 F (25 C). Subtract 2mV (0.002
volts) per F or 3.6mV per C above 77 F (25 C).
If the battery is operated at temperatures below the recommended range, the capacity
will be reduced even with temperature
compensated charging, which must be
compensated for during initial system
sizing.
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Battery Discharging
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What determines the cell discharge voltage?
Open circuit voltage
SG + 0.84 = OCV
Load Current (Amps) & Cell Resistance (ohms)
Voltage drop = load current x cell resistance
Acid (H
2
SO
4
) volume, mobility and availability to plates
SG, temperature, element compression and plate spacing
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Charge Retention / Shelf-Life
The capacity retained following specific Storage conditions & a
specific period of Time. This is also means of Shelf Life
Local Action / Shelf-Discharge
A reaction between the sulfuric acid and the active materials of the plates
resulting in the slow discharge of the plates and forming of lead sulfate on the
plates and consumption of the acid in the electrolyte.
Local action will declines electrolyte specific gravity & terminal voltage. This is
also means of Shelf Discharge (See also Charge Retention). The condition can
be reversed by applying a freshening charge. Local action is increased at
elevated temperature
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Constant Power (CP)
DC power in watts = V x I.
A constant power discharge occurs when the load current increased
during the discharge by an amount proportional to
the normal decline in battery voltage.
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Standard Discharge Rate
A function of the intended application, the accepted rate at which
the battery delivers current.
Telecom battery 8 or 10 hours rate
General Purpose 20 hours rate
UPS battery 15 mins rate
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Depth of Discharge (DOD)
The product, expressed as a percentage, achieved by dividing the
ampere-hours removed during discharge by the total rated
ampere-hour capacity of the battery.
AH discharged
= ---------------- x 100%
AH rated
Over Discharging
Discharge of a battery to a voltage lower than that recommended for the
particular discharge rate.
A 100Ah (@C10, 1.8epv) can be discharged by 10 Amp for 10 hrs to 1.8epv if
discharge the battery by 5 amp for 20 hrs,
the EPV will be <1.60, the battery is Over Discharged
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Periodic Maintenance
of VRLA Battery
&
System Reliability
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Purpose of Periodic Maintenance:
Maximum System Reliability
Longest Battery System Life
Indications to Adjust the System
Indication When to Replace a Block
Indication When to Replace the System
Replace prior to failure
Performed in accordance with:
IEEE Std 1188 or
Dynasty VRLA Battery Periodic
Maintenance Instructions 41-7546
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The VRLA battery is a lead acid battery which
facilitates an Oxygen recombination cycle.
Under normal operation there is
minimal gas emission and loss of
water from the electrolyte
The electrolyte is immobilized in
GEL or Absorbed within Absorbent
Separator (AGM).
Maintenance Free- there is no requirement nor
capacity to add water to the cell or to measure the
electrolyte specific gravity.
Maintenance on a Maintenance Free Battery ?
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Typical VRLA Battery Systems
More than one 6 or 12 volt block
Blocks in series to form a higher voltage string
Strings in parallel to develop higher capacity
Chargers with adjustable output voltage
Subject to the affects of the operating environment
Performance degrades with age and conditions
Fixed maximum service life
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Safety Concerns
Electrical Hazards
Potentially High Voltages
High Short Circuit Currents
Remove personal metal objects
Use insulated tools
Wear full eye protection
Do Not make / break live circuits
Observe circuit polarities
Avoid exposed high voltage points
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Chemical Hazards
Batteries contain sulfuric acid electrolyte
harmful to skin and eyes
corrosive to metals
electrically conductive
Have immediate access to a Spill Kit
Protect your person from electrolyte contact and immediately wash
body area and neutralize if contact occurs.
