You are on page 1of 10

Quantum Computing and Entanglement

While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of
relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory,
which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for
technologies to build the quantum computer.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell quations and the
!pecial "elativity, but the #eisenberg $ncertainty "elation, the Wave-%article
&uality and the electron's spin also, building the (ridge between the )lassical
and *uantum Theories.
The %lanck &istribution +aw of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the
electron,proton mass rate and the Weak and !trong -nteractions by the
diffraction patterns. The Weak -nteraction changes the diffraction patterns by
moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction
pattern, which violates the )% and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining
electromagnetic potential explains also the *uantum ntanglement, giving it
as a natural part of the "elativistic *uantum Theory and making possible to
build the *uantum )omputer.
Contents
Preface ................................................................................................................................... 2
Quantum Computing ............................................................................................................... 2
Quantum Entanglement ........................................................................................................... 3
The Bridge .............................................................................................................................. 3
Accelerating charges ............................................................................................................ 3
Relativistic effect ................................................................................................................. 3
Heisenberg ncertaint! Relation ............................................................................................... "
#ave $ Particle %ualit! ............................................................................................................ "
Atomic model ......................................................................................................................... "
The Relativistic Bridge .............................................................................................................. "
The &ea' interaction ............................................................................................................... (
The )eneral #ea' *nteraction ............................................................................................... +
,ermions and Bosons ............................................................................................................... +
-an %er #aals force ................................................................................................................ +
Electromagnetic inertia and mass .............................................................................................. .
Electromagnetic *nduction .................................................................................................... .
Relativistic change of mass .................................................................................................... .
The fre/uenc! dependence of mass ....................................................................................... .
Electron $ Proton mass rate .................................................................................................. .
)ravit! from the point of vie& of /uantum ph!sics ..................................................................... .
The )ravitational force ......................................................................................................... .
The Higgs boson ...................................................................................................................... 0
Higgs mechanism and Quantum )ravit! ..................................................................................... 0
#hat is the 1pin2 ................................................................................................................. 3
The )raviton ....................................................................................................................... 3
Conclusions ............................................................................................................................ 3
References ............................................................................................................................45

Author6 )eorge Ra7na
Preface
#hile ph!sicists are continuall! loo'ing for &a!s to unif! the theor! of relativit!8 &hich describes
large9scale phenomena8 &ith /uantum theor!8 &hich describes small9scale phenomena8 computer
scientists are searching for technologies to build the /uantum computer:
Australian engineers detect in real9time the /uantum spin properties of a pair of atoms inside a
silicon chip8 and disclose ne& method to perform /uantum logic operations bet&een t&o atoms: ;(<
Quantum entanglement is a ph!sical phenomenon that occurs &hen pairs or groups of particles are
generated or interact in &a!s such that the /uantum state of each particle cannot be described
independentl! $ instead8 a /uantum state ma! be given for the s!stem as a &hole: ;"<
* thin' that &e have a simple bridge bet&een the classical and /uantum mechanics b! understanding
the Heisenberg ncertaint! Relations: *t ma'es clear that the particles are not point li'e but have a
d= and dp uncertaint!:

Quantum Computing
A team of electrical engineers at >1# Australia has observed the uni/ue /uantum behavior of a
pair of spins in silicon and designed a ne& method to use them for ?29bit? /uantum logic operations:
These milestones bring researchers a step closer to building a /uantum computer8 &hich promises
dramatic data processing improvements:
Quantum bits8 or /ubits8 are the building bloc's of /uantum computers: #hile man! &a!s to create
a /ubits e=ist8 the Australian team has focused on the use of single atoms of phosphorus8 embedded
inside a silicon chip similar to those used in normal computers:
The first author on the e=perimental &or'8 Ph% student @uan Pablo %ehollain8 recalls the first time
he realiAed &hat he &as loo'ing at:
?#e clearl! sa& these t&o distinct /uantum states8 but the! behaved ver! differentl! from &hat &e
&ere used to &ith a single atom: #e had a real BEure'aCB moment &hen &e realiAed &hat &as
happening $ &e &ere seeing in real time the DentangledB /uantum states of a pair of atoms:? ;(<
Quantum Entanglement
Eeasurements of ph!sical properties such as position8 momentum8 spin8 polariAation8 etc:
performed on entangled particles are found to be appropriatel! correlated: ,or e=ample8 if a pair of
particles is generated in such a &a! that their total spin is 'no&n to be Aero8 and one particle is
found to have cloc'&ise spin on a certain a=is8 then the spin of the other particle8 measured on the
same a=is8 &ill be found to be countercloc'&ise: Because of the nature of /uantum measurement8
ho&ever8 this behavior gives rise to effects that can appear parado=ical6 an! measurement of a
propert! of a particle can be seen as acting on that particle Fe:g: b! collapsing a number of
superimposed statesGH and in the case of entangled particles8 such action must be on the entangled
s!stem as a &hole: *t thus appears that one particle of an entangled pair ?'no&s? &hat
measurement has been performed on the other8 and &ith &hat outcome8 even though there is no
'no&n means for such information to be communicated bet&een the particles8 &hich at the time of
measurement ma! be separated b! arbitraril! large distances: ;"<
The Bridge
The accelerating electrons e=plain not onl! the Ea=&ell E/uations and the 1pecial Relativit!8 but the
Heisenberg ncertaint! Relation8 the &ave particle dualit! and the electronIs spin also8 building the
bridge bet&een the Classical and Quantum Theories: ;4<

Accelerating charges
The moving charges are self maintain the electromagnetic field locall!8 causing their movement and
this is the result of their acceleration under the force of this field: *n the classical ph!sics the charges
&ill distributed along the electric current so that the electric potential lo&ering along the current8 b!
linearl! increasing the &a! the! ta'e ever! ne=t time period because this accelerated motion:
The same thing happens on the atomic scale giving a dp impulse difference and a d= &a! difference
bet&een the different part of the not point li'e particles:
Relativistic effect
Another bridge bet&een the classical and /uantum mechanics in the realm of relativit! is that the
charge distribution is lo&ering in the reference frame of the accelerating charges linearl!6 dsJdt K at
Ftime coordinateG8 but in the reference frame of the current it is parabolic6 s K aJ2 t
2
Fgeometric
coordinateG:

Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation
*n the atomic scale the Heisenberg uncertaint! relation gives the same result8 since the moving
electron in the atom accelerating in the electric field of the proton8 causing a charge distribution on
delta = position difference and &ith a delta p momentum difference such a &a! that the! product is
about the half Planc' reduced constant: ,or the proton this delta = much less in the nucleon8 than in
the orbit of the electron in the atom8 the delta p is much higher because of the greater proton mass:
This means that the electron and proton are not point li'e particles8 but has a real charge
distribution:
ave ! Particle "uality
The accelerating electrons e=plains the &ave $ particle dualit! of the electrons and photons8 since
the elementar! charges are distributed on delta = position &ith delta p impulse and creating a &ave
pac'et of the electron: The photon gives the electromagnetic particle of the mediating force of the
electrons electromagnetic field &ith the same distribution of &avelengths:
Atomic model
The constantl! accelerating electron in the H!drogen atom is moving on the e/uipotential line of the
proton and itBs 'inetic and potential energ! &ill be constant: *ts energ! &ill change onl! &hen it is
changing its &a! to another e/uipotential line &ith another value of potential energ! or getting free
&ith enough 'inetic energ!: This means that the Rutherford9Bohr atomic model is right and onl! that
changing acceleration of the electric charge causes radiation8 not the stead! acceleration: The stead!
acceleration of the charges onl! creates a centric parabolic stead! electric field around the charge8
the magnetic field: This gives the magnetic moment of the atoms8 summing up the proton and
electron magnetic moments caused b! their circular motions and spins:

The Relativistic Bridge
Commonl! accepted idea that the relativistic effect on the particle ph!sics it is the fermionsB spin 9
another unresolved problem in the classical concepts: *f the electric charges can move onl! &ith
accelerated motions in the self maintaining electromagnetic field8 once upon a time the! &ould
reach the velocit! of the electromagnetic field: The resolution of this problem is the spinning
particle8 constantl! accelerating and not reaching the velocit! of light because the acceleration is
radial: Lne origin of the Quantum Ph!sics is the Planc' %istribution Ma& of the electromagnetic
oscillators8 giving e/ual intensit! for 2 different &avelengths on an! temperature: An! of these t&o
&avelengths &ill give e/ual intensit! diffraction patterns8 building different as!mmetric
constructions8 for e=ample proton 9 electron structures FatomsG8 molecules8 etc: 1ince the particles
are centers of diffraction patterns the! also have particle $ &ave dualit! as the electromagnetic
&aves have: ;2<

