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Understand how to handle information in social care settings.

1 Understand the need for secure handling of information in social care settings.
1.1 Identify the legislation that relates to the recording, storage and sharing of information in social
The main piece of legislation is the Data Protection Act 1998. This covers the medical, social, credit
information and the local authority. There are eight principles. The data must be:
- Fairly and lawfully processed
- Processed for intended purposes
- Adequate, relevant and not excessive
- Accurate
- Not kept for longer than necessary
- Processed in accordance with the data subject rights
- Kept secure
- Not transferred to countries without adequate protection.
1.2 Explain why it is important to have secure systems for recording and storing information in a
social care setting.
To ensure the necessary safeguards and appropriate uses of personal information are in place. For
example, any issues relating to human rights, the duty of confidentiality as part of duty of care, accuracy.
The information is permanent once it has been written down. The information is very personal for
example, bank details, medical history and family background. This needs to be kept as confidential as
2 Know how to access support for handling information in social care setting.
2.1 Describe how to access guidance, information and advice about handling information.
You would go to your line manager. Then you would ask the main supervisor if the line manager
cannot answer your enquiry. Any general information can be found at the administration office.
2.2 Outline what actions to take when there are concerns over the recording, storing or sharing of
You would put your concerns in writing and be clear about dates and times, and what steps you
have already taken and any responses you have had. You would first talk to your senior or manager. If it is
not dealt with then you would go to the next person in charge. You may also need to involve the trade
union or a professional organisation in order to support you.

Understand the role of the social care worker
1. Understand working relationships in social care setting
1.1. Explain how a working relationship is different from a personal relationship
A working relationship is when you keep a professional distance between the people you are working
with, so you would only see them when you are at work, when you working with those people as part of a
team within the work places policies and procedures. You would be accountable and responsible for any
mistakes made. A good working relationship is built on respect and understanding.
A personal relationship is made through choice; it allows you to share interests and feelings with the
people you like. There are no polices or rules to abide by with a personal relationship , it's still built around
respect trust and understanding but it's formed because you like that person and choose to have that
relationship with them.
1.2. Describe different working relationships in social care settings
The different working relationships in social care settings are between the carers and the service users,
carers and professlonal bodles such as C's, psychology, dentists eLc., Carers and Lhe servlce user's famlly
members, and also between colleagues and management. For each of these you would develop a different
type of working relationship and maintain a professional manner.
2. Understand the importance of working in ways that are agreed with the employer
2.1. Describe why it is important to adhere to the agreed scope of the job role
It is important to adhere to the agreed scope of the job role when you appointed for the position, you
have been agreed with the job description as part of a contract with the employer. so it is your legal
responsibility to adhere in your defined role. It is your duty to understand the expectations of your job as
well as understand professional boundaries. In order to be successful in your job, it is essential to be a
respectful and accountable.
2.2 Outline what is meant by agreed ways of working
8y followlng our company's pollcles and procedures based on secLor sLandards and guldellnes,
following our individuals' care plans, and reading the code of conduct it's all about protecting the
2.3 Explain the importance of full and up-to-date details of agreed ways of working
Important to have up to date agreed ways of working as there may be changes in policies within the
law. Your company may have to implement them to help protect the vulnerable.
3. Understand the importance of working in partnership with others
3.1 Explain why it is important to work in partnership with others
It is very important that you work in partnership with your colleagues and all other people. This will
include carers, families, advocates, doctors, nurses, occupational therapists, other health professionals,
social workers, voluntary organisations and other people.
Others people may be able to provide useful information to support you in your work and you may
be able to provide useful information to support them in belng parL of Lhe lndlvldual's llves. 1hls ls good
partnership working. If there are communication difficulties with service users. A carer or family member
can share information with you about how you can best communicate with an individual.
3.2 Identify ways of working that can help improve partnership working
To learn from other and working in partnership is important. It will help you to understand the aims
and objectives of different people and partner Organisations, as they may have different views, atti tudes,
and approaches. lL ls lmporLanL LhaL everyone's focus ls on provldlng Lhe besL care Lo lndlvlduals. 8y
supporting the individual to achieve goals and to be as independent as possible, to respect and maintain
the dignity and privacy of individuals. Making sure you promote equal opportunities and respect diversity
and different cultures and values. By making sure you report dangerous, abusive, discriminatory or
exploitative behaviour or practice. By Communicating in an appropriate, open, accurate and straight
forward way. Treat everyone as an individual. You must share knowledge and respect views of others, help
to achieve positive outcomes for individuals.
3.3 Identify skills and approaches needed for resolving conflicts
You should try to handle conflict situations by remaining calm, ending the conflict before it
Escalates and remaining respectful of others. However, there are times when this may seem impossible
and the following skills are required:
Openly discuss - differences in a calm and rational manner.
Demonstrate active listening skills
3.4 Explain how and when to access support and advice about
- Partnership working
- Resolving conflicts
To access support and advice about partnership working and resolving conflicts, refer to the
employment care plan that has been agreed upon. If there is no care plan, talk directly to a

Principles of safeguarding and protection in health and social care
1. Know how to recognise signs of abuse.
1.1. Define the following types of abuse:
- Physical abuse - is an act of another party involving contact intended to cause feelings of
physical pain, injury, or other physical suffering or bodily harm including hitting, slapping,
pushing, kicking, or inappropriate sanctions
- Sexual abuse - is a statutory offense that provides that it is a crime to knowingly cause another
person to engage in an unwanted sexual act by force or threat. Including encouraging relevant
individuals to look at pornography, harassing them by making sexual suggestions or comments,
or sexual acts where the individual has not consented, or could not consent or was pressured
into consenting
- Emotional/psychological abuse - is subjecting an individual to bullying tactics such as threats.
These bullies can take away the self-confidence of their victim and sometimes render them
brain washed into believing they will never make a go of it on their own or they are ugly; fat;
the opposite sex wouldn't want them; they are stupid because they may have not got high
enough marks in school; or, in the elderly threatening to put the elderly person in a home if
they do not conform to the abuser's wishes. Mental and emotional abuse can be between
couples in a relation; siblings; elderly abuse or abusing one's peers. Including emotional abuse,
threats of harm or abandonment, deprivation of contact, humiliation, blaming, controlling,
intimidation, coercion, harassment, verbal abuse, isolation or withdrawal from services or
supportive networks
- Financial abuse - is a form of mistreatment and fraud in which someone forcibly controls
another person's money or other assets. It can involve, for instance, stealing cash, not allowing
a victim to take part in any financial decisions or preventing a victim from having a job. Including
theft, fraud, exploitation, pressure in connection with wills, property or inheritance or financial
transactions, or the misuse or misappropriation of property, possessions or benefits
- Institutional abuse - is the maltreatment of a person (often children or older adults) from a
system of power. This can range from acts similar to home-based child abuse, such as neglect,
physical and sexual abuse, and hunger, to the effects of assistance programs working below
acceptable service standards, or relying on harsh or unfair ways to modify behaviour.
- Self-neglect - is a behavioural condition in which an individual neglects to attend to their basic
needs, such as personal hygiene, appropriate clothing, feeding, or tending appropriately to any
medical conditions they have. Extreme self-neglect can be known as Diogenes syndrome.
- Neglect by others - is failure to provide the necessities of life to the individual with the intent to
coerce or physically harm the individual and the unlawful expenditure or wilful dissipation of
the funds or other assets owned or paid to or for the benefit of the individual.
1.2. Identify the signs and/or symptoms associated with each type of abuse.
- Physical Abuse
Multiple bruising
Bed sores
Unexplained weight loss
Assault (can be intentional or reckless)

- Sexual Abuse
Loss of sleep
Unexpected or unexplained change in behaviour
Soreness around the genitals
Torn, stained or bloody underwear
A preoccupation with anything sexual
Sexually transmitted diseases
Rape e.g. a male member of staff having sex with a Mental Health client (see Mental Health
Act 1983)
Indecent Assault
- Emotional/psychological Abuse
Loss of sleep
Unexpected or unexplained change in behaviour
Deprivation of liberty could be false imprisonment. Aggressive shouting causing fear of violence
in a public place may be an offence against Public Order Act 1986, or harassment under the
Protection from Harassment Act 1997
- Financial Abuse
Unexplained withdrawals from the bank
Unusual activity in the bank accounts
Unpaid bills
Unexplained shortage of money
Reluctance on the part of the person with responsibility for the funds to provide basic food and
clothes etc.
- Institutional Abuse
Inflexible and non-negotiable systems and routines
Lack of consideration of dietary requirements
Name calling; inappropriate ways of addressing people
Lack of adequate physical care an unkempt appearance
- Neglect
Untreated medical problems
Bed sores
ueprlvaLlon of meals may consLlLuLe wllful neglecL"

1.3. Describe factors that may contribute to an individual being more vulnerable to abuse.
- They may be less aware of their rights.
- They may be socially isolated.
- They may need help with personal care and daily living.
- They may not be able to express themselves clearly.
- They may have limited sex education.
- They may have to share a home with people they have not chosen to be with.
- They may live in poor housing.
- They may need more care than their carer can give.
- They may have difficulty understanding requests or actions.
- They may not know how to complain.
- They may receive support from several different carers.
- There may be a history of substance misuse.
- They may be in a relationship of unequal power.
- They may by in unsuitable housing with no aids or adaptations.
- They may have limited life experiences and so not recognise risky situations.
2. Know how to respond to suspected or alleged abuse.
2.1. Explain the actions to take if there are suspicions that an individual is being abused.
If you have a suspicion or are aware that the individual in a vulnerable situation is being abused you
must act quickly but appropriately and professionally.
To assist in the reporting procedures ensure that you:
- Be accessible and receptive listen carefully.
- Listen carefully.
- Take it seriously.
- Reassure the individual in a vulnerable situation
that they are right to tell.
- Negotiate getting help.
- Find help quickly.
- Make careful records of what was said using the
indivldual ln a vulnerable slLuaLlon's own words
as soon as is practicable following the
disclosure. Date, time and sign the record. This
record would be used in any subsequent legal
- Jump to conclusions.
- Directly question the individual in a vulnerable
situation or suggest words for him/her to use.
- Try to get the individual in a vulnerable
situation to disclose all the details.
- Speculate or accuse anybody.
- Make promises you cannot keep.
- Give your opinion; just state the facts as
reported to you.
If you suspect abuse has taken place or abuse has been brought to your attention you are obliged
to take action but you must also ensure at all times that the welfare of the individual in a vulnerable
situation is paramount and the interests of the person against whom the allegation has been made are

