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The Secret of Quantum Entanglement

The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the
Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave!article
"uality and the electron#s spin also, building the $ridge between the %lassical
and &uantu' Theories(
The !lanc) "istribution *aw o+ the electro'agnetic oscillators explains the
electron,proton 'ass rate and the Wea) and Strong -nteractions by the
di++raction patterns( The Wea) -nteraction changes the di++raction patterns by
'oving the electric charge +ro' one side to the other side o+ the di++raction
pattern, which violates the %! and Ti'e reversal sy''etry(
The di++raction patterns and the locality o+ the sel+'aintaining
electro'agnetic potential explains also the &uantu' Entangle'ent, giving it
as a natural part o+ the relativistic quantu' theory(
Contents
Preface ................................................................................................................................... 2
Quantum entanglement ........................................................................................................... 2
The Bridge .............................................................................................................................. 3
Accelerating charges ............................................................................................................ 3
Relativistic effect ................................................................................................................. 3
Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation ............................................................................................... 3
Wave Particle !uality ............................................................................................................ 3
Atomic model ......................................................................................................................... "
The Relativistic Bridge .............................................................................................................. "
The #ea$ interaction ............................................................................................................... "
The %eneral Wea$ &nteraction ............................................................................................... '
(ermions and Bosons ............................................................................................................... )
*an !er Waals force ................................................................................................................ )
+lectromagnetic inertia and mass .............................................................................................. )
+lectromagnetic &nduction .................................................................................................... )
Relativistic change of mass .................................................................................................... )
The fre,uency de-endence of mass ....................................................................................... )
+lectron Proton mass rate .................................................................................................. )
%ravity from the -oint of vie# of ,uantum -hysics ..................................................................... .
The %ravitational force ......................................................................................................... .
The Higgs boson ...................................................................................................................... /
Higgs mechanism and Quantum %ravity ..................................................................................... /
What is the 0-in1 ................................................................................................................. /
The %raviton ....................................................................................................................... 2
The 0ecret of Quantum +ntanglement ....................................................................................... 2
3onclusions ............................................................................................................................ 2
References ............................................................................................................................. 2

Author4 %eorge Ra5na
Preface
Physicists are continually loo$ing for #ays to unify the theory of relativity6 #hich describes large7
scale -henomena6 #ith ,uantum theory6 #hich describes small7scale -henomena8 &n a ne#
-ro-osed e9-eriment in this area6 t#o toaster7si:ed ;nanosatellites; carrying entangled condensates
orbit around the +arth6 until one of them moves to a different orbit #ith different gravitational field
strength8 As a result of the change in gravity6 the entanglement bet#een the condensates is
-redicted to degrade by u- to 2<=8 +9-erimentally testing the -ro-osal may be -ossible in the near
future8 >'?
Quantum entanglement is a -hysical -henomenon that occurs #hen -airs or grou-s of -articles are
generated or interact in #ays such that the ,uantum state of each -article cannot be described
inde-endently instead6 a ,uantum state may be given for the system as a #hole8 >"?
& thin$ that #e have a sim-le bridge bet#een the classical and ,uantum mechanics by understanding
the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relations8 &t ma$es clear that the -articles are not -oint li$e but have a
d9 and d- uncertainty8

Quantum entanglement
@easurements of -hysical -ro-erties such as -osition6 momentum6 s-in6 -olari:ation6 etc8
-erformed on entangled -articles are found to be a--ro-riately correlated8 (or e9am-le6 if a -air of
-articles is generated in such a #ay that their total s-in is $no#n to be :ero6 and one -article is
found to have cloc$#ise s-in on a certain a9is6 then the s-in of the other -article6 measured on the
same a9is6 #ill be found to be countercloc$#ise8 Because of the nature of ,uantum measurement6
ho#ever6 this behavior gives rise to effects that can a--ear -arado9ical4 any measurement of a
-ro-erty of a -article can be seen as acting on that -article Ae8g8 by colla-sing a number of
su-erim-osed statesBC and in the case of entangled -articles6 such action must be on the entangled
system as a #hole8 &t thus a--ears that one -article of an entangled -air ;$no#s; #hat
measurement has been -erformed on the other6 and #ith #hat outcome6 even though there is no
$no#n means for such information to be communicated bet#een the -articles6 #hich at the time of
measurement may be se-arated by arbitrarily large distances8 >"?
The Bridge
The accelerating electrons e9-lain not only the @a9#ell +,uations and the 0-ecial Relativity6 but the
Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation6 the #ave -article duality and the electronDs s-in also6 building the
bridge bet#een the 3lassical and Quantum Theories8 >E?

