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Huawei Confidential
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www.huawei.com
GENEX U-Net
Introduction
ISSUE 4.0
RNP Staff Training Dept.
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Page 3
References
U-Net User Manual
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Page 4
After this course, you will
Comprehend the features and
functions of GENEX U-Net
Master how to use U-Net to plan a
network step by step
Know how to use U-Net for HSDPA
planning
Objectives
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Page 5
1 GENEX Overview
2 GENEX U-Net Features
3 How to use U-Net to plan a network
4 Using U-Net for HSDPA planning
Contents
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Page 6
RNC
GENEX U-Net
Radio Network Planning Tool
Downlink + Uplink
GENEX Probe
GENEX Test Mobile
GENEX Assistant
Test & Post-Process Tools
GENEX Nastar
Network Performance Analysis System
GENEX U-Net is a radio planning
tool that fully supports the
technologies of GSM,GPRS-EDGE,
CDMA IS95,
WCDMA/UMTS/HSDPA, CDMA
2000/1xRTT/1xEVDO, and TD-
SCDMA wireless networks.
The GENEX Probe, network
optimization and drive test data
collection system, is an air interface
test tool for
WCDMA/HSDPA/GSM/GPRS
networks.
GENEX Assistant is a professional
wireless test data post-processing
software system.
GENEX Nastar is a platform for
monitoring and optimizing the
performance of
GSM/CDMA/WCDMA wireless
networks
Huawei GENEX Family
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Page 7
Whole Flow Overview
Radio Network Planning
Tool
Air Interface Test Tool and
Post-Processing Tool
Network Performance
Analysis Tool
Make full use of
network resource
GENEX covers
the network
lifecycle
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Page 8
GENEX Partners in The World
Applied in the Huawei 2G and 3G planning and
optimization projects
Covers more than forty countries, including
commercial and pilot network
Assists the renowned operators in establishing and
optimizing the network with high quality.
The network operators include but not limited to: China
Mobile, China Unicom, China Telecom, China Netcom,
Vodafone, PBTL, T-Mobile, Orange, CellPlus,
PCCW(Sunday), Telecom, eMobile.
Aims at consistently providing the customers with
professional and high-level solutions for network planning
and optimization.
Employed by network operators and designing institutes all
over 26 provinces and municipalities
Integrates the experiences of renowned operators,
advancing with customers hand by hand.


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Page 9
1 GENEX Overview
2 GENEX U-Net Features
3 How to use U-Net to plan a network
4 Using U-Net for HSDPA planning
Contents
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Page 10
U-Net Overview
A professional radio network design tool, supporting GSM/TDMA,
GPRS-EDGE, CDMAOne, W-CDMA/UMTS and CDMA 2000/1x
RTT/EVDO. It is specially designed for 3G.
Support both single system configuration and Enterprise server-
based network configuration. The single system configuration does
not require connecting external database and users still can share
engineering data.
With modern software structure as well as open and extendable
platform.
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Page 11
Pre-
planning
module

Network
dimensionin
g
U-Net Base Modulerequired
(including GSM network planning and prediction)
Measurements
module




Test Mobile data
CW test data
Propagation
model tuning
AFP
Module
(GSM)