Neutralize any spill
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Fire Hazards
VRLA Batteries can contain an
explosive mixture of gas
Assure adequate ventilation
No smoking
No sparking
Dissipate personal static charge
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Periodic Maintenance - Checks
Check battery appearance and environment
Check system charging voltage
Check room and battery temperature
Check individual block float voltages
Check high rate load voltage
Check each blocks impedance /conductance
Check inter-unit connections
Check battery system actual capacity
Take corrective action when data so indicates
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Periodic Maintenance & Automated Monitoring
Battery Room Visual Inspection *
Battery Room Temperature *
Battery System Visual Inspection *
Battery System Float Charging Voltage *
Ground Fault Voltage Presence
Battery System DC Float Current (if possible) *
Battery System AC Ripple Voltage and Current*
Individual Block Float Voltage*
Battery System Blocks Temperature *
Optional Block Impedance/Resistance/Conductance Test*
Inter-unit Connection Check / Retorque Hardware*
* IEEE std 1188
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A. Battery System Visual Inspection
Proper Ventilation
Container Damage or Excessive Deformation
Terminal Damage or Corrosion
Case to Cover Seal Integrity
General Cleanliness
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1. System charging Voltage
System charging voltage setting should be periodically
checked as the setting could shifted during the
operation.
-For difference brand of battery, they could use
difference charging voltage.
(eg. From 2.25V/cell to 2.28V/cell)
B. Battery System Float Voltage Check
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1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 n
Charger
System Charging Voltage
System Charging Voltage
= Per cell Charge Voltage x n
Where n = No. of cells in series
If per cell charge volt = 2.25; 24 cells in series
Then System Charging Voltage = 2.25 x 24 = 54V
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-Charging voltage should also need to be changed
if the battery room temperature is being changed.
(Summer to Winter) A compensation factor of
-0.005V/Cell/C is normally applied.
-Over charging could result in dry out.
This will shorten the life of the battery.
-Under charging should be avoided because this could
reduce the back up time and also speed up the
sulfating process.
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2. Individual battery Float Voltage
Keep monitoring the cell float voltage can tell you
How the battery is charged.
No cell is allow to have float voltage below 2.2V/cell
Or (13.2V per 6 cells blocks)
No cell is allow to have float voltage over 2.4V/cell
Or (14.8V per 6 cells block)
Replace all abnormal cells immediately once found.
Otherwise, the other cells in the string will also in
Trouble.
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3. Individual Battery Float Voltage Check
Individual Cell Voltage = System Voltage / n
If n=24 cells, then Individual cell voltage = 55.2 / 24 = 2.3V
13.9V 13.5V 13.7V 14.1V
Rectifier or Charger
55.2V
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Measure with surface sensor or IR gun
Measure temperature of battery environment
(-15C Min. to +50 C Max.)
Measure temperature of battery
(-15C Min. to +50 C Max.)
(Max. 9 C above environment)
Measure at block side center or NEG. terminal
4. Ambient temperature
(Battery pilot unit temperature)
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-Check the battery room ambient
temperature. If required,
re-adjust the charging voltage
to suit the temperature.
-Lead Acid Battery life can be reduced by 50% for
every 15F (or 9 deg C) of temperature rise above
its design temperature.
-Lower the temperature will not extent the battery
life but reduce the efficiency (capacity) of the
battery.
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5. Battery System Ground Fault Check
Ground Faults Can Cause Fires and Thermal Runaway
Ground Faults Can Expose you to High Voltage
Check the voltage from the battery terminal to the rack - should be 0
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6. Battery System AC Ripple Check
AC Ripple voltage will cause the float voltage to vary in amplitude at
ripple voltage frequency.
AC Ripple voltage results in AC ripple current
through the battery system.
AC Ripple current results in battery heating and reduced battery life
expectancy.
Watts = Current Squared X Resistance
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7. Float Current Check
Typical Float Current 0f Battery
AGM = 1-2mA/Ah (@C20) Or 1.75mA ~ 375mA/Ah (@C10)
GEL = 0.4 0.8mA/Ah (@C20) Or 0.5mA~1mA/Ah (@C10)
Float current is proportional to the battery capacity AH
Double of the float current (as compare to it was new, fault is on the system)
Charger
A1
A2
At
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8. Inter-unit connection hardware resistance or tightness
Loosen terminal can result in serious thermal issue
when battery is in discharge process.
