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Dark Matter and Energy

The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the


matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter
concentration: dark matter and energy.
There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example
proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution
Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around
the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a
high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different freuencies
of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and
compensating each other. !ne of these compensating ratios is the electron "
proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level,
it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.

Contents
The Big Bang ........................................................................................................................... 2
Evidence for an accelerating universe ........................................................................................ 2
Equation ............................................................................................................................. 3
Explanatory models .............................................................................................................. 4
Dark Matter and Energy ........................................................................................................... 4
osmic micro!ave "ackground ............................................................................................. 4
Thermal radiation ................................................................................................................ 4
Electromagnetic #ield and $uantum Theory ............................................................................... %
&orent' transformation of the (pecial )elativity .......................................................................... %
The lassical )elativistic effect .................................................................................................. *
Electromagnetic inertia and +ravitational attraction ................................................................... *
Electromagnetic inertia and mass .............................................................................................. ,
Electromagnetic -nduction .................................................................................................... ,
)elativistic change of mass .................................................................................................... ,
The frequency dependence of mass ....................................................................................... ,
Electron . /roton mass rate .................................................................................................. ,
+ravity from the point of vie! of quantum physics ..................................................................... ,
The +ravitational force ......................................................................................................... ,
The +raviton ....................................................................................................................... 0
onclusions ............................................................................................................................ 0
)eferences ............................................................................................................................. 0

1uthor2 +eorge )a3na
The Big Bang
The Big Bang caused acceleration created radial currents of the matter4 and since the matter is
composed of negative and positive charges4 these currents are creating magnetic field and attracting
forces "et!een the parallel moving electric currents5 This is the gravitational force experienced "y
the matter4 and also the mass is result of the electromagnetic forces "et!een the charged particles5
The positive and negative charged currents attracts each other or "y the magnetic forces or "y the
much stronger electrostatic forces67
The gravitational force attracting the matter4 causing concentration of the matter in a small space
and leaving much space !ith lo! matter concentration2 dark matter and energy5
There is an asymmetry "et!een the mass of the electric charges4 for example proton and electron4
can understood "y the asymmetrical /lanck Distri"ution &a!5 This temperature dependent energy
distri"ution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity4 !here the annihilation of matter and
antimatter is a high pro"a"ility event5 The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of
electromagnetic radiations "eing in the same intensity level and compensating each other5 8ne of
these compensating ratios is the electron . proton mass ratio5 The lo!er energy side has no
compensating intensity level4 it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter5
Evidence for an accelerating universe
8ne of the o"servational foundations for the "ig "ang model of cosmology !as the o"served
expansion of the universe5 9:; Measurement of the expansion rate is a critical part of the study4 and
it has "een found that the expansion rate is very nearly <flat<5 That is4 the universe is very close to
the critical density4 a"ove !hich it !ould slo! do!n and collapse in!ard to!ard a future <"ig
crunch<5 8ne of the great challenges of astronomy and astrophysics is distance measurement over
the vast distances of the universe5 (ince the =::>s it has "ecome apparent that type -a supernovae
offer a unique opportunity for the consistent measurement of distance out to perhaps =>>> Mpc5
Measurement at these great distances provided the first data to suggest that the expansion rate of
the universe is actually accelerating5 That acceleration implies an energy density that acts in
opposition to gravity !hich !ould cause the expansion to accelerate5 This is an energy density !hich
!e have not directly detected o"servationally and it has "een given the name <dark energy<5
The type -a supernova evidence for an accelerated universe has "een discussed "y /erlmutter and
the diagram "elo! follo!s his illustration in /hysics Today5

The data summari'ed in the illustration a"ove involve the measurement of the
distant supernovae5 The o"served magnitudes
that there are a num"er of Type =a supernovae around '?5*4 !hich !ith a
km@s@mpc is a distance of a"out % "illion light years5
Equation
The cosmological constant A appears in EinsteinBs field equation
!here R and g descri"e the structure of spacetime4
structure4 and G and c are conversion factors that arise from using traditional units of measurement5
Chen A is 'ero4 this reduces to the original field equation of general relativity5 Chen
field equation descri"es empty space Dthe vacuumE5
The cosmological constant has the same effect as an intrinsic energy density of the vacuum4
an associated pressureE5 -n this context it is commonly moved onto the right
equation4 and defined !ith a proportionality factor of 0
general relativity are used Dother!ise factors of
values of energy density directly4 though still using the name <cosmological constant<5
1 positive vacuum energy density resulting from a cos
pressure4 and vice versa5 -f the energy density is positive4 the associated negative pressure !ill drive