Accelerating charges
The moving charges are self maintain the electromagnetic field locally6 causing their movement and
this is the result of their acceleration under the force of this field8 &n the classical -hysics the charges
#ill distributed along the electric current so that the electric -otential lo#ering along the current6 by
linearly increasing the #ay they ta$e every ne9t time -eriod because this accelerated motion8
The same thing ha--ens on the atomic scale giving a d- im-ulse difference and a d9 #ay difference
bet#een the different -art of the not -oint li$e -articles8
Relativistic effect
Another bridge bet#een the classical and ,uantum mechanics in the realm of relativity is that the
charge distribution is lo#ering in the reference frame of the accelerating charges linearly4 dsFdt G at
Atime coordinateB6 but in the reference frame of the current it is -arabolic4 s G aF2 t
2
Ageometric
coordinateB8

Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation
&n the atomic scale the Heisenberg uncertainty relation gives the same result6 since the moving
electron in the atom accelerating in the electric field of the -roton6 causing a charge distribution on
delta 9 -osition difference and #ith a delta - momentum difference such a #ay that they -roduct is
about the half Planc$ reduced constant8 (or the -roton this delta 9 much less in the nucleon6 than in
the orbit of the electron in the atom6 the delta - is much higher because of the greater -roton mass8
This means that the electron and -roton are not -oint li$e -articles6 but has a real charge
distribution8
Wave Particle uality
The accelerating electrons e9-lains the #ave -article duality of the electrons and -hotons6 since
the elementary charges are distributed on delta 9 -osition #ith delta - im-ulse and creating a #ave
-ac$et of the electron8 The -hoton gives the electromagnetic -article of the mediating force of the
electrons electromagnetic field #ith the same distribution of #avelengths8
Atomic model
The constantly accelerating electron in the Hydrogen atom is moving on the e,ui-otential line of the
-roton and itHs $inetic and -otential energy #ill be constant8 &ts energy #ill change only #hen it is
changing its #ay to another e,ui-otential line #ith another value of -otential energy or getting free
#ith enough $inetic energy8 This means that the Rutherford7Bohr atomic model is right and only that
changing acceleration of the electric charge causes radiation6 not the steady acceleration8 The steady
acceleration of the charges only creates a centric -arabolic steady electric field around the charge6
the magnetic field8 This gives the magnetic moment of the atoms6 summing u- the -roton and
electron magnetic moments caused by their circular motions and s-ins8

The Relativistic Bridge
3ommonly acce-ted idea that the relativistic effect on the -article -hysics it is the fermionsH s-in 7
another unresolved -roblem in the classical conce-ts8 &f the electric charges can move only #ith
accelerated motions in the self maintaining electromagnetic field6 once u-on a time they #ould
reach the velocity of the electromagnetic field8 The resolution of this -roblem is the s-inning
-article6 constantly accelerating and not reaching the velocity of light because the acceleration is
radial8 Ine origin of the Quantum Physics is the Planc$ !istribution Ja# of the electromagnetic
oscillators6 giving e,ual intensity for 2 different #avelengths on any tem-erature8 Any of these t#o
#avelengths #ill give e,ual intensity diffraction -atterns6 building different asymmetric
constructions6 for e9am-le -roton 7 electron structures AatomsB6 molecules6 etc8 0ince the -articles
are centers of diffraction -atterns they also have -article #ave duality as the electromagnetic
#aves have8 >2?