Automatic
Frequency
Planning
DT
Module




2G DT data
for
coverage
prediction

2G DT data
for
propagation
model
tuning
MicroWav
e Module





Microwave
managemen
t & analysis
3G
module






Prediction
and
simulation
for WCDMA
&
CDMA2000/
1xRTT/EV-
DO
Modules
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Page 12
U-Net Work Station
PC Pentium3 processor or better
more than 256 MB memory. 512 MB memory is suggested
Windows NT 4.0/Windows 2000 Professional/Windows XP
U-Net stand-alone version needs no external database
Multi-user structure supports the following database
management system (Single user does not apply)
Microsoft Access 97/2000
Microsoft SQL Server 7.0
Oracle v8.1.7 or higher
Sybase Adaptive Server V 11.5
System Requirement
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Page 13
Vector
raster
DTM
Database for World Coordinate System
(about 980 kinds)
Support various map formats:
Raster dataBIL, TIF, BMP, MapInfo, ArcView,
ERDAS Imagine, MSI Planet...
Vector data
Support various resolutions:
1 meter precision at most
Support various map types
Digital Elevation Model (DEM)
clutter type data ( Type and Elevation)
Three-dimensional architectural data (raster and vector data)
Traffic data and Population-density data
Satellite and navigation map
Vector data
Powerful Geography Information System
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Page 14
Advanced database structure
Flexible database structure, support
multi-user through standard RDBMS
(MS Access, MS SQL Server V7,
Oracle V8, Sybase)
Security management
Database consistency
Database connection/disconnection
Stand-alone/distributed/client-server
Multi-user Management
Server1 Server2 Server3
user 1 user 2 user 3 user 4 user 5 user 6 user 7
Workstation 2 Workstation 3 Workstation 1 Workstation 4
Server1 Server2
Workstation 2 Workstation 3 Workstation 1 Workstation 4
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Page 15
Transmitter
Area calculated
using a macrocell
model
Area calculated
using a
microcell model
Influence simulation results:
Factor I: precision of propagation model
Modern Propagation Calculation Engine:
Define propagation module on different levels:
sectors, sites, zones or layers.
Support geo databases with various resolutions
Path loss matrix with dual-resolution per transmitter
Distributed calculation
Integrated Propagation Modules:
SPM Standard Propagation Module
Okumura-Hata Cost-Hata
ITU 526-5 and ITU 370-7 Propagation Module
Longley-Rice and WLL Propagation Module
Interfaces Open to Exterior Modules
Integrate exterior propagation modules via API
Integrate the existing third party propagation modules
completely,
e.g. : Wavesight, Volcano, Winpro.
Propagation Model
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Page 16
Import CW Measurement Data :
Import and display CW data
Prediction /measurement comparison and statistics
analysis
Automatically correction of propagation modules
according to CW measurement.
Import Measurement Data for Mobile Testing
Import, display and analyze testing mobile data.
Replay on the map according to routes defined by users.
Analyze and display paging events.
Support generic ASCII and industry-specific standard
formats.
Automatically correction of propagation modules
using mobile-testing drive test data.
Measurement Module
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Page 17
For each user
Service
Circuit / packet
Active factor
Nominal rate
Traffic power
Equipment
Ec/Io threshold
Mobility
Traffic map
Based on environment
Based on live traffic data
Based on traffic density
WCDMA Traffic model
Traffic
Model
User
Density
Terminals Mobility
Services
User
Profile
Influence simulation results:
Factor II: precision of traffic model
Traffic Model
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Page 18
Monte Carlo simulation
Outputs
reports
statistics
More than 100 kinds predictions
For advanced analysis
Parameters for each user in every snapshot
(UL load, DL load, rejection reason, etc.)
Simulation
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Page 19
Point Analysis
Live Computation (without considering path loss matrix).
Path Profile
Diffraction
Loss
Diffraction peak (different
propagation modules have
different peaks).

the angle of the LOS
read in the antenna
vertical pattern

Indication of
interference (If it is
considered in modules).
LOS
Estimated
shadow
margins
Distance
between Tx-
Rx
Modules
used
Signal Level at
the receivers end
Types of TRX (or
carriers in UMTS and
CDMA/CDMA2000
Studied
transmitters
and
repeaters
10GHz
ellipse
DTM
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Page 20
Point Analysis
Radio reception diagnosis for a given point
Choose an existing
simulation and check its
load conditions on UL and
DL.
Definition of user-
definable probe
receiver
Analysis of specific
carrier or all
carriers (Carriers
are considered as
sets in site
equipment).

Availability of
traffic on UL and
DL

Cells in mobile
active set (grey
area)
Cells outside
active set (white
area)

