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GMAT Prep

Parallelism Sentence Correction Exercise


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Table of Contents
Questions..................................................................................................................................... 3
Answers..................................................................................................................................... 35
Explanation................................................................................................................................ 39

Questions
1 To read of Abigail Adams lengthy separation from her family, her difficult travels, and her
constant battles with illness is to feel intensely how harsh life was even for the so-called
aristocracy of Revolutionary times.
(A To read of
(! Reading about
(" #aving read about
($ %nce one reads of
(& To have read of
' To spea( habitually of the )truly needy* is gradually instilling the notion that many of those who
are +ust called )needy* actually have ade,uate resources- such a conclusion is unwarranted.
(A To spea( habitually of the )truly needy* is gradually instilling the notion
(! To spea( habitually of the )truly needy* is instilling the notion gradually
(" To spea( habitually of the )truly needy* is gradually to instill the notion
($ .pea(ing habitually of the )truly needy* is to instill the gradual notion
(& .pea(ing habitually of the )truly needy* is instilling the gradual notion
/ Astronomers studying the newly discovered star say that it provides clues about our gala0ys
origin, that it may supply dataabout how fast our gala0y is e0panding, and moreover it is
perhaps the most distant star in the entire 1il(y 2ay.
(A about how fast our gala0y is e0panding, and moreover it is perhaps
(! regarding the speed our gala0y e0pands at- moreover, they thin( it may be
(" about how fast our gala0y e0pands and perhaps be
($ on the gala0ys e0pansion rate and perhaps
(& about how fast our gala0y is e0panding, and that it is perhaps
3 Those who enter marathons soon learn that, to succeed in these grueling competitive events,
runners must be in e0cellent condition, have unsha(able self-confidence, and, most important
of all, (now how to pace yourself.
(A (now how to pace yourself
(! is (nowing how to pace yourself
(" (now how to pace themselves
($ you must pace yourself
(& they must (now how to pace themselves
4 5nder the .afe $rin(ing 2ater Act, the &nvironmental 6rotection Agency is re,uired either to
approve individual state plans for controlling the discharge of wastes into underground water or
that they enforce their own plan for states without ade,uate regulations.
(A that they enforce their
(! for enforcing their
(" they should enforce their
($ it should enforce its
(& to enforce its
3
7 .cientists who studied the famous gold field (nown as .erra 6elada concluded that the rich
lode was not produced by the accepted methods of ore formation but that swarms of microbes
over millions of years concentrated the gold from +ungle soils and rivers and roc(s.
(A not produced by the accepted methods of ore formation but that swarms of microbes over
millions of years
(! not produced by the accepted methods of ore formation but instead swarms of microbes
over millions of years that
(" not produced by the accepted methods of ore formation but swarms of microbes over
millions of years that
($ produced not by the accepted methods of ore formation but by swarms of microbes that
over millions of years
(& produced not by the accepted methods of ore formation but that swarms of microbes over
millions of years
8 9n 1:;' the median income for married-couple families with a wage-earning wife was <:,===
more than a family where the husband only was employed.
(A a family where the husband only
(! of a family where only the husband
(" that for families in which only the husband
($ a family in which only the husband
(& those of families in which the husband only
; .cientists have recently discovered what could be the largest and oldest living organism on
&arth, a giant fungus that is an interwoven filigree of mushrooms and rootli(e tentacles
spawned by a single fertili>ed spore some 1=,=== years ago and e0tending for more than /=
acres in the soil of a 1ichigan forest.
(A e0tending
(! e0tends
(" e0tended
($ it e0tended
(& is e0tending
: Too old to bear arms himself, ?rederic( $ouglass served as a recruiting agent, traveled
through the @orth to e0hort !lac( men to +oin the 5nion army.
(A traveled through the @orth to e0hort
(! and he traveled through the @orth and e0horted
(" and traveling through the @orth e0horted
($ traveling through the @orth and e0horted
(& traveling through the @orth and e0horting
1= Automation has undermined the traditional position of labor as much by robbing wor(ers of the
special .(ills that were once their most important strength than by the elimination of +obs.
(A than by the elimination of +obs
(! rather than by the elimination of a +ob
(" than by eliminating +obs
($ as by the elimination of a +ob
(& as by eliminating +obs
!
11 To help preserve ancient &gyptian monuments threatened by high water tables, a .wedish
engineering firm has proposed installing pumps, perhaps solar powered, to lower the underground
water level and dig trenches around the bases of the stone walls.
(A to lower the underground water level and dig trenches
(! to lower the underground water level and to dig trenches
(" to lower the underground water level and digging trenches
($ that lower the underground water level and that trenches be dug
(& that lower the underground water level and trench digging
1' The report recommended that the hospital should eliminate unneeded beds, e0pensive services
should be consolidated, and use space in other hospitals.
A should eliminate unneeded beds, e0pensive services should be consolidated, and use space in
other hospitals.
! should eliminate unneeded beds, e0pensive services should be consolidated, and other
hospitalsA space be used
" should eliminate unneeded beds, e0pensive services should be consolidated, and to use space
in other other hospitals
$ eliminate unneeded beds, consolidate e0pensive services, and other hospitalsA space used
& eliminate unneeded beds, consolidate e0pensive services, and use space in other hospitals
1/ $ressed as a man and using the name Robert .hurtleff, $eborah .ampson, the first woman to draw
a soldiers pension, +oined the "ontinental Army in 18;' at the age of '', was in+ured three times,
and was discharged in 18;/ because she had become too ill to serve.
a. '', was in+ured three times, and was discharged in 18;/ because she had become
b. '', was in+ured three times, while being discharged in 18;/ because she had become
c. '', and was in+ured three times, and discharged in 18;/, being
d. '', in+ured three times, and was discharged in 18;/ because she was
e. '', having been in+ured three times and discharged in 18;/, being
13 ?rom the earliest days of the tribe, (inship determined the way in which the %+ibwa society
organi>ed its labor, provided access to its resources, and defined rights and obligations
involved in the distribution and consumption of those resources.
(A and defined rights and obligations involved in the distribution and consumption of those
resources
(! defining rights and obligations involved in their distribution and consumption
(" and defined rights and obligations as they were involved in its distribution and consumption
($ whose rights and obligations were defined in their distribution and consumption
(& the distribution and consumption of them defined by rights and obligations
14 !alding is much more common among 2hite males than males of other races
(A than
(! than among
(" than is so of
($ compared to
(& in comparison with
17 9n 1:;=, for the first time, the number of foreigners touring the 5nited .tates were in e0cess of
the number of Americans going abroad.
(A were in e0cess of the number of Americans
(! had an e0cess over the Americans who were
(" e0ceeded the Americans who were
($ numbered more than the Americans
(& e0ceeded the number of Americans
5
18 9n 1;4= Bucretia 1ott published her $iscourse on 2omen, arguing in a treatise for women to have
e,ual political and legal rights and for changes in the married womens property laws.
a. arguing in a treatise for women to have e,ual political and legal rights
b. arguing in a treatise for e,ual political and legal rights for women
c. a treatise that advocates womens e,ual political and legal rights
d. a treatise advocating womens e,ual political and legal rights
e. a treatise that argued for e,ual political and legal rights for women
1; The investor who is uncertain about the future is more li(ely to put money into blue-chip stoc(s
or treasury bills than into gold.
(A than into
(! than they do
(" than they are
($ as into
(& as
1: @ew theories propose that catastrophic impacts of asteroids and comets may have caused
reversals in the &arths magnetic field, the onset of ice ages, splitting apart continents ;=
million years ago, and great volcanic eruptions.
(A splitting apart continents
(! the splitting apart of continents
(" split apart continents
($ continents split apart
(& continents that were split apart
'= Researchers at "ornell 5niversity have demonstrated that homing pigeons can sense changes
in the earths magnetic field, see light waves that people cannot see, detect low-fre,uency
sounds from miles away, sense changes in air pressure, and can identify familiar odors.
(A sense changes in air pressure, and can identify familiar odors
(! can sense changes in air pressure, and can identify familiar odors
(" sense changes in air pressure, and identify familiar odors
($ air pressure changes can be sensed, and familiar odors identified
(& air pressure changes are sensed, and familiar odors identified
'1 .cientific interest in providing suitable habitats for bottom-dwelling animals such as river clams
arises not because they are important sources of human food but from their role as an integral
lin( in the A,uatic food chain.
(A not because they are important sources of human food
(! although they are not an important sources of human food
(" not in that they are important as human sources of food
($ not from their importance as a source of human food
(& not from being important sources of food for human beings
'' $ance fans (new Tamara Ceva as a soloist in several !allanchine wor(s, a dancer who
introduced his choreography to the 5nited .tates, and as a star in !roadway theater
(A a dancer who introduced
(! as a dancer which introduced
(" the dancer to introduce
($ who introduced
(& as the dancer who introduced
"
'/ The end of the eighteenth century saw the emergence of pri>e-stoc( breeding, with individual
bulls and cows receiving awards, fetching unprecedented prices, and e0cited enormous
interest whenever they were put on show.
(A e0cited
(! it e0cited
(" e0citing
($ would e0cite
(& it had e0cited
'3 9f industrial pollution continues to deplete the o>one layer, the resulting increase in ultraviolet
radiation will endanger human health, causing a rise in the incidence of s(in cancer and eye
disease, and perhaps even threatening global ecological systems.
(A and perhaps even threatening
(! and may even threaten
(" and even a possible threat to
($ as well as possibly threatening
(& as well as a possible threat to
'4 .artre believed each individual is responsible to choose one course of action over another one,
that it is the choice that gives value to the act, and that nothing that is not acted upon has
value.
(A each individual is responsible to choose one course of action over another one
(! that each individual is responsible for choosing one course of action over another
(" that each individual is responsible, choosing one course of action over another
($ that each individual is responsible to choose one course of action over the other
(& each individual is responsible for choosing one course of action over other ones
'7 .cientists believe that unli(e the males of most species of moth, the male whistling moths of
@ambung, Australia, call female moths to them by the use of acoustical signals, but not
olfactory ones, and they attract their mates during the day, rather than at night.
(A by the use of acoustical signals, but not olfactory ones, and they attract
(! by the use of acoustical signals instead of using olfactory ones, and attracting
(" by using acoustical signals, not using olfactory ones, and by attracting
($ using acoustical signals, rather than olfactory ones, and attract
(& using acoustical signals, but not olfactory ones, and attracting
'8 9n #olland, a larger percentage of the gross national product is spent on defense of their coasts
from rising seas than is spent on military defense in the 5nited .tates.
(A 9n #olland, a larger percentage of the gross national product is spent on defense of their
coasts from rising seas than is spent on military defense in the 5nited .tates.
(! 9n #olland they spend a larger percentage of their gross national product on defending their
coasts from rising seas than the 5nited .tates does on military defense.
(" A larger percentage of #ollands gross national product is spent on defending their coasts
from rising seas than the 5nited .tates spends on military defense.
($ #olland spends a larger percentage of its gross national product defending its coasts from
rising seas than the military defense spending of the 5nited .tates.
(& #olland spends a larger percentage of its gross national product on defending its coasts
from rising seas than the 5nited .tates does on military defense.
#
'; The "ommerce $epartment announced that the economy grew during the second ,uarter at a
8.4 percent annual rate, while inflation eased when it might have been e0pected for it to rise.
(A it might have been e0pected for it to rise
(! it might have been e0pected to rise
(" it might have been e0pected that it should rise
($ its rise might have been e0pected
(& there might have been an e0pectation it would rise
': 9n the main, incidents of brea(downs in nuclear reactors have not resulted from lapses of high
technology but commonplace inade,uacies in plumbing and wiring.
(A not resulted from lapses of high technology but
(! resulted not from lapses of high technology but from
(" resulted from lapses not of high technology but
($ resulted from lapses not of high technology but have stemmed from
(& resulted not from lapses of high technology but have stemmed from
/= The @ational Transportation .afety !oard has recommended the use of fail-safe mechanisms
on airliner cargo door latches assuring the doors are properly closed before ta(eoff and to
prevent them from popping open in flight.
(A assuring the doors are properly closed
(! for the assurance of proper closing
(" assuring proper closure
($ to assure closing the doors properly
(& to assure that the doors are properly closed
/1 Bawma(ers are e0amining measures that would re,uire ban(s to disclose all fees and account
re,uirements in writing, provide free cashing of government chec(s, and to create basic
savings accounts to carry minimal fees and re,uire minimal initial deposits.
(A provide free cashing of government chec(s, and to create basic savings accounts to carry
(! provide free cashing of government chec(s, and creating basic savings accounts carrying
(" to provide free cashing of government chec(s, and creating basic savings accounts that
carry
($ to provide free cashing of government chec(s, creating basic savings accounts to carry
(& to provide free cashing of government chec(s, and to create basic savings accounts that
carry
/' 1any environmentalists believe that the widespread planting of trees, along with the
conservation of e0isting forests, would be one of the surest, easiest, and least e0pensive ways
to begin to halt or even to reverse the buildup of carbon dio0ide in the air.
(A one of the surest, easiest, and least e0pensive ways to begin to halt or even to reverse
(! one of the most sure, easy, and least e0pensive ways to begin a halt or even reverse
(" one of the surest, easiest, and least e0pensive ways that would begin halting or even
reversing
($ a most sure, easy, and ine0pensive way beginning the halting and even reversing of
(& the most sure, easiest, and ine0pensive way that would begin halting or even reversing
// The brain is something of a stimulus reduction system, a means to reduce, in order to
comprehend, the nearly infinite amount of stimuli that reach the senses at any given moment.
(A a means to reduce, in order to comprehend, the nearly infinite amount
(! a means to reduce, in order to comprehend, the nearly infinite number
(" the means of reducing for comprehending the nearly infinite number
($ the means that reduces, in order to comprehend, the nearly infinite amount
(& the means for reducing in order to comprehend the nearly infinite amount
$
/3 The (ey to control over the &urasian steppes lay in the nomads ability to use the horse both as
a means of transport but also as an effective military tool.
(A but also as
(! or as
(" and as
($ or
(& and also
/4 The earnings of women are well below that of men in spite of educational differences that are
diminishing between the se0es.
(A well below that of men in spite of educational differences that are diminishing
(! much below that of mens despite educational differences diminishing
(" much below men in spite of diminishing educational differences
($ well below those of men in spite of diminishing educational differences
(& below mens despite their educational differences that are diminishing
/7 The decisions of Dohn 1arshall, the fourth chief +ustice, have had a greater influence than any
chief +ustice in history.
(A than any chief +ustice in history
(! historically than any other chief +ustice
(" than have those of any chief +ustice in history
($ in history as any other chief +ustice has had
(& than those of any other chief +ustice in history
/8 All-terrain vehicles have allowed vacationers to reach many previously inaccessible areas, but
they have also been blamed for causing hundreds of deaths, in+ury to thousands, and seriously
damaging the nations recreational areas.
(A deaths, in+ury to thousands, and seriously damaging
(! deaths and in+uring thousands, and serious damage to
(" deaths, thousands who are in+ured, as well as seriously damaging
($ deaths and thousands of in+uries, as well as doing serious damage to
(& deaths, thousands are in+ured, and they do serious damage to
/; 9nuits of the !ering .ea were in isolation from contact with &uropeans longer than Aleuts or 9nuits of
the @orth 6acific and northern Alas(a.
(A in isolation from contact with &uropeans longer than
(! isolated from contact with &uropeans longer than
(" in isolation from contact with &uropeans longer than were
($ isolated from contact with &uropeans longer than were
(& in isolation and without contacts with &uropeans longer than
/: The decision by one of the nations largest ban(s to admit to </ billion in potential losses on
foreign loans could mean less lending by commercial ban(s to developing countries and
increasing the pressure on multigovernment lenders to supply the funds.
(A increasing the pressure
(! the increasing pressure
(" increased pressure
($ the pressure increased
(& the pressure increasing
9
3= %ne view of the economy contends that a large drop in oil prices should eventually lead to
lowering interest rates, as well as lowering fears about inflation, a rally in stoc(s and bonds,
and a wea(ening of the dollar.
(A lowering interest rates, as well as lowering fears about inflation,
(! a lowering of interest rates and of fears about inflation,
(" a lowering of interest rates, along with fears about inflation,
($ interest rates being lowered, along with fears about inflation,
(& interest rates and fears about inflation being lowered, with
31 The commission ac(nowledged that no amount of money or staff members can ensure the
safety of people who live in the vicinity of a nuclear plant, but it approved the installation
because it believed that all reasonable precautions had been ta(en.
(A no amount of money or staff members
(! neither vast amounts of money nor staff members
(" neither vast amounts of money nor numbers of staff members
($ neither vast amounts of money nor a large staff
(& no matter how large the staff or how vast the amount of money
3' A new study suggests that the conversational pace of everyday life may be so bris( it hampers the
ability of some children for distinguishing discrete sounds and words and, the result is, to ma(e
sense of speech.
A. it hampers the ability of some children for distinguishing discrete sounds and words and, the
result is, to ma(e
!. that it hampers the ability of some children to distinguish discrete sounds and words and, as a
result, to ma(e
". that it hampers the ability of some children to distinguish discrete sounds and words and, the
result of this, they are unable to ma(e
$. that it hampers the ability of some children to distinguish discrete sounds and words, and results
in not ma(ing
&. as to hamper the ability of some children for distinguishing discrete sounds and words, resulting
in being unable to ma(e
3/ 2hat was as remar(able as the development of the "ompact $isc has been the use of the new
technology to revitali>e, in better sound than was ever before possible, some of the classic recorded
performances of the pre-B6 era.
A 2hat was as remar(able as the development of the "ompact $isc
! The thing that was as remar(able as the developing the "ompact $isc
" @o less remar(able than the development of the "ompact $isc
$ $eveloping the "ompact $isc has been none the less remar(able as the development than
& $evelopment of the "ompact $isc has been no less remar(able as
33 The department defines a private passenger vehicle as one registered to an individual with a
gross weight of less than ;,=== pounds.
(A as one registered to an individual with a gross weight of less than ;,=== pounds
(! to be one that is registered to an individual with a gross weight of less than ;,=== pounds
(" as one that is registered to an individual and that has a gross weight of less than ;,===
pounds
($ to have a gross weight less than ;,=== pounds and being registered to an individual
(& as having a gross weight of less than ;,=== pounds and registered to an individual
%&
34 9n the 1:;=s the rate of increase of the minority population of the 5nited .tates was nearly
twice as fast as the 1:8=s.
(A twice as fast as
(! twice as fast as it was in
(" twice what it was in
($ two times faster than that of
(& two times greater than
37 To Dosephine !a(er, 6aris was her home long before it was fashionable to be an e0patriate, and
she remained in ?rance during the .econd 2orld 2as as a performer and an intelligence agent for
the Resistance.
(A To Dosephine !a(er, 6aris was her home long before it was fashionable to be an e0patriate
(! ?or Dosephine !a(er, long before it was fashionable to be an e0patriate, 6aris was her home
(" Dosephine !a(er made 6aris her home long before to be an e0patriate was fashionable
($ Bong before it was fashionable to be an e0patriate, Dosephine !ar(er made 6aris her home
(& Bong before it was fashionable being an e0patriate, 6aris was home to Dosephine !a(er.
38 $espite its attractiveness, investing abroad can still pose big ris(s, ranging from the potential for
political instability in some countries to the shortage of regulations to protect investors and a serious
lac( of information about investments in others.
(A to the shortage of regulations to protect investors and a serious lac( of information about
investments in others
(! to the shortage of regulations to protect investors and in others a serious lac( of information
about investments
(" and the shortage of regulations to protect investors and a serious lac( of information about
investments in others
($ and the shortage of regulations to protect investors to a serious lac( of information about
investments in others
(& to the shortage of regulations to protect investors in others and a serious lac( of information
about investments
3; The most common reasons for an employees unwillingness to accept a transfer are that
mortgage rates are high, housing in the new location costs more, and the difficulty of selling the
old home.