2.2. Explain the actions to take if an individual alleges that they are being abused.
A company or agency there should be policies and procedures already in place to follow most would
state to report to the appropriate person; record the facts on appropriate paperwork; listen and do not
judge. Always establish what it is that has occurred and report any suspicions to the appropriate manager.
Reassure the individual at all times and take every allegation seriously. Always date the paperwork and
have it signed by any witnesses (if any). Take photographs of evidence if possible. Speak clearly and precise
and avoid any leading questions.
2.3. Identity ways to ensure that evidence of abuse is preserved.
The best way to preserve evidence is to report the matter as quickly as possible.
However, there may be occasions when it is important to follow certain rules
Make a written record of messages (e.g. answer-phone) to ensure they are not lost. Include the
date and time and sign them
Ensure written records (notes, letters, bank statements, medication records etc.) are kept in a
safe place
uon'L Lldy up, wash cloLhes, beddlng or oLher lLems.
Do not try to clear or tidy anything up
Try not to touch anything unless you have to for the immediate wellbeing of the victim if you
have to try to make a record of what you have done
If any sexual offence is suspected try to discourage the victim from washing, drinking, cleaning
their teeth or going to the toilet until the police are present
Preserve anything used to warm or comfort the victim e.g. a blanket
Try to ensure that no one else enters the premises or alleged scene of crime until the police
If you can, try and ensure that the alleged perpetrator does not have any contact with the
Record any physical signs or injuries using a body map (click here) or hand drawing. Write a
description of any physical signs or injuries including size, shape, colour etc.
Always remember to sign and date your notes and any other records you have made
3. Understand the national and local context of safeguarding and protection from abuse.
3.1. Identify national policies and local systems that relate to safeguarding and protection from
- Care Quality Commission (CQC)
- Court of Protection
- Housing organisations
- Crown Prosecution Service (CPS)
- The Coroner
- The Deprivation of Liberty Safeguards (DOLS)
- The Independent Safeguarding Authority (ISA)
- No secrets (Adult Protection)
- The Office of the Public Guardian (OPG)
- The Mental capacity Act 2005
- Care Home Policy

3.2. Explain the roles of different agencies in safeguarding and protecting individuals from abuse.
- Care Quality Commission (CQC)
The CQC must always be made aware of a Safeguarding Adults concern within a regulated service. If
the concern is reported to the local authority, the local authority must notify the CQC even though the
requlated service also has a duty to do so
The CQC will be directly involved with a Safeguarding Adults process where:
- One or more registered people are directly implicated
- Urgent or complex regulatory action is indicated.
- A form of enforcement action has been commenced or is under consideration in relation to the
service involved

- Court of Protection
The Court of Protection deals with decisions and orders affecting people who lace capacity. The
court can make major decisions about health and welfare, as well as property and financial affairs. The
Court has power to:
- Decide whether a person has capacity to make a particular decision for themselves.
- Make declarations, decisions or orders on financial and welfare matters affecting people who
lack capacity to make such decisions.
- Appoint deputies to make decisions for people lacking capacity to make those decisions.
- Decide whether a lasting power of attorney or an enduring power of attorney is valid
- Remove deputies or attorneys who fail to carry out their duties.

- Housing organisations
Staff of housing organisations are in position to identify tenants who are vulnerable and are at risk
of abuse, neglect and exploitation. Supporting People housing has become a major provider of housing and
support services for adults with a wide range of needs. The quality of their services is regulated through
the Quality Assessment Framework, which includes standards that they must meet with regard to
safeguarding adults from abuse. In addition to recognising the risks of abuse of adults to whom they
provide accommodation and in many cases care, staff of housing organisation have an important part to
play in establishing protection plans.
- Crown Prosecution Service (CPS)
The CPS is the principal public prosecuting authority for England and Wales and is headed by
Director Public Prosecutions. The CPS has produced a policy on prosecuting crimes against older people
which is equally applicable to adults at risk, who may also be vulnerable witnesses.
The CPS has a key role to play in making sure that special measures are put in place to support
vulnerable or intimidated witnesses to give their best evidence. Special measures were introduced by the
Youth Justice and Criminal Evidence Act 1999 and are available both in the Crown Court and in the
magistrates' courLs. 1hese lnclude Lhe use of Lralned lnLermedlarles Lo help wlLh communlcaLlon, screens
and arrangements for evidence and cross-examination to be given by video link.
- The Coroner
Coroners are independents judicial officers who are responsible for investigating violent, unnatural
deaths or sudden deaths of unknown cause, and deaths in custody, which must be reported to them The
Coroner may have specific questions arising from the death of an adult at risk.
- The Deprivation of Liberty Safeguards (DOLS)
The DOLS, implemented April 2009, provide a legal protection for those vulnerable people who are,
or may become, deprived of their liberty.
Safeguards exist to provide a proper legal process and suitable protection in those circumstances
where deprlvaLlon of llberLy appears Lo be unavoldable, ln a person's own besL lnLeresLs.
- The Independent Safeguarding Authority (ISA)
The Independent Safeguarding Authority (ISA) was creaLed followlng Lhe governmenL's adopLlon
of the recommendations set out in the Bichard Report. The report stemmed from the inquiry in to the
tragic deaths of Holly Wells and Jessica Chapman in Soham in 2002.
1he lA's role ls Lo help prevenL unsulLable people from worklng wlLh chlldren and vulnerable
adults. They will do this through a system of registration on which aims to ensure that every person who
wants to work or volunteer with children or vulnerable adults is cleared to do so before undertaking the
role. They will also be responsible for barring people from working children.
- No secrets (Adult Protection)
No secrets (Adult Protection) is a UK Government publication guidance on developing and
implementing multi-agency policies and procedures to protect vulnerable adults from abuse (Adult
roLecLlon) Llnk Lo uk ueparLmenL of PealLh no secreLs" Culdellnes
- The Office of the Public Guardian (OPG)
1he CC's ls an execuLlve agency of Lhe Ministry of Justice, with responsibilities that extend across
England and Wales (separate arrangements exist for Scotland and for Northern Ireland).
1he CC's remlL ls Lo supporL and enable people Lo plan ahead Lo prepare for Lhelr healLh, welfare
and finances to be looked after they lose mental capacity in future, and to safeguard the interests of
people who may lack then mental capacity make certain decisions for themselves.
- The Mental capacity Act 2005
The Mental Capacity Act 2005 provides a statutory frame work to empower and protect people
who may lace capacity to make decisions for themselves and establishes a framework for making decisions
on their behalf. This applies whether the decisions are life-changing events or everyday matters. All
decisions taken in the safeguarding process must comply with the Act.
- Care Home Policy
The person in Charge should be aware of the general and sometimes specific whereabouts of their clients
and employees. Clients are given a Complaints Procedure in their contract with the Home, this includes
who to contact outside the Home if they are dissatisfied with a particular issue
3.3. Identify reports into serious failures to protect individuals from abuse.

On the top floor of a special hospital, locked away from their families and friends, a group of men and
women are subjected to a regime of physical assaults, systematic brutality, and torture by the very
people supposed to be caring for them.

The victims are some of the most vulnerable in society - the learning disabled, the autistic, and the
suicidal. In a Panorama Special, Paul Kenyon exposes the truth about a gang of carers out of control,
and how the care system ignored all the warning signs.
Peter Connelly (also known as "Baby P", "Child A" and "Baby Peter")
was a 17-month-old British boy who died in London after suffering more than fifty injuries over an
eight-month period, during which he was repeatedly seen by Haringey Children's services and NHS health
professionals. Baby P's real first name was revealed as "Peter" on the conclusion of a subsequent trial of
Peter's mother's boyfriend on a charge of raping a two-year-old. His full identity was revealed when his
killers were named after the expiry of a court anonymity order on 10 August 2009.
The case caused shock and concern among the public and in Parliament, partly because of the magnitude
of Peter's injuries, and partly because Peter had lived in the London Borough of Haringey, North London,
under the same child care authorities that had already failed ten years earlier in the case of Victoria
Climbi. That had led to a public enquiry which resulted in measures being put in place in an effort to
prevent similar cases happening.
Peter's mother Tracey Connelly, her boyfriend Steven Barker, and Jason Owen (later revealed to be the
brother of Barker) were all convicted of causing or allowing the death of a child, the mother having
pleaded guilty to the charge. A court order issued by the High Court in England had prevented the
publication of the identity of Baby P; this was lifted on 1 May 2009 by Mr Justice Coleridge. An order
sought by Haringey Council to stop publication of the identities of his mother and her boyfriend was
granted but expired on 10 August 2009.
The child protection services of Haringey and other agencies were widely criticised. Following the
conviction, three inquiries and a nationwide review of social service care were launched, and the Head of
Children's Services at Haringey was removed by direction of the government minister. Another nationwide
review was conducted by Lord Laming into his own recommendations concerning Victoria Climbi's killing
in 2000. The death was also the subject of debate in the House of Commons.
3.4. Identify sources of information and advice about own role in safeguarding and protecting
individuals from abuse.
- A Guide to the Police Available from Voice UK. Telephone 0845 122 8695
A leaflet to explain to people with learning disabilities the role of the police and how they
support vulnerable and witnesses.
- Abuse in Care? A practical guide to protecting people with learning disabilities from abuse in
residential services.
- Abuse in Bad. Action against Abuse. Recognising and preventing abuse of people with learning
- Blowing the Whistle on Abuse of Adults with Learning Disabilities. Reports on research
findings about whistle blowing, and offers information about the experiences of whistle blowers
and suggestions with regard to the development of whistle blowing policies.
- Care Homes for Adults (18-65) and Supplementary Standard for Care Homes Accommodating
Young People aged 16 and 17. National Minimum Standards. Care Home Regulations. Details
the standards of care which should be met within residential services, and against which care
homes are inspected.
- Facing the Possibility supporting managers in preventing handling abuse allegations against
staff. Information for service managers about appropriate responses when staff members are
alleged to have carried out abuse.
4. Understand ways to reduce the likelihood of abuse.
4.1. Explain how the likelihood of abuse may be reduced by:
- Working with person centred values. - Abuse is reduced by person centred values because
institutional abuse often stems from things being done to people because it's convenient for
the staff. The individual's feelings and preferences are not considered. So, for example, a
person requesting pain relief is left to wait because it isn't time for the medication to be
administered or reviewed.
- Encouraging active participation. - Encouraging active participation builds self-esteem, and the
person will refuse to tolerate abuse and will be inclined to report it, [ they're also around other
people which will help to build friendships in which they can share things they may tell one of
them if abuse may happen and one of them may pass it on to help.
- Promoting choice and rights. - is all the above that says in working with person centred values
and encouraglng acLlve parLlclpaLlon. LmpowermenL ls abouL Laklng conLrol of Lhe lndlvldual's
life even if this is in a small way by deciding what they want for breakfast that morning. we all
make our own decisions in our own homes so why not in a residential home by including a
resident in their care it allows them to still be an individual to have rights + wishes recognised
even if they do not verbally contribute to be included is good practise
4.2. Explain the importance of an accessible complaints procedure for reducing the likelihood of
- Complaints are good way of considering how well the services are provided, it also helps us to
identify if there are any weaknesses e.g. potential for abuse and neglect.
A complaints procedure should be simple to follow because it encourages people to raise their
concerns and it indicates that organization will respond to those concerns rather than ignoring
them. If it's too difficult to make a complaint the abuse is likely to continue. If it's easy to make
a complaint the abuse is likely to be dealt with sooner. On a bigger scale complaints make
government to bring changes in their policies according to people demand.
5. Know how to recognise and report unsafe practices.
5.1. Describe unsafe practices that may affect the well-being of individuals.
This could include:
Staff shortages
Staff are too tired to do their job correctly
Laff cut corners" due Lo lack of Lime
Agency staff not knowing service users correct needs

Lack of training
lnexperlenced sLaff acLlng up" ln a senlor role
Staff not trained in their role correctly
Lack of correct equipment
No Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) available
Equipment broken or unavailable
5.2. Explain the action to take if unsafe practices have been identified.
- All unsafe practices need to be reported to your immediate supervisor so the person can be
retrained or the condition remedied to prevent further damage.
5.3. Describe the action to take if suspected abuse or unsafe practices have been reported but
nothing has been done in response.
After you have reported the incident you still have a duty of care to your patient. If you feel that
your patient is still at risk then speak with your line manager regarding your concerns. If you feel your line
manager is not taking appropriate action, or you suspect your line manager of abusing a patient then most
company policies would state that you would need to contact the regional manager. You would also need
to contact an inspectorate body such as Care Quality Commission or else organisations, as part of the
process for reporting abuse is to contact the local care standards inspectorate, the person you reported
this abuse to should have done this and if they have not, this in itself may be considered abuse (neglect) if
it should be the case that abuse or dangerous practice is being carried out.