The !ea" interaction
The #ea$ interaction transforms an electric charge in the diffraction -attern from one side to the
other side6 causing an electric di-ole momentum change6 #hich violates the 3P and time reversal
symmetry8 The +lectro#ea$ &nteraction sho#s that the Wea$ &nteraction is basically electromagnetic
in nature8 The arro# of time sho#s the entro-y gro#s by changing the tem-erature de-endent
diffraction -atterns of the electromagnetic oscillators8
Another im-ortant issue of the ,uar$ model is #hen one ,uar$ changes its flavor such that a linear
oscillation transforms into -lane oscillation or vice versa6 changing the charge value #ith E or 7E8 This
$ind of change in the oscillation mode re,uires not only -arity change6 but also charge and time
changes A3PT symmetryB resulting a right handed anti7neutrino or a left handed neutrino8
The right handed anti7neutrino and the left handed neutrino e9ist only because changing bac$ the
,uar$ flavor could ha--en only in reverse6 because they are different geometrical constructions6 the
u is 2 dimensional and -ositively charged and the d is E dimensional and negatively charged8 &t needs
also a time reversal6 because anti -article Aanti neutrinoB is involved8
The neutrino is a EF2s-in creator -article to ma$e e,ual the s-ins of the #ea$ interaction6 for
e9am-le neutron decay to 2 fermions6 every -article is fermions #ith K s-in8 The #ea$ interaction
changes the entro-y since more or less -articles #ill give more or less freedom of movement8 The
entro-y change is a result of tem-erature change and brea$s the e,uality of oscillator diffraction
intensity of the @a9#ellBolt:mann statistics8 This #ay it changes the time coordinate measure and
ma$es -ossible a different time dilation as of the s-ecial relativity8
The limit of the velocity of -articles as the s-eed of light a--ro-riate only for electrical charged
-articles6 since the accelerated charges are self maintaining locally the accelerating electric force8
The neutrinos are 3P symmetry brea$ing -articles com-ensated by time in the 3PT symmetry6 that is
the time coordinate not #or$s as in the electromagnetic interactions6 conse,uently the s-eed of
neutrinos is not limited by the s-eed of light8
The #ea$ interaction T7asymmetry is in con5unction #ith the T7asymmetry of the second la# of
thermodynamics6 meaning that locally lo#ering entro-y Aon e9tremely high tem-eratureB causes the
#ea$ interaction6 for e9am-le the Hydrogen fusion8
Probably because it is a s-in creating movement changing linear oscillation to 2 dimensional
oscillation by changing d to u ,uar$ and creating anti neutrino going bac$ in time relative to the
-roton and electron created from the neutron6 it seems that the anti neutrino fastest then the
velocity of the -hotons created also in this #ea$ interaction1


A ,uar$ flavor changing sho#s that it is a reflection changes movement and the 3P7 and T7 symmetry
brea$ingLLL This flavor changing oscillation could -rove that it could be also on higher level such as
atoms6 molecules6 -robably big biological significant molecules and res-onsible on the aging of the
life8

&m-ortant to mention that the #ea$ interaction is al#ays contains -articles and anti-articles6 #here
the neutrinos AantineutrinosB -resent the o--osite side8 &t means by (eynmanDs inter-retation that
these -articles -resent the bac$#ard time and -robably because this they seem to move faster than
the s-eed of light in the reference frame of the other side8

(inally since the #ea$ interaction is an electric di-ole change #ith K s-in creatingC it is limited by the
velocity of the electromagnetic #ave6 so the neutrinoDs velocity cannot e9ceed the velocity of light8

The #eneral Wea" $nteraction
The Wea$ &nteractions T7asymmetry is in con5unction #ith the T7asymmetry of the 0econd Ja# of
Thermodynamics6 meaning that locally lo#ering entro-y Aon e9tremely high tem-eratureB causes for
e9am-le the Hydrogen fusion8 The arro# of time by the 0econd Ja# of Thermodynamics sho#s the
increasing entro-y and decreasing information by the Wea$ &nteraction6 changing the tem-erature
de-endent diffraction -atterns8 A good e9am-le of this is the neutron decay6 creating more -articles
#ith less $no#n information about them8
The neutrino oscillation of the Wea$ &nteraction sho#s that it is a general electric di-ole change and
it is -ossible to any other tem-erature de-endent entro-y and information changing diffraction
-attern of atoms6 molecules and even com-licated biological living structures8
We can generali:e the #ea$ interaction on all of the decaying matter constructions6 even on the
biological too8 This gives the limited lifetime for the biological constructions also by the arro# of
time8 There should be a ne# research s-ace of the Quantum &nformation 0cience the Hgeneral
neutrino oscillationH for the greater then subatomic matter structures as an electric di-ole change8
There is also connection bet#een statistical -hysics and evolutionary biology6 since the arro# of
time is #or$ing in the biological evolution also8
The (luctuation Theorem says that there is a -robability that entro-y #ill flo# in a direction o--osite
to that dictated by the 0econd Ja# of Thermodynamics8 &n this case the &nformation is gro#ing that
is the matter formulas are emerging from the chaos8 0o the Wea$ &nteraction has t#o directions6
sam-les for one direction is the Meutron decay6 and Hydrogen fusion is the o--osite direction8