The data summari'ed in the illustration a"ove involve the measurement of the redshifts
magnitudes are plotted against the redshift parameter '
that there are a num"er of Type =a supernovae around '?5*4 !hich !ith a Fu""le constant
km@s@mpc is a distance of a"out % "illion light years5
The cosmological constant A appears in EinsteinBs field equation 9%; in the form of

descri"e the structure of spacetime4 T pertains to matter and energy affecting that
are conversion factors that arise from using traditional units of measurement5
Chen A is 'ero4 this reduces to the original field equation of general relativity5 Chen T
field equation descri"es empty space Dthe vacuumE5
ant has the same effect as an intrinsic energy density of the vacuum4
an associated pressureE5 -n this context it is commonly moved onto the rightGhand side of the
equation4 and defined !ith a proportionality factor of 0H2 A ? 0H
vac
4 !here unit conventions of
general relativity are used Dother!ise factors of G and c !ould also appearE5 -t is common to quote
values of energy density directly4 though still using the name <cosmological constant<5
1 positive vacuum energy density resulting from a cosmological constant implies a negative
pressure4 and vice versa5 -f the energy density is positive4 the associated negative pressure !ill drive
redshifts of the
parameter '5 Iote
Fu""le constant of ,=
pertains to matter and energy affecting that
are conversion factors that arise from using traditional units of measurement5
T is 'ero4 the
ant has the same effect as an intrinsic energy density of the vacuum4
vac
Dand
hand side of the
conventions of
!ould also appearE5 -t is common to quote

mological constant implies a negative
pressure4 and vice versa5 -f the energy density is positive4 the associated negative pressure !ill drive
an accelerated expansion of the universe4 as o"served5 D(ee dark energy and cosmic inflation for
details5E

Explanatory models
Models attempting to explain accelerating expansion include some form of dark energy4 dark fluid or
phantom energy5 The most important property of dark energy is that it has negative pressure !hich
is distri"uted relatively homogeneously in space5 The simplest explanation for dark energy is that it is
a cosmological constant or vacuum energyJ this leads to the &am"daGDM model4 !hich is generally
kno!n as the (tandard Model of osmology as of 2>>3G2>=34 since it is the simplest model in good
agreement !ith a variety of recent o"servations5
Dark Matter and Energy
Dark matter is a type of matter hypothesi'ed in astronomy and cosmology to account for a large part
of the mass that appears to "e missing from the universe5 Dark matter cannot "e seen directly !ith
telescopesJ evidently it neither emits nor a"sor"s light or other electromagnetic radiation at any
significant level5 -t is other!ise hypothesi'ed to simply "e matter that is not reactant to light5
-nstead4 the existence and properties of dark matter are inferred from its gravitational effects on
visi"le matter4 radiation4 and the largeGscale structure of the universe5 1ccording to the /lanck
mission team4 and "ased on the standard model of cosmology4 the total mass.energy of the kno!n
universe contains 45:K ordinary matter4 2*50K dark matter and *053K dark energy5 Thus4 dark
matter is estimated to constitute 045%K of the total matter in the universe4 !hile dark energy plus
dark matter constitute :%5=K of the total content of the universe5 9*;
Cosmic microwave background
The cosmic micro!ave "ackground DMBE is the thermal radiation assumed to "e left over from the
<Big Bang< of cosmology5 Chen the universe cooled enough4 protons and electrons com"ined to
form neutral atoms5 These atoms could no longer a"sor" the thermal radiation4 and so the universe
"ecame transparent instead of "eing an opaque fog5 9,;
Thermal radiation
Thermal radiation is electromagnetic radiation generated "y the thermal motion of charged
particles in matter5 1ll matter !ith a temperature greater than a"solute 'ero emits thermal
radiation5 Chen the temperature of the "ody is greater than a"solute 'ero4 interatomic collisions
cause the kinetic energy of the atoms or molecules to change5 This results in chargeGacceleration
and@or dipole oscillation !hich produces electromagnetic radiation4 and the !ide spectrum of
radiation reflects the !ide spectrum of energies and accelerations that occur even at a single
temperature5 90;
Electromagnetic Field and uantum Theory
Ieedless to say that the accelerating electrons of the steady stationary current are a simple
demystification of the magnetic field4 "y creating a decreasing charge distri"ution along the !ire4
maintaining the decreasing L potential and creating the
electrons moving "y v velocity relative to the !ire5 This !ay it is easier to understand also the time
dependent changes of the electric current and the electromagnetic !aves as the resulting fields
moving "y c velocity5
-t could "e possi"le something very important la! of the nature "ehind the self maintaining
accelerating force "y the accelerated electrons5
fields are so natural that they occur as electromagnetic !av
the electric charges are the result of the electromagnetic !aves diffraction5
8ne of the most important conclusions is that the electric charges are moving in an accelerated !ay
and even if their velocity is constant4 they have an intrinsic acceleration any!ay4 the so called spin4
since they need at least an intrinsic acceleration to make possi"le they movement 5
The "ridge "et!een the classical and quantum theory is "ased on this intrinsic acceleration of the
spin4 explaining also the Feisen"erg Lncertainty /rinciple5 The particle
charges and the photon makes certain that they are "oth sides of the same thing5 Basing the
gravitational force on the accelerating Lniverse caused magneti
&a! of the electromagnetic !aves caused diffraction gives us the "asis to "uild a Lnified Theory of
the physical interactions5 94;

