FORE SCHOOL OF MANAGEMENT
BUSINESS RESEARCH METHODS
Submitted to:
Prof. Alok Kumar
Submitted By:
Group 4
Sahil Gupta (221122)
Sakshi Kabra (221125)
Sayani Mukherjee (221131)
Shruti Pal(221140)
Srishti Narang(221149)
Vipul Sachdeva (221170)
Contents
CHAPTER 1 : INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................. 2
ttest .................................................................................................................................................... 2
A ttest is a statistical examination of two population means. A twosample ttest examines whether
two samples are different and is commonly used when the variances of two normal distributions are
unknown and when an experiment uses a small sample size. For example, a ttest could be used to
compare the average floor routine score of the U.S. women's Olympic gymnastic team to the average
floor routine score of China's women's team. ......................................................................................... 2
A second application of the t distribution tests the hypothesis that two independent random samples
have the same mean. The t distribution can also be used to construct confidence intervals for the true
mean of a population (the first application) or for the difference between two sample means (the
second application). ................................................................................................................................ 4
Paired Sample ttest ............................................................................................................................ 4
Application .......................................................................................................................................... 5
Purpose of study ................................................................................................................................. 6
CHAPTER 2 : METHODOLOGY ................................................................................................................. 6
2.1Universe of Study .......................................................................................................................... 6
2.2 Locale of Study ............................................................................................................................. 6
2.3Sampling Techniques .................................................................................................................... 6
2.4Sample Size ................................................................................................................................... 7
2.5 Data Collection ............................................................................................................................. 7
2.6Data Analysis ................................................................................................................................. 7
2.7Field Experience ............................................................................................................................ 7
CHAPTER 3 : ANALYSIS ............................................................................................................................ 8
BIBLIOGRAPHY ...................................................................................................................................... 19
APPENDIX .............................................................................................................................................. 20
Questionnaire ................................................................................................................................... 20
CHAPTER 1 : INTRODUCTION
ttest
A ttest is a statistical examination of two population means. A twosample ttest examines
whether two samples are different and is commonly used when the variances of two normal
distributions are unknown and when an experiment uses a small sample size. For example, a
ttest could be used to compare the average floor routine score of the U.S. women's Olympic
gymnastic team to the average floor routine score of China's women's team.
Students ttest, in statistics, a method of testing hypotheses about the mean of a small
sample drawn from a normally distributed population when the population standard deviation
is unknown.
In 1908 William Sealy Gosset, an Englishman publishing under the pseudonym Student,
developed the ttest and t distribution. The t distribution is a family of curves in which the
number of degrees of freedom (the number of independent observations in the sample minus
one) specifies a particular curve. As the sample size (and thus the degrees of freedom)
increases, the t distribution approaches the bell shape of the standard normal distribution. In
practice, for tests involving the mean of a sample of size greater than 30, the normal
distribution is usually applied.
It is usual first to formulate a null hypothesis, which states that there is no effective difference
between the observed sample mean and the hypothesized or stated population meani.e.,
that any measured difference is due only to chance. In an agricultural study, for example, the
null hypothesis could be that an application of fertilizer has had no effect on crop yield, and
an experiment would be performed to test whether it has increased the harvest. In general, a t
test may be either twosided (also termed twotailed), stating simply that the means are not
equivalent, or onesided, specifying whether the observed mean is larger or smaller than the
hypothesized mean. The test statistic t is then calculated. If the observed tstatistic is more
extreme than the critical value determined by the appropriate reference distribution, the null
hypothesis is rejected. The appropriate reference distribution for the tstatistic is the t
distribution. The critical value depends on the significance level of the test (the probability of
erroneously rejecting the null hypothesis).
For example, suppose a researcher wishes to test the hypothesis that a sample of size n = 25
with mean x = 79 and standard deviation s = 10 was drawn at random from a population with
mean = 75 and unknown standard deviation. Using the formula for the tstatistic,
the calculated t equals 2. For a twosided test at a common level of significance
= 0.05, the critical values from the t distribution on 24 degrees of freedom are 2.064 and
2.064. The calculated t does not exceed these values, hence the null hypothesis cannot be
rejected with 95 percent confidence. (The confidence level is 1 .)
A second application of the t distribution tests the hypothesis that two independent random
samples have the same mean. The t distribution can also be used to construct confidence
intervals for the true mean of a population (the first application) or for the difference between
two sample means (the second application).
Paired Sample ttest
PairedSample TTest is also known as dependent TTest, repeatedmeasures Ttest or
withinsubjects Ttest. A Pairedsample ttest is used to analyse paired scores, specifically,
we want to see if there is difference between paired scores.
