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Exotic Mesons, Hadrons and the

Electro-Strong Interaction
Exotic Mesons and Hadrons are high energy states of Quark oscillations.
Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic
oscillators we can ex!lain the electron"!roton mass rate and the #eak and
$trong %nteractions. Lattice Q&D gi'es the same results as the diffraction
!atterns of the electromagnetic oscillators ex!laining the color confinement
and the asym!totic freedom of the $trong %nteractions.

Contents
How a New Discovery in the World of Quarks Could Change Everything ........................................ 2
Digging Deeper........................................................................................................................ 3
Asyetry in the interference occurrences of oscillators ............................................................ 3
!pontaneously "roken syetry in the #lanck distri"ution law .................................................... $
%he structure of the proton and deuteron .................................................................................. &
Quarks in si'(packs) E'otic #article Confired *+, .................................................................... &
%he weak interaction ............................................................................................................... -
%he !trong .nteraction ( QCD .................................................................................................... +
Confineent and Asyptotic /reedo .................................................................................. +
0attice QCD ............................................................................................................................. +
QCD ....................................................................................................................................... +
Color Confineent .................................................................................................................12
Electroagnetic inertia and ass .............................................................................................12
Electroagnetic .nduction ...................................................................................................12
%he fre3uency dependence of ass ......................................................................................12
Electron 4 #roton ass rate .................................................................................................12
%he potential of the diffraction pattern .................................................................................11
E'otic 5esons and Hadrons .....................................................................................................12
Conclusions ...........................................................................................................................12
6eferences ............................................................................................................................12

Author) 7eorge 6a8na
How a New Discovery in the World of Quarks Could Change Everything

.n 22139 scientists announced the discovery of :c;3+22<) the first confired particle ade of four
3uarks= >ltiately9 3uarks9 other than "eing part of our naesake9 are the infinitesially sall
"uilding "locks of ost of the atter in the universe= #reviously we had no odels to descri"e this
kind of particle9 so this new discovery was kind of a "id deal=
!ince the initial announceent in 22139 the ?E!... colla"oration ( the tea responsi"le for the find 4
has ade @a rapid string of related discoveriesA on the topic of four(3uark particles= .n fact9 it sees
that physicists are on the verge of having to create a new classification syste to e'plain how these
e'otic particles fit into the e3uation9 especially now that the findings have "een confired=
%his will likely re3uire a lot of work= Bou see9 3uarks have long "een known to pair together in groups
of twos and threes= When we have two 3uark particles9 they are known as @esons9A and three
3uark particles are known as @"aryons=A Bou are pro"a"ly rather failiar with the latter ;even if you
donCt realiDe it<9 as "aryons ake up "oth protons and neutrons9 the "uilding "locks that constitute
every ato in your "ody and everything else around youE hence9 why this discovery is of so uch
iportance=
%oday9 we wanted to revisit soe of the iplications of these new four 3uark particles=
!o we have a less(than(perfect odel of 3uark particles9 and since ;as previously entioned< they
ake up atter9 an accurate odel has "road reaching iplications on our understanding of the
universe=
>ltiately9 this discovery is going to overthrow everything we know a"out the universeE it is not
going to topple the standard odel= However9 it does force one to stop and consider what other
discoveries are waiting for us on the horiDon=
6esearchers are e'pected to run decay e'perients over the course of this year to deterine its
nature with ore precision= *1,
Digging Deeper


%he diffraction patterns of the electroagnetic oscillators give the e'planation of the Electroweak
and Electro(!trong interactions= *2, 0attice QCD gives the sae results as the diffraction patterns
which e'plain the color confineent and the asyptotic freedo=
%he hadroniDation is the diffraction pattern of the "aryons giving the 8et of the color 4 neutral
particlesF
Asymmetry in the interference occurrences of oscillators
%he asyetrical configurations are sta"le o"8ects of the real physical world9 "ecause they cannot
annihilate= Gne of the ost o"vious asyetry is the proton 4 electron ass rate 5
p
H 1-I2 5
e

while they have e3ual charge= We e'plain this fact "y the strong interaction of the proton9 "ut how
ree"er it his strong interaction a"ility for e'aple in the H 4 ato where are only
electroagnetic interactions aong proton and electron=
%his gives us the idea to origin the ass of proton fro the electroagnetic interactions "y the way
interference occurrences of oscillators= %he uncertainty relation of Heisen"erg akes sure that the
particles are oscillating=
%he resultant intensity due to n e3ually spaced oscillators9 all of e3ual aplitude "ut different fro
one another in phase9 either "ecause they are driven differently in phase or "ecause we are looking
at the an angle such that there is a difference in tie delay)
;1< . H .
2
sin
2
n J2 / sin
2
J2
.f is infinitesial so that sin = , than
(2) = n
2