Understand health and safety in social care settings
1. Understand the different responsibilities relating to health and safety in social care settings.
1.1. List legislation relating to general health and safety in a social care setting.
- Health and Safety at work Act 1974 is the primary piece of legislation covering occupational
health and safety. Under this Act, the employer, the workers and the individuals being
supported have responsibilities to ensure safety is maintained in the workplace.
- Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulation 1999 Emphasize what employers are
required to achieve under the Health and Safety at Work Act.
- Health and Safety (First Aid) Regulation 1981 include amendment on 2009
- The Electricity at Work regulations 1989
- Manual Handling Operations Regulations 1992 Sets out requirements for manual handling and
moving and handling of people.
- Reporting of Injuries, Diseases and Dangerous Occurrences Regulations 1995- sets out what
needs to be reported.
- Communicable diseases and infection control
- Working Time Regulations 1998
- Care Standard Act 2000
- Control of exposure to Hazardous to Health 1999
- Food Safety Act 1990 and Food Hygiene Regulations 2005.
- Environmental Protection Act 1990.
1.2. Describe the main points of health and safety policies and procedures.
All of the above mentioned legislations are crucial part of health and safety. Every piece of
legislation describes not only clear guidance of responsibilities but also how should we maintain health and
safety to eliminate risks for the people using social care settings. Let alone, Food hygiene regulation 2005,
which explains the responsibilities, involves handling food safely in order to avoid contamination and food
poisoning. Environmental protection act 1990 which describes the responsibilities involves handling clinical
wastes in order to prevent harm to the environment. Control of exposure to hazardous to health act 1999
explains the responsibilities involve handling hazardous substances such as reduce using hazardous
substances or using less hazardous substances and reducing exposure level as much as possible. So, it is
very important for us to follow health and safety policies and procedures to eradicate risks from workplace
and maintain safe working environment.
1.3. Outline the main health and safety responsibilities of:
a) The social care worker
- Take care of their own health and safety as well as others.
- Co-operate with their employer by following policies and procedures.
- Must use personal protective equipment as necessary.
- Must adhere to achieve training and follow instruction.
- Not to misuse or tamper with anything provided for health and safety or welfare.

b) The employer or manager
- Provide safe and risk free working environment.
- Provide equipment.
- Deal with hazardous substances safely.
- Provide information, instruction, training and supervision as necessary.
- Ensuring equipment are safe to use and safe system of work are set and followed.

c) Individuals.
Such as visitor, supporters, volunteers and contractors
Respect and obey the rules and legislation imposed by authority.
Follow the instruction and guidance as provided (Such as not to use lift in the event of fire,
not to block the fire exit etc.)
Co-operate with employer and workers if anything has been noticed may cause harm to
others or concern to others health and safety.
1.4. Identify tasks relating to health and safety that should only be carried out with special training.
Manual handllng
lnfecLlon conLrol
llre procedures
llrsL ald
8aslc hyglene
lood preparaLlon, sLorage and hyglene
ueallng wlLh emergency slLuaLlons
1.5. Describe how to access additional support and information relating to health and safety.
You should seek additional health and safety assistance when you do not have the knowledge or
training to deal with a condition or circumstance that could impact health and safety, or if you have a
question you are unable to answer. Know the limits of your knowledge and seek help if something
takes you outside those limits.
2. Understand the use of risk assessments in relation to health and safety.
2.1. Def|ne what |s meant by "hazard and r|sk"
- Hazard is any source of potential damage, harm or adverse health effects on something or
someone under certain conditions at work.
- Risk is the chance or probability that a person will be harmed or experience an adverse health
effect if exposed to a hazard. It may also apply to situations with property or equipment loss.
2.2. Describe how to use a health and safety risk assessment.
Step 1: Look for and identify hazards by visually inspecting the workplace, consulting employees and
their representatives, looking at manufacturers' instructions or data sheets, and considering records
relating to accidents, near misses and ill health.
Step 2: Decide who might be harmed and how - consider everyone at the workplace, not just
Step 3: Evaluate the risks arising from hazards, and decide whether the existing precautions are
adequate, or if more should be done. If something needs to be done, take steps to eliminate or control
the risks.
Step 4: Record the findings and state how they can be controlled to prevent harm. Most importantly,
employees must be informed about the outcome of the risk assessment, as they will be the ones who
will need to take action. (Site-specific forms can be produced. However, in order not to make risk
assessments too complicated, the HSE suggests using the headings in the 'five steps' process.)
Step 5: Review the assessment from time to time and revise it if necessary, eg if work activities or
processes change.
2.3. Explain how and when to report potential health and safety risks that have been identified.
Potential health and safety risks must be reported immediately to one's supervisor. It is up to the
supervisor to use the chain of command and as needed it will even be reported to government offices.
2.4. Descr|be how r|sk assessment can he|p address d||emmas between an |nd|v|dua|s r|ghts and
health and safety concerns.
A risk assessment can help address dilemmas between rights and health and safety concerns as the
risk assessment supports the individuals to have their choices met in the safest possible ways.
3. Understand procedures for responding to accidents and sudden illness.
3.1. Describe different types of accidents and sudden illness that may occur in a social care setting.
Different types of accidents that may occur in work setting, falls , slipping over, burns, cuts and
Sudden illnesses that may happen, stroke, heart attack, sickness and diarrhoea.
3.2. Outline the procedures to be followed if an accident or sudden illness should occur.
- Assess Lhe slLuaLlon and envlronmenL. never rush ln. uon'L Louch an lndlvldual who appears Lo
have been electrocuted. If the casualty is obviously conscious, talk to them and find out how they
are. If they are in water at the risk of drowning, do not jump or dive in to attempt to rescue them
unless you are a trained lifeguard. Check for gas fumes, chemical spillages, broken glass, bodily
fluids, if there is an attacker possibly still close, if there is fire in an enclosed space.
- Mare area safe. Remove any hazards where it is safe to do so and take control of the situation.
- Emergency aid. You should only attempt emergency first aid if you have been trained to do so.
- Get help. Shout for assistance, call a first aider. If you have been trained in emergency first aid,
what is needed and your action will depend on the result of the primary survey.
- Aftermath. Get some support for yourself as you may go in shock or be stressed afterwards.
Report and record what has happened as soon as possible before you forget the details. Clean up
any mess. Replace first aid kit items.
3.3. Explain why it is important for emergency first aid tasks only to be carried out by qualified first
- First aid ls very lmporLanL Lo be Lralned ln as lL's an emergency acLlon ln where flrsL ald can allow
more time for medical help to come and also save a life.
4. Know how to reduce the spread of infection.
4.1. List routes by which an infection can get into the body.
- Eating contaminated food, for example, resulting in salmonella.
- Water, for example, resulting in cholera.
- Contact with body fluids.
- Airborne through coughing and sneezing.
- Physical contact.
- Contaminated laundry.
- Insects, for example, mosquito bites could result in malaria in some countries.
4.2. Describe ways in which own health or hygiene might pose a risk to an individual or to others at
- Wash yourself and your hair regularly and tie long hair back.
- Do not wear personal jewellery, particularly when undertaking personal care tasks.
- Keep your clothes and shoes clean.
- Do not go to work if you have a health problem that can be passed to others. For
example, a heavy cold or stomach bug.
- Wash your hands regularly and always before and after undertaking personal care.
- Wash your hands after blowing your nose, coughing, sneezing and smoking.
4.3. Explain the most thorough method for hand washing.
Step 1 Wet your hands thoroughly under warm running water and squirt liquid soap onto the palm of
one hand.
Step 2 Rub your hands together to make lather.
Step 3 Rub the palm of one hand along the back of the other and along the fingers. Then repeat with
the other hand.
Step 4 Rub in between each of your fingers on both hands and round your thumbs. Pay particular
attention to your nails. You may need to use a nail brush.
Step 5 Rinse off the soap with clean water.
Step 6 Dry hands thoroughly on a disposable towel.
4.4. Describe when to use different types of personal protective equipment.
- Always wear Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) like gloves and aprons when
supporting individuals. Always wear a different set of aprons and gloves when you are working in the
kitchen. Never wear aprons outside of the working environment or to training courses as you could
spread infections to other people you come into contact with.
5. Know how to move and handle equipment and other objects safely.
5.1. Identify legislation that relates to moving and handling.
- The Manual Handling Operation Regulations 1992 (known as MHOR) are sedigned
specifically to eliminate or reduce a manual handling risk to an acceptable level.
- Lifting Operations and Lifting Equipment Regulations 1998 (known as LOLER_ Hes
specific requirements relating to work equipment which is use for lifting and lowering
people or loads. It requires an employer to ensure that lifting equipment is positioned
or installed to prevent risk of injury and sufficiently strong, stable and suitable for
- Provision and Use of Work Equipment Regulations 1998 (known as PUWER) Ensures
that the equipment employers provide is suitable for the intention, safe for use, only
used by people who have been trained to do so, and maintained in a safe condition.
- The Workplace (Health, Safety and Welfare) Regulations 1992 (known as WHSWR)
ensure employers provide suitable working conditions for their employees.
5.2. List principles for safe moving and handling.
- Think before you lift
- Keep the load close to your waist
- Adopt a stable position
- Ensure a good hold on the load
- At the start of the lift, moderate flexion (slight bending) of the back, hips and knees is
- preferable to fully flexing the back (stooping) or the hips and knees (squatting)
- Don't flex your spine any further as you lift
- Avoid twisting the trunk or leaning sideways, especially while the back is bent
- Keep you head up when handling
- Move smoothly
- Don't lift more than you can easily manage
- Put down then adjust.
5.3. Explain why it is important for moving and handing tasks to be carried out following specialist
Moving and handling is a key part of the working day for most employees; from moving equipment,
laundry, catering, supplies or waste to assisting residents in moving.
Poor moving and handling practice can lead to:
back pain and musculoskeletal disorders, which can lead to inability to work
moving and handling accidents which can injure both the person being moved and the employee
discomfort and a lack of dignity for the person being moved
6. Understand the principles of assisting and moving an individual.
6.1. Explain why it is important to have specialist training before assisting and moving an individual.
The principles to be followed for safe moving and handling are that there needs to be risk
assessments and procedures done to minimise the risk of injury to the employee. This may include
recommended amount of people required to move an object, specific equipment needed and
training to safe about handling equipment safety.
6.2. Lxp|a|n the |mportance of fo||ow|ng an |nd|v|dua|s care p|an and fu||y engag|ng w|th them when
assisting and moving.
It is important to follow the care plan and communicate with each individual when assisting
and moving as moving them incorrectly may cause them to be injured or discomfort. You need to
inform and discuss with the person in concern about how to be moved, provide help and
equipment when required.
7. Know how to handle hazardous substances.
7.1. Identify hazardous substances that may be found in the social care setting.
- Injuries from falling resulting from:
o Poor housekeeping.
o Worn carpets.
o Badly lit stairs.
o Inappropriate footwear.
o Slippery floor.
- Fire can be caused by:
o Poor housekeeping (storage of combustible/flammable materials)
o Poor electrics
o Smoking
o Dust build up
o Hot surfaces (portable heaters, irons, etc.)
- Electric shock
o Poor electrics o Water/electric mix
- Back injury
o Lifting objects/people.
o Poor posture
o Awkward reaches