(A that mortgage rates are high, housing in the new location costs more, and the difficulty of
selling the old home
(! that mortgage rates are high, housing in the new location costs more, and that it is difficult
to sell the old home
(" high mortgage rates, the greater cost of housing in the new location, and that the old home
is difficult to sell
($ high mortgage rates, the greater cost of housing in the new location, and it is difficult to sell
the old home
(& high mortgage rates, the greater cost of housing in the new location, and the difficulty of
selling the old home
%%
3: A little under a million years ago, the briny waters of the !altic .ea began flooding into the cold
@orth AtlanticE geologists are still debating whether the flood was gradual or created a cataclysm.
(A whether the flood was gradual or created a cataclysm
(! if the flood was gradual or created a cataclysm
(" about whether the flood was gradual or cataclysmic
($ whether the flood was gradual or cataclysmic
(& whether the flood was gradual or it created a cataclysm
4= &uropes travel industry is suffering as a result of a sluggish economy, a stretch of bad
weather, as well as the chilling effects of terrorist activity that is persistent.
(A as well as the chilling effects of terrorist activity that is persistent
(! and the chilling effect of terrorist activity that is persistent
(" but persistent terrorist activity has had a chilling effect too
($ and the chilling effects of persistent terrorist activity
(& as well as the chilling effects of terrorist activity that persists
41 6oor management, outdated technology, competition from overseas, and steels replacement
to materials li(e aluminum and fiber-reinforced plastics have all been cited as causes for the
decline of the 5nited .tates steel industry.
(A steels replacement to materials li(e
(! the replacement of steel by such materials as
(" the replacing of steel with materials of
($ the replacing of steel by means of materials li(e
(& to replace steel by materials such as
4' The nineteenth-century chemist #umphry $avy presented the results of his early e0periments in his
)&ssay on #eat and Bight,* a criti,ue of all chemistry since Robert !oyle as well as a vision of a new
chemistry that $avy hoped to found.
A. a criti,ue of all chemistry since Robert !oyle as well as a vision of a
!. a criti,ue of all chemistry following Robert !oyle and also his envisioning of a
". a criti,ue of all chemistry after Robert !oyle and envisioning as well
$. criti,uing all chemistry from Robert !oyle forward and also a vision of
&. criti,uing all the chemistry done since Robert !oyle as well as his own envisioning of
4/ 9n a leveraged buyout, investors borrow huge sums of money to buy companies, hoping to pay off
the debt by using the companyAs earnings and to profit richly by the later resale of the companies or
their divisions.
A. by using the companyAs earnings and to profit
!. by using the companiesA earnings and by profiting
". using the companiesA earnings and profiting
$. with the companyAs earnings, profiting
&. with the companiesA earnings and to profit
43 9n contrast to true hibernators such as woodchuc(s and hedgehogs, whose body temperatures
drop close to the free>ing point during the winter months, the body temperature of bears
remains nearly normal throughout their prolonged sleep.
(A the body temperature of bears remains nearly normal
(! a nearly normal body temperature is maintained by bears
(" a bears body temperature remains nearly normal
($ a bear maintains a body temperature that is nearly normal
(& bears maintain a nearly normal body temperature
%
44 Recent elections in a relatively young and historically unstable country in &ast Africa saw record
numbers of voters, the peaceful re+ection of an incumbent administration, the unprecedented access
of media, campaigning mar(ed by civility, and a renewing of nationalism.
A numbers of voters, the peaceful re+ection of an incumbent administration, the unprecedented
access of media, campaigning mar(ed by civility, and a renewing of nationalism
! voter turnout, the peaceful re+ection of an incumbent administration, unprecedented media
access, campaigning mar(ed by civility, and a renewing of nationalism
" voter turnout, the re+ection of an incumbent administration in a peaceful manner, the
unprecedented access of media, campaigns mar(ed by civility, and renewed nationalism
$ numbers of voters, the peaceful re+ection of an incumbent administration, unprecedented media
access, campaigns mar(ed by civility, and renewed nationalism
& voter turnout, the peaceful re+ection of an incumbent administration, unprecedented media
access, campaigns mar(ed by civility, and renewed nationalism
47 Among lower-paid wor(ers, union members are less li(ely than nonunion members to be enrolled in
lower-end insurance plans imposing stricter limits on medical services and re,uiring doctors to see
more patients, and spend less time with each.
(A imposing stricter limits on medical services and re,uiring doctors to see more patients, and
spend
(! imposing stricter limits on medical services, re,uiring doctors to see more patients, and
spending
(" that impose stricter limits on medical services, re,uire doctors to see more patients, and spend
($ that impose stricter limits on medical services and re,uire doctors to see more patients,
spending
(& that impose stricter limits on medical services, re,uiring doctors to see more patients and
spending
48 Recently implemented Fshift wor(er e,uationsF based on studies of the human sleep cycle have
reduced sic(ness, sleeping on the +ob, fatigue among shift wor(ers, and have raised production
efficiency in various industries.
a. fatigue among shift wor(ers, and have raised
b. fatigue among shift wor(ers, and raised
c. and fatigue among shift wor(ers while raising
d. lowered fatigue among shift wor(ers, and raised
e. and fatigue among shift wor(ers was lowered while raising
4; 2hile leading .oviet 5nion, Corbachev was torn between defending his communist principles and
the reduction of repression and inefficiency in .oviet life.
A. between defending his communist principles and the reduction of repression and inefficiency in
.oviet life.
!. between the defense of his communist principles and reducing of repression and inefficiency in
.oviet life.
". among defending his communist principles and the reducing of repression and inefficiency in
.oviet life.
$. among defending his communist principles and the reduction of repression and inefficiency in
.oviet life.
&. between defending his communist principles and reducing the repression and inefficiency in
.oviet life.
%3
4: $ental caries and gingivitis can be e0acerbated not only by the foods patients eat but also by
when the patients eat them.
(A not only by the foods patients eat but also by when the patients eat them
(! by not only the foods patients eat but also by when the patients eat them
(" not only by the foods patients eat but also by time when the foods are eaten
($ by not only the foods that are eaten by patients but also by the times the foods are eaten
(& not only by what patients eat but also by when they eat it
7= A mi0ture of poems and short fiction, Dean Toomers "ane has been called one of the three
best novels ever written by !lac( AmericansGthe others being Richard 2right, author of
@ative .on, and Ralph &llison, author of 9nvisible 1an
A. !lac( AmericansGthe others being Richard 2right, author of @ative .on, and Ralph &llison,
author of 9nvisible 1an
!. !lac( AmericansGincluding @ative .on by Richard 2right and 9nvisible 1an by Ralph
&llison
". a !lac( AmericanGincluding Richard 2right, author of @ative .on, and Ralph &llison,
author of 9nvisible 1an
$. a !lac( AmericanGthe others being Richard 2right, author of @ative .on, and Ralph
&llison, author of 9nvisible 1an
&. a !lac( AmericanGthe others being Richard 2rights @ative .on and Ralph &llisons
9nvisible 1an
71 The company announced that its profits declined much less in the second ,uarter than analysts had
e0pected it to and its business will improve in the second half of the year.
(A had e0pected it to and its business will improve
(! had e0pected and that its business would improve
(" e0pected it would and that it will improve its business
($ e0pected them to and its business would improve
(& e0pected and that it will have improved its business
7' Among the ob+ects found in the e0cavated temple were small terra-cotta effigies left by
supplicants who were either as(ing the goddess !ona $eas aid in healing physical and mental
ills or than(ing her for such help.
(A in healing physical and mental ills or than(ing her for such help
(! in healing physical and mental ills and to than( her for helping
(" in healing physical and mental ills, and than(ing her for helping
($ to heal physical and mental ills or to than( her for such help
(& to heal physical and mental ills or than(ing her for such help
7/ 9n its most recent approach, the comet "rommelin passed the &arth at about the same
distance and in about the same position, some '4 degrees above the hori>on, that #alleys
comet will pass the ne0t time it appears.
(A that #alleys comet will pass
(! that #alleys comet is to be passing
(" as #alleys comet
($ as will #alleys comet
(& as #alleys comet will do
%!
73 9t is well (nown in the supermar(et industry that how items are placed on shelves and the
fre,uency of inventory turnovers can be crucial to profits.
(A the fre,uency of inventory turnovers can be
(! the fre,uency of inventory turnovers is often
(" the fre,uency with which the inventory turns over is often
($ how fre,uently is the inventory turned over are often
(& how fre,uently the inventory turns over can be
74 Those who come to church with a predisposition to religious belief will be happy in an
auditorium or even a storefront, and there is no doubt that religion is sometimes better served
by adapted spaces of this (ind instead of by some of the buildings actually designed for it.
(A adapted spaces of this (ind instead of by some of the buildings actually designed for it
(! adapted spaces li(e these rather than some of the buildings actually designed for them
(" these adapted spaces instead of by some of the buildings actually designed for it
($ such adapted spaces rather than by some of the buildings actually designed for them
(& such adapted spaces than by some of the buildings actually designed for it
77 There is growing demand in the state for )initiative and referendum,* a procedure that allows
voters to propose and pass laws, as well as to repeal them.
(A allows voters to propose and pass laws, as well as to repeal them
(! allows voters to propose, pass, and to repeal laws
(" allows voters to propose, to pass, and repeal laws
($ will allow the voter to propose, pass, as well as to repeal laws
(& will allow laws to be proposed, passed, as well as repealed by voters
78 .ome archaeologists claim that the tablets found at &bla could force a revision of current
theories on the origins of Dudaism and "hristianity, alter many scriptural interpretations, ma(e
all current !ible translations obsolete, and scholars may be re,uired to credit the %ld
Testament with greater historical accuracy.
(A scholars may be re,uired to credit the %ld Testament with greater historical accuracy
(! crediting the %ld Testament with greater historical accuracy may be re,uired of scholars
(" re,uire that scholars are to credit the %ld Testament with greater historical accuracy
($ crediting the %ld Testament with greater historical accuracy may be a scholarly
re,uirement
(& re,uire scholars to credit the %ld Testament with greater historical accuracy
7; 9n the mid-1:7=s a newly installed radar warning system mistoo( the rising of the moon as a
massive missile attac( by the .oviets.
(A rising of the moon as a massive missile attac( by the .oviets
(! rising of the moon for a massive .oviet missile attac(
(" moon rising to a massive missile attac( by the .oviets
($ moon as it was rising for a massive .oviet missile attac(
(& rise of the moon as a massive .oviet missile attac(
7: The company announced that its profits declined much less in the second ,uarter than
analysts had e0pected it to and its business will improve in the second half of the year.
(A had e0pected it to and its business will improve
(! had e0pected and that its business would improve
(" e0pected it would and that it will improve its business
($ e0pected them to and its business would improve
(& e0pected and that it will have improved its business
%5
8= The financial crash of %ctober 1:;8 demonstrated that the worlds capital mar(ets are
integrated more closely than never before and events in one part of the global village may be
transmitted to the rest of the villageGalmost instantaneously.
(A integrated more closely than never before and
(! closely integrated more than ever before so
(" more closely integrated as never before while
($ more closely integrated than ever before and that
(& more than ever before closely integrated as
81 9n a plan to stop the erosion of &ast "oast beaches, the Army "orps of &ngineers proposed building
parallel to shore a brea(water of roc(s that would rise si0 feet above the waterline and act as a
buffer, so that it absorbs the energy of crashing waves and protecting the beaches.
(A act as a buffer, so that it absorbs
(! act li(e a buffer so as to absorb
(" act as a buffer, absorbing
($ acting as a buffer, absorbing
(& acting li(e a buffer, absorb
8' 1any house builders offer rent-to-buy programs that enable a family with insufficient savings for a
conventional down payment to be able to move into new housing and to apply part of the rent to a
purchase later.
(A programs that enable a family with insufficient savings for a conventional down payment to be
able to move into new housing and to apply
(! programs that enable a family with insufficient savings for a conventional down payment to move
into new housing and to apply
(" programs- that enables a family with insufficient savings for a conventional down payment to
move into new housing, to apply
($ programs, which enables a family with insufficient savings for a conventional down payment to
move into new housing, applying
(& programs, which enable a family with insufficient savings for a conventional down payment to be
able to move into new housing, applying
8/ "onvinced at last of the soundness of her advice, the villagers tried crop rotation, built crude
sanitary facilities, and even the use of goats mil( for the ma(ing of cheese.
(A the use of goats mil( for the ma(ing of cheese
(! used goats mil( to ma(e cheese
(" the use of goats mil( in cheese ma(ing
($ ma(ing cheese from goats mil(
(& goats mil( to ma(e cheese
83 "iting evidence that the carbon dio0ide content of the atmosphere has increased more than
seven percent in the last /= years, many scientists have e0pressed a fear of destroying forests
and continued use of fossil fuels will cause an irreversible shift in &arths climatic pattern.
(A many scientists have e0pressed a fear of destroying forests and continued use of
(! many scientists have e0pressed a fear that destruction of forests and continued use of
(" many scientists have e0pressed a fear that destruction of forests and continually using
($ a fear that many scientists have e0pressed is that destroying forests and continually using
(& a fear that many scientists have e0pressed is that destruction of forests and continual using
of
%"
84 Ancient Romans found it therapeutic to bathe in cold mil(, in strawberries that had been
crushed, or in bathtubs filled with blac( caviar.
(A to bathe in cold mil(, in strawberries that had been crushed, or in bathtubs filled with blac(
caviar
(! that they bathe in cold mil(, in strawberries that had been crushed, or in caviar that was
blac(
(" to bathe in cold mil(, crushed strawberries, or blac( caviar
($ that they bathe in cold mil(, crushed strawberries, or blac( caviar
(& to bathe in mil( , strawberries, or caviar
87 9ncreases in the cost of energy, turmoil in the international money mar(ets, and the steady
erosion of the dollar have altered the investment strategies of 5nited .tates corporations more
radically than those of foreign corporations.
(A altered the investment strategies of 5nited .tates corporations more radically than those of
(! altered the investment strategies of 5nited .tates corporations more radically than
(" altered the investment strategies of 5nited .tates corporations more radically than they
have
($ radically altered the investment strategies of 5nited .tates corporations more than
(& radically altered the investment strategies of 5nited .tates and
88 Recently implemented )shift-wor( e,uations* based on studies of the human sleep cycle have
reduced sic(ness, sleeping on the +ob, fatigue among shift wor(ers, and have raised production
efficiency in various industries.
(A fatigue among shift wor(ers, and have raised
(! fatigue among shift wor(ers, and raised
(" and fatigue among shift wor(ers while raising
($ lowered fatigue among shift wor(ers, and raised
(& and fatigue among shift wor(ers was lowered while raising
8; 9n Dapan elderly people are treated with far greater respect than most 2estern countries.
(A most 2estern countries
(! most 2estern countries do
(" most 2estern countries are
($ they do in most 2estern countries
(& they are in most 2estern countries
8: 9n developing new facilities for the incineration of solid wastes, we must avoid the danger of
shifting environmental problems from landfills polluting the water to polluting the air with
incinerators.
(A landfills polluting the water to polluting the air with incinerators
(! landfills polluting the water to the air being polluted with incinerators
(" the pollution of water by landfills to the pollution of air by incinerators
($ pollution of the water by landfills to incinerators that pollute the air
(& water that is polluted by landfills to incinerators that pollute the air
;= 1ost teen-agers who wor( for pay hold +obs that re,uire few s(ills, little responsibility, and also
no hope for career advancement.
(A little responsibility, and also
(! little responsibility, and with
(" little responsibility, and offer
($ carry little responsibility, and
(& carry little responsibility, and offer
%#
;1 ?ounded in 1:;/, the maga>ine increased its circulation more than double since then, and its
advertising.
(A increased its circulation more than double since then,
(! has since increased its circulation more than double,
(" has since more than doubled its circulation
($ since then more than doubled its circulation
(& more than doubled its circulation since then
;' !uilding on civili>ations that preceded them in coastal 6eru, the 1ochica developed their own
elaborate society, based on cultivating such crops li(e corn and beans, the harvesting of fish and
shellfish, and e0ploiting other wild and domestic resources.
a same
b !ased on the cultivation of such crops as corn and beans, the harvesting of fish and seafood, and
the e0ploitation of
c and basing it on the cultivation of crops li(e corn and beans, harvesting fish and seafood, and the
e0ploiting of
d and they based it on their cultivation of crops such as corn and beans, the harvest of fish and
seafood, and e0ploiting
e and they based it on their cultivating such crops li(e corn and beans, their harvest of fish and
shellfish, and they e0ploited
;/ 1s. "hambers is among the forecasters who predict that the rate of addition to arable lands will
drop while those of loss rise.
a. those of loss rise
b. it rises for loss
c. those of losses rise
d. the rate of loss rises
e. there are rises for the rate of loss
;3 5nder the 1:;7 ta0 law, interest payments on a refinanced home loan are deductible only if the
amount of the loan does not e0ceed the purchase price of the home, the cost of improvements,
and any additional amount borrowed against the home to pay for medical or educational
e0penses.
(A any additional amount borrowed against the home to pay for medical or educational
e0penses
(! borrowing any additional amount against the home for payment of medical or educational
e0penses
(" also borrowing any additional amount against the home to pay for medical or educational
e0penses
($ any additional payment of medical or educational e0penses that were borrowed against the
home
(& any additional payment borrowed against the home for medical or educational e0penses
;4 Two wee( notice being given to employers before leaving a +ob is the generally accepted
protocol.
(A Two wee( notice being given to employers before leaving
(! Civing notice to employers of two wee(s before having to leave
(" Two wee(s notice to give to employers before leaving
($ Civing notice to employers two wee(s before leaving
(& To give two wee(s worth of notice before having to leave
%$
;7 Hisitors to the par( have often loo(ed up into the leafy canopy and saw mon(eys sleeping on the
branches, whose arms and legs hang li(e soc(s on a clothesline.
(A saw mon(eys sleeping on the branches, whose arms and legs hang
(! saw mon(eys sleeping on the branches, whose arms and legs were hanging
(" saw mon(eys sleeping on the branches, with arms and legs hanging
($ seen mon(eys sleeping on the branches, with arms and legs hanging
(& seen mon(eys sleeping on the branches, whose arms and legs have hung
;8 9n his wor(, Beon ?orrest is more reminiscent of #enry 1illers obsessive narratives and Toni
1orrisons mythic languages than Dames Doyces internal e0plorations.
(A 9n his wor(, Beon ?orrest is more reminiscent of
(! Beon ?orrest writes more li(e
(" Beon ?orrests wor( is more reminiscent of
($ Beon ?orrest reminds one more of
(& Beon ?orrests wor( more resembles that of
;; The herbicide %ry>alin was still being produced in 1:8:, three years after the wives of wor(ers
producing the chemical in Rensselaer, @ew Ior(, were found to have borne children with heart
defects or miscarriages, and none of their pregnancies was normal.
(A to have borne children with heart defects or miscarriages, and none of their pregnancies
was
(! to have had children born with heart defects or miscarriages, and none of the pregnancies
was
(" either to have had children with heart defects or miscarriages, without any of their
pregnancies being
($ either to have had miscarriages or to have borne children with heart defects- none of the
pregnancies was
(& either to have had miscarriages or children born with heart defects, without any of their
pregnancies being
;: The human growth hormone, made by the pituitary gland, is secreted during sleep in higher
concentrations than when awa(e.
(A during sleep in higher concentrations than when awa(e
(! when sleeping in higher concentrations than wa(ing hours
(" in higher concentrations during sleeping than wa(ing
($ in higher concentrations during sleep than during wa(ing hours
(& in higher concentrations when asleep than when awa(e
%9
:= To compare the lightning-fast genius of playwright Tom .toppard with the pedestrian efforts of
some of his contemporaries is to compare the e0,uisite bou,uet of a fine wine with that of
ordinary grape +uice.
