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INDEX

1.

AIM

2.

INTRODUTION

3.

MATERIAL REQUIRED

4.

CHEMICALS

5.

EXPERIMENTS

6.

PRECAUTION

7.

RESULT

AIM
TO STUDY THE COMMON FOOD ADULTERANTS IN OIL, FAT, BUTTER, SUGAR,
TERMERIC POWDER, CHILE POWDER AND PEPPER.

Every person wishers to have good health. It is not only the balance and nourishing food
essential for good health, but the food should be fresh pure and harmless also. It is very difficult to get
pure things in market adulteration in the things is very common now even the cheapest food article salt,
is adulterated some of the common food articles are listed below :-

FOOD

ADULTERANT

1.

Milk, Butter and Desi Ghee

Water, fatless Milk, starch, sweet, potato.

2.

Vanspati Ghee

paraffin wax, other cheap verities of similar


materials

3.

Mustard Oil

Argemone Oil

4.

Sugar

Chalk powder, washing soda


semolina.

5.

Salt

chalk powder

6.

Tea

Unused tea after colouring, Dyed wooden


chips.

7.

Red chili powder


powder.

Injurious colours on brick

8.

Turmeric powder

Lead chromate power yellow chalk powder.

9.

Pepper

Dried papaya seed.

10.

Rice

Stone chips resembling rice.

11.

Arhar and gram pulses

Kesari Dal

MATERIAL REQUIRED
APPARATUS
1.

TEST TUBES

2.

DISTILLED WATER

3.

BURNER

4.

TEST TUBES STAND

5.

TEST TUBES HOLDER

6.

BEAKERS

7.

FLASKS

8.

FUNNEL

9.

FLAT BOTTOM FLASK

10.

CONICAL FLASK

11.

MEASURING CYLINDER

12.

TRST TUBE BRUSH

13.

TRIPOD STAND

14.

WIRE GAUZW

15.

CHINA DISH

16.

GLASS TUBE

17.

DROPPER

18.

FILTER PAPER

19.

THEROMEMTER

CHEMICALS REQUIRED
1.

Freshly prepared Iodine solution

2.

Diphenylamine reagent solution

3.

Hydrogen peroxide (20 vol.)

4.

Chloroform

5.

Huble Solution ( Iodine , Alcohols)

6.

HCI acid

7.

Furfural solution

8.

H2SO4 etc

Three adulterated food articles are only burden or our pocket, but can also cause serious disease
on consumption. We can test the presence of these adulterants in a very easy way. So be wise, test the
suspected food article before eating and save your health from the ill effect of those common food
adulterants.
Adulteration of food is one of the serious problems facing the country. Adulterated food
sometimes cause serious consequences likes stomach pain, cancers, respiratory diseases, allergic sets.
The aim of this project is to study some of the common food adulterants presents in our daily food.

EXPERIMENT-1
To test the presence of starch in the given sample of milk.
Presence of starch in milk can be detected by exploiting the formation of blue colour complex
with Iodine 5 ml. of milk was taken in a test tube and was boiled and after cooking a few drops of iodine
solution or tincture of iodine were added and the contents shaken appearance of blue colour indicated
the presence of starch in the milk. If it is pure, then there will be a deep yellow coloration due to casein,
a protein of milk.

Experiment II
To test the presence of vanaspati ghee and starch matter in given sample of pure ghee or butter.
THEORY
Starchy matter can be detected with iodine. Iodine forms a blue coloured complex with
starch.
APPARATUS :- Test tubes, test tube, rack and test tube holder.
CHEMICAL REQUIRED :- Potassium bisulphate, furfural HCL, Nitric acid.

PROCEDURE
A sample of the fat is taken in a test tube and to it few crystals of potassium bisulphate is
added and the test tube is gently heated. An unpleasant odour indicates the presence of fat.
BAUDCIN TEST :- To a small quantity of fat 1 ml. of add a few drops of 2% alcoholic solution
of furfural was added and the mixture is shaken vigorously. Appearance of red colour in the acid layer
confirms the presence of vanaspati ghee in the sample.
Every oil fat is characterized by a value called Iodine value quantitative estimation of iodine
value is a tool for identifying adulteration of an oil fat.