- Chemical burns.
o Storage and use of bleaches, etc.
- Medicines
o Improper use
o Insecure storage.
7.2. Describe safe practices for:
- Storing hazardous substances when storing hazardous substances, in any working
environment, consider:
Is the room ventilated?
The safe quantity you are able to store
Fire precautions
- Using hazardous substances When using hazardous substances, in any working environment,
follow safety precautions:
Correct use of personal Protective Equipment (PPE)
Always work from dirtiest area to cleanest when cleaning up spillages.
Use warning signs if necessary to warn others.
- Disposing of hazardous substance. When disposing of hazardous substances, in any working
environment, note:
Biological waste must be incinerated.
Hazardous waste needs to be disposed of in yellow or orange bags.
Hazardous waste needs to be disposed of separate to household waste.
8. Know environmental safety procedures in the social care setting.
8.1. Outline procedures to be followed in the social care setting to prevent:
- Fire
You can prevent fire by first identifying hazards and who could be at risk. Evaluate them and
take action to reduce them. Record findings and actions and develop a plan. Train staff so they
know what to do in an event of a fire and keep this under assessment and reviewed regularly. In an
event of a fire you should raise the alarm, dial 999, find the nearest fire exit or if safe to do so tackle
the fire and use a fire extinguisher, go to the assembly point and do not return into the building.
- Gas leak
You can prevent a gas leak by ensuring all equipment/pipes are in good working condition
and have regularly checks via the gas company. In an event of a gas leak raise an alarm, stay calm, if
so to go so turn off any gas appliances eg gas cooker, do not run, organise people quickly to the
nearest exit and direct to safety. Do not return into the building, turn off the gas mains and contact
the gas company.
- Floods
You can prevent a flood by ensuring that drains and pipes are clean from obstruction and
have them regularly checked via the water company. In an event of a flood raise an alarm, find the
nearest exit or if so to do so find the source of the flood e.g. turning a tap off, turn off the water
mains and contact the water company. If you have time, take photographs before you leave. This
may help with later insurance claims. Turn off the mains power and water, and take mobile
phones and chargers with you. Put sandbags in toilet bowls to prevent sewage back-flow. Shut
windows, lock doors take pets.

- Intruding
You can prevent an intrusion by implementing security measures such as CCTV, security
lighting, locks and restricting areas. In an event of an intrusion you should raise an alarm, dial 999,
try to defuse potentially aggression, however if unable to, then leave or if the intruder has gone
search the area of potential damage/thief.
- Security breach.
You can prevent a security breach by ensuring personal information are stored safety,
locking areas and restricting access. In an event of a security breach you should raise an alarm,
inform the manager, try to defuse potentially aggression, however if unable to, then leave or if the
person has gone search the area of potential seen access and if necessary inform the police.
8.2. Outline procedures to be followed in the social care setting in event of:
- Fire
Raise the alarm
Dial 999
Go to assembly point
Move self and others from danger area if safe to d
o so
Inform manager/fire safety officer
Do not use lifts.

- Gas leak
Leave the area immediately and call National Gas Emergency number: 0800 111 999.
Do not use any electrical device, such as light switches, telephones or appliances such as
garage door openers. They could spark and ignite the gas.
Do not use an open flame, matches or lighters
Do not try to locate the source of the gas leak
Do not try to shut off any gas valves or appliances
Do not start vehicles
Do not re-enter the building or return to the area until a Consumers Energy employee
says it's safe to do so
If the natural gas ignites, let it burn. Do not put out the flame; burning gas will not
If you are digging and think you may have damaged a natural gas pipeline, leave the
area immediately. If you are using motorized equipment and can turn off the motor
safely, do so to prevent the ignition of any leaking gas. Then abandon the equipment
and leave the area. Never restart equipment until the surrounding environment has
been checked and declared safe.
- Floods
Call 999 if you are in danger, or people have been injured
Check in on vulnerable neighbours
Move people and pets upstairs or to a higher place with means of escape
Remain calm
Follow the advice of emergency services if they tell you to evacuate - they will take you to a
centre run by the local council and give you food and bedding
Bring clothing, medication, and baby care items
Bring pets in a secure carrier and pet food
Tell someone if you intend to stay with friends or relatives instead of the evacuation centre
- Intruding
Dial 999, you should report any intruders in the workplace or grounds, immediately to
the Police.
Remove yourself and others to a safe area
Report to your manager/safety officer
Record the incident.
- Security breach
Dial 999, you should report any trespassing in the workplace or grounds, immediately to
the Police.
Remove yourself and others to a safe area
Report to your manager/safety officer
Record the incident.
9. Know how to manage stress.
9.1. Identify common signs and indicators of stress.
- Emotional symptoms
Negative or depressive feeling
Disappointment with yourself
Increased emotional reactions - more tearful or sensitive or aggressive
Loneliness, withdrawn
Loss of motivation commitment and confidence
Mood swings (not behavioural)
- Mental
Confusion, indecision
Can'L concentrate
Poor memory
- Changes from your normal behaviour
Changes in eating habits
Increased smoking, drinking or drug taking 'to cope'
Mood swings effecting your behaviour
Changes in sleep patterns
Twitchy, nervous behaviour
Changes in attendance such as arriving later or taking more time off.
9.2. Identify circumstances that tend to trigger own stress.
1. Financial Problems This is the number one source of stress these days. You and your family are
not be able to do what you want to due to lack of money. Debts are piling up. Credit Card
payments, pending mortgage instalments, rising costs of education, mounting expenditure on
health concerns. Financial matters top the list of stressors.

2. Workplace Stress Stress at workplace is another of the main causes of stress. You may be worried
about your next promotion. You might be facing the negative or bullying behaviour of your boss. You
might not be reaching your well-deserved career goals; you might be worried due to office politics. You
might be stressed about some major change that is taking place in the organization, or, you might be
under stress because of the prospect of losing your job.
3. Personal Relationships Studies of children, attitude of relatives, arguments with spouse or
children, change of place due to requirements of your job, illness of a family member, moving in of
parents or moving out of elder children are all main causes of stress.
4. Health Heart diseases, hypertension, problems with eye sight and sugar afflict many people
becoming a major cause of life stress for them. Maintaining good health, reducing weight, increasing
weight, being able to lead a healthy life-style: all of these and a few more are the main causes of stress
due to health concerns.
5. Irritants - Besides the ones that I have mentioned above there are those annoyances and irritations
that you encounter in your daily lives which go on to become biggest sources of stress for you.
Problems in commuting to workplace, balance of work and family llfe, 1Ms aL chlldren's schools,
workload, visit to doctor, not enough sleep, no time to relax, no time to discuss some nagging problems
who is not aware of these stresses and strains of our lives? You fight with them every day.
9.3. Describe ways to manage stress.
- Count to 10 before you speak.
- Take three to five deep breaths.
- Walk away from the stressful situation, and say you'll handle it later.
- Go for a walk.
- Don't be afraid to say "I'm sorry" if you make a mistake.
- Set your watch five to 10 minutes ahead to avoid the stress of being late.
- Break down big problems into smaller parts. For example, answer one letter or phone call per
day, instead of dealing with everything at once.
- Drive in the slow lane or avoid busy roads to help you stay calm while driving.
- Smell a rose, hug a loved one or smile at your neighbour.
10. Understand procedures regarding handling medication.
10.1. Describe the main points of agreed procedures about handling medication.
There are many persons who may handle medication, such as pharmacists, doctors, and nurses.
First, it is important to know how the medication is supposed to stored and administered. Second, the
medication should come with a written prescription detailing the amount of the medication, how often
it should be taken, and for whom the medication is for. Last, medical professionals are required to be
certified in the handling of the medications.
10.2. Identify who is responsible for medication in a social care setting.
- Everyone involved in the care of a service user is responsible for ensuring that his or her
medication is managed appropriately where the service user is not self-medicating. However the primary
responsibility for the prescription and medication review rests with the prescriber in consultation with
other members of the primary care team and his/her patient.
- Medicines prescribed by a Doctor/Nurse/Pharmacist prescriber and dispensed by a
Pharmacist become the property of the person to whom they have been prescribed.
- Care Workers will only provide help with taking medication, or administer medication, with
the informed consent of the service user or their relative or representative who may give consent on the
servlce user's behalf.
10.3. Explain why medication must only be handles following specialist training.
Medication must only be handled by people with the specific training to ensure that the
medication is handled properly that the correct dosage is given and to make sure that the medication is
only given to the person it is intended for. also a person who is not trained will not know what side effects
can occur or the signs of an allergic reaction. this could lead to disciplinary action and could also lead to
legal action which would give the service provider a bad reputation and could end up with the suspension
of the providers licence or even the closure of the care setting.
11. Understand how to handle and store food safely.
11.1. Identify food safety standards relevant to a social care setting.
The five key principles of food hygiene, according to World Health Organization (WHO), are:
1) Prevent contaminating food with pathogens spreading from people, pets, and pests.
2) Separate raw and cooked foods to prevent contaminating the cooked foods.
3) Temperature to kill pathogens.
4) Store food at the proper temperature.
5) Do use safe water and cooked materials.
11.2. Explain how to:
- Store food
Fridge storage
Some foods need to be kept in the fridge to help stop bacteria growing. These include foods with a
"use-by" date, cooked foods and ready-to-eat foods such as desserts and cooked meats.
Here's how to prevent bacteria from growing:
keep your fridge temperature below 5C
when preparing food, keep it out of the fridge for the shortest time possible
if you're having a buffet, keep the food refrigerated until you're ready to serve it
cool down leftovers as quickly as possible (within 90 minutes), store them in the fridge and eat
them within two days
store eggs in their box in the fridge
never put open cans in the fridge, as the metal may transfer to the can's contents place
the contents in a storage container or covered bowl instead
'Use-by' dates
No food lasts forever, however well it is stored. Most pre-packed foods carry either a "use-by" or a "best
before" date.
"Use-by" dates appear on foods that go off quite quickly. It can be dangerous to eat foods past this
"Best before" dates are for foods with a longer life. They show how long the food will be at its best