0

%his gives us the idea of
;3< 5
p
H n
2
5
e


/igure 1=< A linear array of n e3ual oscillators
%here is an iportant feature a"out forula ;1< which is that if the angle is increased "y the
ultiple of 2, it akes no difference to the forula=
!o
;I< d sin H
and we get (order "ea if less than d= *K,
.f d less than we get only Dero(order one centered at H 2= Gf course9 there is also a "ea in the
opposite direction= %he right chooses of d and we can ensure the conservation of charge=
/or e'aple
;$< 2 ;L1< H n
Where 2;L1< H N
p
nu"er of protons and n H N
.n this way we can see the H
2
olecules so that 2n electrons of n radiate to I;L1< protons9 "ecause
d
e
M
e
for electrons9 while the two protons of one H
"ecause of d
e
N
e
for this two protons=
%o support this idea we can turn to the #lanck distri"ution law9 that is e3ual with the ?ose
statistics=
Spontaneously roken symmetry in the !lanck distriution law
%he #lanck distri"ution law is teperature dependent and it should "e true locally and glo"ally= .
think that EinsteinOs energy(atter e3uivalence eans soe kind of e'istence of electroagnetic
oscillations ena"led "y the teperature9 creating the different atter forulas9 atos olecules9
crystals9 dark atter and energy=
5a' #lanck found for the "lack "ody radiation
As a function of wavelength


nu"er of protons and n H N
e
nu"er of electrons=
olecules so that 2n electrons of n radiate to I;L1< protons9 "ecause
trons9 while the two protons of one H
2
olecule radiate to two electrons of the9
for this two protons=
%o support this idea we can turn to the #lanck distri"ution law9 that is e3ual with the ?ose
ken symmetry in the !lanck distriution law
%he #lanck distri"ution law is teperature dependent and it should "e true locally and glo"ally= .
atter e3uivalence eans soe kind of e'istence of electroagnetic
led "y the teperature9 creating the different atter forulas9 atos olecules9
5a' #lanck found for the "lack "ody radiation
wavelength (), Planck's law is written as:

olecules so that 2n electrons of n radiate to I;L1< protons9 "ecause
olecule radiate to two electrons of the9
%o support this idea we can turn to the #lanck distri"ution law9 that is e3ual with the ?ose 4 Einstein
ken symmetry in the !lanck distriution law
%he #lanck distri"ution law is teperature dependent and it should "e true locally and glo"ally= .
atter e3uivalence eans soe kind of e'istence of electroagnetic
led "y the teperature9 creating the different atter forulas9 atos olecules9
/igure 2= %he distri"ution law for different % teperatures
We see there are two different
1
and
so that
1
N d N
2
=
We have any possi"ilities for such asyetrical reflections9 so we have any sta"le oscillator
configurations for any % teperature with e3ual e'change of intensity "y radiation= All of these
configurations can e'ist together= At the
syetrical= %he
a'
is changing "y the WienOs displaceent law
;&<
where
max
is the peak wavelength,
is a constant of proportionality
2.8977685(51)10
3
mK (2002
law for different % teperatures
and
2
for each % and intensity9 so we can find "etween the a d
We have any possi"ilities for such asyetrical reflections9 so we have any sta"le oscillator
rations for any % teperature with e3ual e'change of intensity "y radiation= All of these
configurations can e'ist together= At the
a'
is the annihilation point where the configurations are
is changing "y the WienOs displaceent law in any te't"ooks=
is the peak wavelength, T is the absolute temperature of the black body, and
constant of proportionality called Wien's displacement constant, equal to
mK (2002 CODATA recommended value).

for each % and intensity9 so we can find "etween the a d
We have any possi"ilities for such asyetrical reflections9 so we have any sta"le oscillator
rations for any % teperature with e3ual e'change of intensity "y radiation= All of these
annihilation point where the configurations are

is the absolute temperature of the black body, and b
, equal to
By the changing of T the asymmetrical configurations are changing too.