Threshold for best server that
becomes part of active set. (It
varies with different mobility
types).
Active set threshold (best
pilot quality active set
threshold0.
Availability of
Pilot
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Page 21
1 GENEX Overview
2 GENEX U-Net Features
3 How to use U-Net to plan a network
4 Using U-Net for HSDPA planning
Contents
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Page 22
Simulation step by step
Link budget
Analysis
Setup
network
Design
Run Pilot
Field
Strength
Prediction
Pilot
Level
OK?
Traffic
Forecast
Avail?
Run UMTS
Traffic
simulation
Setup fixed
Load values
Make predictions
(Services)
Performance
Requirements
Fulfilled?
Neighbors planning&
Scrambling code
allocation
RNP Input & Equipment
configuration
Neighborhood
planning criteria
Scrambling code
allocation criteria
Output
parameters
YES
NO
YES
NO
YES
NO
Traffic model
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Page 23
Network Modeling
Geo data digital map
Propagation Model
Network database
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Page 24
Digital Map
Digital map is used for planning basically consists of the following three
components, stored under three directories respectively.
\Heights
Digital Terrain Model (DTM): stored in a binary format where each
element of the data represents the height above sea level in meters for
a square area. Directly participate in radio propagation model
calculation.
\Clutter
Digital Land Use (DLU): stored in a binary format with each element
of the data containing a code corresponding to a category of land
usage for a square area, such as forest, lake, open area, industrial
area, urban area, high-storey building area. It is used during
calculating radio propagation path loss.
\Vector
Linear vector Model (LDM): linear vector data describes plane
distribution and space relationship of linear clutters, including
speedway, street and river.
For Planet format map, Linear (2D) vector data is stored in ASCII
DOS format and requires following types of input file - an index file,
a menu file, and one or several vector data files.
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Page 25
Digital Map
For high resolution digital map, there are another two
kinds of maps which describe the building height.
\Clutter Height
Digital Height Model (DHM): format is exactly the same as the
DTM format except that the height values stored represent
clutter height above ground level, that is, flat earth. Where
clutter is open, values should be 0m.
\3D Vector
3D vector data describe the shapes of clutters but also their
heights in great detail. 3D vector data is expected to contain
at least building contours and heights but contours and
heights are also recommended for other clutters (e.g.
vegetation, water).
For Planet format map, 3D vector data is stored in ASCII
DOS format and requires following types of input file an
index file, a menu file, and one or several couples of
vector data files + vector 3D attributes files.
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Page 26
Projection (Primary) coordinate system: It is a coordinate system of
geographical database which depends on the imported geographic file.
(Usually, projection system can be found in Projection file in DTM map directory).
Display coordinate system: it is a coordinate system for display and
data-input. All the geographical coordinates are displayed and input
according to this system. If the projection coordinate system and the
display coordinate system do not match with each other, U-Net will
adjust them.
U-Net works with the following two coordinate systems at
the same time:
Selecting coordinate system
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Page 27
Propagation Model
Model
Frequency
band
Take into account Required settings Recommended use
Longley-
Rice
(theoretical)
40 MHz
Terrain profile
Reflection
Calibration
- Flat areas
- Very low frequencies
ITU 370-7
Vienna 93
100 MHz
400 MHz
- Terrain profile
-Percentage time while real
field > calculated field
- Long distances (d>10km)
- Low frequencies
ITU 526-5
(theoretical)
30 - 10.000
MHz
- Terrain profile
- Diffraction (3 knife-edge Deygout
method)
Fixed receivers
WLL
30 - 10.000
MHz
- Terrain profile
- Deterministic clutter
- Diffraction (3 knife-edge Deygout
method)
- Free space loss
- Receiver height and
clearance per clutter
Fixed receivers
> Microwave links
Okumura-
Hata
150 - 1.000
MHz
- Terrain profile
- Statistical clutter (at the receiver)
- 1 formula per clutter
- Reflection
- With diffraction or not
- Urban loss + correction
a(Hr)
1 < d < 20 km
> GSM 900
> CDMA/CDMA2000
Cost-Hata
1.500 - 2.000
MHz
- Terrain profile
- Statistical clutter (at the receiver)
- 1 formula per clutter
- Reflection
- With diffraction or not
- Urban loss + correction
a(Hr)
1 < d < 20 km
> GSM 1800
> UMTS
Standard
Propagation
Model
150 - 2.000
MHz
- Terrain profile
- Statistical clutter
- Effective antenna height