Storing meat
It's particularly important to store meat safely in the fridge to stop bacteria from spreading and avoid food
store raw meat and poultry in clean, sealed containers on the bottom shelf of the fridge, so they
can't touch or drip onto other food
follow any storage instructions on the label and don't eat meat after its use-by date
keep cooked meat separate from raw meat
Freezing and defrosting
It's safe to freeze meat and fish as long as you:
freeze it before the use-by date
defrost meat and fish thoroughly before cooking lots of liquid will come out as meat thaws, so
stand it in a bowl to stop bacteria in the juice spreading to other things
defrost meat and fish in a microwave if you intend to cook it straightaway, or put it in the fridge to
thaw so it doesn't get too warm
cook food until it's piping hot all the way through
Never re-freeze raw meat (including poultry) or fish that has been defrosted. It is possible to re-freeze
cooked meat once, as long as it has been cooled before going into the freezer. But if in doubt, don't re-
Frozen raw foods can be defrosted once and stored in the fridge for up to two days before they need to be
cooked or thrown away. To reduce wastage, divide the meal into portions before freezing and then just
defrost what you need.
Cooked food that has been frozen and removed from the freezer must be reheated and eaten immediately
once fully defrosted. When defrosted, food should be reheated only once, because the more times you
cool and reheat food, the higher the risk of food poisoning. Bacteria can grow and multiply when food is
cooled too slowly, and might survive if food isn't reheated properly.
Re-using bags
With more and more people re-using carrier bags, whether for environmental reasons or to avoid paying
for new ones, the following tips will help prevent bacteria spreading to ready-to-eat food:
keep raw meat and fish separate from ready-to-eat foods in separate bags
if you use re-useable bags, keep one or two just for use with raw meat and fish and don't use the
same bags for ready-to-eat foods
re-useable bags (and single-use carrier bags) should be disposed of if there are spillages of raw
meat juices
- Maximise hygiene when handling food.
- food handlers must wear headgear that confines the hair
Palr neLs, chef's haLs and baseball caps are acceptable headgear. The hair must be confined to
prevent hair from falling into the food and to stop food handlers from touching their hair to
move it out of their face. Hair has also been known to cross-contaminate food.
- food handlers must wear clean clothing and change aprons as often as necessary
- Do not wear uniforms outside of the establishment. Always change and hang clothes in the
change room, never in the kitchen or food storage areas.
- food handlers are not to handle food if they are ill with Diarrhoea, coughing or sneezing
- food handlers must not handle food if they have open cuts on their hands or are wearing Band-
- food handlers must have trimmed nails and wear no jewellery when preparing food
- food handlers must be aware of their bad habits such as biting nails, touching their face
especially around the mouth, nose and eyes
- Dispose of food.
- Waste disposal bins are to be placed around the working area of food preparation rooms and
positioned conveniently to staff and operations
- Waste disposal bins are clearly distinguishable from other storage bins
- Waste disposal bins in food preparation rooms need not be covered if they are in frequent use
and are regularly emptied. Preferably, use bins with a pedal
- A defined area is to be allocated for the storage of waste pending disposal
- When food waste is removed from food preparation rooms pending disposal, it must be placed
in a tightly covered waste storage bin
- Plastic liners are to be used in waste disposal and storage bins
- Waste disposal and storage bins are to be emptied when full or on a regular basis
- Waste disposal bins are to be cleaned and sanitised daily and placed upside down and off the
floor to drain overnight
11.3. Identify common hazards when handling and storing food.
A biological hazard - There are a number of different types of biological hazards that can be present
within food. These are typically microorganisms and include bacteria, viruses and parasites.
Chemical hazard - There are different types of chemical hazards associated with food: naturally-
occurring chemicals intentionally-added chemicals unintentional or incidental chemical additives.
A physical hazard- is any potential harmful extraneous matter not normally found in food. They are
different to biological or chemical hazards: they generally cause problems for relatively few consumers per
incident. The result of personal injuries is usually not life-threatening but can cause considerable personal
distress to the consumer. Typical examples are broken teeth, cut mouths, and choking.
In food safety management systems, hazards refer to conditions or contaminants in foods that can
cause illness or injury. It is important to understand that hazards do not refer to undesirable conditions or
contaminants such as
presence of insects
hair or dirt
Violations of regulatory food standards not directly related to safety.

Principles of personal development in adult social care settings
1. Understand what is required for good practice in adult social care roles.
1.1. Identify standards that influence the way adult social care job roles are carried out.
The standards which influences the way the work role is carried out are:
Codes of Practice, minimum standards, Regulations, national occupational standards.
Regulations are:
Health and Safety at work Act 1974
Care Standards Act 2000
Manual Handling operations regulations
NHS & Community Care Act
Food Safety Act
Management of Health and Safety at work.
Codes of Practice are:
Codes of Practice for Social Care Workers and Employers;
General Social Care Council;
Standards of conduct;
Standards of Conduct Performance & Ethics: Health Professionals Council
National Occupational Standards:
Health and Social Care; Children's Care Learning and Development
1.2. Explain why reflecting on work activities is and important way to develop own knowledge and
Reflection on your own work activities is important because it allows you to assess what you are
doing well, identify areas where you might like or maybe need more training or guidance in to ensure you
are performing to the best you can, and are meeting all standards and expectations within the caring
policies and procedures. It helps you think about what you are doing in the setting and to always be
aware of how you work with the client and your colleagues.
1.3. Describe ways to ensure that personal attitudes or beliefs do not obstruct the quality of work.
Find out about individuals their history. Understanding the individual may challenge your own
attitudes and values. Find out about their attitudes and beliefs ignorance can often be a barrier.
Understanding may promote tolerance. Be professional at work. Even if you fundamentally disagree with
anoLher lndlvldual's aLLlLudes and bellefs, Lhey have Lhe rlght to hold them, the same right as you have
2. Understand how learning activities can develop knowledge, skills and understanding.
2.1. Describe how a learning activity has improved own knowledge, skills and understanding.
There are many ways that a learning activity can improve your own knowledge and skills. A good
learning activity will do an effective job of presenting the information in a way that can be clearly
understood. It will also provide opportunities for review of this information to check that a person has
obtained the desired skills.
2.2. Describe how reflecting on a situation has improved own knowledge, skills and understanding.
Reflective practice is a process which enables you to achieve a better understanding of yourself,
your skills, competencies, knowledge and professional practice. Although most of us engage in thinking
about experiences either before, during or after an event, we need to document our understanding in
order to clearly identify and demonstrate the components of our learning. Identifying what we have learnt
requires us to think about our experiences, and consider the outcomes, in order to evaluate the
experience, and identify our thoughts, feelings and understanding of the relevant issues.

2.3. Describe how feedback for others has developed own knowledge, skills and understanding.
Feedback from other people can be a very useful way for you to learn more about yourself and
can help you to improve your practice. Feedback can be formal or informal for example, your manager may
give you formal feedback during a supervision or appraisal. Informal feedback often comes from friends
and work colleagues, when you talk about work events. Service users can also give you valuable feedback
on how you have a job for them.
3. Know how a personal development plan can contribute to own learning and development.
3.1. Def|ne the term "persona| deve|opment p|an"
Personal development planning is the process of creating an action plan based on
awareness, values, reflection, goal-setting and planning for personal development within the context of a
career, education, relationship or for self-improvement.
3.2. Identify who could be involved in the personal development plan process.
- Every employee should have a personal development plan (PDPs) senior employees benefit
from PDPs that help them to develop their roles within the business. Managers are and
employers also benefit from PDPs, which keep them motivated and stop them resting on their
- Lmployee's llne manager should be respond for lndlvldual employee's u
Managers may need appropriate training to ensure they can manage PDPs effectively.
Developing these skills can be built into the manager's own PDP. Courses to develop the relevant
skills of counselling, coaching and mentoring are widely available. For further information, contact
your local business support organisation or the Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development
(020 8612 6200).
The most senior employees - and those whose performance has the most impact on the
performance of the business - may benefit from an external mentor.
- Get the involvement of all your people by encouraging a learning culture.
For example, senior employees may be involved in mentoring others.
Provide support and training to enable mentoring.
3.3. Identify sources of support for own learning and development.
Asklng colleagues and oLher professlonal's questions.
Accessing internal and external training.
Spending time working alongslde colleagues and oLher professlonal's.
Team meetings and discussions.
3.4. List the benefits of using a personal development plan to identify on-going improvements in own
knowledge and understanding.
improving self-awareness
improving self-knowledge
building or renewing identity/self-esteem
developing strengths or talents
improving wealth
spiritual development
identifying or improving potential
building employability or human capital
enhancing lifestyle or the quality of life
improving health
fulfilling aspirations
initiating a life enterprise or personal autonomy
defining and executing personal development plans
improving social abilities