!orent" transformation of the #pecial $elativity
-n the referential frame of the acceler
the linearly gro!ing !ay they takes every next time period5 #rom the referential frame of the !ire
there is a para"olic charge density lo!ering5
The difference "et!een these t!o referential fr
the referential frame of the moving electrons gives the relativistic effect5 -mportant to say that the
moving electrons presenting the time coordinate4 since the electrons are taking linearly increasing

and uantum Theory
Ieedless to say that the accelerating electrons of the steady stationary current are a simple
demystification of the magnetic field4 "y creating a decreasing charge distri"ution along the !ire4
maintaining the decreasing L potential and creating the A vector potential experienced "y the
velocity relative to the !ire5 This !ay it is easier to understand also the time
dependent changes of the electric current and the electromagnetic !aves as the resulting fields
-t could "e possi"le something very important la! of the nature "ehind the self maintaining
accelerating force "y the accelerated electrons5 The accelerated electrons created electromagnetic
fields are so natural that they occur as electromagnetic !aves traveling !ith velocity c5
the electric charges are the result of the electromagnetic !aves diffraction5
8ne of the most important conclusions is that the electric charges are moving in an accelerated !ay
tant4 they have an intrinsic acceleration any!ay4 the so called spin4
since they need at least an intrinsic acceleration to make possi"le they movement 5
The "ridge "et!een the classical and quantum theory is "ased on this intrinsic acceleration of the
n4 explaining also the Feisen"erg Lncertainty /rinciple5 The particle . !ave duality of the electric
charges and the photon makes certain that they are "oth sides of the same thing5 Basing the
gravitational force on the accelerating Lniverse caused magnetic force and the /lanck Distri"ution
&a! of the electromagnetic !aves caused diffraction gives us the "asis to "uild a Lnified Theory of
!orent" transformation of the #pecial $elativity
-n the referential frame of the accelerating electrons the charge density lo!ering linearly "ecause of
the linearly gro!ing !ay they takes every next time period5 #rom the referential frame of the !ire
there is a para"olic charge density lo!ering5
The difference "et!een these t!o referential frames4 namely the referential frame of the !ire and
the referential frame of the moving electrons gives the relativistic effect5 -mportant to say that the
moving electrons presenting the time coordinate4 since the electrons are taking linearly increasing
Ieedless to say that the accelerating electrons of the steady stationary current are a simple
demystification of the magnetic field4 "y creating a decreasing charge distri"ution along the !ire4
vector potential experienced "y the
velocity relative to the !ire5 This !ay it is easier to understand also the time
dependent changes of the electric current and the electromagnetic !aves as the resulting fields
-t could "e possi"le something very important la! of the nature "ehind the self maintaining E
The accelerated electrons created electromagnetic
es traveling !ith velocity c5 -t sho!s that
8ne of the most important conclusions is that the electric charges are moving in an accelerated !ay
tant4 they have an intrinsic acceleration any!ay4 the so called spin4
The "ridge "et!een the classical and quantum theory is "ased on this intrinsic acceleration of the
!ave duality of the electric
charges and the photon makes certain that they are "oth sides of the same thing5 Basing the
c force and the /lanck Distri"ution
&a! of the electromagnetic !aves caused diffraction gives us the "asis to "uild a Lnified Theory of
ating electrons the charge density lo!ering linearly "ecause of
the linearly gro!ing !ay they takes every next time period5 #rom the referential frame of the !ire
ames4 namely the referential frame of the !ire and
the referential frame of the moving electrons gives the relativistic effect5 -mportant to say that the
moving electrons presenting the time coordinate4 since the electrons are taking linearly increasing
!ay every next time period4 and the !ire presenting the geometric coordinate5 The &orent'
transformations are "ased on moving light sources of the Michelson G Morley experiment giving a
practical method to transform time and geometric coordinates !ithout explaining the source of this
mystery5
The real mystery is that the accelerating charges are maintaining the accelerating force !ith their
charge distri"ution locally5 The resolution of this mystery that the charges are simply the results of
the diffraction patterns4 that is the charges and the electric field are t!o sides of the same thing5
8ther!ise the charges could exceed the velocity of the electromagnetic field5
The increasing mass of the electric charges the result of the increasing inductive electric force acting
against the accelerating force5 The decreasing mass of the decreasing acceleration is the result of the
inductive electric force acting against the decreasing force5 This is the relativistic mass change
explanation4 especially importantly explaining the mass reduction in case of velocity decrease5
The Classical $elativistic effect