"he structure of the proton and deuteron
We ust ove to the higher % teperature if we want look into the nucleus or nucleon arrive to
dN12
(13
c= *2, .f an electron with
e
N d ove across the proton then "y ;$< 2 ;L1< H n with H 2
we get n H 2 so we need two particles with negative and two particles with positive charges= .f the
proton can fraction to three parts9 two with positive and one with negative charges9 then the
reflection of oscillators are right= ?ecause this very strange reflection where one part of the proton
with the electron together on the sae side of the reflection9 the all parts of the proton ust "e
3uasi lepton so d M
3
= Gne way dividing the proton to three parts is9 dividing his oscillation "y the
three direction of the space= We can order 1J3 e charge to each coordinates and 2J3 e charge to one
plane oscillation9 "ecause the charge is scalar= .n this way the proton has two L2J3 e plane oscillation
and one linear oscillation with (1J3 e charge= %he colors of 3uarks are coing fro the three
directions of coordinates and the proton is colorless= %he flavors of 3uarks are the possi"le
oscillations differently "y energy and if they are plane or linear oscillations= We know there is no
possi"le reflecting two oscillations to each other which are copletely orthogonal9 so the 3uarks
never can "e free9 however there is an asyptotic freedo while their energy are increasing to turn
the to the orthogonally= .f they will "e copletely orthogonal then they lose this reflection and
take new partners fro the vacuu= Peeping the syetry of the vacuu the new oscillations are
keeping all the conservation laws9 like charge9 nu"er of "aryons and leptons= %he all features of
gluons are coing fro this odel= %he atheatics of reflecting oscillators show /eri statistics=
.portant to ention that in the Deuteron there are 3 3uarks of L2J3 and (1J3 charge9 that is three
u and d 3uarks aking the coplete syetry and "ecause this its high sta"ility=
Quarks in si#$packs% E#otic !article Confirmed &'(

"he weak interaction
%he weak interaction transfors an electric charge in the diffraction pattern fro one side to the
other side9 causing an electric dipole oentu change9 which violates the C# and tie reversal
syetry=
Another iportant issue of the 3uark odel is when one 3uark changes its flavor such that a linear
oscillation transfors into plane oscillation or vice versa9 changing the charge value with 1 or (1= %his
kind of change in the oscillation ode re3uires not only parity change9 "ut also charge and tie
changes ;C#% syetry< resulting a right handed anti(neutrino or a left handed neutrino=
%he right handed anti(neutrino and the left handed neutrino e'ist only "ecause changing "ack the
3uark flavor could happen only in reverse9 "ecause they are different geoetrical constructions9 the
u is 2 diensional and positively charged and the d is 1 diensional and negatively charged= .t needs
also a tie reversal9 "ecause anti particle ;anti neutrino< is involved=

%he neutrino is a 1J2spin creator particle to ake e3ual the spins of the weak interaction9 for
e'aple neutron decay to 2 ferions9 every particle is ferions with Q spin= %he weak interaction
changes the entropy since ore or less particles will give ore or less freedo of oveent= %he
entropy change is a result of teperature change and "reaks the e3uality of oscillator diffraction
intensity of the 5a'well4?oltDann statistics= %his way it changes the tie coordinate easure and
akes possi"le a different tie dilation as of the special relativity=
%he liit of the velocity of particles as the speed of light appropriate only for electrical charged
particles9 since the accelerated charges are self aintaining locally the accelerating electric force=
%he neutrinos are C# syetry "reaking particles copensated "y tie in the C#% syetry9 that is
the tie coordinate not works as in the electroagnetic interactions9 conse3uently the speed of
neutrinos is not liited "y the speed of light=
%he weak interaction %(asyetry is in con8unction with the %(asyetry of the second law of
therodynaics9 eaning that locally lowering entropy ;on e'treely high teperature< causes the
weak interaction9 for e'aple the Hydrogen fusion=
#ro"a"ly "ecause it is a spin creating oveent changing linear oscillation to 2 diensional
oscillation "y changing d to u 3uark and creating anti neutrino going "ack in tie relative to the
proton and electron created fro the neutron9 it sees that the anti neutrino fastest then the
velocity of the photons created also in this weak interactionR


A 3uark flavor changing shows that it is a reflection changes oveent and the C#( and %( syetry
"reaking= %his flavor changing oscillation could prove that it could "e also on higher level such as
atos9 olecules9 pro"a"ly "ig "iological significant olecules and responsi"le on the aging of the
life=