Principles of communication in adult social care settings.
1. Understand why communication is important in adult social care settings.
1.1. Identify different reasons why people communicate.
To express needs; to share ideas and information; to reassure; to express feelings; to build
relationships; socialise; to ask questions; to share experiences
People communicate in order to establish and maintain relationships with others, to give and
receive information and instructions, to understand and be understood, to share opinions,
knowledge, feelings, emotions, to give encouragement and show others they are valued.
Communication is an essential tool a carer can use to meet the needs of the individual. It is a
basic requirement of my job role to communicate with individuals and their families, other
members of staff on a daily basis. Communicating with other staff members ensures effective
team working and continuity of care. It also ensures any health and safety issues are
recognised and reported. All carers attend hand over at the beginning of each shift and also
complete communication books after attending an individual, thereby keeping other staff
informed and aware of current situations within the workplace.
Individuals communicate with carers to express their needs and preferences and to ensure
they are met. As a carer I would discuss the options and choices available to the individual to
allow them an informed choice regard their care.
1.2. Explain how effective communication affects all aspects of working in adult social care settings.
Effective communication is important as it ensures that information is: clear, concise,
accurate, non-judgmental, and informative. This reduces the possibility of mistakes being made, and
ensuring appropriate care service delivery. It is important to work as a team with your colleagues, so
that you all work to achieve the same outcomes and targets.
1.3. Lxp|a|n why |t |s |mportant to observe an |nd|v|dua|s react|ons when commun|cat|ng w|th them.
Cbservlng an lndlvldual's reacLlon, you can ascerLaln lf Lhey are happy, saLlsfled,
comfortable, sad, worried, agitated etc. This will tell you if everything is ok with the service you are
providing and with the individual in general or if there might be a problem.
2. Understand why to meet the communication and language needs, wishes and preferences of an
2.1. Lxp|a|n why |t |s |mportant to f|nd out an |nd|v|dua|s commun|cat|on and |anguage needs,
wishes and preferences.
Recognising the strengths and abilities that people have, rather than what they have lost, is
key to supporting them to communicate and make good relationships with those around them.
We all communicate in different ways and as we cannot always rely on verbal communication. If
we are to understand the communication abilities and strengths of the individual so we can find
the methods to communicate with them.
2.2. Describe a range of communication methods.
Verbal communication
- Vocabulary, words and different
- Tone of voice
- Pitch (high or low)
Non-verbal communication
- Eye contact
- Signs, symbols or
- Writing
- Using objects
- Touch
- Physical gestures
- Body language
and emotions
- Lip reading
3. Understand how to reduce barriers to communication.
3.1. Identify barriers to communication.
- Hearing Loss
- Loss of Sight
- Language Barriers and Accents
- Dementia and Confusion
- Dysphasic
- Physical Disabilities
- Cultural Differences
- The Environment
- Confidence/ Self-esteem
- Autism
3.2. Describe ways to reduce barriers to communication.
- Choose a quiet place with few distractions, background noise and more than one person
speaking at the same time can make it very hard to follow a conversation.
- Lnsure LhaL you have Lhe person's aLLenLlon before engaglng ln any communlcaLlon.
- Ensure that any communication aids are working properly
- Gain and maintain eye contact before starting to speak
- Talk with a normal voice but at a slightly slower speed that usual.
- Allow plenty of time for person to absorb what you have communicated and to give a
- Use non-verbal cues to help make points. Have a pen and pater handy as some people car
read or write better than they can speak.
- Use familiar words and phrases, rather than words that the person may find difficult to
- Think about visual and hearing impairments, there may be time when alternative methods of
communication may be required.
3.3. Describe ways to check that communication has been understood.
By monitoring feedback This refers to monitoring the other persons reaction to what is
being said and adjusting communication accordingly. E.g. by watching facial expressing to try and
determine whether or not the individual has understood what has been said, what they feel about it, and
to be aware of when they want to say something etc.
3.4. Identify sources of information and support or services to enable more effective communication.
- Translators
- Interpreters, sing language and lip speakers
- Speech and language specialists
- Advocacy services
4. Understand confidentiality in adult social care settings.
4.1. Def|ne the term "conf|dent|a||ty"
Confidentiality means not sharing information about people without their knowledge and
agreement, and ensuring that written and electronic information cannot be accessed or read by people
who have no reason to see it. Confidentiality is important because:
- The individual may not trust a support worker who does not keep information confidential
- The individual may not feel valued or able to keep their self-esteem if their private details are
shared with others.
- The individual's safety may be put at risk if details of their property and habits are shared
4.2. Describe ways to maintain confidentiality in day to day communication.
- Do not leave personal information on individuals you support, like medical records,
care/support plans or risk assessments, family contact details etc. Unattended in an office
working environment. Records should be locked safely away or kept in a safe, easy to access
place ln and lndlvldual's room or home
- Do not leave computers on or allow other people to use your passwords.
- Do not conduct conversations (including telephone conversations) about the individuals you
support to any aspect of your works, in a public place or anywhere you can be overheard.
- Do not disclose information to anyone unless you are sure that they have a right to see the
information. Always check with your supervisor/manager if you are unsure.
- Do not name the individuals you work with in front of other people during training sessions
when talking about examples.
- Do not leave personal records or information unattended in public places.
4.3. Describe situations where information normally considered to be confidential might need to be
shared with agreed others.
Sometimes confidential information disclosed by a client may need to be passed on to
If there is a risk of danger or harm to the client, or other people, if abuse is suspected, or if
there is suspected misconduct of a colleague, in respect of care of a client, (Whistle-blowing).
You must inform the client why the information needs to be passed on to others, and that it
is your responsibility to do so.
4.4. Explain how and when to seek advice about confidentiality.
You will form working friendships with the people you are supporting as well as with
colleagues and carers.
People will tell you personal things about themselves and because of confidentiality, you
will have to decide whether to keep information to yourself or report to your line manager or a more
senior manager. If you work for a large employer, you may have a Human Resources team or specialist
or trainer who can give you advice.
Discuss confidentiality with you supervisor/manager. Make sure you are aware of your
employer's pollcles abouL confidentiality and information sharing.

Understand person-centred approaches in adult social care settings.
1. Understand person-centred approaches for care and support.
1.1. Define person-centred values.
Person-centred care is a philosophy of providing care that is centred on the person, and not
just their health needs. We are all individual, no two people are the same hence it is not
appropriate to say that because two people have dementia that they both have the same care
and support needs. The values which one person feels are important in their life may not be so to
another. To provide the best support to a person, their values must be taken into account and by
doing so you will be empowering that person, increase their self-determination and improve their
lndependence. A person's values wlll lnclude Lhelr lndlvlduallLy, rlghLs, cholces, prlvacy,
independence, dignity and respect.
1.2. Explain why it is important to work in a way that embeds person-centred values.
The care you carry out on a day to day basis should always be centred around the person
you are caring for. You are not there just to meet their physical needs but to maintain their sense
of being a person and their identity. This involves you establishing a supportive relationship with
the person, involving respect and trust. You should be listening to the service user, despite any
difficulties, understand their emotional needs and preferences and learn about their history. By
doing this you help maintain the service users identity, independence and self esteem
2. Understand how to implement a person-centred approach in an adult social care setting.
2.1. Describe how to find out the history, preferences, wishes and needs of an individual.
One way to find out about a client is to talk to them. Learning about their history will help
you build a picture of their life and how they have and would like to live. If they are capable they
will be able to tell you how they would prefer to be treated, and what their personal needs are. If
they are unable to communicate with you, you could talk to their family; they could provide
information about the history and preferences of the client. Another way that would also be useful
is to talk to social workers, doctors or any other professional involved in the clients care, as they
will be able to give you information on any medical conditions and needs etc. that you need to be
aware of.
2.2. Describe how to take into account the history, preferences, wishes and needs of an individual
when planning care and support.
The person is at the centre is rooted in the principles of shared power and self-determination. Power is an
issue because many people are limited in their power in comparison to others. Others control their l ives.
They direct how people spend their time, what they eat, how they behave, even what they say. In this
context, planning can become just a further indignity.
The person is consulted throughout the planning process If the person has been involved in planning
before then it makes sense to talk to her about how s/he wants to plan, if s/he wants a meeting, and if so,
what kind of meeting, and how she wants to be involved. If the person is new to planning, it is important to
spend time with her explaining the purpose of planning and looking at different options.
The person chooses who to involve in the process unlike traditional models of planning, it is for the
person to decide who she wants to include in the planning process, and how. This is easy to say, but within
services this is highly counter-cultural to the way
meetings are typically organised. If the people around the person cannot find a way to help her make and
communicate that decision for herself, then they have to decide in good faith who they think the person
would want to involve. A good starting-polnL ls 'people who know and care abouL Lhe person'. 1hls may
well yleld a dlfferenL llsL from 'people who provlde a servlce Lo Lhls person'
The person chooses the setting and timing of meetings If a meeting does take place it is at a time
convenient to the individual and those she wishes to invite and it is in a place where she feels at home. The
planning is carried out in a way that is accessible to the individual as far as possible. Graphics, tapes, video
or photos are often used.
Family members and friends are partners in planning - Person centred planning puts people in the context
of their family and their community. It is therefore not just the person themselves that we seek to share
power with, but family, friends and other people from the community who the person has invited to
become involved.
2.3. Lxp|a|n how us|ng an |nd|v|dua|s care p|an contr|butes to work|ng |n a person-centred way.
Using an individual's care plan will ensure that the person's own needs and wishes are being met,
rather than offering them a 'choice' of what is available. Using their care plan, you can build on what they
want and see where there are gaps that need to be addressed.
3. Understand the importance of establishing consent when providing care or support.
3.1. Def|ne the term "consent".
Consent is the principle that a person must give their permission before they receive any type of
medical treatment. Consent is required from a patient regardless of the type of treatment being
undertaken, from a blood test to an organ donation
3.2. Explain the importance of gaining consent when providing care or support.
Seeking consent is part of a respectful relationship with an individual and should usually be seen as
a process, not a one-off evenL. When you are seeklng a person's consenL Lo LreaLmenL or care, you should
make sure that they have the time and support they need to make their decision. People who have given
consent to a particular intervention are entitled to change their minds and withdraw their consent at any
polnL lf Lhey have Lhe capaclLy (are 'compeLenL') Lo do so. lmllarly, Lhey can change Lhelr mlnds and
consent to an intervention which they have earlier refused. It is important to let the person know this, so
that they feel able to tell you if they change their mind.
3.3. Describe how to establish consent for an activity or action.
It is not a legal requirement for someone to sign a form to show they consent. They can show they
consent by telling you directly or in a non-verbal way such as holding out an arm for an injection. It is good
to record who witnessed the consent, an how and where this happened.
Consent mush be given volunLarlly, Lhe declslon musL be Lhe person's own declslons and noL
influenced by other or out of a desire to please. Some people wit learning disabilities are very complaint,
especially to people they see as authority figures such as support workers or managers.
?ou musL ensure LhaL you don'L manlpulaLe, coerce, pressurlse, lnsLll fear ln or blackmall a person
into consenting to a decision or plan.
For example, you must never suggest a bribe, a reward or a penalty to get someone with a learning
disability to consent, even if you think they activity or treatment is in their best interests, such as having a
LooLh ouL. lL would be wrong Lo say, for example, 'lf you come Lo denLlsLs you can buy a uvu on Lhe way
home' or, 'Look no one else made a fuss when Lhey had Lhelr ln[ecLlon, you don'L wanL Lhem Lo Lhlnk
you're a coward, do you', or, 'lf you don'L go Lo Lhe docLors abouL Lhe Loe lL could fall off!'
3.4. Explain what steps to take if consent cannot be readily established.
One way of establishing consent especially with people with complex needs is through a team
agreement, where it is recorded with of how and why a decision has been made. For example, the
individual has complex needs and cannot communicate his wishes verbally, but the workers who support
him/her and family need to review his activities as his physical health is deteriorating. Rather than the
manager doing it alone, all the key people who know him best, including parents, get together and record
their decisions on document.
4. Understand how to encourage active participation.
4.1. Define what is meant by active participation.
AcLlve parLlclpaLlon ls a way of worklng LhaL recognlses an lndlvldual's rlghL Lo parLlclpaLe ln Lhe
activities and relationships of everyday life as independently as possible. The individual is regarded as an
active partner in their own care or support, rather than as a passive recipient of care.
4.2. Describe how active participation benefits an individual.
When people are supported to actively participate in all aspects of their lives, then over time they
will gain more skills, become more independent and need less staff support, and they increase in
confidence and self-esteem.
The benefits of active participation will
- Enables the individual to look after themselves and their daily needs.
- Promotes mental and physical health and personal development.
- Demonstrates the individual independence and autonomy.
- Help the individual to keep fit and mentally alert.
- Develops the individual talents and allows the person to show what they can do.
- Give the individual a sense of personal worth.
- Establishes common interests with other people.
- Allow the individual to express who they are.
- Provides the basis for friendships and living together.
4.3. Describe ways of reducing barriers to active participation.
Equality and diversity can help reduce barriers to active participation and help everyone feel
important. Make sure the clients are comfortable in the environment. Offer praise, compliments,
encouragement and constructive feedback.
4.4. Describe ways of encouraging active participation.
AcLlve parLlclpaLlon recognlses an lndlvldual's rlghL Lo parLlclpaLe ln Lhe acLlvlLles and relaLlonshlps
of everyday life as independently as possible; the individual is regarded as an active partner in their own
care or support, rather than a passive recipient. Active participation allows the individual more control
over their support.
Providing support for communication difficulties, providing full information and choices, providing
time for individuals to process information, providing access to meetings etc.
Providing information on the rights of active participation, explaining what it means and how it will
be supported, responding to questions, providing suggestions and ideas, asking the individual what they
want and providing ways for them to express their needs and wants etc.
5. Understand who to support an |nd|v|dua|s r|ght to make cho|ces.
5.1. Identify ways of supporting an individual to make informed choices.
support an individual to make informed choices by giving the individual full information with
regards to the positive and negative effects of any decisions they make and respect their wish to make that
decision, use agreed risk assessment processes so that the client was fully aware of any risks involved with
regards to any decision they make and would also discuss this with manager. A workers personal view
should noL lnfluence an lndlvldual's cholces as everyone ls an lndlvldual ln Lhelr own rlghL and Lherefore
should be able to make their own choices as their interests would be different to workers. Support an
individual to question or challenge any decision made by others by giving the individual full information
with regards to that decision in an unbiased manner, if the individual wanted to make any changes with
that decision then discuss this with manager and use agreed risk assessment processes to enable the
individual to make those changes.
5.2. Explain why risk-tak|ng can be part of an |nd|v|dua|s cho|ces.
Everyone is entitled to take risks. We all take risks is everyday tasks. Taking risks is part of being
able to choose and being in control of your life. So you need to ensure that concern about risks is not
getting in the way of people living their lives in a way they want to. Often, a risk assessment can make it
possible for someone to do something that may seem unlikely in the first instance. Risk taking is part of
developing independence. If people never take risks they will never find out what they are able to achieve
and work out what their limits are.
5.3. Explain how agreed risk assessment processes are used to support the right to make choices.
Risk assessments are there to protect the carers and the individual. Making risk assessments are
used to identify issues and malnLaln safeLy. Lvery servlce user has a rlghL Lo Lake rlsks because lL's Lhem
cholce lL's Lhem freedom. lsk assessmenL ls Lhere noL Lo resLrlcL servlce user freedom lL's Lhere Lo proLecL.
It is necessary to do regularly reviews as risk assessment only last so long as you are in premises. Also its
about service user them health and conditions if they are progressing or changing we have to understand
what to do to reach their full potential and future goals and achievements.
5.4. Lxp|a|n why a workers persona| v|ews shou|d not |nf|uence an |nd|v|dua|s cho|ces.
Because people have the right to choose for themselves. Even if you have different choices or
LhoughLs you musL respecL oLher people's cholce. 1hey musL be allowed dlgnlLy and respecL. ?ou can ask
them to reconsider situations if you have reason to believe they are open to speaking about it with you but
you should include it is your personal opinion only and regardless, intend to perform your job as its
description and protocol is required. You may want roses on your casket while I prefer daises. We both
should have our wishes granted if possible.
5.5. Describe how to support an individual to question or challenge decisions concerning them that
are made by others.
lL's depends on Lhe menLal capaclLy of Lhe lndividual you want to support. First, you must obtain
their permission and then you must get them to express as exactly as possible what help they reckon they
need. Then you can offer further information, suggestions, and a plan to challenge such decisions. You
could offer to be their spokesperson if they weren't confident enough to speak out, or to accompany them
to any hearing or appointment.