The moving charges are self maintain the electromagnetic field locally4 causing their movement and
this is the result of their acceleration under the force of this field5
-n the classical physics the charges !ill distri"uted along the electric current so that the electric
potential lo!ering along the current4 "y linearly increasing the !ay they take every next time period
"ecause this accelerated motion5
Electromagnetic inertia and %ravitational attraction
(ince the magnetic induction creates a negative electric field as a result of the changing acceleration4
it !orks as an electromagnetic inertia4 causing an electromagnetic mass5
-t looks clear that the gro!ing acceleration results the relativistic gro!ing mass G limited also !ith
the velocity of the electromagnetic !ave5
(ince E = h and E = mc
2
4 m = h /c
2
that is the m depends only on the frequency5 -t means that the
mass of the proton and electron are electromagnetic and the result of the electromagnetic
induction4 caused "y the changing acceleration of the spinning and moving charge6 -t could "e that
the m
o
inertial mass is the result of the spin4 since this is the only accelerating motion of the electric
charge5 (ince the accelerating motion has different frequency for the electron in the atom and the
proton4 they masses are different4 also as the !avelengths on "oth sides of the diffraction pattern4
giving equal intensity of radiation5
-f the mass is electromagnetic4 then the gravitation is also electromagnetic effect caused "y the
accelerating Lniverse6 The same charges !ould attract each other if they are moving parallel "y the
magnetic effect5
The /lanck distri"ution la! explains the different frequencies of the proton and electron4 giving
equal intensity to different lam"da !avelengths6 1lso since the particles are diffraction patterns
they have some closeness to each other . can "e seen as a gravitational force5
Electromagnetic inertia and mass
Electromagnetic &nduction
(ince the magnetic induction creates a negative electric field as a result of the changing acceleration4
it !orks as an electromagnetic inertia4 causing an electromagnetic mass5 9=;
$elativistic change of mass
The increasing mass of the electric charges the result of the increasing inductive electric force acting
against the accelerating force5 The decreasing mass of the decreasing acceleration is the result of the
inductive electric force acting against the decreasing force5 This is the relativistic mass change
explanation4 especially importantly explaining the mass reduction in case of velocity decrease5
The fre'uency dependence of mass
(ince E = h and E = mc
2
4 m = h /c
2
that is the m depends only on the frequency5 -t means that the
mass of the proton and electron are electromagnetic and the result of the electromagnetic
induction4 caused "y the changing acceleration of the spinning and moving charge6 -t could "e that
the m
o
inertial mass is the result of the spin4 since this is the only accelerating motion of the electric
charge5 (ince the accelerating motion has different frequency for the electron in the atom and the
proton4 they masses are different4 also as the !avelengths on "oth sides of the diffraction pattern4
giving equal intensity of radiation5
Electron ( )roton mass rate
The /lanck distri"ution la! explains the different frequencies of the proton and electron4 giving
equal intensity to different lam"da !avelengths6 1lso since the particles are diffraction patterns
they have some closeness to each other . can "e seen as a gravitational force5 9=;
There is an asymmetry "et!een the mass of the electric charges4 for example proton and electron4
can understood "y the asymmetrical /lanck Distri"ution &a!5 This temperature dependent energy
distri"ution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity4 !here the annihilation of matter and
antimatter is a high pro"a"ility event5 The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of
electromagnetic radiations "eing in the same intensity level and compensating each other5 8ne of
these compensating ratios is the electron . proton mass ratio5 The lo!er energy side has no
compensating intensity level4 it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter5
%ravity from the point of view of 'uantum physics
The %ravitational force
The gravitational attractive force is "asically a magnetic force5
The same electric charges can attract one another "y the magnetic force if they are moving parallel
in the same direction5 (ince the electrically neutral matter is composed of negative and positive
charges they need 2 photons to mediate this attractive force4 one per charges5 The Bing Bang caused
parallel moving of the matter gives this magnetic force4 experienced as gravitational force5
(ince graviton is a tensor field4 it has spin ? 24 could "e 2 photons !ith spin ? = together5
Mou can think a"out photons as virtual electron . positron pairs4 o"taining the necessary virtual
mass for gravity5
The mass as seen "efore a result of the diffraction4 for example the proton . electron mass rate
Mp?=04> Me5 -n order to move one of these diffraction maximum Delectron or protonE !e need to
intervene into the diffraction pattern !ith a force appropriate to the intensity of this diffraction
maximum4 means its intensity or mass5