A small quantity of edible oil mixed with nitric acid in a test tube formation of red colour in the acid
layer indicates the presence of argemone oil as adulterant in the edible oil. It can cause swelling and pain
in eyes and even cancer.
OBSERVATION :absent.

The presence of starch was observed in the sample of ghee. But argemone oil was

Expeiment-III
TO study the presence of adulterants in sugar is usually contaminated with washing soda and other
insoluble substance CHEMICALS REQUIRED :- Water, Molisches regent. Conc sulphuric acid, dil
hydrochloric acid

PROCEDURE
To the sample of sugar, 20 cc of water was added and presence in soluble substance indicates
that the sugar sample is adulterated.
MOLISCHES TEST :- To 1-2 ml. of sugar solution 3-4 drops of Molisches Reagent (1% alcoholic
solution of 2 naphthol) followed by sulphur and slowly along the side of the test tube were added.
Appearance of pink of purple colour indicates the presence of carbohydrates.
To 0.5 lg of the sample in a test tube few drops of dilute HCl were added. Brisk effervescence
conce of co2 shows the presence of washing soda.
OBSERVATION :- When sugar was dissolved in water insoluble substance were observed. This
indicates that the sugar was adulterated but brisk effervescence were not observed.

Experiment IV
To study the presence of adulterants in sample of turmeric powder.
THEORY :- Yellow chalk power and Lead salts are the common adulterants.
PROCEDURE
To a small quantitiy of turmeric powder conc HCL was added Appearance of yellow colour
changing to magenta shows the presence of yellow oxides of lead as adulterants . To a sample of
turmeric powder dil HNO3 was added and the solution was filtered. To the filtrate drops of 10% KI
were added. Appearance of yellow precipitate [ PBI2] indicates the presence of lead salt as adulterants.
To contents were diluted with 25 to 30 ml. of water Disappearance of the violet colour formed
previously indicates the purity of turmeric powder. But if violet colour persists then it is contaminated
with yellow dye.
OBSERVATION :- The presence of yellow dye was observed because of the violet dil. HCL.

To study the presence of adulterant in arhar and yarn dal. The adulterant used in Khesari dal.
PROCEDURE :- To the powser of arhar dal little hydrochloric acid was added and the test tube was
heated. Pink colour indicates the presence of khesari dal.
OBSERVATION :- The given sample of gram and arhar were not adulterated with Khesari dal but small
pebbles were found in the sample.

Experiment VI
To study the adulterant in pepper.
The common adulterant is Dried Papayas seed.
PROCEDURE :- To the glass full of water the given simple was added. Dried papayas seeds being
lighter floats over water while the pure pepper seeds settle at bottom.
OBSERVATION :- Some seeds were floating over water and they were tested. They were dried
pappays seeds.

Experiment VII
To study the adulterant present in tea.
The common adulterant used are tea or wooden chips.
A small amount of the sample ever rubbed between the folds of moistened cloth. If cloth
becomes coloured then some dye is present in the sample.
OBSERVATION :- The cloth becomes coloured indicating the presence of tea leaves mixed with
colours used of tree of woodenchips.

Experiment VII
To study the adulterant present in salt.
The common adulterant used is chalk powder. To the sample of salt some water was added chalk
powder settles down at the bottom.
OBSERVATION :- Undissolved materials was present which settled to the bottom.

Experiment IX
To study the adulterant in rice the common adulterant is store chips resembling rice.
Some rice was added to a glass full of water store chips settled down to the bottom first.

Experiment X
To study the adulterant in the given sample of chilli brick powder is usually used as on adulterant
which settles down first when the chilli powder is sprinkled on the glass full of water.

PRECAUTION :1.

Oils catch fire easily so take care while heating them.

2.

While doing any reaction the test tube should be held with a test tube holder.

3.

All the solids should be liquefied before doing any reaction be heating.

4.

Sugar and Dal should be powdered before using.

5.

The moist cloth used to detect the due in Tea leaves should be white.

RESULT
By the tests we can test the ADULTEREANT in the common food.