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10. Battery system capacity test
The best way to identify the remaining capacity of
A battery. This can be test by DC dummy loader or
Via the system load.
Once the battery capacity < 80% of its rated capacity
The battery defined as fail.
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11. Test and record the individual unit resistance,
Impedance or Conductance.
If the average battery system impedance increases by 50% from the
original value, conduct a capacity test.
If an individual block impedance increases by 50% or is 50% greater than
the average, determine the cause and need to replace.
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12. The real test - A Capacity Test
Capacity Test at Acceptance
Capacity Test @ 2 Yr. Intervals to 90% Rating
Capacity Test @ 1 Yr. Intervals After 90%Rating
Capacity Test if 50% Increase in Impedance
End of Life Considered to be at 80% of Rating
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13. Test and record the individual unit Ripple Voltage
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 n
Charger
AC Voltage = ?
AC
Volt
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Required PM Tools and Equipment
Digital Voltmeter
Socket & Box End Wrenches, Insulated
Torque Wrench - in.-lb.
Personal Protection Equipment
Fire Extinguisher - Class C
Optional Equipment
100 Amp momentary load
Micro-ohm meter
Impedance / Conductance meter
System Load Bank
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Monthly Maintenance - IEEE Std 1188
Battery Room Visual Inspection
Safety Equipment Available
Battery Room Temperature
Battery System Visual Inspection
Battery System Float Charging Voltage
Battery Charger Output Current
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Quarterly Maintenance
Battery Room Visual Inspection *
Battery Room Temperature *
Battery System Visual Inspection *
Battery System Float Charging Voltage and Current*
Ground Fault Voltage Presence
Battery System DC Float Current (if possible) *
Battery System AC Ripple Voltage and Current
Individual Block Float Voltage
Battery System Blocks Temperature *
Connection Resistance for High Rate Applications *
Block Impedance/Resistance/Conductance Test*
* IEEE std 1188
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Semi-Annual Maintenance
Battery Room Visual Inspection *
Battery Room Temperature *
Battery System Visual Inspection *
Battery System Float Charging Voltage *
Ground Fault Voltage Presence
Battery System DC Float Current (if possible) *
Battery System AC Ripple Voltage and Current
Individual Block Float Voltage
Battery System Blocks Temperature *
Connection Resistance for High Rate Applications *
Optional Block Impedance/Resistance/Conductance Test
* IEEE std 1188
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Annual Maintenance
Battery Room Visual Inspection *
Battery Room Temperature *
Battery System Visual Inspection *
Battery System Float Charging Voltage *
Ground Fault Voltage Presence
Battery System DC Float Current (if possible) *
Battery System AC Ripple Voltage and Current*
Individual Block Float Voltage*
Battery System Blocks Temperature *
Connection Resistance for High Rate Applications *
Optional Block Impedance/Resistance/Conductance Test*
Inter-unit Connection Check / Retorque Hardware*
* IEEE std 1188
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009 Annual Meeting
Business Update
C&D Warranty
Claim Procedures
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Warranty Claim Procedures
1. Purpose
The purpose of this procedure is to define the standard process flow for Standard
Warranty Claims and Customer Complaints reported to C&D Field Operations Service
Department.
2. Scope
This procedure applied to claims and communication that are presented by
customer to Field Operations. The resolution may involve technical supports, warranty
claim and/or corrective action from Quality Control.
3. Warranty Definition
All C&D batteries are warranted to be free from defects in material and
workmanship in the given warranty time. Should a claim arise, please refer to C&D
limited warranty policy or the agreement/contract signed.