(A To compare the lightning-fast genius of playwright Tom .toppard with the pedestrian efforts
of some of his contemporaries is to compare the e0,uisite bou,uet of a fine wine with that of
ordinary grape +uice.
(! To compare the lightning-fast genius of playwright Tom .toppard with the pedestrian efforts
of some of his contemporaries is comparing the e0,uisite bou,uet of a fine wine with that of
ordinary grape +uice.
(" "omparing the lightning-fast genius of playwright Tom .toppard with the pedestrian efforts
of some of his contemporaries is to compare the e0,uisite bou,uet of a fine wine with ordinary
grape +uice.
($ "omparing the lightning-fast genius of playwright Tom .toppard with the pedestrian efforts
of some of his contemporaries is li(e comparing the e0,uisite bou,uet of a fine wine with
ordinary grape +uice.
(& To compare the lightning-fast genius of playwright Tom .toppard with the pedestrian efforts
of some of his contemporaries is to compare a fine wines bou,uet with ordinary grape +uices
bou,uet.
:1 ?ollowing the nutrition boards advice on salt consumption would mean a virtual end of the use of
salt in coo(ing, an avoidance of obviously salty foods, and reducing the reliance on processed foods
that contain significant amounts of often hidden sodium.
(A reducing the reliance on processed foods that contain significant amounts of often hidden
sodium
(! reducing the reliance on processed foods containing often hidden but significant amounts of
sodium
(" a reduction of the reliance on processed foods, containing as they do often hidden sodium in
significant amounts
($ a reduced reliance on the significant amounts of hidden sodium often contained in processed
foods
(& a reduced reliance on processed foods that contain significant but often hidden amounts of
sodium
:' The distribution of mass within the core of the &arth, li(e the mantle that surrounds the core,
has been deduced from the orbital behavior of the &arth and the motions of satellites controlled
by the gravity of the &arth.
(A the mantle that surrounds the core
(! that within the mantle surrounding the core
(" that of the mantle surrounding the core
($ the mantle the core surrounds
(& the distribution of mass within the mantle that surrounds the core
&
:/ "harlotte 6er(ins Cilman, a late nineteenth-century feminist, called for urban apartment
houses including child-care facilities and clustered suburban houses including communal
eating and social facilities.
(A including child-care facilities and clustered suburban houses including communal eating
and social facilities
(! that included child-care facilities, and for clustered suburban houses to include communal
eating and social facilities
(" with child-care facilities included and for clustered suburban houses to include communal
eating and social facilities
($ that included child-care facilities and for clustered suburban houses with communal eating
and social facilities
(& to include child-care facilities and for clustered suburban houses with communal eating and
social facilities included
:3 There is no consensus on what role, if any, is played by acid rain in slowing the growth or
damaging forests in the eastern 5nited .tates.
(A slowing the growth or damaging
(! the damage or the slowing of the growth of
(" the damage to or the slowness of the growth of
($ damaged or slowed growth of
(& damaging or slowing the growth of
:4 Although early soap operas were first aired on evening radio in the 1:'=s, they had moved to
the daytime hours of the 1:/=s when the evening schedule became crowded with comedians
and variety shows.
(A were first aired on evening radio in the 1:'=s, they had moved to the daytime hours of the
1:/=s
(! were first aired on evening radio in the 1:'=s, they were moved to the daytime hours in the
1:/=s
(" were aired first on evening radio in the 1:'=s, moving to the daytime hours in the 1:/=s
($ were aired first in the evening on 1:'=s radio, they moved to the daytime hours of the
1:/=s
(& aired on evening radio first in the 1:'=s, they were moved to the 1:/=s in the daytime
hours
:7 That the new managing editor rose from the publicationAs FsoftF new sections to a leadership
position is more of a landmar( in the industry than her being a woman.
A. her being a woman
!. being a woman is
". her womanhood
$. that she was a woman
&. that she is a woman
:8 .chool desegregation has wor(ed well in !uffalo, @ew Ior(, in part because parents and
teachers were given ma+or roles in designing the citys magnet schools, because e0tra federal
funds were allocated to ma(e each school uni,ue, and because the federal +udge enforced
desegregation orders.
(A because e0tra federal funds were allocated to ma(e each school uni,ue
(! because of the allocation of e0tra federal funds that ma(e each school uni,ue
(" because each school is made uni,ue by allocating it e0tra federal funds
($ e0tra federal funds were allocated in order to ma(e each school uni,ue
(& e0tra federal funds were allocated for ma(ing each school uni,ue
%
:; As envisioned by researchers, commercial farming of lobsters will enable fisheries to sell the
shellfish year-round, ta(ing advantage of off-season demand, standardi>e its si>es and colors,
and to predict sales volume in advance.
(A ta(ing advantage of off-season demand, standardi>e
(! ta(ing advantage of off-season demand, to standardi>e
(" ta(ing advantage of off-season demand, standardi>ing
($ ta(e advantage of off-season demand, standardi>ing
(& ta(e advantage of off-season demand, to standardi>e
:: The data collected by weather airplanes that fly into the heart of a hurricane are useful mainly for
gauging the storms structure and strength, not for the speed and the path of their movement.
(A not for the speed and the path of their movement
(! not for the speed and path of its movement
(" not the speed and path of its movement
($ and not the speed and path of their movements
(& and not for the speed and the path of its movements
1== The computer software being designed for a pro+ect studying @ative American access to higher
education will not only meet the needs of that study, but also has the versatility and power of
facilitating similar research endeavors.
(A but also has the versatility and power of facilitating
(! but also have the versatility and power to facilitate
(" but it also has the versatility and power to facilitate
($ and also have the versatility and power of facilitating
(& and it also has such versatility and power that it can facilitate
1=1 ?ederal authorities involved in the investigation have found the local witnesses are difficult to
locate, reticent, and are suspicious of strangers.
(A the local witnesses are difficult to locate, reticent, and are
(! local witnesses to be difficult to locate, reticent, and are
(" that local witnesses are difficult to locate, reticent, and
($ local witnesses are difficult to locate and reticent, and they are
(& that local witnesses are difficult to locate and reticent, and they are
1=' After moving to .wit>erland in the 1;:=s, Albert &instein attended the .wiss ?ederal 6olytechnic
.chool in Jurich, receiving in-depth training in ,uantitative analysis and developing a foundation for
his future wor( in mathematical physics.
a.attended the .wiss ?ederal 6olytechnic .chool in Jurich, receiving in-depth training in ,uantitative
analysis and developing
b.attended the .wiss ?ederal 6olytechnic .chool in Jurich, receiving in-depth training in ,uantitative
analysis and developed
c.attended the .wiss ?ederal 6olytechnic .chool in Jurich, received in-depth training in ,uantitative
analysis, and he developed
d.attended the .wiss ?ederal 6olytechnic .chool in Jurich, received in-depth training in ,uantitative
analysis, developing
e.attending the .wiss ?ederal 6olytechnic .chool in Jurich, receiving in-depth training in
,uantitative analysis, and developing

1=/ ?aced with an estimated <' billion budget gap, the citys mayor proposed a nearly 18 percent
reduction in the amount allocated the previous year to maintain the citys ma+or cultural
institutions and to subsidi>e hundreds of local arts groups.
(A proposed a nearly 18 percent reduction in the amount allocated the previous year to
maintain the citys ma+or cultural institutions and to subsidi>e
(! proposed a reduction from the previous year of nearly 18 percent in the amount it was
allocating to maintain the citys ma+or cultural institutions and for subsidi>ing
(" proposed to reduce, by nearly 18 percent, the amount from the previous year that was
allocated for the maintenance of the citys ma+or cultural institutions and to subsidi>e
($ has proposed a reduction from the previous year of nearly 18 percent of the amount it was
allocating for maintaining the citys ma+or cultural institutions, and to subsidi>e
(& was proposing that the amount they were allocating be reduced by nearly 18 percent from
the previous year for maintaining the citys ma+or cultural institutions and for the subsidi>ation
1=3 !lan(
1=4 Trying to learn some of the basics of programming is the same as to tin(er with a car when one
is a teenagerE some people end up going to engineering school, and others, twenty years later,
remember nothing of the e0perience.
(A the same as to tin(er with a car when one is a teenager
(! similar to a teenager tin(ering with a car
(" li(e tin(ering with a car as a teenager
($ the same as a teenager tin(ering with a car
(& li(e the teenagers tin(ering with a car
1=7 1anifestations of 9slamic political militancy in the first period of religious reformism were the
rise of the 2ahhabis in Arabia, the .anusi in "yrenaica, the ?ulani in @igeria, the 1ahdi in the
.udan, and the victory of the 5suli )mu+tahids* in .hiite 9ran and 9ra,.
(A 1anifestations of 9slamic political militancy in the first period of religious reformism were the
rise of the 2ahhabis in Arabia, the .anusi in "yrenaica, the ?ulani in @igeria, the 1ahdi in the
.udan, and
(! 1anifestations of 9slamic political militancy in the first period of religious reformism were
shown in the rise of the 2ahhabis in Arabia, the .anusi in "yrenaica, the ?ulani in @igeria, the
1ahdi in the .udan, and also
(" 9n the first period of religious reformism, manifestations of 9slamic political militancy were
the rise of the 2ahhabis in Arabia, of the .anusi in "yrenaica, the ?ulani in @igeria, the 1ahdi
in the .udan, and
($ 9n the first period of religious reformism, manifestations of 9slamic political militancy were
shown in the rise of the 2ahhabis in Arabia, the .anusi in "yrenaica, the ?ulani in @igeria, the
1ahdi in the .udan, and
(& 9n the first period of religious reformism, 9slamic political militancy was manifested in the
rise of the 2ahhabis in Arabia, the .anusi in "yrenaica, the ?ulani in @igeria, and the 1ahdi in
the .udan, and in
3
1=8 9n a leveraged buyout, investors borrow huge sums of money to buy companies, hoping to pay
off the debt by using the companys earnings and to profit richly by the later resale of the
companies or their divisions.
(A by using the companys earnings and to profit
(! by using the companies earnings and by profiting
(" using the companies earnings and profiting
($ with the companys earnings, profiting
(& with the companies earnings and to profit
1=; Among the reasons for the decline of @ew &ngland agriculture in the last three decades were
the high cost of land, the pressure of housing and commercial development, and basing a
mar(eting and distribution system on importing produce from ?lorida and "alifornia.
(A basing a mar(eting and distribution system on importing produce from ?lorida and
"alifornia
(! basing a mar(eting and distribution system on the imported produce of ?lorida and
"alifornia
(" basing a system of mar(eting and distribution on the import of produce from ?lorida and
"alifornia
($ a mar(eting and distribution system based on importing produce from ?lorida and
"alifornia
(& a mar(eting and distribution system importing produce from ?lorida and "alifornia as its
base
1=: The nations three military academies have seen a dramatic rise in applications, one fueled by
a resurgence of patriotism, an increase in tuition costs at private colleges, and improved
recruiting by the academies.
(A one fueled by a resurgence of patriotism, an increase in tuition costs at private colleges,
and improved recruiting by the academies
(! one fueled by a resurgence of patriotism, tuition costs that have increased at private
colleges, and academies improving their recruiting
(" one fueled by a resurgence of patriotism, private colleges that increased their tuition costs,
and recruiting improvements by the academies
($ fueled by a resurgence of patriotism, tuition costs increasing at private colleges, and
academies improving their recruiting
(& fueled by a resurgence of patriotism, increasing tuition costs at private colleges, and
academies improving their recruiting
11= Recently discovered fossil remains strongly suggest that the Australian egg-laying mammals of
today are a branch of the main stem of mammalian evolution rather than developing
independently from a common ancestor of mammals more than ''= million years ago.
(A rather than developing independently from
(! rather than a type that developed independently from
(" rather than a type whose development was independent of
($ instead of developing independently from
(& instead of a development that was independent of
!
111 The increased popularity and availability of televisions has led to the decline of regional
dialects, language variations which originate from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and
perpetuated by geographic isolation.
(A which originate from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
(! that originated from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
(" originated from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
($ originating from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
(& originating from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuating
11' Researchers have found that individuals who have been blind from birth, and who thus have
never seen anyone gesture, nevertheless ma(e hand motions when spea(ing +ust as fre,uently
and in virtually the same way as sighted people do, and that they will gesture even when
conversing with another blind person.
(A who thus have never seen anyone gesture, nevertheless ma(e hand motions when
spea(ing +ust as fre,uently and in virtually the same way as sighted people do, and that they
will gesture
(! who thus never saw anyone gesturing, nevertheless ma(e hand motions when spea(ing
+ust as fre,uent and in virtually the same way as sighted people did, and that they will gesture
(" who thus have never seen anyone gesture, nevertheless made hand motions when
spea(ing +ust as fre,uently and in virtually the same way as sighted people do, as well as
gesturing
($ thus never having seen anyone gesture, nevertheless made hand motions when spea(ing
+ust as fre,uent and in virtually the same way as sighted people did, as well as gesturing
(& thus never having seen anyone gesture, nevertheless to ma(e hand motions when
spea(ing +ust as fre,uently and in virtually the same way as sighted people do, and to gesture
11/ The economic forces which may affect the new public offering of stoc( include sudden
downturns in the mar(et, hedging and other investor strategies for preventing losses, loosening
the interest rates in 2ashington, and fearing that the company may still be undercapitali>ed.
(A loosening the interest rates in 2ashington, and fearing that the company may still be
undercapitali>ed
(! loosening the interest rates in 2ashington, and a fear of the company still being
undercapitali>ed
(" a loosening of the interest rates in 2ashington, and fearing that the company may still be
undercapitali>ed
($ a loosening of the interest rates in 2ashington, and a fear of the still undercapitali>ed
company
(& a loosening of the interest rates in 2ashington, and a fear that the company may still be
undercapitali>ed
113 9t is an oversimplified view of cattle raising to say that all one has to do with cattle is leave them
alone while they feed themselves, corral them, and to drive them to mar(et when the time is ripe.
(A all one has to do with cattle is leave them alone while they feed themselves, corral them, and to
(! all one has to do with cattle is to leave them alone to feed themselves, to corral them, and
(" all one has to do with cattle is leave them alone while they feed themselves and then corral
them and
($ the only thing that has to be done with cattle is leave them alone while they feed themselves,
corral them, and
(& the only thing that has to be done with cattle is to leave them alone while they feed themselves,
to corral them, and
5
114 1innesota is the only one of the contiguous forty-eight states that still has a si>able wolf
population, and where this predator remains the archenemy of cattle and sheep.
(A that still has a si>able wolf population, and where
(! that still has a si>able wolf population, where
(" that still has a si>able population of wolves, and where
($ where the population of wolves is still si>able-
(& where there is still a si>able population of wolves and where
117 Those s(eptical of the e0tent of global warming argue that short-term temperature data are an
inade,uate means of predicting long-term trends and point out that the scientific community remains
divided on whether significant warming will occur and what impact will it have if it does.
A. on whether significant warming will occur and what impact will it have if it does.
!. on whether warming that occurs will be significant and the impact it would have
". as to whether significant warming will occur or the impact it would have if it did
$. over whether there will be significant warming or the impact it will have
&. over whether significant warming will occur and what impact it would have
118 A ma+ority of the international +ournalists surveyed view nuclear power stations as unsafe at present
but that they will, or could, be made sufficiently safe in the future.
(A that they will, or could,
(! that they would, or could,
(" they will be or could
($ thin( that they will be or could
(& thin( the power stations would or could
11; 9n addition to her wor( on the 1iocene hominid fossil record, 1ary Bea(ey contributed to
archaeology with her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and
painsta(ingly documenting &ast African cave paintings.
A. Bea(ey contributed to archaeology with her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of
hominid activity and painsta(ingly documenting
!. Bea(ey contributed to archaeology by her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of
hominid activity and by painsta(ingly documenting
". Bea(ey was a contributor to archaeology with her discovery of the earliest direct
evidence of hominid activity and with her painsta(ing documentation of
$. Bea(eys contributions to archaeology include her discovery of the earliest direct
evidence of hominid activity and her painsta(ing documentation of
&. Bea(eys contributions to archaeology include her discovering the earliest direct
evidence of hominid activity and painsta(ing documentation of
11: The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which was determined by when
the sun reached the observers meridian and differing from city to city, and to the establishment
of regional times.
(A which was determined by when the sun reached the observers meridian and differing
(! which was determined by when the sun reached the observers meridian and which differed
(" which were determined by when the sun reached the observers meridian and differing
($ determined by when the sun reached the observers meridian and differed
(& determined by when the sun reached the observers meridian and differing
"
1'= Researchers have found that individuals who have been blind from birth, and who thus have never
seen anyone gesture, nevertheless ma(e hand motions when spea(ing +ust as fre,uently and in
virtually the same way as sighted people do, and that they will gesture even when conversing with
another blind person.
a. who thus have never seen anyone gesture, nevertheless ma(e hand motions when spea(ing +ust
as fre,uently and in virtually the same way as sighted people do, and that they will gesture
b. who thus never saw anyone gesturing, nevertheless ma(e hand motions when spea(ing +ust as
fre,uent and in virtually the same way as sighted people did, and that they will gesture
c. who thus have never seen anyone gesture, nevertheless made hand motions when spea(ing +ust
as fre,uently and in virtually the same way as sighted people do, as well as gesturing
d. thus never having seen anyone gesture, nevertheless made hand motions when spea(ing +ust as
fre,uent and in virtually the same way as sighted people did, as well as gesturing
e. thus never having seen anyone gesture, nevertheless to ma(e hand motions when spea(ing +ust
as fre,uently and in virtually the same way as sighted people do, and to gestur
1'1 The domesticated camel, which some scholars date around the twelfth century !."., was the
(ey to the development of the spice trade in the ancient world.
(A The domesticated camel, which some scholars date
(! The domesticated camel, which some scholars having thought to occur
(" $omesticating the camel, dated by some scholars at
($ The domestication of the camel, thought by some scholars to have occurred
(& The camels domestication, dated by some scholars to have been
1'' 6roponents of artificial intelligence say they will be able to ma(e computers that can
understand &nglish and other human languages, recogni>e ob+ects, and reason as an e0pert
doesGcomputers that will be used to diagnose e,uipment brea(downs, deciding whether to
authori>e a loan, or other purposes such as these.
(A as an e0pert doesGcomputers that will be used to diagnose e,uipment brea(downs,
deciding whether to authori>e a loan, or other purposes such as these
(! as an e0pert does, which may be used for purposes such as diagnosing e,uipment
brea(downs or deciding whether to authori>e a loan
(" li(e an e0pertGcomputers that will be used for such purposes as diagnosing e,uipment
brea(downs or deciding whether to authori>e a loan
($ li(e an e0pert, the use of which would be for purposes li(e the diagnosis of e,uipment
brea(downs or the decision whether or not a loan should be authori>ed
(& li(e an e0pert, to be used to diagnose e,uipment brea(downs, deciding whether to
authori>e a loan or not, or the li(e
1'/ Doan of Arc, a young ?renchwoman who claimed to be divinely inspired, turned the tide of
&nglish victories in her country by liberating the city of %rleans and she persuaded "harles H99
of ?rance to claim his throne.
(A she persuaded "harles H99 of ?rance to claim his throne
(! persuaded "harles H99 of ?rance in claiming his throne
(" persuading that the throne be claimed by "harles H99 of ?rance
($ persuaded "harles H99 of ?rance to claim his throne
(& persuading that "harles H99 of ?rance should claim the throne
#
1'3 $uring the 1:;=s it became clear that soliciting private funds was far more efficient for
environmentalists who sought financial aid than to go to state or federal agencies.