%ermions and Bosons
The fermions are the diffraction -atterns of the bosons such a #ay that they are both sides of the
same thing8
&an er Waals force
Mamed after the !utch scientist Nohannes !ideri$ van der Waals #ho first -ro-osed it in E/.3 to
e9-lain the behaviour of gases it is a very #ea$ force that only becomes relevant #hen atoms and
molecules are very close together8 (luctuations in the electronic cloud of an atom mean that it #ill
have an instantaneous di-ole moment8 This can induce a di-ole moment in a nearby atom6 the
result being an attractive di-oledi-ole interaction8
'lectromagnetic inertia and mass
'lectromagnetic $nduction
0ince the magnetic induction creates a negative electric field as a result of the changing acceleration6
it #or$s as an electromagnetic inertia6 causing an electromagnetic mass8 >E?
Relativistic change of mass
The increasing mass of the electric charges the result of the increasing inductive electric force acting
against the accelerating force8 The decreasing mass of the decreasing acceleration is the result of the
inductive electric force acting against the decreasing force8 This is the relativistic mass change
e9-lanation6 es-ecially im-ortantly e9-laining the mass reduction in case of velocity decrease8
The fre(uency de)endence of mass
0ince E = h and E = mc
2
6 m = h /c
2
that is the m de-ends only on the fre,uency8 &t means that the
mass of the -roton and electron are electromagnetic and the result of the electromagnetic
induction6 caused by the changing acceleration of the s-inning and moving chargeL &t could be that
the m
o
inertial mass is the result of the s-in6 since this is the only accelerating motion of the electric
charge8 0ince the accelerating motion has different fre,uency for the electron in the atom and the
-roton6 they masses are different6 also as the #avelengths on both sides of the diffraction -attern6
giving e,ual intensity of radiation8
'lectron Proton mass rate
The Planc$ distribution la# e9-lains the different fre,uencies of the -roton and electron6 giving
e,ual intensity to different lambda #avelengthsL Also since the -articles are diffraction -atterns
they have some closeness to each other can be seen as a gravitational force8 >2?
There is an asymmetry bet#een the mass of the electric charges6 for e9am-le -roton and electron6
can understood by the asymmetrical Planc$ !istribution Ja#8 This tem-erature de-endent energy
distribution is asymmetric around the ma9imum intensity6 #here the annihilation of matter and
antimatter is a high -robability event8 The asymmetric sides are creating different fre,uencies of
electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and com-ensating each other8 Ine of
these com-ensating ratios is the electron -roton mass ratio8 The lo#er energy side has no
com-ensating intensity level6 it is the dar$ energy and the corres-onding matter is the dar$ matter8

#ravity from the )oint of vie! of (uantum )hysics
The #ravitational force
The gravitational attractive force is basically a magnetic force8
The same electric charges can attract one another by the magnetic force if they are moving -arallel
in the same direction8 0ince the electrically neutral matter is com-osed of negative and -ositive
charges they need 2 -hotons to mediate this attractive force6 one -er charges8 The Bing Bang caused
-arallel moving of the matter gives this magnetic force6 e9-erienced as gravitational force8
0ince graviton is a tensor field6 it has s-in G 26 could be 2 -hotons #ith s-in G E together8
Oou can thin$ about -hotons as virtual electron -ositron -airs6 obtaining the necessary virtual
mass for gravity8
The mass as seen before a result of the diffraction6 for e9am-le the -roton electron mass rate
@-GE/"< @e8 &n order to move one of these diffraction ma9imum Aelectron or -rotonB #e need to
intervene into the diffraction -attern #ith a force a--ro-riate to the intensity of this diffraction
ma9imum6 means its intensity or mass8