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Warranty Claim Procedures
a) C&D customers / end-users need to fill RS1946A form with the detail description on the claimed issues and
send the claim form to C&D Sales office or C&D Shanghai factory Quality Department.
b) If the claim is cosmetic related issues, photos on the claimed issue are required to submit.
c) If the claim is capacity / backup performance related, operation conditions and maintenance records are
needed for our review.
d) Upon received the claim form, Field Service and QA department will review on all the received information
and feed back to customers / End-users in 5 working days.
e) If the claim is accepted, C&D will issue the Credit Memo to Customer or provide the free replacement unit(s)
at ex-work conditions. Customer needs to recycle the failed batteries Locally.
f) If the claim is rejected, a format reply by letter will be available.
g) If there is a required of site visit, C&D will further communicate with customer / end-user to arrange.
h) All claims will then be recorded and case will be closed.
4. Warranty Claim Procedures
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Warranty Claim Procedures
a) All claims / complaints will be reviewed by Field Service and QA department.
b) If is needed to return the suspected component(s),parts or unit(s), C&D will issue a RMA SCD-720 to
customer / end-user.
c) Detail material list, ship to address and contact person will be shown on the RMA form.
d) If customers / end-users agree to return the specific materials, shipment cost will be bared by C&D.
e) Once the material(s) is returned to C&D, C&D will carry out the necessary tests, examination,
analysis and the material will not return to customers / end-user.
f) Analysis report will be available once the tests, analysis are completed. Depending on the type of test and
analysis, the process may need weeks to months.
g) If the result is related to warranty claims, the warranty claim procedures on item 4 will be followed.
5. RMA Procedures
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Battery Warranty Claim Procedure
Approval Procedure Notes:
1 When customer has replacement claim, local technical support engineer need make
evaluation that the problem is caused by our battery quality defect or caused by
customer wrong application.
2 Customer fills up claim sheet RS1946A, local engineer fills up claim sheet RS1946D.
3 For replacement, need EMEA place order to buy new battery from Shanghai
Local Engineer
Fill up
RS1946D
Field
Service
Manager
Approve
QA Manager
Approve
Customer
Fill up
RS1946A
Local Engineer
Submit to Field
Service Manager
Microsoft Office
Excel 97-2003
Microsoft Office
Excel 97-2003
RS1946A RS1946D
Microsoft Office
Word 97 - 2003 Document
P/SCD-720
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To process warranty claim, customers need to follow the below procedures:
1. Fill up the warranty claim form shown below and return to C&D Sales / Service
office.
2. C&D will review and process the claims, if there is any quality issue covered by the
warranty terms and conditions, C&D will either return the replacement unit(s) at full
warranty (or prorate) or issue the Credit Note to customer account accordingly.
Claim Sheet Filling Up Guide
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Part I - General Information:
Customer need to fill in all the required
Information for claim review / process.
Claim Sheet Filling Up Guide
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Part II Problem Detection:
Need to tick on the box when the problem is detected and fill in the QTY
Example: 2 units noted failed during periodic maintenance on Jan 1.

2
1/1/10
Claim Sheet Filling Up Guide
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Part III Problem Symptom:
Need to tick on the box the symptom and fill in the QTY
2
If the issue is related to Item A (Container) & Item B (Terminal),
Please provide also photos for review.
Claim Sheet Filling Up Guide
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Part III Problem Symptom:
Need to tick on the box the symptom and fill in the QTY
2
If the issue is related to Item C (Electrical), please provide the
full system records for review
Claim Sheet Filling Up Guide
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1. Voltage Related Need also individual unit voltage, system charging voltage set,
operation temperature.
2. Impedance Related Need to provide individual unit voltage, impedance and
charging voltage set.
3. Performance Related Need to provide the discharge log data, charging voltage
and operation temperature.
Claim Sheet Filling Up Guide
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Part IV System Information:
Put ticks in the box to best descript your system:



Fill in the float
charging
Voltage set
Number of units
and Number of
parallel strings
Battery Room
Temperature
Problem
descriptions
Claim Sheet Filling Up Guide
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Information for claim process
Should you have Urgent Issue, send your message to
SJeyaraj@cdtechno.com