(A that soliciting private funds was far more efficient for environmentalists who sought financial
aid
(! that for environmentalists who sought financial aid, it was far more efficient to solicit private
funds
(" that for environmentalists see(ing financial aid, private organi>ations were far more efficient
to go to
($ for environmentalists see(ing financial aid, going to private organi>ations was far more
efficient
(& for environmentalists who sought financial aid, private organi>ations were far more efficient
1'4 !y confronting a devastated economy through actions such as creating the ?ederal $eposit
9nsurance "orporation, opening the .ecurities and &0change "ommission, suspending the
gold standard, launching massive public wor(s programs, and improving the morale of a
demorali>ed nation through his fireside chats, ?irst 9naugural address, and other motivational
speeches, ?ran(lin Roosevelt both lifted the spirits of Americans across the country and set the
5nited .tates on a course that helped propel it out of the Creat $epression.
A launching massive public wor(s programs, and improving the morale of a demorali>ed
nation through his fireside chats
! and launching massive public wor(s programs, and improving the morale of a demorali>ed
nation through his fireside chats
" and launching massive public wor(s programs, and by improving the morale of a nation
demorali>ed through his fireside chats
$ and through the launch of massive public wor(s programs, and by improving the morale of a
demorali>ed nation through his fireside chats
& and launching massive public wor(s programs, and by improving the morale of a
demorali>ed nation through his fireside chats
1'7 9nnovative companies are not only s(illful in developing new products but also in finding new
ways to promote old ones.
(A are not only s(illful in developing new products but also in finding
(! are s(illful not only in developing new products but also in finding
(" not only are s(illful in developing new products, they also find
($ not only develop new products, but they are also s(illful in finding
(& are both s(illful in the development of new products and in finding
1'8 9t is as difficult to prevent crimes against property as those that are against a person.
(A those that are against a
(! those against a
(" it is against a
($ preventing those against a
(& it is to prevent those against a
$
1'; 9t could be argued that the most significant virtue of a popular democracy is not the right to
participate in the selection of leaders, but rather that it affirms our importance in the scheme of
things.
(A but rather that it affirms
(! but rather its affirmation of
(" but rather its affirmation in terms of
($ but instead of that, its affirming that
(& affirming rather
1': Dust as plant species native to regions with browsing mammals evolved many natural anti-
browser defenses (such as sharp spines and to0ic chemicals, so humans in malarial regions
have evolved do>ens of chemical defenses against malaria.
(A so humans in malarial regions have evolved do>ens of chemical defenses against malaria
(! humans in malarial regions have been evolving do>ens of chemical defenses against
malaria
(" there has been, in malarial regions, an evolution of do>ens of human chemical defenses
against malaria
($ do>ens of chemical defenses against malaria have been evolved by humans in malarial
regions
(& similarly, in malarial regions, humans have evolved do>ens of chemical defenses against
malaria
1/= Dust as reading .amuel 6epyss diary gives a student a sense of the seventeenth centuryGof
its te0ture and psycheGso Dane ?reeds guileless child narrator ta(es the operagoer inside
turn-of-the-century Hienna.
(A so Dane ?reeds guileless child narrator ta(es the operagoer
(! so listening to Dane ?reeds guileless child narrator ta(es the operagoer
(" so the guileless child narrator of Dane ?reed ta(es the operagoer
($ listening to Dane ?reeds guileless child narrator ta(es the operagoer
(& Dane ?reeds guileless child narrator ta(es the operagoer to her opera
1/1 Bess detrimental than the effects of bacterial transformation is the effects of bacterial
deteriorationE spoilage of food, metals corroding, decay of wood, and other undesirable
alterations of substances.
(A is the effects of bacterial deteriorationE spoilage of food, metals corroding
(! are the effects of bacterial deteriorationE spoilage of food, metals corroding
(" is the effects of bacterial deterioration, which include spoilage of food, metals corroding
($ are the effects of bacterial deterioration, which includes spoilage of food, corrosion of
metals
(& are the effects of bacterial deteriorationE spoilage of food, corrosion of metals
9
1/' Bi(e &dvard Crieg, whom the .candinavians long refused to recogni>e, the 9talians disregard
for Herdi persisted for a decade after his critical acclaim in ?rance and Austria.
(A Bi(e &dvard Crieg, whom the .candinavians long refused to recogni>e,
(! Bi(e &dvard Crieg, who the .candinavians long refused to recogni>e,
(" Dust as &dvard Crieg was long refused recognition by the .candinavians,
($ Dust as the .candinavians long refused to recogni>e &dvard Crieg, so
(& Bi(e the .candinavians long refusal to recogni>e &dvard Crieg,
1// Bower-level management function most effectively when they have thorough training and
unimpeded communication with wor(ers, supervisors, and one another.
(A management function most effectively when they have
(! managers function most effectively when they have
(" management functions most effectively when they have
($ managers function most effectively when they have received
(& management functions most effectively when it has
1/3 1onitoring heart patients e0ercise, as well as athletes e0ercising, is now done by small
transmitters broadcasting physiological measurements to nearby recording machines.
(A 1onitoring heart patients e0ercise, as well as athletes e0ercising, is now done by small
transmitters broadcasting physiological measurements to nearby recording machines.
(! 1onitoring the e0ercise of heart patients, as well as athletes e0ercising, is now done by
small transmitters broadcasting physiological measurements to nearby recording machines.
(" .mall transmitters broadcasting physiological measurements to nearby recording machines
are now used to monitor the e0ercise of both heart patients and athletes.
($ !roadcasting physiological measurements to nearby recording machines, small
transmitters are now used to monitor heart patients e0ercise, as well as athletes e0ercising.
(& !oth athletes e0ercising and heart patients e0ercise are now monitored by small
transmitters broadcasting physiological measurements to nearby recording machines.
1/4 1ore and more in recent years, cities are stressing the arts as a means to greater economic
development and investing millions of dollars in cultural activities, despite strained municipal
budgets and fading federal support.
(A to greater economic development and investing
(! to greater development economically and investing
(" of greater economic development and invest
($ of greater development economically and invest
(& for greater economic development and the investment of
1/7 @o state law forbids an employer from re+ecting a +ob applicant or to dismiss an employee
based on the results of a lie detector test.
(A an employer from re+ecting a +ob applicant or to dismiss
(! an employer to re+ect a +ob applicant or dismiss
(" that employers re+ect a +ob applicant or dismiss
($ the re+ection by an employer of a +ob applicant or dismissal of
3&
(& re+ection by employers of a +ob applicant or dismissal of
1/8 %ne legacy of 1adison Avenues recent campaign to appeal to people fifty years old and over
is the reali>ation that as a person ages, their concerns change as well.
(A the reali>ation that as a person ages, their
(! the reali>ation that as people age, their
(" to reali>e that when a person ages, his or her
($ to reali>e that when people age, their
(& reali>ing that as people age, their
1/; 6eople have discovered the principles of solar energy whenever fuel becomes scarce and
e0pensive but will forget them every time a new source of cheap energy is developed.
(A have discovered the principles of solar energy whenever fuel becomes scarce and
e0pensive but will forget
(! have discovered the principles of solar energy whenever fuel has become scarce and
e0pensive but they forget
(" discovered the principles of solar energy every time fuel becomes scarce and e0pensive,
forgetting
($ discover the principles of solar energy every time fuel became scarce and e0pensive, but
they forget
(& discover the principles of solar energy whenever fuel becomes scarce and e0pensive but
forget
1/: 6ersonal trainers and fitness coaches are to the narcissistic 1:;=s +ust li(e a private fencing
master and dancing teacher was to an earlier time.
(A +ust li(e a private fencing master and dancing teacher was
(! as have been a private fencing master and dancing teacher
(" what private fencing masters and dancing teachers were
($ what private fencing masters and dancing teachers are
(& +ust the same as private fencing masters and dancing teachers had been
13= 6iagets research revealed that children can learn to count long before the recognition that a
pint of water poured from a small glass into a large one remains the same amount of water.
(A the recognition that
(! they can recogni>e that
(" they would recogni>e
($ they could have the recognition of
(& having the recognition of
131 As a result of a supernova e0plosion, every human being on &arth was bombarded on
?ebruary '/, 1:;8, by about 1== billion neutrinos- fortunately, neutrinos are harmless
elementary particles that are produced in nuclear reactions and that interact very wea(ly with
matter.
(a neutrinos are harmless elementary particles that are produced in nuclear reactions and that
(b neutrinos, which are harmless, are elementary particles produced in nuclear reactions and
3%
which
(c neutrinos are harmless elementary particles produced in nuclear reactions and which
(d these harmless elementary particles are produced in nuclear reactions, and neutrinos
(e these elementary particles, harmless products of nuclear reactions, are neutrinos that
13' Researchers agreed that the study of new treatments for heart attac( patients was e0tremely
important but more research was needed to determine that balloon angioplasty preceded with
ultrasound was or was not any better for heart attac( patients than the balloon procedure by
itself.
A. more research was needed to determine that balloon angioplasty preceded with ultrasound
was or was not any better for heart attac( patients than
!. more research was needed for determining whether or not balloon angioplasty preceded by
ultrasound is any better for heart attac( patients than is
". that more research was needed to determine whether balloon angioplasty preceded by
ultrasound is any better for heart attac( patients than
$. that more research was needed to determine that balloon angioplasty preceded with
ultrasound was any better for heart attac( patients than
&. that more research was needed for determining that balloon angioplasty preceded by
ultrasound is or is not any better for heart attac( patients than is
13/ 9n an attempt to attract more tourists, the .wiss government commissioned several lifesi>e
fiberglass cow statues, having them decorated by local artists, and set them up on the streets
of Jurich.
A. the .wiss government commissioned several life-si>e fiberglass cow statues, having them
decorated by local artists, and
!. the .wiss government commissioned several life-si>e fiberglass cow statues, they were
decorated by local artists, and then
". the .wiss government commissioned several life-si>e fiberglass cow statues, had them
decorated by local artists, and
$. several life-si>e fiberglass cow statues were commissioned by the .wiss government,
decorated by local artists, and then
&. several life-si>e fiberglass cow statues, commissioned by the .wiss government, were
decorated by local artists, and they
133 Australian embryologists have found evidence that suggests that the elephant is descended
from an a,uatic animal, and its trun( originally evolved as a (ind of snor(el.
(a that suggests that the elephant is descended from an a,uatic animal, and its trun( originally
evolved
(b that has suggested the elephant descended from an a,uatic animal, its trun( originally
evolving
(c suggesting that the elephant had descended from an a,uatic animal with its trun( originally
evolving
3
(d to suggest that the elephant had descended from an a,uatic animal and its trun( originally
evolving
(e to suggest that the elephant is descended from an a,uatic animal and that its trun(
originally evolved
134 &nvironmental scientists have been careful to point out that the pollution of estuaries has
various causes, including seepage from septic fields, overuse of waterways by boats lac(ing
proper waste disposal facilities, spraying indiscriminate pesticides by farmers, and inade,uate
protection of the water table.
A. spraying indiscriminate pesticides by farmers
!. the indiscriminate spraying of pesticides by farmers
". pesticides which are sprayed by farmers indiscriminately
$. pesticides being sprayed in indiscriminate amounts by farmers
&. farmers who spray pesticides indiscriminately
137 As certain "entral and &astern &uropean countries are fast-trac(ed into the &uropean 5nion,
some scholars feel that more social schisms may ultimately be intensified by issues of class
rather than those of race.
A. As certain "entral and &astern &uropean countries are fast-trac(ed into the &uropean
5nion, some scholars feel that more social schisms may ultimately be intensified by issues of
class rather than those of race.
!. As certain "entral and &astern &uropean countries are fast-trac(ed into the &uropean
5nion, some scholars feel that more social schisms will ultimately be intensified by issues of
class than race.
". "ertain "entral and &astern &uropean countries are fast-trac(ed into the &uropean 5nion,
and as this happens some scholars feel that more social schisms will ultimately be intensified
by issues of class than by those of race.
$. "ertain "entral and &astern &uropean countries are fast-trac(ed into the &uropean 5nion,
so scholars feel that more social schisms will ultimately be intensified by issues of class than
by those of race.
&. Dust as certain "entral and &astern &uropean countries are fast-trac(ed into the &uropean
5nion, some scholars feel that more social schisms will ultimately be intensified by issues of
class than by those of race.
138 Astronomers have theori>ed that the !ig !ang governs the behavior of interstellar dust,
particles that comprise the atoms and molecules created in the progenitive e0plosion and
persisting in even the emptiest regions of space.
A. persisting
!. persists
". persisted
$. they persist
&. are persisting
33
13; "ity 6lanners in $etroit hope that the renewal pro+ect e0tending along the eastern riverfront will
establish a population that lives and wor(s downtown and also provides the office space
needed to attract new businesses.
A that lives and wor(s downtown and also provides
! to live and wor( downtown and also provide
" that lives as well as wor(s downtown and also provide
$ which lives as well as wor(s downtown and also provides
& who live as well as wor( downtown and also provides
13: Dapanese researchers are producing a series of robots that can identify human facial
e0pressions, to which they will then respond- their goal is primarily creating a robot that will
empathi>e with us.
(A e0pressions, to which they will then respond- their goal is primarily creating
(! e0pressions, then responding to them- primarily to create
(" e0pressions and then respond to them- the researchersA primary goal is to create
($ e0pressions as well as giving a response to them- their primary goal is creation of
(& e0pressions and responding to them- primarily, the researchersA goal is creating
14= 1any startup companies offer stoc( option incentives that allow an employee with inade,uate
dispensable income for independent financial investment to be able to invest in company stoc(
and apportion pre-ta0 income to pay for the investment.
A. incentives that allow an employee with inade,uate dispensable income for independent
financial investment to be able to invest in company stoc( and apportion
!. incentives that allow an employee with inade,uate dispensable income for independent
financial investment to invest in company stoc( and apportion
". incentives- that allows an employee with inade,uate dispensable income for independent
financial investment to invest in company stoc(, to apportion
$. incentives, which allows an employee with inade,uate dispensable income for independent
financial investment to invest in company stoc(, apportioning
&. incentives, which allow an employee with inade,uate dispensable income for independent
financial investment to be able to invest in company stoc(, apportioning
141 The .ports 1edicine 6rograms of the %lympic Training "enter, a comple0 where final try outs
are held for athletes representing the 5. in the %lympics, is geared toward enhancing athletesA
performance and toward their preparation for international competition.
A. is geared toward enhancing athletesA performance and toward their preparation
!. is geared to enhance the performance of athletes and to prepare them
". are geared to enhance athletes performance and their preparation
$. are geared toward the enhancement of athletesA performance and toward preparing them
&. are geared toward enhancing the performance of athletes and preparing them
3!
Answers
1 A
' "
/ &
3 "
4 &
7 $
8 "
; A
: &
1= &
11 "
1' &
1/ A
13 A
14 !
17 &
18 &
1; A
1: !
'= "
'1 $
'' &
'/ "
'3 !
'4 !
'7 $
'8 &
'; !
': !
/= &
/1 &
/' A
// !
/3 "
/4 $
/7 &
/8 $
/; $
/: "
3= !
31 $
3' !
3/ "
35
33 "
34 C
37 $
38 A
3; &
3: $
4= $
41 !
4' A
4/ &
43 &
44 &
47 $
48 "
4; &
4: &
7= &
71 !
7' A
7/ $
73 &
74 &
77 A
78 &
7; !
7: !
8= $
81 "
8' !
8/ !
83 !
84 "
87 A
88 "
8; &
8: "
;= &
;1 "
;' !
;/ $
;3 A
;4 $
;7 $
;8 "
;; $
;: $
:= A
:1 &
:' !
:/ $
3"
:3 &
:4 !
:7 &
:8 A
:; !
:: "
1== !
1=1 "
1=' A
1=/ A
1=3 blank
1=4 "
1=7 &
1=8 &
1=; $
1=: A
11= !
111 $
11' A
11/ &
113 "
114 &
117 &
118 $
11; $
11: &
1'= A
1'1 $
1'' "
1'/ $
1'3 !
1'4 &
1'7 !
1'8 &
1'; !
1': A
1/= !
1/1 &
1/' &
1// !
1/3 "
1/4 A
3#
1/7 !
1/8 !
1/; &
1/: "
13= !
131 A
13' "
13/ "
133 &
134 !
137 A
138 A
13; "
13: "
14= !
141 &
3$
Explanation
1 Fto readKis to feel..F.
' Fto spea(Kis to instill..F or Fspea(ingK.is instillingF is the correct parallelism. Also, as
per the original sentence, Fgradually instilling the notionF is the correct usage, not
Finstilling the gradual notionF.
/ 6arallelismE that it providesK, that it may supplyK, and that it is perhapsK
3 The parallel list isE runners must 0, y and >. FRunners must (now how to pace
themselvesF is the correct usage.
4 F..either toKor to..F is the correct usage.
7 F.was produced..not by..but byKF
8 Fmedian income for..F was more than Fmedian income (that for families..F.
; F.pawnedKand e0tendingF is a parallel structure (both are FparticiplesF. Bi(e...1y
fatherAs hair, strea(ed with gray and receding on both sides, is combed straight bac(
to his collar.
#ow about "L Actually FspawnedF is not FparallelF to Fe0tendedF, because the way
FspawnedF is used here, it is a Fpast participleF, while Fe0tendedF is used as a FverbF.
A simple way to figure out whether a verb form (here Fe0tendedFMFspawnedF is a
verb or a past participle isE
a "onvert the sentence portion using the verb form, into a Frelative clauseF
b 9n that converted sentence, if the verb form is FprecededF by a Fto-beF form of the
verb (isMareMwas, then the verb form is a FparticipleF, else it is a FverbF.
#ere, if we apply the above, the most logical way to do it would beE
...a giant fungus that is an interwoven filigree of mushrooms and rootli(e tentacles
2#9"# 9. spawned by a single fertili>ed spore some 1=,=== years ago and 2#9"#
e0tended for more than /= acres in the soil of a 1ichigan forest.
.o, FspawnedF is FprecededF by Fto-beF form of the verb FisF, while Fe0tendedF is not
FprecededF by any Fto-beF form of the verb. .o, FspawnedF is participle, while
Fe0tendedF is a verb. #ence, we should not be loo(ing at parallelism between
FspawnedF and Fe0tendedF.
: FtravelingF is FsynchronousF with serving as a recruiting agent- these are not separate
activities, while b conveys a meaning that these are separate activities. FtravelingF
and Fe0hortingF are parallel in e.
1= as much by robbingKas by eliminating.
11 .wedish firm, to counter high water tables, has proposed to do two thingsE
39
1. 9nstall water pumps (to lower underground water table
'. $ig trenches
#ence 9nstall and $ig should be paralllel. Finstalling pumps to lower...F and Fdigging
trenchesF are parallel.
1' 6arallel constructionE 1. &liminate unneeded beds '. "onsolidate e0pensive services
and /. use space in other hospitals.
Also, remember that construction FhospitalsA spaceF is not a correct construction.
6ossessives should be used only with living creatures.
?rom the meaning of the sentence, it should be clear that the report recommended
that the hospital do the following three thingsE
i eliminate unneeded beds
ii consolidate e0pensive services
iii use space in other hospitals
This is coming out clearly in &. 2ith A, the sentence isE
The report recommended that the hospital should eliminate unneeded beds,
e0pensive services should be consolidated, and use space in other hospitals.
@otice that this sentence is not parallel. Bet us brea( down this sentenceE
The report recommended that the hospital should (eliminate unneeded beds,
(e0pensive services should be consolidated, and (use space in other hospitals.
9n other words, the portion of the sentence FThe report recommended that the
hospital shouldF is clearly FcommonF to the three things that the hospitals should do.