- With diffraction weight
- K1, ..., K6 (single formula)
- LOS or NLOS
differentiation
- Loss per clutter with
clutter weighting
- Receiver clearance
1 < d < 20 km
> GSM 900
> GSM 1800
> UMTS
> CDMA/CDMA2000
(Automatic calibration available)
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Page 28
Standard Propagation Model (SPM
PathLoss=K1 + K2log(d) + K3log(HTxeff) + K4Diffraction
+ K5log(d)log(HTxeff) + K6(HRxeff) + Kclutterf(clutter)
K1: Constant offset (dB)
K2: Multiplying factor for log(d)
d: Distance between the receiver and the transmitter (m)
K3: Multiplying factor for log(HTxeff)
HTxeff: Effective height of the transmitter antenna (m)
K4: Multiplying factor for diffraction calculation. K4 has to be a positive
number
Diffraction loss: Losses due to diffraction over an obstructed path (dB)
K5: Multiplying factor for log(HTxeff)log(d)
K6: Multiplying factor for HRxeff
HRxeff: Mobile antenna height (m)
Kclutter: Multiplying factor for f(clutter).
f(clutter): Average of weighted losses due to clutter
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Page 29
Network Database
Sites
A site is a geographical point where one or several transmitters (multi-sector
site or station) equipped with antennas with particular characteristics are
located.
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Page 30
Network Database
CE (Channel Element) Consumption
The number of channel element required by a site depends on site
equipment, bearer type and link direction (UL or DL)
Example of CE Consumption (Huawei NodeB)
Bearer Name
Nb CEs used
(UL)
Nb CEs used
(DL)
AMR 12.2 1 1
CS64 3 2
PS128 5 4
PS144 5 4
PS384 10 8
PS64 3 2
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Page 31
Network Database
Horizontal Pattern Vertical Pattern
Other Properties: Manufacturer, Gain (dBi), Beamwidth, Frequency
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Page 32
Network Database
Transmitters
A transmitter is the source or generator of any signal on a transmission
medium. A transmitter is a piece of equipment composed of some
antennas located on a site.
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Page 33
Transmitter Parameters
Average frequency (FDD)
used by propagation model
Carrier number
Spread bandwidth
Io calculation mode
Total noise
Without pilot
Nt calculation mode
Total noise
Without useful signal (signal of the
considered cell)
Default remaining
orthogonality factor at the
receiver
Maximal Ratio Combining in
softer/soft (2 sites, 3 Txs) (use both
of rake factor and UL Macro-
diversity gain)
Gain applied to the max Eb/Nt on several links in SHO
in order to determine the resulting quality at the RNC
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Page 34
Cells
Each carrier on a transmitter defines a WCDMA cell; cell gives the
carrier characteristics on a transmitter.
Network Database
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Page 35
Transmitter Equipment Parameters
U-Net provides two ways to calculate
transmission/reception losses:
Use losses of TMA and feeder to
calculate
Directly set in Transmitters table
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Page 36
Link budget
Analysis
Setup
network
Design
Run Pilot
Field
Strength
Prediction
Pilot
Level
OK?
Traffic
Forecast
Avail?
Run UMTS
Traffic
simulation
Setup fixed
Load values
Make predictions
(Services)
Performance
Requirements
Fulfilled?
Neighbors planning&
Scrambling code
allocation
RNP Input & Equipment
configuration
Neighborhood
planning criteria
Scrambling code
allocation criteria
Output
parameters
YES
NO
YES
NO
YES
NO
Traffic model
Simulation step by step
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Page 37
Predictions
1. Predictions without simulation
(Independent of Traffic)
2. Predictions with simulations
(Dependent on traffic)
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Page 38
Predictions without simulation
Coverage by
transmitter: Display the
best server coverage
Coverage by signal
level: Display the signal
level across the studied
area
Overlapping zones:
Display the signal level
across the studied area
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Page 39
Coverage Prediction Parameters
Setting the following parameters:
Signal level threshold value: defaulted as -
120dBm and the maximum value has no upper
limit.
All Servers or Best Server: usually select Best
server so as to be convenient to observe the
coverage of the best cell.
Signal level margin of the best cell: defaulted as
0.
Cell Edge Coverage Probability: if shadow
fading needs not taken into account, set 50%;
by default, shadow fading with 75% probability
has taken into account.
Indoor Coverage: if checked, indoor loss set for
each clutter has taken into account.
Carrier: select a specific carrier
or all carriers, when All be
selected, U-Net calculates the
best carrier for each transmitter.
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Page 40
Computation Zone
Usually, Computation Zone needs to be drawn before predictions.