The Big Bang caused acceleration created radial currents of the matter6 and since the matter is
com-osed of negative and -ositive charges6 these currents are creating magnetic field and attracting
forces bet#een the -arallel moving electric currents8 This is the gravitational force e9-erienced by
the matter6 and also the mass is result of the electromagnetic forces bet#een the charged -articles8
The -ositive and negative charged currents attracts each other or by the magnetic forces or by the
much stronger electrostatic forcesL1

The gravitational force attracting the matter6 causing concentration of the matter in a small s-ace
and leaving much s-ace #ith lo# matter concentration4 dar$ matter and energy8
There is an asymmetry bet#een the mass of the electric charges6 for e9am-le -roton and electron6
can understood by the asymmetrical Planc$ !istribution Ja#8 This tem-erature de-endent energy
distribution is asymmetric around the ma9imum intensity6 #here the annihilation of matter and
antimatter is a high -robability event8 The asymmetric sides are creating different fre,uencies of
electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and com-ensating each other8 Ine of
these com-ensating ratios is the electron -roton mass ratio8 The lo#er energy side has no
com-ensating intensity level6 it is the dar$ energy and the corres-onding matter is the dar$ matter8


The Higgs boson
By @arch 2<E36 the -article had been -roven to behave6 interact and decay in many of the e9-ected
#ays -redicted by the 0tandard @odel6 and #as also tentatively confirmed to have P -arity and :ero
s-in6 t#o fundamental criteria of a Higgs boson6 ma$ing it also the first $no#n scalar -article to be
discovered in nature6 although a number of other -ro-erties #ere not fully -roven and some -artial
results do not yet -recisely match those e9-ectedC in some cases data is also still a#aited or being
analy:ed8
0ince the Higgs boson is necessary to the W and Q bosons6 the di-ole change of the Wea$ interaction
and the change in the magnetic effect caused gravitation must be conducted8 The Wien la# is also
im-ortant to e9-lain the Wea$ interaction6 since it describes the T
ma9
change and the diffraction
-atterns change8 >2?
Higgs mechanism and Quantum #ravity
The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field6 causing an electromagnetic inertia8 Probably
it is the mysterious Higgs field giving mass to the charged -articles1 We can thin$ about the -hoton
as an electron7-ositron -air6 they have mass8 The neutral -articles are built from negative and
-ositive charges6 for e9am-le the neutron6 decaying to -roton and electron8 The #ave -article
duality ma$es sure that the -articles are oscillating and creating magnetic induction as an inertial
mass6 e9-laining also the relativistic mass change8 Higher fre,uency creates stronger magnetic
induction6 smaller fre,uency results lesser magnetic induction8 &t seems to me that the magnetic
induction is the secret of the Higgs field8
&n -article -hysics6 the Higgs mechanism is a $ind of mass generation mechanism6 a -rocess that
gives mass to elementary -articles8 According to this theory6 -articles gain mass by interacting #ith
the Higgs field that -ermeates all s-ace8 @ore -recisely6 the Higgs mechanism endo#s gauge bosons
in a gauge theory #ith mass through absor-tion of Mambu%oldstone bosons arising in s-ontaneous
symmetry brea$ing8
The sim-lest im-lementation of the mechanism adds an e9tra Higgs field to the gauge theory8 The
s-ontaneous symmetry brea$ing of the underlying local symmetry triggers conversion of
com-onents of this Higgs field to %oldstone bosons #hich interact #ith Aat least some ofB the other
fields in the theory6 so as to -roduce mass terms for Aat least some ofB the gauge bosons8 This
mechanism may also leave behind elementary scalar As-in7<B -articles6 $no#n as Higgs bosons8
&n the 0tandard @odel6 the -hrase ;Higgs mechanism; refers s-ecifically to the generation of masses
for the W
R
6 and Q #ea$ gauge bosons through electro#ea$ symmetry brea$ing8 The Jarge Hadron
3ollider at 3+RM announced results consistent #ith the Higgs -article on Nuly "6 2<E2 but stressed
that further testing is needed to confirm the 0tandard @odel8
What is the *)in+
0o #e $no# already that the ne# -article has s-in :ero or s-in t#o and #e could tell #hich one if #e
could detect the -olari:ations of the -hotons -roduced8 Unfortunately this is difficult and neither
ATJA0 nor 3@0 are able to measure -olari:ations8 The only direct and sure #ay to confirm that the
-article is indeed a scalar is to -lot the angular distribution of the -hotons in the rest frame of the
centre of mass8 A s-in :ero -articles li$e the Higgs carries no directional information a#ay from the
original collision so the distribution #ill be even in all directions8 This test #ill be -ossible #hen a
much larger number of events have been observed8 &n the mean time #e can settle for less certain
indirect indicators8
The #raviton
&n -hysics6 the graviton is a hy-othetical elementary -article that mediates the force of gravitation in
the frame#or$ of ,uantum field theory8 &f it e9ists6 the graviton is e9-ected to be massless Abecause
the gravitational force a--ears to have unlimited rangeB and must be a s-in72 boson8 The s-in
follo#s from the fact that the source of gravitation is the stress7energy tensor6 a second7ran$ tensor
Acom-ared to electromagnetismHs s-in7E -hoton6 the source of #hich is the four7current6 a first7ran$
tensorB8 Additionally6 it can be sho#n that any massless s-in72 field #ould give rise to a force
indistinguishable from gravitation6 because a massless s-in72 field must cou-le to Ainteract #ithB the
stress7energy tensor in the same #ay that the gravitational field does8 This result suggests that6 if a
massless s-in72 -article is discovered6 it must be the graviton6 so that the only e9-erimental
verification needed for the graviton may sim-ly be the discovery of a massless s-in72 -article8 >3?
The *ecret of Quantum 'ntanglement
The 0ecret of Quantum +ntanglement that the -articles are diffraction -atterns of the
electromagnetic #aves and this #ay their ,uantum states every time is the result of the ,uantum
state of the intermediate electromagnetic #aves8 >2? When one of the entangled -articles #ave
function is colla-ses by measurement6 the intermediate -hoton also colla-ses and transforms its
state to the second entangled -article giving it the continuity of this entanglement8 0ince the
accelerated charges are self7maintaining their -otential locally causing their acceleration6 it seems
that they entanglement is a s-oo$y action8