.o, this FcommonF portion should ma(e sense with each of the three things. BetAs
seeE
The report recommended that the hospital should-
(i eliminate unneeded beds
(ii e0pensive services should be consolidated
(iii use space in other hospitals
.o, with the common portion each of the three things reads li(e thisE
(i The report recommended that the hospital should eliminate unneeded beds -
"orrect (ma(es sense
(ii The report recommended that the hospital should e0pensive services should be
consolidated - "learly 9ncorrect (The sentence dos FnotF ma(e sense
(iii The report recommended that the hospital should use space in other hospitals -
"orrect (ma(es sense
#ence, A is not correct.
2ith &, the sentence isE
The report recommended that the hospital eliminate unneeded beds, consolidate
e0pensive services, and use space in other hospitals.
The portion of the sentence FThe report recommended that the hospitalF is clearly
FcommonF to the three things that the hospitals should do. .o, this FcommonF portion
!&
should ma(e sense with each of the three things. BetAs seeE
The report recommended that the hospital-
(i eliminate unneeded beds
(ii consolidate e0pensive services
(iii use space in other hospitals
.o, with the common portion each of the three things reads li(e thisE
(i The report recommended that the hospital eliminate unneeded beds - "orrect
(ma(es sense
(ii The report recommended that the hospital consolidate e0pensive services -
"orrect (ma(es sense
(iii The report recommended that the hospital use space in other hospitals - "orrect
(ma(es sense
#ence, & is correct.
1/ 6arallelismE +oined, in+ured, discharged. Also note that F Robert +oinedK, in+ured..F as
in $ changes the meaning of the original sentence, since it would suggest that
Robert in+ured someone else, while the intention of the original sentenceis that
Robert Fwas in+uredF (himself.
Also, " and & are not ApreferableA, since AbeingA is not a preferred usage on C1AT.
13 6arallelismE organi>ed, provided, defined. FtheyF in " does not refer to anything
logical- the only plurals that appear in the sentence are days and resources, but
AtheyA in " cannot logically refer to either of these (they were involved in its
distribution and consumption.
#ow about !L 9t uses participle phrase. .ince participle phrases depict a cause and
effect, you might thin( that ! might be an appropriate usage. .o, ! would readE
Ninship determined the way in which the %+ibwa society provided access to its
resources, defining rights and obligations involved in their distribution and
consumption.
The above can be a perfectly valid sentence, since perhaps the way in which access
to resources was provided (cause defined rights and obligations (effect. .o, how do
we (now ! is not the correct choiceL That is because of ! were to be the right
choice, the construction of the sentence would have beenE
?rom the earliest days of the tribe, (inship determined the way in which the %+ibwa
society organi>ed its labor A@$ provided access to its resources, defining rights and
obligations involved in their distribution and consumption.
.ince we donAt have A@$ in the non-underlined portion, we (now ! cannot be the
answer.
14 6arallelismE Among white males than among.
17 Fthe number of foreignersFKFthe number of AmericansF. .imple past (Fe0ceededF is
the most appropriate usage, since the sentence mentions a statistic of the past.
Fwere in e0cessF is aw(ward and & is more concise in comparison to A.
!%
18 @ote that A does not have a modifier problem. .ince the second clause starts with
arguing (participial phrase, it modifies the entire preceding clause. #owever, since
$iscourse itself was a treatise, it is redundant and confusing to present her as both
publishing her discourse and arguing in a treatise, as though they were two separate
things. Also, 6arallelismEF..argued for ..and for changes..F.
", $ and & use Aabsolute phraseMclauseA structure (F..a treatise that...F, as does the
following sentenceE
A #ighway is getting constructed in the neighborhood, construction that has led to
ballooning of real estate prices.
& is best because it maintains perfect parallelism. .ee the structure of &E
...a treatise that argued for O (e,ual political and legal rights for women and for I
(changes in the married womens property laws.
As opposed to this, " and $ are not parallel, since they do not follow the above
parallel structure (..for O and for I
The sentence +ust highlights why 6arallelism re,uires two thingsE
1. .ee what are logically comparable sentence parts
'. 1a(e sure that these logically comparable sentence parts are
structurallyMgrammatically similar.
Bucretia 1ott argued for the following two thingsE
a e,ual political and legal rights for women (say O
b changes in the married womens property laws (say I
.o, O and I are logically comparable sentence parts. @ow the second step is to
ma(e sure that these two parts are structurallyMgrammatically similar.
& gets it correct, because it saysE
...a treatise that argued ?%R O and ?%R I.
This also by the way, underscores why it is important to read the non-underlined
portion of the sentence. 9n this case, the non-underlined portion has I and so, we
have to ma(e sure that the underlined portion is structurallyMgrammatically similar to
that.
1; 6arallelismE 6ut into 0 or y than into >. Also, note that AtheyA used in ! and " does not
have any referent, since AinvestorsA is not used in the sentence, only AinvestorA is
used.
1: @ote this is a list of Aaction nounsA. Remember in a list of Action @ouns (reversal,
onset, split , ing form should be preceded by theMaMan and be followed by FofF.
'= sense, see, detect, sense and dentify - all parallel, since they are all proper verbs.
'1 Fnot fromKbut fromF is a parallel construction. .ince Abut fromA is in the non-
underlined portion, we have to loo( for a parallel construction in the underlined
portion. $ provides us with that construction.
!
Also note that the construction after but (Ffrom their role as an integral lin( in the
A,uatic food chainF is a FphraseF and so, we need to loo( out for a phrase after AnotA.
#owever, A, ! and " use a FclauseF (Fthey are important sources of human foodF
and phrase cannot be parallel to a clause.
AbeingA is in general not a preferred construction in C1AT hence & should be dis-
regarded in the first pass.
'' 2ithout introducing FasF Fa dancerF (in A or Fthe dancerF (in " or FwhoF (in $ would
modify F!allanchine wor(sF, while they should ideally be modifying FTamara CevaF.
The reason why ! is wrong here is because of FwhichF without a comma and also
because FwhichF cannot modify people.
'/ FKreceivingKfetchingKe0citing..F is parallel construction. Also, AitA used in ! and &
has several problems. Bogically it should refer to Abulls and corwsA but if that is the
case, AtheyA should have been used and not AitA. Also, Fit e0cited enormous interestF is
a clause and cannot be considered to the other items in the list (Freceiving awardsF,
Ffetching unprecedented pricesF which are phrases.
'3 @ote that you should not try for parallelism between AthreateningA and AcausingA, since
these two phrases are not at the same AlevelA (Acausing a rise..A is because of human
health, while threat to global ecological systems is because of ultraviolet radiation.
#ence, Fwill endangerF and Fmay even threatenF are parallel structures.
'4 AthatK, thatKand thatKremember parallel clauses start with the same word (in this
case AthatA. .o, A and & should straightaway be eliminated without even a second
loo(.
A Also, Fresponsible forF and F..one ..over another..F are correct idiomatically.
'7 Always try to split the sentence into its barebone construction. The As(eletonA of the
sentence isE
F...the male whistling months call...and attract...F
FattractF as used in $ is the only construction parallel to the non underlined AcallA.
Also, the latter part of the non-underlined portion uses Arather thanA, so this is a clue
that Arather thanA should be used in comparison in the underlined portion as well.
'8 they, their does not refer to anythingK#olland is singular. .o, a, b, c are out.
F#olland spendsKmore than 5. spends..F parallelism.
'; why d is not correctE The main issue here is lac( of parallelism. A9nflationA is a plain
noun - and weAre continuing to tal( about inflation - so itAs most logically parallel to
continue the sentence in a manner that continues to address AinflationA itself (or the
e,uivalent pronoun AitA, which is what the correct answer does. "hoice $
unnecessarily switches the sub+ect to Aits riseA, creating a nonparallel construction
thatAs also (arguably more difficult to understand.
': F..from..but from..F Again, the parallel construction should clearly beE @%T O !5T I.
A. O P resulted from lapses of high technology- I P commonplace inade,uacies in
plumbing and wiring
.o, A would readE
!3
incidents of brea(downs in nuclear reactors have not resulted from lapses of high
technology
incidents of brea(downs in nuclear reactors have commonplace inade,uacies in
plumbing and wiring - This doesnAt ma(e sense.
!. O P from lapses of high technology- I P from commonplace inade,uacies in
plumbing and wiring
.o, ! would correctly readE
incidents of brea(downs in nuclear reactors have resulted not from lapses of high
technology
incidents of brea(downs in nuclear reactors have resulted from commonplace
inade,uacies in plumbing and wiring.
". O P of high technology- I P commonplace inade,uacies in plumbing and wiring
.o, " would readE
incidents of brea(downs in nuclear reactors have resulted from lapses not of high
technology
incidents of brea(downs in nuclear reactors have resulted from lapses commonplace
inade,uacies in plumbing and wiring - $oesnAt ma(e sense
$. O P of high technology- I P have stemmed from commonplace inade,uacies in
plumbing and wiring
.o, $ would readE
incidents of brea(downs in nuclear reactors have resulted from lapses not of high
technology
incidents of brea(downs in nuclear reactors have resulted from lapses have
stemmed from commonplace inade,uacies in plumbing and wiring - $oesnAt ma(e
sense
&. O P from lapses of high technology- I P have stemmed from commonplace
inade,uacies in plumbing and wiring
.o, & would readE
incidents of brea(downs in nuclear reactors have resulted not from lapses of high
technology
incidents of brea(downs in nuclear reactors have resulted from lapses have
stemmed from commonplace inade,uacies in plumbing and wiring - $oesnAt ma(e
sense
/= F..to assureKand to prevent..F is parallel. .o, a,b,c are out.
There is a subtle difference in meaning that is brought out by $. &ssentially the thrust
in choice $ is on )closing* the doors ()..to assure closingK* while the actual thrust
should be on )proper closing* of the doors ()Kassure that the doors are properly
closedK*.
9n other words, fail-safe mechanisms would be used not to assure closing the doors
but to assure that doors are )properly closed*. #ence, & is preferable.
/1 F..to discloseKto provide... and to createKF
/' F..to halt.. %r..to reverseF in a is parallel. F..that would begin..F in c is redundant, since
Fways to begin..F is more effective. Fa most sureF and Fthe most sureF in d and e
change the meaning, since the original sentence says Fone ofF the surest.
!!
// FKa stimulus systemKa means to reduceK.F. .o, c,d,e are out. FstimuliF can be
counted, so AnumberA is more appropriate.
Thin( of it from parallelism perspective ...brain isE
(i FaF stimulus reduction system
(ii FaF means to reduce the nearly infinite number of stimuli that reach the senses at
any given moment
/3 Fboth O and IF is the correct usage. .o, a, b, d are out. !etween c and eE
"E O P as a means of transport- I P as an effective military tool.
.o, " would readE
The (ey to control over the &urasian steppes lay in the nomads ability to use the
horse as a means of transport
The (ey to control over the &urasian steppes lay in the nomads ability to use the
horse as an effective military tool
&E O P as a means of transport- I P also an effective military tool.
.o, " would readE
The (ey to control over the &urasian steppes lay in the nomads ability to use the
horse as a means of transport
The (ey to control over the &urasian steppes lay in the nomads ability to use the
horse also an effective military tool - $oesnAt ma(e sense.
/4 FthatF when used as a Frelative pronounF can refer to both singular as well as plural
nouns.
#owever, when used as Fdemonstrative pronounF, FthatF can only refer to FsingularF
nouns. As Fdemonstrative pronounF, we need to use FthoseFMFtheseF if the intent is to
refer to plural nouns.
9n this case, we need to choose between thatMthose when thatMthose is used as a
F$emonstrative pronounF. .ince the intent is refer to a FpluralF (FearningsF, we need
to use FthoseF. #ence, a, b using AthatA are out. " compares AearningsA with AmenA.
/7 Fgreater influence than..F. .o, d is out. 9n c, AotherA is missing.
A and ! can be mis-interpreted asE
The decisions of Dohn 1arshall, the fourth chief +ustice, have had a greater influence
than any chief +ustice in history (has had.
.o, above is wrongly comparing the influence of the AdecisionsA of Dohn 1arshall with
the influence of chief +usticeMother chief +ustice.
/8 Fhundreds of deaths, thousands of in+uriesF is parallel structure. Also, FcausingF is
parallel with FdoingF.
/; F9n isolation fromF is wrong. .o, a, c, e are out. !etween b, d, lets analy>e !E
9nuits of the !ering .ea were isolated from contact with &uropeans longer than
Aleuts or 9nuits of the @orth 6acific and northern Alas(a.
This could be interpreted in either of the followig waysE
1. 9nuits of the !ering .ea were isolated from contact with &uropeans longer than
!5
Aleuts or 9nuits of the @orth 6acific and northern Alas(a (were isolated from contact
with &uropeans.
'. 9nuits of the !ering .ea were isolated from contact with &uropeans longer than
(9nuits of the !ering .ea were isolated from contact with Aleuts or 9nuits of the @orth
6acific and northern Alas(a.
"learly, both of the above have very different meaning. #ence, ! is ambiguous and
not correct.
/: Fless lendingF and Fincreased pressureF are parallel.
Crammatically, AlendingA is used as a noun form (Cerund here. .o, AlendingA is a
noun and AlessA is an ad+ective. .imilarly, in Fincreased pressureF, FpressureF is a
noun and FincreasedF is an ad+ective (FincreasedF is a past participles and we (now
that past participles are ad+ectives. .o, Fless lendingF is parallel with Fincreased
pressureF. #ence, " is the right choice.
@ote that Fincreasing the pressureF as used in A means that AincreasingA is used as a
present participle and denotes a Acontinuous actionA. This is not what the intent of the
original sentence is.
3= Recogni>e that a list of Aaction nounsA is being used hereE rally, Fa wea(ening ofF etc.
.o, all the A-ingA forms of the verb should be preceded with aMthe and succeeded with
AofA. #ence, Fa lowering ofF should be used. #ence, ! and " are potential candidates.
Analy>e
"E %ne view of the economy contends that a large drop in oil prices should
eventually lead to a lowering of interest rates, along with fears about inflation, a rally
in stoc(s and bonds, and a wea(ening of the dollar.
This seems to suggest that it will lead toE
1. lowering of interest rates
'. fears about inflation (while it should actually meanE lowering of fears about
inflation
Also, d and e use being.
31 Fstaff membersF in a, b does not tell Alarge staffA. 9n b, Anumbers of staff membersA is
incorrect usage.
3' Fsuggests thatF is better. 6arallelismE to distinguishKand to ma(e. Also, the correct
idiom is Fability toF and so, Fability forF as used in A and & is wrong. A also suggests
that childrenAs inability to distinguish sounds enables them to ma(e sense of speech.
"EFthe result of thisF is a new sub+ect that grammatically re,uires a new verb. dE this
nonsensically suggests that pace of speech results in not ma(ing sense of speech,
removing the children from the picture as the ones who are affected. eE being. Also,
Fso as toF as used in &, is never correct on C1AT.
3/ (a has non-parallel tenses. ?or (a to ma(e sense, it would have to begin Fwhat is as
remar(able asF, since the Fremar(abilityF refers to the present (i.e. itAs remar(able
now. (b, (d and (e all ma(e the same error. Another issue with (d and (e is the
incorrect idiom Fless remar(able asF - Fless remar(able thanF is idiomatically correct.
33 A, ! have misplaced modifier, since they seem to suggest that the individual should
have weight less than ;=== pounds. .ince parallel clauses FmustF start with the
!"
same word, F..one thatKand thatKF as used in " is the correct usage.
AbeingA used in $ is always less preferred on C1AT and also, Fto haveF and FbeingF
are not parallel. .imilarly, FhavingF and FregisteredF are not parallel in &.
34 Rate of increase cannot be Ftwice as fastF (+ust FtwiceF is enough as in A Q ! or Ftwo
times fasterF as in $. $ also lac(s parallelism, since Fin the 1:;=AsF should have been
compared with Fin the 1:8=AsF and not Fof the 1:8=AsF.
Ftwo times greaterF as used in & is redundant, since AtwiceA would have sufficed. 9t is
also important to note that A and & are ma(ing logical comparisonsE
AE 9n the 1:;=s the rate of increase of the minority population of the 5nited .tates
was nearly twice as fast as the (rate of increase of the minority population of the
5nited .tates in the 1:8=s.
&E 9n the 1:;=s the rate of increase of the minority population of the 5nited .tates
was nearly two times greater than (the rate of increase of the minority population of
the 5nited .tates in 1:8=s.
!ut, as mentioned above, fastMgreater is the real issue with A and &.
37 FherF in A and ! is redundant and aw(wardly placed. A, for e0ample, would have
been better asE
To Dosephine !a(er, 6aris was home long before it was fashionable to be an
e0patriate, and she remained in ?rance during the .econd 2orld 2as as a
performer and an intelligence agent for the Resistance.
& uses AbeingA and should in general be avoided on C1AT. " aw(wardly uses Fto be
an e0patriate was fashionableF.
38 !othE F?rom O to I and JF and F?rom O and I to JF are correct. .o, a,b and e can be
correct.
@ow notice from parallelism perspective that the following would be the correct
structureE F?rom O in some countries to I and J in othersF (in other countries.
A provides us with this structure and hence is the right answer.
3; 2hat 9s the issue with the original sentenceL 9t clearly is testing that all the elements
in the list must be grammatically parallel.
AE mortgage rates are high -R clause, housing in the new location costs more -R
clause, he difficulty of selling the old home -R phrase
!E that mortgage rates are high -R clause, housing in the new location costs more -R
clause, that it is difficult to sell the old home -R clause. The structure of the sentence
is inconsistentE F..that O, I and that J..F
"E high mortgage rates -R phrase, the greater cost of housing in the new location -R
phrase , that the old home is difficult to sell -R clause. The structure of the sentence
is inconsistentE F..O, I and that J..F
$E high mortgage rates -R phrase, the greater cost of housing in the new location -R
phrase, it is difficult to sell the old home -R clause
!#
&E high mortgage rates -R phrase, the greater cost of housing in the new location -R
phrase, the difficulty of selling the old home -R phrase
3: FifF is used only in AconditionalA statements (for e0ampleE if it rains, 9 will stay at home
and so, is not appropriate usage in this sentence. #ence, ! is not correct.
Aabout whetherA is redundant. .o, " cannot be the right answer.
FgradualF or FcataclysmicF, as used in $ are both ad+ectives and parallel.
4= economy, weather and terrorist activity, preceded by phrases that describe that
event.
41 ?or one, Fsuch asF should be used here and not Fli(eF. .o, a, d are out.
Fmaterials of aluminiumF as used in " is also incorrect.
4' 6arallelismE Fa criti,ueF and Fa visionF are both nouns and hence parallel. !asically,
both Fa criti,ueF and Fa visionF modify )&ssay on #eat and Bight*.
This type of sentence structure is an FappositiveF and appositives modify the
wordMphrase immediately prior to it. 9ts definition is that an appositive FrenamesF a
noun +ust besides it.
.o, in this case, Fa criti,ue of all chemistry...F modifies (tells us something about
)&ssay on #eat and Bight*.
Iou should be e0tremely comfortable with this type of structure. ?ollowing are some
of the e0amplesE
1ary, a well to do girl, is preparing for C1AT. (The appositive a well to do girl
modifies - tells us something about 1ary.
.achin, a renowned batsman, has scored more runs than any other batsman in the
history. (The appositive a renowned batsman modifies - tells us something about
.achin.
F"riti,uingF as used here is a participle and would have been parallel with
FenvisioningF. 9n !, Fhis envisioning ofF is actually parallel with Fcrit,ueF (remember in
a list of action nouns such as criti,ue, envision, F-ingF form should be preceded by
FtheMaManF and be followed by FofF to the e0tent possible. #owever, it is not a concise
as A and also, FfollowingF is not as appropriate usage as FsinceF in this scenario.