Specially,
The computation zone may consist of several polygons. Draw a first
polygon or select the existing zone on the map, then select the Combine tool
of the Vector Edition bar and draw another polygon.
The computation zone may be holed. Draw a polygon or select the existing
zone on the map, then select the Delete tool of the Vector Edition bar and
delete the part you want to remove from the polygon.
Combine:
Delete:
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Page 41
Link budget
Analysis
Setup
network
Design
Run Pilot
Field
Strength
Prediction
Pilot
Level
OK?
Traffic
Forecast
Avail?
Run UMTS
Traffic
simulation
Setup fixed
Load values
Make predictions
(Services)
Performance
Requirements
Fulfilled?
Neighbors planning&
Scrambling code
allocation
RNP Input & Equipment
configuration
Neighborhood
planning criteria
Scrambling code
allocation criteria
Output
parameters
YES
NO
YES
NO
YES
NO
Traffic model
Simulation step by step
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Page 42
Traffic Modeling
Environments
User profiles
Terminals
Mobility type
Services
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Page 43
Services
Service name
Min and max allowed transmitter traffic
power per link
Circuit : DL and UL activity factors
(DTX - Time)
Packet : DL and UL packet efficiency
factors (unsuccessful data
retransmission)
DL and UL coding factors (rate)
DL and UL nominal rate (kbps) (seen by
the user)
Service priority (0 : lowest)
Macro-diversity use
Type of service
Body loss used in link budget
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Page 44
Services
DL and UL Eb/Nt targets per mobility
Service Name, eg. Voice, VP, Web,
Streaming etc.
Active factor/Efficiency factor
Nominal rate (UL & DL)
Body Loss (dB)
Max/Min DL TCH Power (dBm)
Eb/Nt corresponding to Mobility
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Page 45
Name: eg. 50km/h, 90km/h, Pedestrian etc.
Ec/Io threshold: the minimum Ec/Io required from a transmitter to enter the
active set. In the U-Net, this value is verified for the best server.
Values refer to WCDMA/UMTS specifications or commercial network
configuration
Mobility type
Pilot quality threshold
(depending on speed) to define
the best server of a mobile active
set
Mobility type name
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Page 46
Terminals
Minimum and maximum
allowed power (UL) during
power control simulation
Gain and loss in terminal
Noise figure used in the DL
load factor determination
Active set size : number of
transmitters which can be
connected to a mobile
(maximum 4 in UMTS)
DL rake factor used for the
signal recombination at
the terminal
Terminal name
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Page 47
Name: e.g. Urban users, Suburban users; or based on user behaviors,
such as Upper users, Lower users etc.
Which terminal do this kind of user use?
For which service?
With which usage characteristics (call number, duration, volume)
Values come from MI or OMC data.
User profiles
User profile name
Which
service
with which
terminal
Usage frequency with different definition
Circuit : average number of calls per hour, average duration of a call in seconds
Packet : DL and UL packet efficiency factors (unsuccessful data retransmission)
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Page 48
Environments
List of user profiles
with associated
mobility and density
Environment
type name
Possible clutter
weighting in order to
get an accurate user
distribution
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Page 49
Create Traffic Map
Map based on Environments
Each pixel of the map is assigned an environment
class
Traffic map is created based on combination of user
profile, user density and mobility
Purpose of traffic map
Transfer traffic modeling onto the digital map for UMTS simulations.
Traffic map makes traffic model become meaningful geographically.
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Page 50
Map based on Transmitters and Services
Based on Best Server Coverage Prediction
Define throughput or user numbers per
service for each transmitter
Live traffic spread over the service area of
each transmitter
Create Traffic Map
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Page 51
Link budget
Analysis
Setup
network
Design
Run Pilot
Field
Strength
Prediction
Pilot
Level
OK?
Traffic
Forecast
Avail?
Run UMTS
Traffic
simulation
Setup fixed
Load values
Make predictions
(Services)
Performance
Requirements
Fulfilled?
Neighbors planning&
Scrambling code
allocation
RNP Input & Equipment
configuration
Neighborhood
planning criteria
Scrambling code
allocation criteria
Output
parameters
YES
NO
YES
NO
YES
NO
Traffic model
Simulation step by step
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Page 52
Simulation Basis
Simulation is oriented to simulate the
running situation of networks under
the current network configuration so
as to facilitate decision-making
adjustment.