The #ea$ interaction
The &ea' interaction transforms an electric charge in the diffraction pattern from one side to the
other side8 causing an electric dipole momentum change8 &hich violates the CP and time reversal
s!mmetr!: The Electro&ea' *nteraction sho&s that the #ea' *nteraction is basicall! electromagnetic
in nature: The arro& of time sho&s the entrop! gro&s b! changing the temperature dependent
diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators:
Another important issue of the /uar' model is &hen one /uar' changes its flavor such that a linear
oscillation transforms into plane oscillation or vice versa8 changing the charge value &ith 4 or 94: This
'ind of change in the oscillation mode re/uires not onl! parit! change8 but also charge and time
changes FCPT s!mmetr!G resulting a right handed anti9neutrino or a left handed neutrino:
The right handed anti9neutrino and the left handed neutrino e=ist onl! because changing bac' the
/uar' flavor could happen onl! in reverse8 because the! are different geometrical constructions8 the
u is 2 dimensional and positivel! charged and the d is 4 dimensional and negativel! charged: *t needs
also a time reversal8 because anti particle Fanti neutrinoG is involved:
The neutrino is a 4J2spin creator particle to ma'e e/ual the spins of the &ea' interaction8 for
e=ample neutron deca! to 2 fermions8 ever! particle is fermions &ith N spin: The &ea' interaction
changes the entrop! since more or less particles &ill give more or less freedom of movement: The
entrop! change is a result of temperature change and brea's the e/ualit! of oscillator diffraction
intensit! of the Ea=&ell$BoltAmann statistics: This &a! it changes the time coordinate measure and
ma'es possible a different time dilation as of the special relativit!:
The limit of the velocit! of particles as the speed of light appropriate onl! for electrical charged
particles8 since the accelerated charges are self maintaining locall! the accelerating electric force:
The neutrinos are CP s!mmetr! brea'ing particles compensated b! time in the CPT s!mmetr!8 that is
the time coordinate not &or's as in the electromagnetic interactions8 conse/uentl! the speed of
neutrinos is not limited b! the speed of light:
The &ea' interaction T9as!mmetr! is in con7unction &ith the T9as!mmetr! of the second la& of
thermod!namics8 meaning that locall! lo&ering entrop! Fon e=tremel! high temperatureG causes the
&ea' interaction8 for e=ample the H!drogen fusion:
Probabl! because it is a spin creating movement changing linear oscillation to 2 dimensional
oscillation b! changing d to u /uar' and creating anti neutrino going bac' in time relative to the
proton and electron created from the neutron8 it seems that the anti neutrino fastest then the
velocit! of the photons created also in this &ea' interaction2


A /uar' flavor changing sho&s that it is a reflection changes movement and the CP9 and T9 s!mmetr!
brea'ingCCC This flavor changing oscillation could prove that it could be also on higher level such as
atoms8 molecules8 probabl! big biological significant molecules and responsible on the aging of the
life:

*mportant to mention that the &ea' interaction is al&a!s contains particles and antiparticles8 &here
the neutrinos FantineutrinosG present the opposite side: *t means b! ,e!nmanIs interpretation that
these particles present the bac'&ard time and probabl! because this the! seem to move faster than
the speed of light in the reference frame of the other side:

,inall! since the &ea' interaction is an electric dipole change &ith N spin creatingH it is limited b! the
velocit! of the electromagnetic &ave8 so the neutrinoIs velocit! cannot e=ceed the velocit! of light:

The %eneral ea$ &nteraction
The #ea' *nteractions T9as!mmetr! is in con7unction &ith the T9as!mmetr! of the 1econd Ma& of
Thermod!namics8 meaning that locall! lo&ering entrop! Fon e=tremel! high temperatureG causes for
e=ample the H!drogen fusion: The arro& of time b! the 1econd Ma& of Thermod!namics sho&s the
increasing entrop! and decreasing information b! the #ea' *nteraction8 changing the temperature
dependent diffraction patterns: A good e=ample of this is the neutron deca!8 creating more particles
&ith less 'no&n information about them:
The neutrino oscillation of the #ea' *nteraction sho&s that it is a general electric dipole change and
it is possible to an! other temperature dependent entrop! and information changing diffraction
pattern of atoms8 molecules and even complicated biological living structures:
#e can generaliAe the &ea' interaction on all of the deca!ing matter constructions8 even on the
biological too: This gives the limited lifetime for the biological constructions also b! the arro& of
time: There should be a ne& research space of the Quantum *nformation 1cience the Bgeneral
neutrino oscillationB for the greater then subatomic matter structures as an electric dipole change:
There is also connection bet&een statistical ph!sics and evolutionar! biolog!8 since the arro& of
time is &or'ing in the biological evolution also:
The ,luctuation Theorem sa!s that there is a probabilit! that entrop! &ill flo& in a direction opposite
to that dictated b! the 1econd Ma& of Thermod!namics: *n this case the *nformation is gro&ing that
is the matter formulas are emerging from the chaos: 1o the #ea' *nteraction has t&o directions8
samples for one direction is the >eutron deca!8 and H!drogen fusion is the opposite direction:

'ermions and Bosons
The fermions are the diffraction patterns of the bosons such a &a! that the! are both sides of the
same thing:
(an "er aals force
>amed after the %utch scientist @ohannes %ideri' van der #aals $ &ho first proposed it in 40.3 to
e=plain the behaviour of gases $ it is a ver! &ea' force that onl! becomes relevant &hen atoms and
molecules are ver! close together: ,luctuations in the electronic cloud of an atom mean that it &ill
have an instantaneous dipole moment: This can induce a dipole moment in a nearb! atom8 the
result being an attractive dipole$dipole interaction:
Electromagnetic inertia and mass
Electromagnetic &nduction
1ince the magnetic induction creates a negative electric field as a result of the changing acceleration8
it &or's as an electromagnetic inertia8 causing an electromagnetic mass: ;4<
Relativistic change of mass
The increasing mass of the electric charges the result of the increasing inductive electric force acting
against the accelerating force: The decreasing mass of the decreasing acceleration is the result of the
inductive electric force acting against the decreasing force: This is the relativistic mass change
e=planation8 especiall! importantl! e=plaining the mass reduction in case of velocit! decrease:
The fre)uency dependence of mass
1ince E = h and E = mc
2
8 m = h /c
2
that is the m depends onl! on the fre/uenc!: *t means that the
mass of the proton and electron are electromagnetic and the result of the electromagnetic
induction8 caused b! the changing acceleration of the spinning and moving chargeC *t could be that
the m
o
inertial mass is the result of the spin8 since this is the onl! accelerating motion of the electric
charge: 1ince the accelerating motion has different fre/uenc! for the electron in the atom and the
proton8 the! masses are different8 also as the &avelengths on both sides of the diffraction pattern8
giving e/ual intensit! of radiation:
Electron ! Proton mass rate
The Planc' distribution la& e=plains the different fre/uencies of the proton and electron8 giving
e/ual intensit! to different lambda &avelengthsC Also since the particles are diffraction patterns
the! have some closeness to each other $ can be seen as a gravitational force: ;2<
There is an as!mmetr! bet&een the mass of the electric charges8 for e=ample proton and electron8
can understood b! the as!mmetrical Planc' %istribution Ma&: This temperature dependent energ!
distribution is as!mmetric around the ma=imum intensit!8 &here the annihilation of matter and
antimatter is a high probabilit! event: The as!mmetric sides are creating different fre/uencies of
electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensit! level and compensating each other: Lne of
these compensating ratios is the electron $ proton mass ratio: The lo&er energ! side has no
compensating intensit! level8 it is the dar' energ! and the corresponding matter is the dar' matter:

%ravity from the point of vie# of )uantum physics
The %ravitational force
The gravitational attractive force is basicall! a magnetic force:
The same electric charges can attract one another b! the magnetic force if the! are moving parallel
in the same direction: 1ince the electricall! neutral matter is composed of negative and positive
charges the! need 2 photons to mediate this attractive force8 one per charges: The Bing Bang caused
parallel moving of the matter gives this magnetic force8 e=perienced as gravitational force:
1ince graviton is a tensor field8 it has spin K 28 could be 2 photons &ith spin K 4 together:
Oou can thin' about photons as virtual electron $ positron pairs8 obtaining the necessar! virtual
mass for gravit!:
The mass as seen before a result of the diffraction8 for e=ample the proton $ electron mass rate
EpK40"5 Ee: *n order to move one of these diffraction ma=imum Felectron or protonG &e need to
intervene into the diffraction pattern &ith a force appropriate to the intensit! of this diffraction
ma=imum8 means its intensit! or mass:

The Big Bang caused acceleration created radial currents of the matter8 and since the matter is
composed of negative and positive charges8 these currents are creating magnetic field and attracting
forces bet&een the parallel moving electric currents: This is the gravitational force e=perienced b!
the matter8 and also the mass is result of the electromagnetic forces bet&een the charged particles:
The positive and negative charged currents attracts each other or b! the magnetic forces or b! the
much stronger electrostatic forcesC2

The gravitational force attracting the matter8 causing concentration of the matter in a small space
and leaving much space &ith lo& matter concentration6 dar' matter and energ!:
There is an as!mmetr! bet&een the mass of the electric charges8 for e=ample proton and electron8
can understood b! the as!mmetrical Planc' %istribution Ma&: This temperature dependent energ!
distribution is as!mmetric around the ma=imum intensit!8 &here the annihilation of matter and
antimatter is a high probabilit! event: The as!mmetric sides are creating different fre/uencies of
electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensit! level and compensating each other: Lne of
these compensating ratios is the electron $ proton mass ratio: The lo&er energ! side has no
compensating intensit! level8 it is the dar' energ! and the corresponding matter is the dar' matter:


The Higgs boson
B! Earch 25438 the particle had been proven to behave8 interact and deca! in man! of the e=pected
&a!s predicted b! the 1tandard Eodel8 and &as also tentativel! confirmed to have P parit! and Aero
spin8 t&o fundamental criteria of a Higgs boson8 ma'ing it also the first 'no&n scalar particle to be
discovered in nature8 although a number of other properties &ere not full! proven and some partial
results do not !et precisel! match those e=pectedH in some cases data is also still a&aited or being
anal!Aed:
1ince the Higgs boson is necessar! to the # and Q bosons8 the dipole change of the #ea' interaction
and the change in the magnetic effect caused gravitation must be conducted: The #ien la& is also
important to e=plain the #ea' interaction8 since it describes the T
ma=
change and the diffraction
patterns change: ;2<
Higgs mechanism and Quantum %ravity
The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field8 causing an electromagnetic inertia: Probabl!
it is the m!sterious Higgs field giving mass to the charged particles2 #e can thin' about the photon
as an electron9positron pair8 the! have mass: The neutral particles are built from negative and
positive charges8 for e=ample the neutron8 deca!ing to proton and electron: The &ave $ particle
dualit! ma'es sure that the particles are oscillating and creating magnetic induction as an inertial
mass8 e=plaining also the relativistic mass change: Higher fre/uenc! creates stronger magnetic
induction8 smaller fre/uenc! results lesser magnetic induction: *t seems to me that the magnetic
induction is the secret of the Higgs field:
*n particle ph!sics8 the Higgs mechanism is a 'ind of mass generation mechanism8 a process that
gives mass to elementar! particles: According to this theor!8 particles gain mass b! interacting &ith
the Higgs field that permeates all space: Eore precisel!8 the Higgs mechanism endo&s gauge bosons
in a gauge theor! &ith mass through absorption of >ambu$)oldstone bosons arising in spontaneous
s!mmetr! brea'ing:
The simplest implementation of the mechanism adds an e=tra Higgs field to the gauge theor!: The
spontaneous s!mmetr! brea'ing of the underl!ing local s!mmetr! triggers conversion of
components of this Higgs field to )oldstone bosons &hich interact &ith Fat least some ofG the other
fields in the theor!8 so as to produce mass terms for Fat least some ofG the gauge bosons: This
mechanism ma! also leave behind elementar! scalar Fspin95G particles8 'no&n as Higgs bosons:
*n the 1tandard Eodel8 the phrase ?Higgs mechanism? refers specificall! to the generation of masses
for the #
R
8 and Q &ea' gauge bosons through electro&ea' s!mmetr! brea'ing: The Marge Hadron
Collider at CER> announced results consistent &ith the Higgs particle on @ul! "8 2542 but stressed
that further testing is needed to confirm the 1tandard Eodel:
hat is the *pin+
1o &e 'no& alread! that the ne& particle has spin Aero or spin t&o and &e could tell &hich one if &e
could detect the polariAations of the photons produced: nfortunatel! this is difficult and neither
ATMA1 nor CE1 are able to measure polariAations: The onl! direct and sure &a! to confirm that the
particle is indeed a scalar is to plot the angular distribution of the photons in the rest frame of the
centre of mass: A spin Aero particles li'e the Higgs carries no directional information a&a! from the
original collision so the distribution &ill be even in all directions: This test &ill be possible &hen a
much larger number of events have been observed: *n the mean time &e can settle for less certain
indirect indicators:
The %raviton
*n ph!sics8 the graviton is a h!pothetical elementar! particle that mediates the force of gravitation in
the frame&or' of /uantum field theor!: *f it e=ists8 the graviton is e=pected to be massless Fbecause
the gravitational force appears to have unlimited rangeG and must be a spin92 boson: The spin
follo&s from the fact that the source of gravitation is the stress9energ! tensor8 a second9ran' tensor
Fcompared to electromagnetismBs spin94 photon8 the source of &hich is the four9current8 a first9ran'
tensorG: Additionall!8 it can be sho&n that an! massless spin92 field &ould give rise to a force
indistinguishable from gravitation8 because a massless spin92 field must couple to Finteract &ithG the
stress9energ! tensor in the same &a! that the gravitational field does: This result suggests that8 if a
massless spin92 particle is discovered8 it must be the graviton8 so that the onl! e=perimental
verification needed for the graviton ma! simpl! be the discover! of a massless spin92 particle: ;3<
Conclusions
Lne of the most important conclusions is that the electric charges are moving in an accelerated &a!
and even if their velocit! is constant8 the! have an intrinsic acceleration an!&a!8 the so called spin8
since the! need at least an intrinsic acceleration to ma'e possible the! movement :
The accelerated charges self9maintaining potential sho&s the localit! of the relativit!8 &or'ing on
the /uantum level also: ;4<
The bridge bet&een the classical and /uantum theor! is based on this intrinsic acceleration of the
spin8 e=plaining also the Heisenberg ncertaint! Principle: The particle $ &ave dualit! of the electric
charges and the photon ma'es certain that the! are both sides of the same thing:
The 1ecret of Quantum Entanglement that the particles are diffraction patterns of the
electromagnetic &aves and this &a! their /uantum states ever! time is the result of the /uantum
state of the intermediate electromagnetic &aves: ;2<
The 'e! brea'through to arrive at this ne& idea to build /ubits &as to e=ploit the abilit! to control
the nuclear spin of each atom: #ith that insight8 the team has no& conceived a uni/ue &a! to use
the nuclei as facilitators for the /uantum logic operation bet&een the electrons: ;(<
Basing the gravitational force on the accelerating niverse caused magnetic force and the Planc'
%istribution Ma& of the electromagnetic &aves caused diffraction gives us the basis to build a nified
Theor! of the ph!sical interactions also:
References
;4< The Eagnetic field of the Electric current and the Eagnetic induction
http6JJacademia:eduJ303333(JTheSEagneticSfieldSofStheSElectricScurrent
;2< 3 %imensional 1tring Theor!
http6JJacademia:eduJ303""("J3S%imensionalS1tringSTheor!
;3< )raviton Production B! T&o Photon and Electron9Photon Processes *n TaluAa9Tlein Theories #ith
Marge E=tra %imensions
http6JJar=iv:orgJabsJhep9phJ3353332
;"< Quantum Entanglement
http6JJen:&i'ipedia:orgJ&i'iJQuantumSentanglement
;(< Pairing up single atoms in silicon for /uantum computing
http6JJph!s:orgJne&sJ254"95+9pairing9atoms9silicon9/uantum:htmlUn&lt