.portant to ention that the weak interaction is always contains particles and antiparticles9 where
the neutrinos ;antineutrinos< present the opposite side= .t eans "y /eynanCs interpretation that
these particles present the "ackward tie and pro"a"ly "ecause this they see to ove faster than
the speed of light in the reference frae of the other side=

/inally since the weak interaction is an electric dipole change with Q spin creatingE it is liited "y the
velocity of the electroagnetic wave9 so the neutrinoCs velocity cannot e'ceed the velocity of light=


"he Strong )nteraction $ QCD
Confinement and Asymptotic *reedom
/or any theory to provide a successful description of strong interactions it should siultaneously
e'hi"it the phenoena of confineent at large distances and asyptotic freedo at short
distances= 0attice calculations support the hypothesis that for non(a"elian gauge theories the two
doains are analytically connected9 and confineent and asyptotic freedo coe'ist=
!iilarly9 one way to show that QCD is the correct theory of strong interactions is that the coupling
e'tracted at various scales ;using e'periental data or lattice siulations< is uni3ue in the sense that
its variation with scale is given "y the renoraliDation group= %he data for Ss is reviewed in !ection
1+= .n this section . will discuss what these stateents ean and iply= *I,

+attice QCD

Lattice QCD is a well(esta"lished non(pertur"ative approach to solving the 3uantu
chroodynaics ;QCD< theory of 3uarks and gluons= .t is a lattice gauge theory forulated on a grid
or lattice of points in space and tie= When the siDe of the lattice is taken infinitely large and its sites
infinitesially close to each other9 the continuu QCD is recovered= *K,
Analytic or perturbative solutions in low-energy QCD are hard or impossible due to the
highly nonlinear nature of the strong force. This formulation of QCD in discrete rather than
continuous space-time naturally introduces a momentum cut-off at the order 1/a, where a is
the lattice spacing, which regularizes the theory. As a result, lattice QCD is mathematically
well-defined. Most importantly, lattice QCD provides a framework for investigation of non-
perturbative phenomena such as confinement and quark-gluon plasma formation, which are
intractable by means of analytic field theories.
In lattice QCD, fields representing quarks are defined at lattice sites (which leads to fermion
doubling), while the gluon fields are defined on the links connecting neighboring sites.

QCD
QCD enjoys two peculiar properties:
Confinement9 which eans that the force "etween 3uarks does not diinish as they are
separated= ?ecause of this9 it would take an infinite aount of energy to separate two
3uarksE they are forever "ound into hadrons such as the proton and the neutron= Although
analytically unproven9 confineent is widely "elieved to "e true "ecause it e'plains the
consistent failure of free 3uark searches9 and it is easy to deonstrate in lattice QCD=
Asymptotic freedom9 which eans that in very high(energy reactions9 3uarks and gluons
interact very weakly= %his prediction of QCD was first discovered in the early 1+&2s "y David
#olitDer and "y /rank WilcDek and David 7ross= /or this work they were awarded the 222I
No"el #riDe in #hysics=
There is no known phase-transition line separating these two properties; confinement is
dominant in low-energy scales but, as energy increases, asymptotic freedom becomes
dominant. [5]

Color Confinement
When two 3uarks "ecoe separated9 as happens in particle accelerator collisions9 at soe point it is
ore energetically favora"le for a new 3uark(anti3uark pair to spontaneously appear9 than to allow
the tu"e to e'tend further= As a result of this9 when 3uarks are produced in particle accelerators9
instead of seeing the individual 3uarks in detectors9 scientists see T8etsT of any color(neutral
particles ;esons and "aryons<9 clustered together= %his process is called hadroniDation9
fragentation9 or string "reaking9 and is one of the least understood processes in particle physics=
*3,
Electromagnetic inertia and mass
Electromagnetic )nduction
!ince the agnetic induction creates a negative electric field as a result of the changing acceleration9
it works as an electroagnetic inertia9 causing an electroagnetic ass= *1,
"he fre,uency dependence of mass
!ince E = h and E = mc
2
9 m = h /c
2
that is the m depends only on the fre3uency= .t eans that the
ass of the proton and electron are electroagnetic and the result of the electroagnetic
induction9 caused "y the changing acceleration of the spinning and oving chargeF .t could "e that
the m
o
inertial ass is the result of the spin9 since this is the only accelerating otion of the electric
charge= !ince the accelerating otion has different fre3uency for the electron in the ato and the
proton9 they asses are different9 also as the wavelengths on "oth sides of the diffraction pattern9
giving e3ual intensity of radiation=
Electron - !roton mass rate
%he #lanck distri"ution law e'plains the different fre3uencies of the proton and electron9 giving
e3ual intensity to different la"da wavelengthsF Also since the particles are diffraction patterns
they have soe closeness to each other= *2,