U-Net use Monte Carlo simulation to
generate user distributions (snapshots)
randomly. By iteration, U-Net get the
uplink/downlink cell loading, the
connection status and rejected reason
for each mobile.
Snapshots, U-Net is able to generate
prediction plots by using a non interfering
mobile (called probe mobile or test
mobile)
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Page 53
Static Simulation

Generate a certain quantity of network instantaneous state - Snapshot.
Here, some MSs or terminals are distributed based on a certain rule (such
as random even distribution) at each Snapshot.
Acquire connection capability between terminals and networks by
incremental operation.
Here, it is required to consider the possibility of multiple connection
failure (uplink/downlink traffic channel maximum transmit power,
unavailable channels, low Ec/Io and uplink/downlink interference).
Measure and analyze results of multiple Snapshots to have a overall
understanding of network performance.

Monte Carlo simulation is a kind of static simulation.
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Page 54
100%
100% 20%
60%
0% 75% 40% 60%
100%
100% 20%
60%
0% 75% 40% 60%
Monte Carlo Simulation
The following takes coverage probability for an example to further
understand how Monte Carlo simulation is performed.
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Page 55
Monte Carlo Simulation
The overlay measurement results of multiple Snapshots should
be consistent with traffic model.
500mErl
300mErl
1200mErl
1000mErl
50
30
120
100
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
1
1
1
4
4
4
4
3
3
3
2
2
5
5
5
X
X
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Page 56
Simulation Parameters
Name
Number of simulations to
run for the current session
Simulation results contain:
Only the Average Simulation and Statistics
No Information About Mobiles
Standard Information About Mobiles
Detailed Information About Mobiles
Constraints to respect during simulation:
maximum number of channel elements
maximum uplink cell load factor
maximum downlink cell load
OVSF codes availability
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Page 57
Simulation Parameters (cont.) & Results
Traffic
Cartography selection
Optional multiplicative factor
Convergence criteria
Maximum number of iterations
UL and DL convergence thresholds
Simulation Parameters Simulation Results
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Page 58
Rejection Reason
Status Main Reason Sub Reason
Ec/Io pilot < Ec/Io min pilot
The signal quality is
not sufficient
On the downlink, the pilot quality is not enough
(no cell in the user active set)
Ptch > Ptch max
On the downlink, there is not enough reception
on traffic channel
Pmob > Pmob max
On the uplink, there is not enough power to
transmit
Admission rejection
When constraints
above are respected,
the network may be
saturated
The maximum uplink load factor is exceeded (at
admission or congestion)
UL load saturation
Channel element saturation There are not enough channel elements on site
DL load saturation There are not enough power for cells
Code saturation There are no more OVSF codes available
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Page 59
Simulation Statistics
Request:
Total users accessed into the
network, uplink/downlink total
volume required by the
network, and details
classification of each type of
service.
Results:
Refused users and relevant
causes, users successfully
accessed, actual volume of the
network, and details
classification of each type of
service.
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Page 60
Link budget
Analysis
Setup
network
Design
Run Pilot
Field
Strength
Prediction
Pilot
Level
OK?
Traffic
Forecast
Avail?
Run UMTS
Traffic
simulation
Setup fixed
Load values
Make predictions
(Services)
Performance
Requirements
Fulfilled?
Neighbors planning&
Scrambling code
allocation
RNP Input & Equipment
configuration
Neighborhood
planning criteria
Scrambling code
allocation criteria
Output
parameters
YES
NO
YES
NO
YES
NO
Traffic model
Simulation step by step
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Page 61
Predictions dependent on traffic
Pilot quality (Ec/Io): Displays the
pilot quality across the studied area.
Pilot pollution: Displays pilot
pollution statistics across the studied
area.
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Page 62
Predictions dependent on traffic
Service area (Eb/Nt) uplink: Displays
areas where the traffic channel quality of
probe mobile at transmitter (Eb/Nt) is
sufficient for the transmitter to get a
service. Uplink service area is limited by
maximum terminal power.
Service area (Eb/Nt) downlink: Displays
areas where there is one or more
transmitter of which traffic channel quality at
the receiver (Eb/Nt or combined Eb/Nt) is
sufficient for the probe mobile to obtain a
service.
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Page 63
Predictions dependent on traffic
Handoff Status: Display
areas depending on the probe
mobile handoff status.
Downlink Total Noise:
Display areas where the DL
total noise or the DL noise rise
exceeds some user-defined
levels.
Effective service area:
Displays the intersection zone
between uplink and downlink
service areas. It is the area
where a service is really
available for the probe mobile.
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Page 64
Link budget
Analysis
Setup
network
Design
Run Pilot
Field
Strength
Prediction
Pilot
Level
OK?
Traffic
Forecast
Avail?
Run UMTS
Traffic
simulation
Setup fixed
Load values
Make predictions
(Services)
Performance
Requirements
Fulfilled?
Neighbors planning&
Scrambling code
allocation
RNP Input & Equipment
configuration
Neighborhood
planning criteria
Scrambling code
allocation criteria
Output
parameters
YES
NO
YES
NO
YES
NO
Traffic model
Simulation step by step
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Page 65
Neighbours Automatic Allocation
Intra-frequency

Inter-frequency

Inter-RAT
Display neighbours
on map
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Page 66
Max Number of
Neighboursusually 32.

Force co-site cells as
neighboursforce co-site
cells to be taken into account.

Force adjacent cells as
neighboursforce adjacent
cells to be neighbours.

Force symmetryforce
neighbour symmetry. Thus,
if B is a neighbour for A, then
A will be also a neighbour for
B.