4/ This is a good e0ample of how superficial parallelism can distory meaning. 9t is
important to understand the meaning of what the sentence wants to convey. The
intended meaning is that the investors borrow huge sums of money. They hope toE
1. pay off the debt using companiesA earnings
'. profit richly by later resale of companies.
Boo( at option !. 9t readsE
F..hoping to pay off the debt by using the companiesA earnings and by profiting...F.
.o, it seems to suggest that the investors hope to pay off the debt byE
1. 5sing companiesA earnings And
'. 6rofiting.
!ut clearly, AprofitingA is not used to pay off debt. #ence, ! is wrong. " is also wrong
!$
for this reason.
#ow about AL A actually changes AcompaniesA (plural, as used in the non-underlined
portion, to FcompanyAsF (singular in the underlined portion.
9n &, F#oping to payF is correctly matched by F(hoping to profitF- a uses singular
FcompanyAsF, while the sentence saysE companies
$ again does not use Ato profitA (in parallelism with Ato payA.
43 Fin contrast to hibernators, bearMbearsF. .o, a, b, c are out. Ftheir prolonged sleepF-
so AbearsA.
44 9n A, all traits of the election are not parallel (FcampaigningF is not a noun, it is used
as participle here- a renewing of nationalism is not concise- number of votes is not
concise- 9n !, all traits of the election are not parallel (campaigning mar(ed by civility
is not a noun- a renewing of nationalism is not concise- 9n ", the wordy phrase the
unprecedented access of media can be shortened to unprecedented media access-
the wordy phrase the re+ection of an incumbent administration in a peaceful manner
can be shortened to the peaceful re+ection of an incumbent administration- 9n $,
Fnumbers ofF is grammatically wrong and can be corrected and shortened by the
word turnout- 9n &, the sentence is concise- all traits or characteristics of the election
are parallel
9n a list of Action @ouns, if there are any Fpure-playF @oun forms of the verb form that
we can use, this is generally the best usage and should be preferred over the
Cerund form ()-ing* form of the Herb. .imilarly, in the sentence under consideration,
the )pure-play* noun form )campaigns* (as used in & is preferable to )campaigning*
(as used in &.
47 Among Sbig groupR, Ssub-group AR are less li(ely than Ssub-group !R to O.
9n the original sentence, O is a very comple0 clause with two sets of compound
modifiersE
to be enrolled in SIR imposing Smodifier1R and re,uiringSmodifier1R Tto see
Smodifier 'R and spend Smodifier'RU
The first set of modifiers modifies something before FimposingF- in addition, the
FimposingF and Fre,uiringF parts are parallel. The second set modifies something
before Fto seeF- in addition, the FseeF and FspendF parts are parallel.
.o, letAs start withE what are they modifiyingL @ouns or clausesL .omething,
someone, or some clause is Fimposing limitsF and Fre,uiring doctorsF - what is itL 9tAs
the Finsurance plans.F ThatAs a noun, so we want a noun modifier setup. Those -ing
words that introduce modifying phrases or clauses indicate adverbial modifiers, not
noun modifiers. &liminate A. .can the answer. &liminate ! for repeating the error.
Iou could also have started with the second setE what do they modifyL They modify
FdoctorsF and parallelism dictates that we read it as Fre,uire doctors to see moreF
and FSre,uire doctors toR spend less time.F The plan actually re,uires doctors to
spend less time with patientsL That meaning seems... off. 1ore logically, spending
less time would seem to be a conse,uence of having to see more patients in the first
place.
", $, and & all start with Fthat.F FThatF is an indicator of a noun modifier, so thatAs
good. BetAs chec( parallelism ne0t, since we (now compound modifiers need to be
!9
parallel. This is where it can get a little messy, because we also have FnestedF
modifiers. .o go bac( and pic( apart that meaningE
?or simplicity, lets +ust type one form of each relevant word. 2eAve gotE impose,
re,uire, see, spend. .hould they all be parallelL Are only some parallel to othersL
2hat is each one tal(ing aboutL BetAs see.
The Finsurance plansF both impose limits and re,uire doctors, so those two should
be parallel. $o the plans see more patientsL @ope - the plan re,uires the doctors to
see more patients. $o the plans spend less time with the patientsL @o - thatAs also
the doctors. $o the plans re,uire doctors to spend less time with patientsL %bviously
notV The Fspending less timeF thing is a conse,uence of the previous re,uirement
(having to see more patients.
" saysE impose, re,uire, and spend. This says that Finsurance plans that impose
limits, Sinsurance plans thatR re,uire doctors to see more patients, and Sinsurance
plans thatR spend less time with each. That last one has a nonsensical meaning -
eliminate.
$ says impose and re,uire, spending. This says that Finsurance plans that impose
limits and Sinsurance plans thatR re,uire doctors to see more patients, spending less
time with each.F The F, spendingF set-up indicates an adverbial modifier. 2hy are
they spending less time with eachL @ot because they are doctors (noun or because
of the patients (noun, but because the doctors are re,uired to see more patients
(clause. Adverbial modifiers modify clauses. .o this wor(s.
& says impose, re,uiring and spending. This says Finsurance plans that impose
limits, re,uiring doctors to see more and spending less time with each.F The F,
re,uiring... and spendingF pieces indicate a compound adverbial modifier, so the fact
that the plans impose limits should result in (a doctors seeing more patients, and (b
someone (unclear who spending less time with each. Are the doctors spending less
time with the patientsL Technically, (a and (b should be able to stand completely
alone. .tripping out (a, weAre left with Finsurance plans that impose stricter limits on
medical services, spending less time with each.F 2hoAs actually spending less timeL
2e donAt (now. 1eaning is ambiguous - eliminate.
48 #ere we have both a list and a contrast - the new e,uations have reduced / things
and raised 1 other. 2e need to (eep the two parts of the sentence separate.
The structure of the sentence isE
Recently implemented Fshift-wor( e,uationsF have reduced A, ! and ", while raising
O.
!oth of the following structures would have been correctE
i Recently implemented Fshift-wor( e,uationsF have reduced A, ! and ", while
raising O.
ii Recently implemented Fshift-wor( e,uationsF have reduced A, ! and ", and have
raised O.
.ince "As structure is similar to i and there is no option that is similar to ii, " is the
answer.
4; ?irst step is to recogni>e that there are two things being tal(ed about in this
sentenceE
1. communist principles
'. repression Q inefficiency
5&
There are AnotA / thingsE
1. communist principles
'. repression
/. inefficiency
AbetweenA should be used when comparing two things- AamongA is used when
comparing more than two things. 9n this sentence, since only two things (communist
principles and repression Q inefficiency are being compared, AbetweenA is more
appropriate usage. .o, " and $ are out.
@ote that FdefendingF and FreducingF are used as Cerunds in this sentence. F..torn
between O and IKF. O and I should be parallel in structure.
4: 6arallelismE FKwhat patients eatKwhen they eat itF.
Also, in all these type of ,uestions, understand the basic structure of the sentenceE
Knot only O but also I.
&verything AoutsideA the above structure is AcommonA to both O and I.
AE O -R by the foods patients eat- I -R by when the patients eat them
$ental caries and gingivitis can be e0acerbated by the foods patients eat
$ental caries and gingivitis can be e0acerbated by when the patients eat them
!E O -R the foods patients eat- I-R by when the patients eat them
$ental caries and gingivitis can be e0acerbated by the foods patients eat
$ental caries and gingivitis can be e0acerbated by by when the patients eat them -
$oesnAt ma(e sense, since AbyA is getting repeated.
"E O-R by the foods patients eat- I-R by time when the foods are eaten
$ental caries and gingivitis can be e0acerbated by the foods patients eat
$ental caries and gingivitis can be e0acerbated by time when the foods are eaten
$E O-R the foods that are eaten by patients- I-R by the times the foods are eaten
$ental caries and gingivitis can be e0acerbated by the foods that are eaten by
patients
$ental caries and gingivitis can be e0acerbated by by the times the foods are eaten -
$oesnAt ma(e sense, since AbyA is getting repeated.
&E O-R by what patients eat- I-R by when they eat it
$ental caries and gingivitis can be e0acerbated by what patients eat
$ental caries and gingivitis can be e0acerbated by when they eat it
7= @otice that though FbeingF is generally wrong, it can be right at times such as these,
since option e is the most logical comparison and maintains parallelism.
The non-underlined portion mentions one novel ("ane and clearly the underlined
portion intends to mention the Aother two novelsA.
A, " and $ seem to suggest that Richard 2right and Ralph &llison are novels.
#ow about !L
A mi0ture of poems and short fiction, Dean Toomers "ane has been called one of
5%
the three best novels ever written by !lac( AmericansGincluding @ative .on by
Richard 2right and 9nvisible 1an by Ralph &llison.
.o, this can be read asE
Dean Toomers "ane has been called one of the three best novels ever written by
!lac( AmericansGincluding @ative .on by Richard 2right and 9nvisible 1an by
Ralph &llison.
This seems to suggest that one of the three best novels ("ane includes @ative .on
and 9nvisible 1an - The meaning is non-sensical.
71 Bogically the company announced two thingsE
1. its profits declined much less in the second ,uarter and
'. its business will improve in the second half of the year
9n all these (ind of ,uestions, the immediate concept that should come to mind is that
parallel clauses should start with the same word, in this caseE AthatA.
#ence, the structure of the sentnce should beE FThe company announced that....and
thatKF.
%nly ! and " use this structure and hence all other options should be eliminated
straightaway eliminated.
" is wrong for multiple reasons from tense perspective. The sentence is tal(ing
about an event that started and finished in the past (the announcement from the
company and hence, the simple past FannouncedF is appropriate. Two things
happenedE
1. 6rofits $eclined
'. Analysts had e0pected the profits to decline more than the profits actually declined
.ince the e0pectation of the analysts was prior to the decline of profits, e0pectations
of the analysts was in the Apast of the pastA and hence, should be in past perfect.
Bastly, company announced (at sometime in the past that its business AwouldA
improve in the second half of the year. .ince AwouldA is typically used when we tal(
about future from the past perspective, AwouldA is the most appropriate usage here.
7' 5nderstand the meaning of the sentence to assess what parts of the sentence
should be parallelE
..supplicants were either as(ingKor than(ing..
!etween A and &, which one is more appropriateL Bets loo( at &. & uses the
infinitive form Ato healA. Remember that the infinitive form implies AintentA (for e0ample,
The teacher arrived early in the classroom to surprise students- this sentence means
that the teacher arrived early in the classroom AbecauseA she wanted to surprise
students.. .o, in light of this, & seems to suggest that as(ed Coddess !ona $eaAs
aid AbecauseA the supplicants wanted to heal physical and mental ills. #owever, this
subtly changes the meaning of the original sentence, since the original sentence
5
7/ F..same distanceK.asF is the correct idiom. .o, a, b are out. @e0t, answer choice "
changes the original intent of the sentence, since it readsE
F...the comet "rommelin passed the &arth at about the same distance and in about
the same position, some '4 degrees above the hori>on, as #alleys comet (passed
the ne0t time it appearsF.
@otice that since the first part of the sentence uses ApassedA and we are omitting hte
verb in the second part, FpassedF is implied. !ut, the above sentence doesnAt ma(e
sense.
"rommelin did not pass the &arth where #alleyAs comet is currently located- instead,
"rommelin passed the &arth in about the same position as #alleyAs comet FwillF pass
the &arth. The problem with answer choice & is that, by including the helping verb
FwillF, the primary verb FpassF is already inplied. Thus, answer choice & actually
readsE
F...the comet "rommelin passed the &arth at about the same distance and in about
the same position as #alleyAs comet will do pass the ne0t time it appearsF.
Try to draw parallel with the following sentenceE
#is brother has already cleared the e0am, and he will (pass too. %r
#is brother has already cleared the e0am, and so will he.
2e donAt sayE
#is brother has already cleared the e0am, and he will do too.
Thus, the verb do is both unnecessary and is not parallel to the verb pass.
73 Fhow itemsKand howKF is a parallel structure. .o, $ and & are potential candidates.
There is a subtle logical issue with the meaning in $. 2hile items FareF really placed
on shelves (its a voluntary action, one cannot really Fturn overF the inventory-
inventory +ust Fturns overF on its own (technicallyE number of times inventory is sold
or used over in a period such as a year. #ence, & is an appropriate choice.
74 @ote C1AT mostly prefers F(rather thanF over Finstead ofF. The correct parallel
usage would beE FKserved by 0 rather than by yF. Also, AsuchA is preferable than Ali(eA,
because auditoriums or storefronts can also be used. Bastly, how AreligionA is served
is being tal(ed about- religion is singular- so last word of the sentence should be AitA
and not Athem.
77 @otice how the usage of FtoF in the list decides which one is the correct option.
2e need to understand what the sentence intends to say. There are two elements
involved. The procedure allows voters to do two thingsE
1. To propose and pass laws (essentially voters can propose the laws and after
proposing, pass those laws
'. To repal those laws
#ence, the above two elements should be parallel grammatically. .o, the
grammatical similarity should beE ..allows voters to O...as well as to I.
! and " seem to suggest as if there are AthreeA elementsE 6ropose, pass and repeal.
53
Also, these elements are not used parallely (it should either beE to propose, pass and
repeal or should beE to propose, to pass and to repeal.
#ow about $L .ince there are two elements involved, with the first element being
Fpropose and passF laws, AandA must be used. #owever, AandA is absent in $.
& has many of the issues as mentioned in the above choices and is also passive.
78 The sentence presents a list of things that the new found tablets will result itE
1. force a revision of current theories
'. alter many scriptural interpretations
/. ma(e all current !ible translations obsolete
3. re,uire scholars to credit the %ld Testament with greater historical accuracy.
As used in &, the structureKFKcould force a revisionKalter manyK.ma(e all
currentKF. and Fre,uire scholarsKF is parallel. .o, force, alter, ma(e and re,uire are
clearly parallel.
&ven otherwise, as used in the original sentence, the first / elements are phrases
while the fourth element (scholars may be re,uired to credit the %ld Testament with
greater historical accuracy is a clause. #ence, they canAt be parallel.
9n fact, !, " and $ also use clauses and so, these cannot be parallel with the
phrases in the list used in the non-underlined portion.
7; 6arallelism evident. 9diomE 1istoo( 0 for y. .o, the choice is between ! and $.
"learly O and I (in 1istoo( 0 for y should be logically and grammatically parallel.
Bets ta(e $. $id the radar system mista(e AmoonA for a missile attac( (as suggested
in $ or did the radar system mista(e Arising of the moonA for a missile attac( (as
suggested in !L The original sentence clearly suggests latter to be the case. #ence,
! is correct.
7: 6arallelism with clauses. FKannounced that..and thatKF. Also, AitA in a does not have
a clear referent. " does not have proper tense (AhadA e0pected is not used and also,
AitA is incorrectly used to substitute AprofitsA. $ does not use AthatA in the second clause.
8= The financial crash of %ctober 1:;8 demonstrated two thingsE
1. The worlds capital mar(ets are integrated more closely than never before and
'. events in one part of the global village may be transmitted to the rest of the village
9n these (ind of sentences, the first thing that should occur to you is that such
6arallelism clauses. should start with the same word (AthatA in this case.
FKdemonstrated that..and thatKF.
81 2hat are the characteristics of the proposed buildingL 9t wouldE
1. rise si0 feet above the waterline
'. act as a buffer
.o, the above two elements should be grammatically parallel. .ince AriseA is in the
non-underlined portion, and AactingA is not parallel with AriseA, $ and & are out.
Fso as toF is never a correct idiom on C1AT. .o, ! is also out.
5!
6articiple usage (Fabsorbing the energy....F as used in " is the best usage, since
this is a typical Acause and effectA (Fact as bufferF is the cause and the effect is that
energy of crashing waves will be absorbed. Also, this building, which acts as a
buffer, accomplishes the following two thingsE
1. absorbing the energy of crashing waves and
'. protecting the beaches
#ence, FabsorbingF and FprotectingF, as used in ", are parallel.
8' 6arallelismE programsKenable a familyKto moveKand to apply. AE Fto be able to
moveF is wordy. "E semicolon is the problem dE should have been FenableF, since it
refers to AprogramsA eE Fto be able to moveF is wordy, also loss of parallelism-
applying alters the meaning of the sentence.
2hy do $ and & alter the meaning of the sentenceL @otice that they use Aparticipial
phraseA (Fapplying part of the rent to a purchase laterF. 6articipial phrases are used
to depict Acause and effectA (RememberE Teacher arrived early in the classroom,
surprising students. .o, this will be interpretted asE?amilies move into new hoursing
and the AeffectA is that the families are able to apply part of the rent to a purchase
later. This does not ma(e sense. The intended meaning of the original sentence is
that that a family moves into new house and pays rent- some portion of the rent goes
towards the purchase of the house.
8/ 6arallelismE tried, built, used
83 rememberKfear is a Athin(ing verbA and gmat prefers AthatA after thin(ing verbs.
Fdestruction of forests and use of fossil fuelsF is parallel.
84 Fcold mil(, crushed strawberries, or blac( caviarF is parallel structure. All others are
not parallel.
#ow about $L Actually this FfoundF is not really a FfindingMdiscoveryF (the way there
is a FfindingMdiscoveryF in this e0ampleE 9 found that Tortoise lives for more than '==
years. .o, the usage of FthatF is not correct in $.
Also, $ is in sub+unctive. .ee the similarity between the followingE
Ancient Romans advised that people ta(e bath. (easy to see that this is sub+unctive
Ancient Romans found it therapeutic that they bathe in cold mil(, crushed
strawberries, or blac( caviar. (structure is similar as the above sentence- this is also
sub+unctive.
#owever, FfindMfoundF does not ta(e sub+unctive (you need not memori>e it- +ust form
any sentence where found is used as sub+unctive and you would see how aw(ward it
it.
87 Faltered the investment strategies of 5nited .tates corporations more radically than
investment strategies (those of foreign corporationsF.
88 "hoice c maintains parallelism and also e0presses the contrast but using AwhileA.
8; F9n Dapan elderly people are treated with far greater respect than they are (treated in
most 2estern countries.F
8: F..pollution of waterKto pollution of air..F is the correct usage.
55
;= F..re,uireKcarryKoffer..F is parallel structure.
;1 Fhas since (then more than doubledF is the most correct usage.
;' .ince we are giving e0amples, such as is the correct phrase not li(e. Also, remember
that this is testing parallelism. 9n a series of Aaction nounsA (cultivating, harvesting,
e0ploiting and whenever there is a list of action nouns, the AingA form of the verb
should be preceded by an article AaManMthA and followed with AtheA. #ence, Fthe
cultivation ofF, Fthe harvesting of F, and Fthe e0ploitation ofF, as used in ! is the right
choice.
;/ The correct answer uses the singular verb, FrisesF. The only reason that the first half
of the sentence uses FdropF instead of FdropsF is because itAs in the future (i.e. the
whole verb is Fwill dropF. .ince the connector used is FwhileF, the second verb
should be in the present tense. 9f the connector had been FandF, the second part of
the sentence would have used the verb Fwill riseF (or +ust FriseF, since we donAt need
to repeat FwillF if it applies to both verbs.
9f we logically complete the sentence, the sentence is trying to say the followingE
1s. "hambers is among the forecasters who predict that the rate of addition to
arable lands will drop while the rate of loss to arable lands rises.
A is not correct because there is no referent for AthoseA.
! is not correct because the sentence readsE ...who predict that O will drop while it
rises for loss. .o, AitA refers to Athe rate of addition to arable landsA. .o, ! would readE
F...while the rate of addition to arable lands rises for lossF - $oes not ma(e sense,
since it should beE F...while the rate of loss to arable lands risesF
" is not correct because there is no referent for AthoseA.