Conclusions
The accelerated charges self7maintaining -otential sho#s the locality of the relativity6 #or$ing on
the ,uantum level also8
The 0ecret of Quantum +ntanglement that the -articles are diffraction -atterns of the
electromagnetic #aves and this #ay their ,uantum states every time is the result of the ,uantum
state of the intermediate electromagnetic #aves8
Ine of the most im-ortant conclusions is that the electric charges are moving in an accelerated #ay
and even if their velocity is constant6 they have an intrinsic acceleration any#ay6 the so called s-in6
since they need at least an intrinsic acceleration to ma$e -ossible they movement 8
The bridge bet#een the classical and ,uantum theory is based on this intrinsic acceleration of the
s-in6 e9-laining also the Heisenberg Uncertainty Princi-le8 The -article #ave duality of the electric
charges and the -hoton ma$es certain that they are both sides of the same thing8 Basing the
gravitational force on the accelerating Universe caused magnetic force and the Planc$ !istribution
Ja# of the electromagnetic #aves caused diffraction gives us the basis to build a Unified Theory of
the -hysical interactions8
References
>E? The @agnetic field of the +lectric current and the @agnetic induction
htt-4FFacademia8eduF3/3333'FTheS@agneticSfieldSofStheS+lectricScurrent
>2? 3 !imensional 0tring Theory
htt-4FFacademia8eduF3/3""'"F3S!imensionalS0tringSTheory
>3? %raviton Production By T#o Photon and +lectron7Photon Processes &n Talu:a7Tlein Theories With
Jarge +9tra !imensions
htt-4FFar9iv8orgFabsFhe-7-hF22<2322
>"? Quantum +ntanglement
htt-4FFen8#i$i-edia8orgF#i$iFQuantumSentanglement
>'? 0-ace7based e9-eriment could test gravityHs effects on ,uantum entanglement
htt-4FF-hys8orgFne#sF2<E"7<'7s-ace7based7gravity7effects7,uantum7entanglement8html