Force exceptional pairs
force the constraints defined
for exceptional pairs.
Reset neighbours: start the automatic allocation from scratch.
Coverage conditions: eg. Signal Level, Ec/Io, coverage probability etc.
% Min covered area: minimum percent between the overlapping zone and the studied cell coverage area.
Neighbours Automatic Allocation
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Page 67
PSC Automatic Allocation
Step1. Define Scrambling Code Format (Decimal or Hexadecimal)
Step2. Create Domain-Group pairs
define the lowest and highest available PSC, separation interval, excluded and extra codes
Step3. Assign Domain to cell
Step4. Automatic Allocation
Each cell and its neighbours
not have the same code
Each cell and the neighbours of its
neighbours not have the same code. In
addition, all the neighbours (first and
second) cannot have the same code.
Clustered
Choose codes among a minimum number of clusters.
Allocate all the codes of a same cluster.
Distributed
Use as many clusters as possible. Allocate codes from
different clusters.
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Page 68
Scrambling Code Audit
The algorithm will be quite helpful after manual correction.
Checking Allocation Criteria
Neighbouring Relationship
Exceptional Pair
Reuse Distance
Domain
Checking Results in Reports
Scrambling Code Check.txt
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Page 69
1 GENEX Overview
2 GENEX U-Net Features
3 How to use U-Net to plan a network
4 Using U-Net for HSDPA planning
Contents
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Page 70
4 Using U-Net for HSDPA planning
4.1 U-Net HSDPA Simulation Theory
4.2 U-Net HSDPA Modeling
4.3 U-Net HSDPA Simulation
4.4 U-Net HSDPA Prediction
Contents
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Page 71
Overview
1. Predictions. E.g. HS-PDSCH Ec/Nt, CQI, Peak Rate,
Application Throughput
2. HSDPA Monte-carlo Simulation
3. Independent HSDPA carrier and shared carrier with R99
4. Multi-carriers configuration
5. Static or Dynamic HS-PDSCH Power Allocation
6. Static or Dynamic HS-SCCH Power Allocation
7. Static or Dynamic code Allocation
8. Configurable 1-4 HS-SCCH
9. Limited Max number of HSDPA users
10. MAXC/I, RR, PF Scheduling Algorithm
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Page 72
Theory - CQI
There are two methods to calculate CQI
Based on CPICH quality
Based on HS-PDSCH quality
The Two mapping tables are provided in U-Net
Huawei recommends the use of HS-PDSCH based quality mapping table
because this tables default parameters are consistent with Huaweis
recommendation
HS-PDSCH Ec/Nt & CQI mapping table CPICH Ec/Nt & CQI mapping table
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Page 73
Theory-Scheduling
The order of the served HSDPA users is depending on which one of the three
available scheduling techniques has been selected .
Proportion FairMAX C/IRound Robin are offered by this Version.
MAX C/IResources allocated to UE with the best radio propagation conditions.
HSDPA users are sorted in CQI descending order
Round Robin: Resources allocated in a sequential way. HSDPA users are taken
into account in their order of appearance in MC simulation (random order)
Proportion Fair: A compromise between the two previous methods to allow to
serve also users with bad radio conditions but trying to maximize average
throughput. HSDPA users are first sorted in CQI descending order. Then the first
HSDPA_MAX_USERS are taken into account in their appearance order.
All codes
reserved for
HSDPA
transmission
2ms
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Page 74
Theory-Peak Rate
Peak Rate is RLC layer rate
The calculation process:
Mapping Radio Bearer Index from CQI
Looking up HSDPA Radio bearer corresponding
to the Radio bearer Index
Estimating UE categories supporting the bearer
(Modulation/Code etc)
If supportedget the Peak Rate; if not, then go
back to HSDPA Radio bearer to look up the
best bearer and get the Peak Rate
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Page 75
Application Throughput is Application layer rate
The formula from peak rate to application throughput:
TTI
Offect r ScaleFacto BLER R
R
DL
peak DL
n applicatio