The Big Bang caused acceleration created radial currents of the matter4 and since the matter is
composed of negative and positive charges4 these currents are creating magnetic field and attracting
forces "et!een the parallel moving electric currents5 This is the gravitational force experienced "y
the matter4 and also the mass is result of the electromagnetic forces "et!een the charged particles5
The positive and negative charged currents attracts each other or "y the magnetic forces or "y the
much stronger electrostatic forces67


The %raviton
-n physics4 the graviton is a hypothetical elementary particle that mediates the force of gravitation in
the frame!ork of quantum field theory5 -f it exists4 the graviton is expected to "e massless D"ecause
the gravitational force appears to have unlimited rangeE and must "e a spinG2 "oson5 The spin
follo!s from the fact that the source of gravitation is the stressGenergy tensor4 a secondGrank tensor
Dcompared to electromagnetismBs spinG= photon4 the source of !hich is the fourGcurrent4 a firstGrank
tensorE5 1dditionally4 it can "e sho!n that any massless spinG2 field !ould give rise to a force
indistinguisha"le from gravitation4 "ecause a massless spinG2 field must couple to Dinteract !ithE the
stressGenergy tensor in the same !ay that the gravitational field does5 This result suggests that4 if a
massless spinG2 particle is discovered4 it must "e the graviton4 so that the only experimental
verification needed for the graviton may simply "e the discovery of a massless spinG2 particle5 92;
Conclusions
The gravitational force attracting the matter4 causing concentration of the matter in a small space
and leaving much space !ith lo! matter concentration2 dark matter and energy5
There is an asymmetry "et!een the mass of the electric charges4 for example proton and electron4
can understood "y the asymmetrical /lanck Distri"ution &a!5 This temperature dependent energy
distri"ution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity4 !here the annihilation of matter and
antimatter is a high pro"a"ility event5 The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of
electromagnetic radiations "eing in the same intensity level and compensating each other5 8ne of
these compensating ratios is the electron . proton mass ratio5 The lo!er energy side has no
compensating intensity level4 it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter5
The electric currents causing self maintaining electric potential is the source of the special and
general relativistic effects5 The Figgs #ield is the result of the electromagnetic induction5 The
+raviton is t!o photons together5 93;

$eferences
9=; 3 Dimensional (tring Theory
1uthor2 +eorge )a3na
/u"lisher2 1cademia5edu
http2@@!!!5academia5edu@30344%4@3NDimensionalN(tringNTheory
92; +raviton /roduction By T!o /hoton and ElectronG/hoton /rocesses -n Oalu'aGOlein Theories
Cith &arge Extra Dimensions
http2@@arxiv5org@a"s@hepGph@::>:3:2
93; Figgs #ield and $uantum +ravity
1uthor2 +eorge )a3na
/u"lisher2 1cademia5edu
http2@@!!!5academia5edu@4=%00*3@FiggsN#ieldNandN$uantumN+ravity
94; The Magnetic field of the Electric current
1uthor2 +eorge )a3na
/u"lisher2 1cademia5edu
https2@@!!!5academia5edu@303333%@TheNMagneticNfieldNofNtheNElectricNcurrent

9%; http2@@en5!ikipedia5org@!iki@EinsteinNfieldNequations

9*; http2@@en5!ikipedia5org@!iki@DarkNmatter

9,; http2@@en5!ikipedia5org@!iki@osmicNmicro!aveN"ackground

90; http2@@en5!ikipedia5org@!iki@ThermalNradiation

9:; http2@@hyperphysics5phyGastr5gsu5edu@h"ase@astro@univacc5html