However, if the person is mentally impaired, you would have to get their signed permission to
speak and act on their behalf before any health or social care workers would listen to you. Because of
issues of confidentiality, you either have to be next of kin, or obtain powers of attorney or guardianship.
6. Understand how to promote an |nd|v|dua|s we||-being.
6.1. Explain how individual identity and self-esteem are linked with well-being.
A person with a low self-esteem would probably have more negative thoughts about themselves
and also behave in a way that might cause others to reinforce this low opinion of themselves which will
increase those negative feelings. Identity-a person with a strong sense of self who knows who there are,
are less likely to find themselves in situations that they don't want to tolerate, when they feel these might
have a negative effect on themselves.
6.2. Descr|be att|tudes and approaches that are ||ke|y to promote and |nd|v|dua|s we||-being.
Being caring
- Being caring
- Listen to what the individual has to say (feelings and choices, opinions etc.)
- Being understanding and supportive
- Positive comments/feedback
- Ask questions; get involved with what they have to say or what they are interested in.
- Calm approach, do not sound angry or negative, positive facial expressions
- Ensuring the individual knows they have somebody they can trust
- Encouraging
6.3. Identify ways to co A clean safe environment promotes well-being.
A clean safe environment promotes well-being. So does an environment where all persons are
respected and given something productive to do. Green environments are a must also.

Principles of diversity, equality and inclusion in adult social care setting.
1. Understand the importance of diversity, equality and inclusion.
1.1. Define what is meant by:
- Diversity is encompasses acceptance and respect. It means understanding that each individual
is unique, and recognizing our individual differences. These can be along the dimensions of
race, ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation, socio-economic status, age, physical abilities,
religious beliefs, political beliefs, or other ideologies. It is the exploration of these differences in
a safe, positive, and nurturing environment. It is about understanding each other and moving
beyond simple tolerance to embracing and celebrating the rich dimensions of diversity
contained within each individual.
- Equality is ensuring individuals or groups of individuals are treated fairly and equally and no less
favourably, specific to their needs, including areas of race, gender, disability, religion or belief,
sexual orientation and age.
- Inclusion is about involving everyone in society, making sure all have opportunities to work or
take part in social activities even though they may have a disability. E.g. mental health
- Discrimination is treatment of individuals or groups based on arbitrary inscriptive or acquired
criteria such as sex, race, religion, age, marital or parental status, disability, sexual orientation,
political opinions, socio-economic background, and trade union membership and activities.
1.2. Describe how direct or indirect discrimination may occur in the work setting.
when a person is treated less well, in comparison with someone else, because of his or her racial or
ethnic origin, religion or belief, disability, age or sexual orientation.
Examples of direct discrimination: a shop owner who refuses to hire suitably qualified peopl e
simply because they are of a certain race or ethnic origin, or an employer who specifies in a job
advert that only young people should apply even though the job in question could be done
perfectly well by an older person
When an apparently neutral specification, criteria or practice would disadvantage people on the
grounds of racial or ethnic origin, religion or belief, disability, age or sexual orientation unless the
practice can be objectively justified by a legitimate aim.
Examples of indirect discrimination: a translation company insists that all those applying for jobs as
translators have driving licenses because there is an occasional need to deliver or collect work from
clients. Since this prevents some people with disabilities from applying and as driving is not a core
requirement for doing the job, the company is effectively discriminating against this particular
group of people, unless it can demonstrate that there is an objective reason to justify this measure.

1.3. Explain how practices that support diversity, equality and inclusion reduce the likelihood of
The theory is that by getting to know people from diverse backgrounds and ethnicity helps remove
negative stereotypes. The problem that some people observe is that practices that cross over the line to
provide preferential status to protected groups can result in less qualified people getting jobs and actually
reinforcing negative stereotypes when compared to people who are fully qualified. The solution has been
to try to only implement affirmative action in cases where candidates are equally qualified, and then only
until the proportion of underrepresented groups reaches the proportion found in the population itself. This
reduces the risk of placing people not equipped to perform well in a job, but it retains the impression in
the groups who are not protected that something other than a coin toss was used and therefore it was
unfair. This perception tends to further cloud the issue. People often cannot be objectively evaluated for
all relevant aspects of job performance, and many people work in environments where their personal
contact with protected groups may be limited to just a person or two. This leaves them with only anecdotal
information about the benefits and effectiveness of a particular policy.
2. Know how to work in an inclusive ways.
2.1. List key legislation and codes of practice relating to diversity, equality, inclusion and
discrimination in adult social care settings.
The Equality Act 2010 sets out the new public sector Equality Duty replacing the three previous
duties for race, disability and gender.
The Duty now covers the following 'protected characteristics':
Gender reassignment
Pregnancy and maternity
Race (including ethnic or national origins, colour or nationality
Religion or belief (including lack of belief)
Sexual orientation
Marriage and civil partnership
The Duty requires public bodies to have due regard for the need to:
1. eliminate unlawful discrimination
2. advance equality of opportunity
3. foster good relations
2.2. Describe how to interact with individuals in an inclusive way.
- Make the individual comfortable by asking some general and simple questions about him
- Treat him as an equal
- Do not be authoritarian
- Have a touch of informality in interactions
- Be sincere and respectful
- Listen to him patiently
- Do not contradict him
- Do not belittle him.
- Encourage him to ask questions and give suggestions.
2.3. Describe ways in which discrimination may be challenged in adult social care settings.
This is about providing for everyone's needs when planning care, such as wheelchair access, meals
for vegetarians, information in other languages etc.
Provide information your policies and procedures on equality and rights. Model good practice be
seen providing for individual needs that ensure equal access.
Record and report it immediately - it is more likely to be addressed if it has been written down.
Challenge discriminatory remarks with explanations of why they are wrong - back this up with your policies
and procedures on equality and rights. Be proactive if you see that information is not accessible to all
provide what is needed such as in other languages or Braille or in another form for those who cannot read.

3. Know how to access information, advice and support about diversity, equality, inclusion and
3.1. Identify sources of information, advice and support about diversity, equality, inclusion and
- The Equal Pay Act 1970
- Sex Discrimination Act 1975
- Race Relations Act 1976 and Amended Act 2000
- Disability Discrimination Act 1995 and Disability Equality Duty 2005
- Equality Act 2006
- A care plan
- Policies and procedures
- Line manager
- Training
3.2. Describe how and when to access information, advice and support about diversity, equality,
inclusion and discrimination.
There are a variety of different methods of obtaining information on, diversity, equality, and
inclusion. You can access government web sites that list all of the current legislations in place to protect
the rights of individuals. You can obtain leaflets to give to your service users, to inform them of their rights.
You can contact certain groups, such as AGE UK, who can supply materials to hand out to your service
user's on dlscrlmlnaLlon, equality etc.
You may need such information to help an individual who is seeking advise on a particular subject
or if you are trying to obtain information in order to support an individual.

Introduction of duty of care in health, social care or ch||drens and young peop|es sett|ngs.
1. Understand the implications of duty of care.
1.1. Def|ne the term "duty of care"
Duty of care is a requirement that a person act toward others and the public with watchfulness,
attention, caution and prudence that a reasonable person in the circumstances would. If a person's actions
do not meet this standard of care, then the acts are considered negligent, and any damages resulting may
be claimed in a lawsuit for negligence
1.2. Describe how the duty of care affects own work role.
The duty of care you have in your job is to keep yourself safe and your service user safe. It means
being updated on any new training, following all and any security procedures in order to keep things safe.