) 1 (
BLER defined in HSDPA Quality graph
Scaling Factor and Offset defined in HSDPA Service
TTI is the minimum interval between two continuous
TTI defined in the UE category
Theory-Application Throughput
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Page 76
4 Using U-Net for HSDPA planning
4.1 U-Net HSDPA Simulation Theory
4.2 U-Net HSDPA Modeling
4.3 U-Net HSDPA Simulation
4.4 U-Net HSDPA Prediction
Contents
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Page 77
Right click Transmitters/Properties/Global Parameters and get the
popup window
NtWithout useful signal and Total Noise, Without useful signal is
recommended to be selected
CQIBased on HS-PDSCH quality or Based on CPICH quality,
Based on HS-PDSCH quality is recommended to be selected
Transmitters
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Page 78
Right click Transmitters/Cells/Open table to Open cell table
Cells
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Page 79
HSDPA Powerfor static HSDPA power allocation there is need to fill in
power values whilst if it dynamic HSDPA power allocation, there is no need
Power Headroom: the headroom left for fast fading and power control
margin. For dynamic HSDPA power allocation there is need to fill in
headroom values 0.4576 [10lg(100/90)=0.4576dB ]whilst if it static HSDPA
power allocation, there is no need
HS-SCCH Power: for static HS-SCCH power allocation there is need to fill
in power values(5% of HSDPA Power generally) whilst if it dynamic HS-
SCCH power allocation, there is no need
Scheduler Algorithmsupports Proportion Fair, MAX C/I and Round Robin
Others include: max /min number of HS-PDSCH codes ,the method of
HSDPA power allocation, the method of HS-SCCH allocation ,Number of
HS-SCCH channels, Max number of HSDPA users etc
Cells (cont.)
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Page 80
Click UMTS Parameters/Terminals/HSDPA to open HSDPA terminal table
HSDPA related parameters: HSDPA supported, UE Category, MUD Factor
(recommended value is 0)
UE Categories are from 1 to 12 defined by 3GPP specifications
Terminals
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Page 81
Right click Terminals (UMTS Parameters )and select HSDPA User
Equipment Categories to open UE categories table
No need to be modified, use the defaults values
Terminals (cont.)
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Page 82
Right click Terminals and select Reception Equipment to open
Reception Equipment Type
Double click standard to open standard properties
Include CQI tableBest Bearer table and DL Quality Indicator Table.
They have been introduced ahead
No need to be modified, use the default values
Terminals (cont.)
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Page 83
Double chick Mobility Types to open the table
We need to set the Ec/Nt Threshold. U-Net calculates the HS-SCCH
Power from these threshold when is set to HS-SCCH Dynamic Power
Allocation. The suggested values as shown in the figure below
Mobility Types
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Page 84
Double click Services to open
HSDPA properties
HS-PDSCH Requested
Average Rate: Requested
Average Rate by Per user, the
default is 100Kbps.it just affects
the HSDPA user densities
Scaling factor and offset is the
factor and offset of RLC layer
and Application LayerU-Net
calculates Application
throughput from Peak Rate
Services
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Page 85
Click the right button of R99 Radio Bearer to open ADPCH-UL64
properties
Set Nominal Rate ,Coding Factor and DPCCH/DPCH Power Ratio of
Uplink and Downlink. It is recommended to use the default values
Services (cont.)
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Page 86
Set UL and DL Target in the Eb/Nt sheet
Services (cont.)
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Page 87
Right click Service and select
HSDPA Radio Bearers
Set the mapping table from
Radio Bearer index to Peak
rate
Not need to be modified, use
the default values
Services (cont.)
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Page 88
Right click User Profile and select New to create HSDPA User
E.g. : the Uplink traffic is continuous 64kbps, the Downlink traffic is
continuous 2Mbps. This means
1. 64 kbps/8 * 3600 = 28800 Kbytes
2. 2 Mbps *1024 / 8 *3600 = 921600 KBytes
User Profiles
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Page 89
Map based on Transmitters and Services (Throughputs) Map based
on Transmitters and Services (Users) in present U-Net version, create
different maps for R99 and HSDPA service to avoid R99 terminal to be
allocated with HSDPA traffic and influence simulation accuracy
R99
HSDPA
Traffic Maps
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Page 90
4 Using U-Net for HSDPA planning
4.1 U-Net HSDPA Simulation Theory
4.2 U-Net HSDPA Modeling
4.3 U-Net HSDPA Simulation
4.4 U-Net HSDPA Prediction
Contents
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Page 91
R99 service access rate
The reasons of Rejected and delayed
1. HSDPA Delayed: lack of HSDPA power
2. HSDPA Scheduler Saturation: HSDPA users not in selected HSDPA_MAX_USERS users
Simulation Statistics
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Page 92
In group, check the results in
cell (average)
In single simulation, check the
results in cell
There are two important
parameters of power
1. Total Transmitted Power
without HSDPA (DL) (dBm)
total Power of R99 traffic
and pilot channels etc in
downlink.
2. HSDPA PowerdBm
HSDPA traffic power
Simulation Result - Cell
When HSDPA traffic existsit is the
maximum usable power and depending
on remaining OVSF codes UE
categories etc
When no HSDPA traffic, the values is 0
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Page 93
In group, check the results in cell
(average)
In single simulation, check the
results in cell
There are two important
parameters of power
1. DL requested rate: Depending on
HSDPA usable Power,remaining OVSF
codes and UE categories etc, it is not
associated with HSDPA traffic
2. DL obtained rate: depending on the
scheduler algorithm (Round Robin, Max
CQI, Proportional Fair) to select which
users obtain the rate
Simulation Result - Mobile
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Page 94
In group, check the results in cell
(average)
In single simulation, check the
results in cell
Some important results :
1. HSDPA Application Throughput:
Application layer ratecalculated from
HSDPA Peak Rate.
2. HSDPA Peak rateRLC layer rate
for single simulation, equaling to the
average requested rate (HSDPA) of
mobiles (connecting DL) in the cell
3. Instantaneous HSDPA Rate for
single simulation, equaling to the sum
of obtained rates (HSDPA) in the cell
4. Instantaneous HSDPA Rate of GROUP
simulations can be regarded as the cell
average rate. But it is not the actual cell
average rate, it is not associated with
HSDPA traffic
Simulation Result - Rate
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Page 95
4 Using U-Net for HSDPA planning
4.1 U-Net HSDPA Simulation Theory
4.2 U-Net HSDPA Modeling
4.3 U-Net HSDPA Simulation
4.4 U-Net HSDPA Prediction
Contents
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Page 96
Right Click Prediction and select New, Study Types, select
HSDPA Study
Select Fields (HS-PDSCH Ec/Nt, CQI, Peak Rate, Application
Throughput) in Display sheet
Peak rateRLC layer rate
Application Throughput: Application layer rate
Predictions for HSDPA
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Page 97
Predictions for HSDPA
HS-PDSCH Ec/Nt: HS-PDSCH quality
is associated with the DL transmission
rate, range from -20dB to 20dB
CQI: associated with the DL transmission
rate.
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Page 98
Predictions for HSDPA
Peak rate: Display RLC rate for each
pixel.
Application Throughput: Display
applicatioin rate for each pixel.
Thank you
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