$ correctly readsE ....predict that the rate of addition to arable lands will drop
while the rate of loss (to arable lands rises
& Athere are rises for the rate of lossA is too wordy
;3 The structure of the sentence isE F..does not e0ceed 0, y and >F. .o, 0, y and > should
be parallel. Fpurchase priceF, Fcost of improvementsF and Fany additional amountsF,
all refer to money and the usage is also grammatically correct. .o, a is correct.
$ is not clear in terms of meaning. 9t saysE F....medical or educational e0penses that
were borrowed against the home..F. The only way to interpret this is that Fe0penses
were borrowed against the homeF- but this does not ma(e sense. 9n the conte0t of
the sentence, some amount was borrowed to pay for e0penses- Fe0pensesF were not
FborrowedF (as $ suggests.
;4 This is subtle. FTwo wee( noticeF (a paper or email or letter cannot be a FprotocolF.
A 6rotocol is some practice- so (the practice of giving notice to employers two
wee(s before leaving is a protocol.
5"
;7 2e have a compound verb structure (that is, we have one sub+ect paired with two verbs,
and the two verbs are connected by the con+unction FandF. Hisiters have loo(ed and saw
(original sentence. FandF is also a parallelism mar(er. 2hen we have either a compound
sub+ect (dogs and cats or a compound verb (ate and slept, we need to ma(e those
items parallel. .o we need parallelism in this case because we have a compound verb.
Fhave loo(edF is not parallel to FsawF because they are in different tenses- if the items
that need to be parallel are verbs, then the two verbs do need to be in the same tense.
Fhave loo(edF is not part of the underline, so it must be right. The parallel structure for the
verb Fto seeF is Fhave seen.F 9n this case, we have a further little complicated featureE
weAve already said the FhaveF once (for Fhave loo(edF and the sentence doesnAt repeat it
for the Fhave seenF part. ThatAs o(ay, though, because the parallel structure allows us to
apply the FhaveF to both participles in the compound verbE loo(ed and seen. Those (inds
of constructions can apply to parallel structures too, not +ust the comparisons discussed
in that post.. @oteE this is one of the ways they can ma(e a sentence li(e this harder than
it would otherwise be. Iou probably wouldnAt have been confused if the choices had said
either Fhave sawF or Fhave seenFV Also, since there is a comma after AbranchesA, FwhoseF
(non-essential modifier in this case because of the presence of comma modifes the
nearest noun FbranchesF which is illogical. .o, a, b, e are out straightaway.
;8 2hat can be compared with F#enry 1illerAs narrativesFL @ot Beon ?orrest etc.
;; F"hildren with heart defects or miscarriagesF is wrong, since it seems to convey that
children had miscarriages. .o, a, b, c are out. 9n e, AtheirA does not have a proper
referent (could refer to Achildren. Also, e does not ma(e sense from parallelism
point..Fto have had miscarriages or childrenF
Also notice that in &, the &itherMor structure is not correctE
...were found
a. &ither to have had miscarriages
b. %r children born with heart defects
.o, F...were found to have had miscarriages...F is correct- but F...were found children
born with heart defects..F is clearly not a correct construction.
;: Fsecreted in higher concentrationsF is correct usage, since concentrations are being
compared between sleeping and wa(ing. .o, a, b are out. & seems to convey that
human growth hormone is asleepMawa(e. $ ma(es sense from parallelism point of
viewKduring ..than during...
"onsider the sentenceE
Dac( is less alert when asleep than when awa(e.
"learly Dac( is asleepMawa(e.
%ption &E
#uman growth hormone is secreted in higher concentrations when asleep than when
awa(e.
This seems to suggest that F#uman growth hormoneF is asleep or awa(e.
:= FTo compare 0 with y is to compare 0 with yF or F"omparing 0 with y is comparing 0
with yF. .o, b, c are out. Also, Fbo,uet of fine wineF cannot be compressed to Ffine
wineAs bou,uetF. .o, e is wrong. Bastly, Fbou,uet o a fine wineF should be compared
to bou,uet of grape +uiceF- Fbou,uet o a fine wineF should not be compared to grape
+uiceF- hence d is not correct.
5#
:1 Fwould mean 0, y and >F. O and y are noun phrases. .o, > also needs to be noun
phrase. Freducing the..F can be interpreted as a F6articipial phraseF (and hence, an
Fad+ectiveF phrase, since 6articiple 6hrases are Ad+ective 6hrases. Anyway, for
FreducingF to be correct, the other phrases should have been FendingF and
FavoidingF.
.ince we have Fnoun phrasesF in this sentence, Fa reduced reliance...F in & provides
us with a @oun phrase (FrelianceF is a noun and FreducedF tells us an
propertyMattribute of that noun. .o, FreducedF is used as an ad+ective. Recall that
here, FreducedF is used as a Fpast participleF, which is an ad+ective form.
$ saysE a reduced reliance on the significant amounts of hidden sodium often
contained in processed foods.
This seems to suggest that the reduced reliance is on Fhidden sodiumF, while the
intent of the original sentence is to convey that there would be reduced reliance on
Fprocessed foodsF
:' Kwithin the core of the earthKli(eK.within the mantle surrounding the core. AthatA
refers to Fdistribution of massF. .o, choice between b and e. "hoose ! over & due to
concision.
:/ called forKand forK. 9s clearly the parallel construction being tested here. .o, A is
out. Remember that infinitive (toWverb e0presses intent (FTecher arrived early in the
classroom to surprise studentsF means that teacher arrived early in the classroom
FbecauseF she wanted to surprise students.
.imilarly, the answer choices that use infinitive would not ma(e sense. Bets ta(e
choice ! for e0ample. "hoice ! readsE
"harlotte 6er(ins Cilman, a late nineteenth-century feminist, called for .....clustered
suburban houses to include communal eating and social facilities
This seems to suggest that Cilman called for suburban houses FbecauseF she
wanted to include communal eating and social facilities.
#ence, $ is the only appropriate answer.
:3 e has the most parallel structure. F$amagingF and F.lowingF are parallel- also,
Fdamaging forestsF and Fslowing the growth of forestsF ma(e grammatically correct
constructs.
:4 ! is parallel since Awere first airedA is parallel with Awere moved toA. 1oreover, it
cannot be a, since soaps had moved is not correct, since soaps cannot move on
their own- rather the soaps Awere movedA.
:7 6arallelism issue. @otice that it starts with FthatF - weAre comparing these to things,
saying one is not as important as the other. .o they need to be parallel.
%nly $ and & start with FthatF so A, !, and " are gone. The only difference between
$ and & is the tense (FwasF vs. FisF. @otice the non-underlined portion saysE F..is
more of a..F- so the entire sentence is in present tense. #ence, F..is a womanF in e is
correct choice.
5$
:8 The usage is a bit non-traditional, since AbecauseA has been used thrice. !ut since
AbecauseA is used twice in the non-underlined portion, this is a clue that because
should be used again to maintain parallelism.
:; !it of advanced level parallelism problem. "atch is to notice that it will be Ata(ing
advantageA, since it is a conse,uence of year-round selling. Also, parallelism isE F..to
sellKto standardi>eKand to predictKF
:: As far as the sentence construction is concerned, the construction of the sentence isE
The data are useful mainly for O not I.
O -R gauging the storms structure and strength
#ence, parallel to this structure, I should beE speed and path of its movement
#ence " is correct. 9t is important to note that ! is also a correct construction, since
we can interpret it asE
The data collected by weather airplanes that fly into the heart of a hurricane are
useful mainly for gauging the storms structure and strength, not for (gauging the
speed and path of its movement.
The only reason why choice ! looses out to choice " is because of concision.
1== #ereAs the core structureE
The software SmodifierR will Tnot only O, but also IU
The Tbrac(etsU indicate an idiom re,uiring parallelism. The part right before that idiom
starts should apply separately to each item, O and I. .o we donAt have +ust simple
present tense- instead, for I, itAs Fwill have.F
.he will have. #e will have. They will have. ThereAs no difference between singular
and plural now. That eliminates A, ", and &.
$ uses Fand alsoF instead of Fbut also.F The idiom is not only O but also I, so
eliminate $.
1=1 AthatA should be used..whyL 2ell, it all boils down to FmeaningF. #ave the ?ederal
authorities found the local witnesses or have the ?ederal authorities found
Fsomething aboutF the local witnessesL "learly from the meaning, the ?ederal
authorities have found Fsomething aboutF the local witnesses (that local witnesses
are difficult to locate, reticent, and suspicious of strangers.
#ence, A, ! and $ are incorrect, because these options may be mis-interpreted as if
the ?ederal authorities found the local witnessesVV
.o we are down to c, e. The parallel construct starts after the word FareF,
that the local witnesses are .... difficult to locate
that the local witnesses are .... reticent
and that the local witnesses are .... suspicious of strangers
1=' FreceivingF and FdevelopingF are parallel in the original sentence.
#ow about !L 9f ! was the correct answer, the sentence would beE
59
After moving to .wit>erland in the 1;:=s, Albert &instein attended the .wiss ?ederal
6olytechnic .chool in Jurich, receiving in-depth training in ,uantitative analysis and
developed a foundation for his future wor( in mathematical physics.
.o, the section, from parallelism point of view would beE
After moving to .wit>erland in the 1;:=s, Albert &instein attended 0 and developed
I. 9n other words, After moving to .wit>erland in the 1;:=s, Albert &instein did two
AseparateA thingsE
1. attended the .wiss ?ederal 6olytechnic .chool in Jurich
'. developed a foundation for his future wor( in mathematical physics.
!ut this changes the meaning, since from what the original sentnece clearly implies,
Albert &instein developed foundation Aas a result ofA attending the .wiss ?ederal
6olytechnic. #ence, ! is not correct.
6articiples (the A-ingA form of the verb are often used to depict a Acause and effectA
relationship between the parts of the sentence. &0ampleE Teacher arrived early in the
classroom, surprising students. 9n this caseE
"auseE Albert &instein attended the .wiss ?ederal 6olytechnic .chool in Jurich
&ffectE $eveloping a foundation for his future wor( in mathematical physics
#ence, A is the right answer.
1=/ This is primarily a parallelism ,uestion and while understanding the meaning of the
sentence is crucial in all .entence corrections, it is even more important in
parallelism ,uestions. The sentence says that "itys mayor proposed 18X reduction
in the amount allocated (in the previous year forE
1. 1aintaining "itys ma+or cultural institutions and
'. .ubsidi>ing local arts groups.
#ence, the above two elements should be parallel. ! uses )to maintain* and )for
subsidi>ing*- " uses )for the maintenance* and )to subsidi>e*- $ uses )for
maintaining* and )to subsidi>e*- & uses )for maintaining* and )for the subsidi>ation*
(aw(ward, at best.
A uses the neat )to maintain* and )to subsidi>e* and is the clear winner.
Also note that $ and & change the tense (present perfect and past continuous of the
original sentence needlessly. There are other issues with options as well (for
e0ample, incorrect pronoun usage )it* in option ! and )they* in option &.
1=3 blan(
1=4 9n A, Ftrying to learn ... is the same as to tin(erF is wrong. The sub+ect of the verb FisF
is Ftrying,F and so thatAs what is Fthe same asF something else. .hould beE Ftrying to
learn ... is the same as tin(eringF- or even betterE Ftrying to learn ... is li(e tin(ering,F
because theyAre not the same -- they are merely similar.
#ow about !L ! draws similarity betweenE
1. Trying (to learn some of the basics of programming and
"&
'. Teenager (tin(ering with a car
!ut, FtryingF (an FactionF is not logically parallel to FteenagerF (a FpersonF.
9n the correct answer ", one action (FtryingF is parallel to another action (Ftin(eringF.
Remember parallelism (and comparisons should be between Fapples and applesF.
1=7 1anifested in the rise of a, b, c, and d, and in the victory of e, whereE
i aE 2ahhabis in Arabia
ii bE the .anusi in "yrenaica
iii cE the ?ulani in @igeria
iv dE the 1ahdi in the .udan
v eE 5suli )mu+tahids* in .hiite 9ran and 9ra,.
.o, two levels of parallelism. 1st - in the rise and in the vicotry. 'nd - rise of a,b and
c.
This parallelism is only coming out clearly in &. ?or e0ample, letAs loo( at ". The
struture of " isE
...rise of a, of b, c, d, and the victory of e
This is incorrect. 9n a series of Fprepositional phrasesF (for e0ampleE Fof aF in this
sentence, whatever we do on the 'nd element, we should do on the /rd and
subse,uent elements. .o, we can either sayE
i ...rise of a, of b, of c, and of d
ii ...rise of a, b, c, and d
!ut we canAt sayE ...rise of a, of b, c, d.
1=8 @ote that the investors hope for two thingsE 1. to pay off the debt and '. to profit
richly by resale. #ence, Fto payF and Fto profitF should be parallel. #ence, b, c, d are
out. The original sentence is in plural, and hence, FcompanyAsF (which is singular in
a is not suitable.
1=; The two other phrases are )noun phrases*. )high cost of land* and )pressure of
housing and commercial development* are Ynoun phrases (you can identify since
both of these are phrases Z do not have a sub+ect and a verb, and start with nouns
Yhigh cost and Ypressure. #ence, the third element should be a noun phrase as
well. Recall that )basing a mar(eting and distribution..* as used in A, ! and " are
Y6articipial phrases and hence do not ,ualify.
1=: The sentence clearly intends to list the reasons for the rise in applications. FoneF
here is a placeholder used as a substitute for Fdramatic rise in applicationsF. A has a
parallel structure- all else lac( parallelism.
A correctly uses / parallel noun phrases, namelyE
1. resurgence of patriotism,
'. increase in tuition costs at private colleges
/. improved recruiting by the academies.
11= The sentence isKare a branch rather thanK.o, Fa branchF, which is a noun needs
to be comapred with another AnounA in the underlined portion of the sentence.
FdevelopingMdevelopedF is not noun. .o, a, d, e are out.
"%
111 FwhichF and FthatF are not repeated in the second clause (after FandF so, a, b are
out. @ote that ForiginatingF and FperpetuatedF in d are parallel, since present and past
participles are considered parallel. " is not correct, since it should have beenE
language variations FthatF orginated from....e is wrong because regional dialects are
not Fperpetuating by geographic isolationF, but Fperpetuated by geographic isolationF,
since geographic isolation is the reason for perpetuation.
BetAs loo( at " and figure out whether ForiginatedF is a FverbF or a FparticipleF in this.
To figure out whether a verb form (in this case ForiginatedF is acting as a participle or
a verb, do the followingE
a "onvert the portion of sentence with the verb form into a relative clause
b 9n the the converted portion of the sentence with the relative clause, if the verb
form is FprecededF by Fto-beF form of the verb (isMareMwasMwere etc., then the verb
form is a participle- else it is a verb.
9n this case, the most logical way to convert option " into relative clause isE
The increased popularity and availability of televisions has led to the decline of
regional dialects, language variations FwhichF originated from diverse ethnic and
cultural heritages and Fwhich wasF perpetuated by geographic isolation.
.o, ForiginatedF is FnotF preceded by Fto-beF form of the verb (isMwasMwere etc., and
hence, ForiginatedF is a verb here- on the other hand, FperpetuatedF is preceded by
Fto-beF form of the verb (was, and hence, FperpetuatedF is a participle here.
That being the case, the problem with " is that it is a Frun-onF sentence, because
there are following two Findependent clausesF connected by a commaE
i The increased popularity and availability of televisions has led to the decline of
regional dialects (main verb FhasF
ii Banguage variations originated from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and
perpetuated by geographic isolation. (main verb ForiginatedF
%n the other hand, in $, ForiginatingF is clearly a participle. #ow about
FperpetuatedFL The most logical way to convert option $ into relative clause isE
The increased popularity and availability of televisions has led to the decline of
regional dialects, language variations originating from diverse ethnic and cultural
heritages and Fwhich wasF perpetuated by geographic isolation.
.o, FperpetuatedF is preceded by Fto-beF form of the verb (was, and hence,
FperpetuatedF is a participle here.
.o, in $, both ForiginatingF and FperpetuatedF are participles. #ence, the entire
construct Flanguage variations originating from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages
and perpetuated by geographic isolationF is +ust a FphraseF (a Fparticipial phraseF
and so, $ is a valid sentence (in other words, $ is not a Frun-onF sentence, because
there is only one clause here.
11' A complicated one. !ut notice that )who* remains..*individuals who..and whoK.*,
since this is a clause. This is a ruleE F6arallel clauses should start with the same
wordF - Also, another level of parallelism..*have found thatKand thatK.*
"
11/ Again a bit tough. Remember the ruleE F9n a list of Action @ouns, ing form should be
preceded by theMaMan and be followed by of, to the e0tent possibleF.
!etween $ and &E 9f we loo( at $, it slightly changes the meaning of the original
sentence. The original sentence saysE the company FmayF still be undercapitali>ed.
9n other words, it is Fnot certainF that the company is undercapitali>ed.
#owever, $ saysE fear of the still undercapitali>ed company. This is suggesting that
the company FisF undercapitali>ed. 9n other words, according to $, it is FcertainF that
the company is undercapitali>ed. #ence, $ changes the meaning of the original
sentence.
113 d, e are passive. A lac(s parallelism (leave themKcorral them and to drive. ! lac(s
parallelelism (to leave themKto corral them and drive themE to missing in the third
phrase. " has to be read asE to leave themKand then (corral them and drive them
to.... then is used in the sense of FthereafterF here.
114 Remember parallelism with clausesE F6arallel clauses should start with the same
wordF (in this case FwhereF
117 .cientists are debating both of these issues, not one or the other, so we want Fand,F
not For.F &liminate " and $. .ince both issues are uncertain, either AwouldA or
AwhetherKwillA should be used to depict the uncertainty. .o, a d gone. Also, divided
AoverA is preferable. .o e. Also notice that in e, the AitA is the pronoun-sub+ect of the
clause Fwhat impact it would haveF and correctly refers to FwarmingF, the noun-
sub+ect of the clauseE Asignificant warming will occurF- in cotract, AitA in d does not have
a proper referent.
118 BetAs strip the sentence to its coreE
A ma+ority view stations as unsafe (now but [[[[[ be made safe (later.
FA ma+orityF is the sub+ect for the first verb- thereAs another verb but weAre not yet
sure what the sub+ect is (part of the answers. ThereAs also a timeframe comparison
going on - something now vs. something later.
The original sentence starts off the answer choice with the word Fthat.F A ma+ority
view stations as unsafe (now but that [[[ be made safe (later.
@o - thatAs not going to wor(. The ma+ority weAre tal(ing about views something one
way now and that same ma+ority is also going to be viewing or thin(ing some
contrasting view for the FlaterF piece. That indicates parallelism. @o Fthat.F
"ross off A and ! (! also starts with FthatF.
" starts with FtheyF- $ and & start with Fthin(.F BetAs try the more common option firstE
thin(.
A ma+ority view stations as unsafe (now but thin( [[[[[ be made safe (later. That
wor(s - the FbutF gives an idiom structure that re,uires parallelismE a ma+ority view O
but thin( I. !oth verbs are in the same form. Cood.
9n ", weAd have A ma+ority view stations as unsafe (now but they [[[[[ be made
safe (later.
And here we would have a problem - because FtheyF is the sub+ect of the second half
(after the FbutF and structurally that should refer to the sub+ect of the first half (a
"3
ma+ority. !ut logically thatAs not what 9 want FtheyF to refer to - see get rid of ".
$ and & both start with Fthin(F - thatAs fine.
9n option &, the main issue is usage of FwouldF. FwouldF is used generally in two
usagesE
1. Referring to the future in the past tense (basically as a past tense of FwillF. ?or
e0ampleE
#e said he would succeed Z #e said something in the past and hence would is the
correct usage here.