2. Understand support available of addressing dilemmas that may arise about duty of care.
2.1. Descr|be d||emmas that may ar|se between the duty of care and an |nd|v|dua|s r|ghts.
Sometimes individuals may want to do something which could be a risk to their Health and safety.
As a care assistant you have a duty of care to that person and you must do all that you can to keep them
safe but you also have a duty to respect the individuals rights and choice, so you have a dilemma. It could
be that the individual no longer wishes to use her walking frame, but her care plan states that she needs it
Lo move from place Lo place and you are Lo ensure you encourage lL's use. ln Lhls scenarlo you could carry
out a risk assessment to ensure that it is managed as safely as possible. You would need to explain the risks
involved to the individual and make sure they understand. You could come to a compromise, to use a stick
for a while instead, to see how they managed, then monitor the situation. All this should be documented
including any risk assessment carried out. If the individual still insists on walking unaided you should get
them to sign to say they are aware of the risks involved.
2.2. Explain where to get additional support an advice about how to resolve such dilemmas.
- Colleagues
- 1he person's famlly and frlends
- GP
- Care professionals
- Advocates
- Union official
- Regulators
3. Know how to respond to complaints.
3.1. Describe how to respond to complains
listening to the complaint
giving the complainant time and respect
recording the information
reporting to a senior member of staff
accessing the Complaints Policy
ensuring the complainant has access to the Complaints Policy
ensuring the complainant knows what will happen next.

3.2. Identify the main points of agreed procedures for handling complaints.
The Complaints policy is a recorded and documented procedure that is available.
The complainant is listened to and respected.
The Complaints Policy is time-based and the complaint is dealt with in a documented time-frame.
Complaints are normally dealt with by nominated members of staff.
The procedure is clear

Understand emp|oyment respons|b|||t|es and r|ghts |n hea|th, soc|a| care or ch||dren and young peop|es
1. Know the statutory responsibilities and rights of employees and employers within own area of work.
1.1. List the aspects of employment covered by law.
Minimum wage, Hours worked, Discrimination, Health and safety, Holiday entitlements,
Redundancy and dismissal, Training, Disciplinary procedures, Union rights and consultation, among many
others. Labour law covers the deal between employee and employer. Health and safety laws cover the
work conditions, and minimum wage and other laws set basic compensation levels.

Also have the Disability Act, Manual Handling Operations and Regulations, Data Protection Act, The
Medicine Act, General Social Care Council code 2001, RIDDOR 1995 etc.
1.2. List the main features of current employment legislation.
- Employment rights
- Equality and discrimination
- Health and safety
1.3. Outline why legislation relation to employment exists.
The Employment Legislation is important as it provides protection against discrimination at the
workplace and helps in the fight for fair and equal pay for the employees. It also ensures safety of
employees at the workplace. The legislation is also important in defining at-will employment and contract
1.4. Identify sources any types of information and advice available in relation to employment
responsibilities and rights.
- Contract
- Handbook
- policy documents
- terms and conditions
- job description
2. Understand agreed ways of working that protect own relationship with employer.
2.1. Describe the terms and conditions of own contract of employment.
All employees have an employment contract with their employer. A contract is an agreement that
seLs ouL an employee's:
employment conditions
1hese are called Lhe 'Lerms' of Lhe conLracL.
Employees and employers must stick to a contract until it ends (eg by an employer or employee
giving notice or an employee being dismissed) or until the terms are changed (usually by agreement
between the employee and employer).
2.2. Describe the information shown on own pay statement.
- Personal information
- Tax code and National insurance number
- Payments, wages, number of hours etc.
- Deductions Tax national insurance
- Year to Date
- Net Pay
2.3. Describe the procedures to follow in event of a grievance.
Often the best way to sort out a problem with your employer is to talk to them informally. You
should ask for a meeting with your immediate manager to explain your concerns. You might find it helpful
Lo suggesL Lo your employer whaL you would llke Lhem Lo do Lo resolve Lhe problem. lf you don'L feel you
can talk to your immediate manager, you could speak to someone else in the organization in a position of
authority. Where possible, you should always try and sort the problem out informally first before taking
any further action.
2.4. Identify the personal information that must be kept up to date with own employer.
- detail of training given
- detail of accident happen at work
- Absence detail.
2.5. Explain agreed ways of working with employer.
An employer has a duty to ensure that data is being processed lawfully. Home workers may need
specific training on their obligations and those of the employer in relation to data protection, the
procedures which they must follow, and what is, and is not, an authorized use of data. Employees should
understand when and how they are required to dispose of data they may create at home, for example, by
requiring them to shred documents prior to disposal. Employers should carry out an assessment of the
data protection implications of employees working from home.
3. Understand how own role fits within the wider context of sector.
3.1. Explain how own role fits within the delivery of the service provided.
Own role fits within the delivery of the service provider because it is personalized. You are
providing them with a good service, the same service that you want a provider provides to you. The
focus on tackling exclusion, and the influence of the culture of tights and responsibilities. There has
been a huge increase in understanding in all parts of the sector, and a recognition of the satisfaction
that comes from working alongside people so that they are direct their own support, rather than being
passive receivers of services. The basic principles of supporting people and treating them with dignity
and respect, and ensuring they have choice and control, will continue.
3.2. Explain the effect of own role on service provision.
There are many ways in which you can keep up to date with new developments in the field of
social care, and particularly those which affect your own area of work. You should not assume that your
workplace will automatically inform you about new developments, changes and updates which affect your
work. You must be prepared to be active in maintaining your own knowledge base and to ensure that your
practice is in line with current thinking and new theories. The best way to do this is to incorporate an
awareness of the need to update your knowledge constantly into all of your work activities. If you restrict
your awareness of new developments to specific times, such as a monthly visit to the library, or a training
course every six months you are likely to miss out on a lot of information.

3.3. Describe how own role links to the wider sector.
The social care job may have come with a job description, but while that tells you what you need
to do, it does not usually tell you how you need to do it. To find that out, you need to look at the Standards
that apply to you work.
Standards, as with Codes of Practice, will vary depending on the UK country in which you work.
Each UK country has National Minimum Standards that are used by inspectors to ensure that services are
being delivered at an acceptable level.
Finally, and most importantly in terms of how you carry out your work, there are the National
Occupational Standards. There apply across the whole of the UK, and explain what you need to know and
be able to do in order to worked effectively in social care. The national Occupational Standards form the
basis for all the qualifications in the social are sector, and are divided into units of competence. Some of
these are mandatory, and everyone should be able to demonstrate competence in these areas. Other units
are optional and you should be able to demonstrate competence in those units relevant to your job role.
3.4. Describe the main roles and responsibilities of representative bodies that influence the wider
- National Minimum Standards (NMS) are designed to ensure that care provision is fit for
purpose and meets the assessed needs of people using social care services.
The Commission for Social Care Inspection (CSCI) must take the NMS into account when assessing
whether or not a service complies with the appropriate service regulations. However, compliance with the
NMS is not itself enforceable. CSCI can also take into account any other factors it considers reasonable or
relevant when assessing whether a provider is complying with the regulations. As with the service-specific
regulations, each type of service also has its own set of National Minimal Standards.
- National Occupational Standards (NOS) describe best practice by bringing together skills,
knowledge and values. National Occupational Standards are valuable tools to be used as benchmarks for
qualifications as well as for defining roles at work, staff recruitment, supervision and appraisal.
The Health and Social Care National Occupational Standards (NOS) are jointly owned by all the alliance
partners within Skills for Care and Development and Skills for Health. Any reviews of NOS are undertaken
jointly by all UK alliance partners.
4. Understand career pathways available within own a related sectors.
4.1. Explore different types of occupational opportunities.
- Adult guidance worker
- Advice worker
- Careers adviser
- Child psychotherapist
- Community development worker
- Community education officer
- Counselling psychologist
- Counsellor
- Equality and diversity officer
- Higher education careers adviser
- Probation officer
- Psychotherapist
- Social worker
- Youth worker
4.2. Identify sources of information related to a chosen career pathway.
- Job search and vacancy lists Online vacancy lists and practical help with finding and applying for
- Pre-employment training A short course that will give you a really good idea of what it would be
like to work in adult social care and at the same time help you to develop the skills you need to get
started. All pre-employment training for adult social care should lead to an accredited qualification.
- Employability support Practical support or training that will help you develop the skills and
attitudes that everyone needs to find, keep and move on in work.
- An Apprenticeship Apprenticeships offer a comprehensive learning and development package to
anyone aged 16 or over who is starting or has already begun a career in social care.
- Website such as or etc.
4.3. Identify next steps in own career pathway.
- Senior carer
- Care supervisor
5. Understand how issues of public concern may affect the image and delivery of services in the sector.
5.1. Identify occasions where the public have raised concerns regarding issues within the sector.
- Adult social care is under intense focus. ln May, 88C's anorama program screened shocking
abuse at a hospital for people with learning disabilities. And more than 30,000 elderly residents
face an uncerLaln fuLure wlLh Lhe uk's blggesL care home provlder, ouLhern Cross, closlng and
transferring its homes to other operators.
- Channel 4 have issued and public concern regarding home care saylng more Lhan quarLer of
care companles are noL meeLlng sLandards on care and welfare." WhlsLle blowlng charlLy has
stated that have received 60% more calls and cases in the last six months and that the care
quality commission has received hundreds of calls to report home care in recent months. The
investigation revealed a complex and failing system. Workers have describe acute time
pressures that force them to cut corners. Care agencies have reported that councils demand
ever shorter visits and cheaper services. Councils themselves are feeling the squeeze of cuts and
many of their duties towards older people are discretionary, not a legal duty, making older
people's services an obvious target for cost cutting.
- Rochdale abuse victims ignored by social workers has been the headline of the news papers last
year. Social workers repeatedly ignored victims of child sexual exploitation in Rochdale because
Lhey percelved Leenage glrls Lo be maklng Lhelr own cholces".
However, it also concluded that social workers did not follow current 'child in need' guidance
properly, which would have protected some of the victims. Police also missed chances to arrest
and convict perpetrators early on. Many of the report's recommendations have already been
put in place by Rochdale's afeguardlng Chlldren 8oard, lncludlng more sLaff Lralnlng on sexual
explolLaLlon, workshops ln secondary schools and an expanslon of Lhe unrlse" Leam. All
referrals to social care of children over the age of 12 are also now screened for signs of sexual
5.2. Outline different viewpoints around an issue of public concern relevant to the sector.
There are various viewpoints regarding both cases stated above but both cases have some
similarities which have caused a public concern.Lack of funding and government cuts, Lack of specialist
training and keeping up to date with new guidelines and regulations, Lack of trust and belief with the
companies and the responsible bodies such as social services, cqc, the police, care providers and care staff
and the families of the victims, sharing information with various outsiders who have input to the care
given. All these reasons have
5.3. Describe how issues of public concern have altered public views of the sector
The public have seemed to lost faith in such regulators and companies as this has been recurring
for a number of years. The media have issued a lot of publicity stating how care companies, social services,
regulators have let the victims down by simply not taking these cases seriously enough and ensuring the
well being and standards are being met. BBC1 and Channel 4 have been the main channels on television
who have reported on such cases from being under cover within the sector to show the public what can go
on within care.

5.4. Describe recent changes in service deliver which have affected own area of work.
Better care starts with providers and staff, it relies on effective commissioning and safeguarding
procedures, and is informed by the views of people who use services and their families. We ust all work
better to ensure all the resident received the best of care.