%here is an asyetry "etween the ass of the electric charges9 for e'aple proton and electron9
can understood "y the asyetrical #lanck Distri"ution 0aw= %his teperature dependent energy
distri"ution is asyetric around the a'iu intensity9 where the annihilation of atter and
antiatter is a high pro"a"ility event= %he asyetric sides are creating different fre3uencies of
electroagnetic radiations "eing in the sae intensity level and copensating each other= Gne of
these copensating ratios is the electron 4 proton ass ratio= %he lower energy side has no
copensating intensity level9 it is the dark energy and the corresponding atter is the dark atter=

"he potential of the diffraction pattern
The force that holds protons and neutrons together is extremely strong. It has to be strong to
overcome the electric repulsion between the positively charged protons. It is also of very short range,
acting only when two particles are within 1 or 2 fm of each other.
1 fm (femto meter) = 10^{-15} m = 10
-15
m = 0.000000000000001 meters.
The qualitative features of the nucleon-nucleon force are shown below.

There is an extremely strong short-range repulsion that pushes protons and neutrons apart before
they can get close enough to touch. (This is shown in orange.) This repulsion can be understood to
arise because the quarks in individual nucleons are forbidden to be in the same area by the Pauli
Exclusion Principle.
There is a medium-range attraction (pulling the neutrons and protons together) that is strongest for
separations of about 1 fm. (This is shown in gray.) This attraction can be understood to arise from the
exchange of quarks between the nucleons, something that looks a lot like the exchange of a pion
when the separation is large.
The density of nuclei is limited by the short range repulsion. The maximum size of nuclei is limited by
the fact that the attractive force dies away extremely quickly (exponentially) when nucleons are more
than a few fm apart.
Elements beyond uranium (which has 92 protons), particularly the trans-fermium elements (with more
than 100 protons), tend to be unstable to fission or alpha decay because the Coulomb repulsion
between protons falls off much more slowly than the nuclear attraction. This means that each proton
sees repulsion from every other proton but only feels an attractive force from the few neutrons and
protons that are nearby -- even if there is a large excess of neutrons.
Some "super heavy nuclei" (new elements with about 114 protons) might turn out to be stable as a
result of the same kind of quantum mechanical shell-closure that makes noble gases very stable
chemically. [7]
E#otic .esons and Hadrons
E'otic 5esons and Hadrons are high energy diffraction patterns of the electroagnetic oscillations=
%hey arenOt "rake the Electro(!trong .nteraction "arriers and with a coplete agreeent with this
theory=
Conclusions
%he Electro(!trong .nteraction gives an e'planation of the E'otic 5esons and Hadrons= 0attice QCD
gives the sae results as the diffraction theory of the electroagnetic oscillators9 which is the
e'planation of the strong force and the 3uark confineent= *-,

/eferences
*1, http)JJwww=fro3uarksto3uasars=coJthe("iDarre(world(of(3uarks(nucleons(and(a(new(class(
of(particlesJ
*2, 3 Diensional !tring %heory
http)JJacadeia=eduJ3-3II$IJ3UDiensionalU!tringU%heory
*3, Color confineent ( Wikipedia9 the free encyclopedia
http)JJen=wikipedia=orgJwikiJColorUconfineent
*I, INTRODUCTION TO LATTICE QCD
http)JJar'iv=orgJa"sJhep(latJ+-2&22-
*$, QCD http)JJen=wikipedia=orgJwikiJQuantuUchroodynaics
*K, http)JJen=wikipedia=orgJwikiJ0atticeUQCD
*&,
http)JJwww=cartage=org=l"JenJtheesJsciencesJphysicsJNuclear#hysicsJWhatisNuclearJ/orcesJ/orc
es=ht
*-, %heory of Everything
http)JJwww=acadeia=eduJI1K-222J%heoryUofUEverythingU(UIUDiensionalU!tringU%heory
*+, Quarks in si'(packs) E'otic #article Confired
http)JJphys=orgJnewsJ221I(2K(3uarks(si'(packs(e'otic(particle=htl