'. .ub+unctive. ?or e0ample
9f 9 were you, 9 would succeed.
5sage of FwouldF in %ption & does not fall into any of these categories and is very
suspect.
%ne ,uestion still remains that FtheyF does not have a clear referent in option $.
YBogically, FtheyF in option $ should refer to nuclear power stations, but in C1AT,
logic cannot substitute for (lac( of grammatical clarity.
.o, option $ +ust is the better of two options ($ and &.
11; The opening phrase is tal(ing about her wor( and saying Fin addition toF her wor( on
the fossil record - so we need to say what it is that is referring to this wor(. #er wor(
on the fossil record was one of her contributions, +ust as her discovery of hominid
activity was one of her contributions. !ut thatAs pretty subtle - if youAre reading too
,uic(ly, youAll thin( that the opening modifier is referring to 1ary Bea(ey and so we
need to have her follow the comma. (!ut thatAs not really whatAs going on - whatAs
actually going on is that we have a list of / contributions, but one comes at the
beginning of the sentence and the other two come towards the end.
$ is parallelE F..her discovering....and (her painsta(ing documentation....F
%ne might wonder that there is no antecedent for FherF in $ and so, how can d be
correct. Actually, in $, her is not used as ob+ective of she. #ere, her is used as
Fpossessive caseF of she. .o there is no need of antecedent for her.
11: 9deal sentence could have beenKFThe growth of the railroads led to the abolition of
local times, which were determined by when the sun reached the observers
meridian and which differed from city to city, and to the establishment of regional
timesF, since this uses parallelism with clauses (FwhichF is repeated in the two
clauses and uses correct sub+ect-verb (times...were. a and b use AwasA which
conflicts with AtimesA. c does not repeat AwhichA in the second clause (uses AdifferingA
rather than Awhich differedA. d is again very tric(y. FdifferedF is not a past participle,
but a Apast tenseA (FBocal times differed from city to cityF. #ence d uses a past
participle and a past tense and hence, is not parallel. 9n e, Fdetermined by....F and
Fdiffering from...F are both participle phrases (first being past participle and second
being present participle and as we (now, present and past participles can be
parallel to each other.
1'= RememberE 6arallel FclausesF should start with the same FwordF. .o, FwhoKand
who..F. .o, d, e are out. Among a, b, cKa wins because of tenses.
"!
1'1 Hery tric(y one. 2hat was the A(eyA to the developmentL A parallel thing should be
mentioned in the underlined part. 9t was not the AcamelA, but the Aact of domesticatonA.
1'' Fli(e the diagnosis of e,uipment..F cannot be used, since Fli(eF means that it cannot
be used for diagnosis of e,uipment but other functions li(e it. .o, d is out. A is not
parallel since Fto diagnoseF and FdecidingF are parallel. FwhichF in b is used wrongly.
1'/ 9n this sentence, it is easy to get confused as to why FpersuadingF, as used in " and
& cannot be correct. ?or two reasonsE
1. 9t has to do solely with the FmeaningF. 2ith FpersuadingF, the sentence would
readE
Doan of Arc turned the tide of &nglish victories in her country by FliberatingF the
cityK.and by FpersuadingF "harles H99 of ?rance to claim his throne.
#ence, the parallelism is between Fby liberating..F and Fby persuadingKF. .o, in
essence, it seems to suggest that Doan of Arc turned the tide of &nglish victories in
?rance byE
(a Biberating the city of %rleans
(b 6ersuading "harles H99 of ?rance to claim his throne
!ut (b doesnt ma(e sense logically. 1erely FpersuadingF a person to claim throne
can logically have no bearing on turning the tide of &nglish victories in ?rance.
'. &ven if you were not able to figure out any meaning issue with FpersuadingF, your
line of thought FmustF conform to the following se,uenceE
(a FpersuadingF and FpersuadedF introduce completely different meaning (have
already e0plained in point 1 above what FpersuadingF means- FpersuadedF
introduces parallelism between the two .imple 6ast tenses FturnedF and
FpersuadedF. .o, usage of FpersuadedF correctly suggests that Doan of Arc did two
thingsE .he turned 0yc and (she persuaded abc.
(b As long as you appreciate that FpersuadingF and FpersuadedF introduce
completely different meaning, you should, almost always go with the meaning in the
Foriginal sentenceF, in this case FpersuadedF.
1'3 AthatA should come. .o d,e are out. 6arallelismKto solicit private funds than to go
toKalso, c tal(s about private Aorgani>ationsA, which is not referred to in the
statement.
Also notice that FitF in Fit became clearF as well as FitF in option ! (Fit was far more
efficient to solicit private funds..F are FplaceholdersF- in other words, these two
instances of FitF are not referring to any specific noun.
1'4 ?ran(lin Roosevelt did two things to set the 5nited .tates on a course to propel itself
out of the depressionE (1 confronting a devastated economy (' improving the
morale of the demorali>ed country. !oth these two actions and the list of steps ta(en
to accomplish them need to be parallel. .ince the first action (followed with its list of
steps is introduced with by the second action (followed with its list of steps should
also be introduced with by.
"5
The correct insertion into the underlined portion of the sentence should begin with
and launching massive since this is the third and final step in the list of actions ta(en
to confront a devastated economy.
The correct sentence should readE !y confronting a devastated economy through
\list of actions in parallel], and by improving the morale of a demorali>ed nation
through \list of actions in parallel]
The correct sentence should readE !y confronting a devastated economy through
actions such as creating the ?ederal $eposit 9nsurance "orporation, opening the
.ecurities and &0change "ommission, suspending the gold standard, and launching
massive public wor(s programs, and by improving the morale of a demorali>ed
nation through his fireside chats, ?irst 9naugural address, and other motivational
speeches, ?ran(lin Roosevelt both...
1'7 9diom F@ot only O but also IF should have a parallel construction of O and I. #ere,
AOA is Fs(illfulKF and I is F..in finding..F. These are not parallel strucure. 6erhaps a
construction li(e the following might have wor(edE F9nnovative companies are not
only s(illful in developing new products but also clever in finding new ways to
promote old onesF. 9n the choices provided, b ma(es most sense.
1'8 The correct sentence should beE F9t is as difficult to prevent crimes against property
as it is (difficult to prevent those (crimes that are against a personF.
Remember, & AassumesA the least number of words and hence is the best choice.
Ta(e any other choice and you would find that it AassumesA much more.
?or e0ample, lets ta(e AE
AE 9t is as difficult to prevent crimes against property as (it is difficult to prevent
those (crimes that are against a person
1'; F@ot O but IF is the correct usage. .o, e is out. Also, O and I should be parallel. F9tAsF
as used in c actually means F9t isF and does not ma(e sense. !etween a and b, since
AOA is a noun phrase, FIF should be noun phrase as well. ! uses the noun phrase and
hence, is the correct usage.
Also in $, the structure isE Fits affirmingF. This is pretty much a rule that this (ind of a
structure (its affirming would always be incorrect. Refer to %CAs e0planation of ^';
in %C-1/E
The -ing form of a verb can be used as a noun (e.g., running is her favorite sport,
but it is often aw(ward, particularly when used with a possessive
.o, here Fits affirmingF is possessiveW Fing formF. This is always incorrect.
1': FDust as...so (too..F is the correct idiomatic usage. @otice the comparison. The first
part of comparison (+ust as mentions )plant species*- so the second part of the
comparison should be similar. )humans* can be compared with plant species, and
so, should immediately come after the comma. #ence, the correct choice is between
a and b. )have evolved* is used in the original sentence. This means that the process
""
(of evolution of chemical defenses against malaria happened sometime in the past
and is complete now. 2e should maintain the original meaning of the sentence to the
e0tent possible. )have been evolving* as used in b, alters the meaning, since it
suggests that the process (of evolution of chemical defenses against malaria started
sometime in the past and is still going on. .ince b changes the meaning, a is the
best choice.
1/= FDust as...so (too..F is the correct idiomatic usage. )Dust as reading..* is the first part
of comparison. #ence, we should have something parallel to Yreading in the second
part. )listening*, as used in b and d provides a logical comparison.
1/1 FeffectsF of bacterial deterioration is plural. .o, AareA is the correct usage. @otice that
according to the sentence, there are 3 effects of bacterial deteriorationE
i spoilage of food
ii corrosion of metals
iii decay of wood
iv other undesirable alterations of substances.
Fspoilage of foodF, Fcorrosion of metalsF is parallel usage.
#ow about "L There are clearly Fmultiple effectsF and so, Fare the effectsF is the
correct usage- not Fis the effectsF.
#ow about $L 9t saysE Fwhich includesF. Remember that FwhichF always modifies the
Fnearest grammatically eligibleF word. .ince $ says FincludesF, the Fnearest
grammatically eligibleF word is Fbacterial deteriorationF. .o, $ seems to suggest that
Fbacterial deteriorationF includes spoilage of food, corrosion of metals, decay of wood
and other undesirable alterations of substances. #owever, this is incorrect since
these are not e0amples of Fbacterial deteriorationF, but e0ample of the FeffectsF of
bacterial deterioration.
1/' 9n the original sentence, F9taliansA disregardF is comapred with F&dvard CriegF. This is
obviously wrong. & removes this error. @ote that d lac(s parallelism. 9t should have
beenE FDust as the .candinavians long refused to recogni>e &dvard Crieg, so the
9talians...F, to compare .candinavians with 9talians.
1// The non-underlined portion comprises words li(e Yone another. .o, we (now that
Ymanagers and not Ymanagement is the right usage (as an analogy, a Yclass cannot
have communication with Yone another- Yclassmates can have communication with
Yone another. .o, choice is between b and d. Ythorough training and Yunimpeded
communication are parallel noun phrases. )..received thorough training in d is a
verb phrase and is not parallel with the noun phrase Yunimpeded communication.
"#
1/3 A and b compare e0ercise and athletes. & seems to suggest that there are two
athletes ()both athletes*. $ is aw(ward.
1/4 @otice parallelismE cities are stressingKand investing. Also, Ymeans to is more
appropriate idiom. Bastly, in general, prefer Yeconomic over Yeconomical or
Yeconomically.
1/7 F..from re+ectionKor to dismiss..F is not parallel usage.d and e are too wordy. ! is
parallelE F..to re+ectKor (to dismiss..F.
#ow about "L " uses sub+unctive. it might +ust be helpful to remember that all verbs
with similar meaning, such as FforbidF, FpermitF and FallowF, ta(e infinitive (and not
sub+unctive.
1/8 F%ne legacyF is noun, it should be followed with Freali>ation...F, which is also a noun.
9t would be incorrect to say F%ne legacy ... is to reali>e.....F. .o ", $ and & are out. Fa
personF cannot be followed by AtheirA as in a.
Also notice that " and $ change the meaning of the original sentence. The original
sentence saysE Fas people ageF (which is a Fcontinual processF, while $ Q & sayE
Fwhen people ageF (which is e,uivalent to sayingE when people become old. These
are clearly not the same meaning.
1/; Fpeople discoverKbut forgetKF is parallel usage. .ince a AhabitA (of people is being
tal(ed about, simple present is the best tense.
1/: 6arallel usageE O and I are to 1:;=As what A and ! were to an earlier time. Also note
that li(eM+ust li(e compare AnounsA and not AphrasesA.
13= Fthat children can do 0 long before they can do IA. .o, b is the most appropriate
parallel usage.
131 Remember 6arallel clauses should start with the same FwordF. .o, there the correct
structure isE
)Kneutrinos are harmless elementary particles that....and that....*
A provides this structure and is the correct choice.
(b bad parallelismE are elementary particles... and which interact...
(c bad parallelismE are harmless elementary particles... and which interact...
(d illogical to place AneutrinosA A?T&R Athese ... particlesA in the same sentence
(this doesnAt really change the meaning of the sentence- itAs +ust an illogical pronoun
reference
(e same deal with interchanging Athese ... particlesA and AneutrinosA
"$
13' 1any things to loo( for here.
1. Remember 6arallel clauses should start with the same Yword (in this case, both
clauses should start with AthatA. 9n this case, parallel clauses areE
a. the study of new treatments for heart attac( patients was e0tremely important
b. more research was needed to determine that balloon angioplasty precededK
.ince the first clause (clause a starts with Ythat, clause b should also start with Ythat.
'. 9n clause b above, a Ychoice is being presented and hence, Ywhether is the correct
usage (Ywhether balloon angioplasty preceded by ultrasound is any better for heart
attac( patients than the balloon procedure by itself. @ote that some answer choices
in these (ind of ,uestions could also use Yif instead of Ywhether, but you should
always choose Ywhether for choices. Yif is only used for Yconditional statements on
C1AT (e.g. 9f you wor( hard, you will score well.
/. Ywhether is clearly more preferable to Ywhether or not (since the latter un-
necessarily uses Yor not.
%n the basis of these, " seems correct choice.
13/ This is a parallelism ,uestion. .wiss government did three thingsE
a. "ommissioned statues
b. had them decorated (notice that Yhad is not used as past perfect here, but as past
tense of the verb Yhave
c. set them up
.o, all three elements are in simple past (note that past tense of Yset is also Yset and
not Ysetted.
There is another issue with A. "onsider the usage of Yhaving as in the following
sentenceE
#aving studied hard, he was confident of scoring well in the e0am.
.o, Yhaving is generally used to refer to an event that occurred before (in this case
Ystudy hard another event (confidence that he would score well.
.o, in this conte0t, A seems to suggest that local artists first decorated the statues
and Ythen .wiss government commissioned those statues- this is clearly not the
intent of the ,uestion.
"9
133 Fis descendedF does seems aw(ward at best. !ut the best way to solve this ,uestion
is by being aware that F6arallel clausesF should start with the same FwordF. The two
parallel clauses here areE
1. the elephant is descended from an a,uatic animal
'. its trun( originally evolved as a (ind of snor(el
@otice that the first clause starts with a FthatF ()that the elephant is descended from
an a,uatic animal*. #ence, the second clause should also start with a FthatF ()that its
trun( originally evolved as a (ind of snor(el*.
5sing this criteria alone, you can dis-regard A, " and $.
Fhas descendedF means Fhas moved downwardF. this can be in either a literal sense
(he has descended to sea level from a height of ;=== feet or a metaphorical sense (i
donAt want to descend to the level of common street thugs, but it canAt refer to
ancestry.
9f you mean to discuss ancestry, which is clearly the case here, then you must use
Fis descendedF.
134 This is clearly a parallelism ,uestion rightVV (a list of things that are the causes of
pollution. Remember from parallelismE )9n a list of Action @ouns, AingA form should be
preceded by theMaMan and be followed by AofA, to the e0tent possible*. )spray* is
clearly an action noun. .o, Ythe spraying of as used in ! is the correct usage.
137 The correct sentence should beE )As certain "entral and &astern &uropean countries
are fast-trac(ed into the &uropean 5nion, some scholars feel that more social
schisms may ultimately be intensified by issues of class rather than issues of race.*.
)9ssues of class* and )issues of race* properly bring out the meaning. A brings this
out by using )those (issues of race*. !y the way, in this conte0t, )by issues of class*
and )by those (issues of race* (as used in ", $ and & are also parallel. 9n ", at a
minimum, there should have been a comma after happens ()as this happens,*.
@otice that $ completely s(ips FsomeF as a prefi0 to scholars and hence, changes
the meaning of the original sentence.
)Dust as* is not correct usage in &, because the idiom isE )Dust asK, soK* or )Dust
asK, so too..*. #owever, there is no Yso or Yso too in &.
Also, notice how the original sentence uses FmayF ultimately be intensified, while the
rest of the choices change it to FwillF ultimately be intensified. That is a clear change
in meaning, something that is not allowed.
138 The (ey here is that FpersistingF is parallel to FcreatedF. 9n other words, this part of
the sentence means the same as Fthe atoms and molecules that were created in the
progenitive e0plosion and that persist in even the emptiest regions of space.F. 9f you
are wondering how )persisting* and )created* are parallel, both of these are
participles and the usage is similar to thisE 1y fathers hair, strea(ed with grey and
#&
receding on both sides, is combed bac( straight to the collar. 9n this, Ystrea(ed and
Yreceding are parallel.
13; "ity 6lanners in $etroit hope that the renewal pro+ect e0tending along the eastern
riverfront will do two thingsE
1. &stablish a population that lives and wor(s downtown
'. 6rovide the office space needed to attract new businesses.
#ence, the above two need to be parallel. As used in ", the sentence would readE
)K..will establishKand (will also provide..*. #ence " is parallel.
BetAs loo( at !. 2ith ! the sentence would beE
"ity 6lanners in $etroit hope that the renewal pro+ect e0tending along the eastern
riverfront will establish a population to live and wor( downtown and also provide the
office space needed to attract new businesses.
The FintentF of ! is that ! will be interpreted asE
"ity 6lanners in $etroit hope that the renewal pro+ect e0tending along the eastern
riverfront will establish a population to live and wor( downtown and (will also provide
the office space needed to attract new businesses.
!ut notice that there is nothing preventing from ! to be mis-interpreted asE
"ity 6lanners in $etroit hope that the renewal pro+ect e0tending along the eastern
riverfront will establish a population to live and wor( downtown and also (to provide
the office space needed to attract new businesses.
9n other words, ! can be mis-interpreted asE a population
i to live and wor( downtown and also
ii (to provide the office space needed to attract new businesses.
.o, this seems to absurdly suggest that the FpopulationF will provide the office space
needed to attract new businessesV FpopulationF clearly cannot provide the office
space needed to attract new businesses. The intent of the original sentence is that
Fthe renewal pro+ectF will provide the office space needed to attract new businesses
13: Iou need to understand the meaning of the sentence to figure that the robots canE
1. 9dentify
'. Respond
.o, F9dentifyF and FRespondF should be parallel.
#%
A -R FtheyF in Fthey will then respondF refers grammatically to FDapanese
researchersF (since FtheyF is the pronoun sub+ects of one clause and FDapanese
researchersF is the noun-sub+ect of another clause. #owever, this is clearly wrong,
since FtheyF should logically refer to FrobotsF. FtheirF is also ambiguous.
!-R FrespondingF is not parallel with FidentifyF. 9n fact, FrespondingF is parallel with
FproducingF, hence creating the impression that Dapanese researchers are
Fproducing...F and Fresponding...F.
$ -R Fas well as giving a responseF is too wordy- AtheirA is ambiguous
&-R .ame issue as !
14= 1any startup companies offer stoc( option incentives that allow an employee SSwith
inade,uate dispensable income for independent financial investmentRR to invest in
company stoc( and apportion pre-ta0 income to pay for the investment.
9gnore the te0t in SS RR to reveal the AbarebonesA structure of the sentence.
The ,uestion tests on ' concepts.
1. .ub+ect - verb agreement.
9n a nutshell, the sub+ect of the verb FallowF is F9ncentivesF, in effect dis,ualifying
choices " and $.
9.e 9ncentives that allow and @%T 9ncentives that allows.
'. 6arallelism.
to 9nvest is parallel with (to apportion.
i.e 9ncentives that allow an employee...................to invest ......... and (to
apportion......... This ma(e choices $ an & incorrect.
"hoice A is incorrect primarily because it is redundant (.... Fto be ableF is
unnecessarily connected Fto investF.....
141 RememberE 6ortion of sentence between commas can be ignored to e0pose the
AcoreA of the sentence. .o, the core isE
The .ports 1edicine 6rograms of the %lympic Training "enter is geared toward
enhancing athletesA performance and toward their preparation for international
competition.
!ut since the sub+ect is A6rogramsA, Aare gearedA should be used, not Ais gearedA.
#ence, A and ! are out.
" and $ are not parallel.
#
"-R Yto enhance athletes performance and Ytheir preparation
$ -R )the enhancement of athletesA performance* and )preparing them*
& -R enhancing O and preparing I - 6arallel
#3