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Irreversible chronic inflammatory disease characterized by
massive degeneration and destruction of hepatocytes.

1. Laennec’s cirrhosis - the most common
- Caused by the toxic effect of alcohol
- Occurs primarily in middle-aged men
2. Postnecrotic cirrhosis
- Results from severe liver disease
3. Post - acute viral or chemical hepatitis
4. Primary biliary cirrhosis
- inflammation and intrahepatic bile duct destruction.
5. Secondary biliary cirrhosis
- chronic partial or complete common bile duct obstruction due
to gall stones, pancreatitis or tumor.
6. Cardiac cirrhosis - results from right-sided CHF.

Laennec’s Cirrhosis
Alcohol causes changes --- fatty infiltration of the hepatocytes --- liver
cell necrosis and scarring --- as it progresses, inflammation decreases
but fibrosis increases --- liver distortion --- structural (biliary channel)
and vascular changes.
Scar tissue formation and irregular hepatocyte regeneration ---
compression of portal vein --- obstruction --- portal hypertension

Decreased Vitamin ADEK absorption

➔ bleeding tendencies
➔ poor calcium transport
➔ poor skin turgor
➔ visual disturbances
Depletion of glycogen --- hypoglycemia
Decreased albumin --- decreased COP --- anasarca
Increased HP --- ascites
Decreased bilirubin metabolism --- hyperbilirubinemia --- jaundice


Biliary cirrhosis
Chronic obstruction --- increased pressure in the hepatic bile duct ---
accumulation of bile --- areas of necrosis --- edema, fibrosis and
hepatocellular destruction --- scar tissue destruction --- hepatomegaly

clay-colored stools
RUQ pain.

Enlarged liver --- congested venous blood flow --- failure of the heart to
pump blood to different areas of the body.
Congestion causes anoxia to the liver --- necrosis and fibrosis


A major complication of cirrhosis characterized by renal failure in an
anatomically normal kidneys --- progressive oliguria and azotemia.

Nursing Interventions
1. Assess for signs of bleeding
2. Monitor V/S and laboratory results (platelets, creatininine)
3. Monitor I/O.
4. Monitor daily weight and abdominal girth to detect
5. Administer the following as ordered to combat symptoms:
a. Vitamin K
b. Stool softeners
c. Diuretics
6. Assess for changes in cardiac output, decreased renal
function and electrolyte imbalances.
7. Assess for impaired skin integrity related to edema,
ascites and pruritus.
8. Use preventive measures to keep skin intact.
9. Assess the patient for signs of impaired breathing related
to congestion or infection.
10. Relieve breathing difficulty.
11. Observe for signs of encephalopathy (lethargy, confusion,
personality changes, motor changes, depression, irritability).
12. Teach ways to decrease bleeding tendencies.

Patient teaching:
1. Nutritional needs
2. Avoidance of alcohol
3. Drug interactions related to decreased liver function.
4. Enough rest
5. Signs and symptoms needing medical intervention.
6. Provide counseling for the patient and family.