The PairedSamples T Test procedure compares the means of two variables for a single
group. The procedure computes the differences between values of the two variables for each
case and tests whether the average differs from 0.
A paired sample ttest is used to determine whether there is a significant difference between
the average values of the same measurement made under two different conditions. Both
measurements are made on each unit in a sample, and the test is based on the paired
differences between these two values. The usual null hypothesis is that the difference in the
mean values is zero. For example, the yield of two strains of barley is measured in successive
years in twenty different plots of agricultural land (the units) to investigate whether one crop
gives a significantly greater yield than the other, on average.
Example. In a study on high blood pressure, all patients are measured at the beginning of the
study, given a treatment, and measured again. Thus, each subject has two measures, often
called before and after measures. An alternative design for which this test is used is a
matchedpairs or casecontrol study, in which each record in the data file contains the
response for the patient and also for his or her matched control subject. In a blood pressure
study, patients and controls might be matched by age (a 75yearold patient with a 75year
old control group member).
The null hypothesis for the paired sample ttest is H0: d = 1  2 = 0
where d is the mean value of the difference.
This null hypothesis is tested against one of the following alternative hypotheses, depending
on the question posed: H1: d = 0
H1: d > 0
H1: d < 0
The paired sample ttest is a more powerful alternative to a two sample procedure, such as the
two sample ttest, but can only be used when we have matched samples.
Application
A onesample location test of whether the mean of a population has a value specified in
a null hypothesis.
A twosample location test of the null hypothesis that the means of two populations are
equal. All such tests are usually called Student's ttests, though strictly speaking that
name should only be used if the variances of the two populations are also assumed to be
equal; the form of the test used when this assumption is dropped is sometimes
called Welch's ttest. These tests are often referred to as "unpaired" or "independent
samples" ttests, as they are typically applied when the statistical units underlying the two
samples being compared are nonoverlapping.
A test of the null hypothesis that the difference between two responses measured on the
same statistical unit has a mean value of zero. For example, suppose we measure the size
of a cancer patient's tumor before and after a treatment. If the treatment is effective, we
expect the tumor size for many of the patients to be smaller following the treatment. This
is often referred to as the "paired" or "repeated measures" ttest.
A test of whether the slope of a regression line differs significantly from 0.
Purpose of study
1. To identify the parameters on which the food available at dhaba has an edge over
the mess food using a paired sample ttest.
2. Recommend changes based on the results obtained.
CHAPTER 2 : METHODOLOGY
This chapter outlines the various tools utilised to carry out the required research.
2.1Universe of Study
All the dhabhas in India.
2.2 Locale of Study
This study has been limited to understanding the food quality at Secular House Dhaba and the
FORE Mess.
The locale of the study has been mainly the Qutab Institutional Area, New Delhi.
2.3Sampling Techniques
The research has been carried out with the help of a questionnaire and responses of the
employees have been analysed for deriving conclusions regarding the effectiveness of
communication.
2.4Sample Size
Due to time constraints, the questionnaire has been floated .to the frequent visitors of dhabhas
and the FORE Mess.
2.5 Data Collection
The study was conducted by utilising information from both, primary and secondary sources.
PRIMARY SOURCE
For the purpose of collecting information from the company an in depth questionnaire
was designed .It covered all the aspects of food quality and the satisfaction derived
thereof, as required for the analysis. It comprised of both open end and closed end
questions.
*(A copy of the questionnaire has been enclosed)
The questionnaire was floated to various frequent visitors of the dhabhas and FORE
Mess.
SECONDARY SOURCE
A wide array of journals, research papers, articles, and news reports contributed as the
secondary sources.. which aided in carrying out the test.
2.6Data Analysis
Data collected from the respondents have been codified and analysed both qualitatively &
quantitatively.
2.7Field Experience
The research work for this project was initiated in February 2014.
The initial step was drafting a questionnaire covering all the aspects required for the study.
Framing open end questions and ensuring that the responses are direct and precise was a
daunting task in itself.
However, visiting the dhabas was exhaustive yet an enriching experience.
CHAPTER 3 : ANALYSIS
This chapter focuses majorly on indepth analysis of the study carried out. The previous
chapters have been mainly introductory in nature: Introduction to research plan, Methodology
adopted. Now the analysis is being done on the basis of the data collected from primary and
secondary sources.
FOR PAIR 1:
NULL HYPOTHESIS:
There is no significant difference between the taste of the food of dhabhas and FORE Mess.
ALTERNATIVE HYPOTHESIS:
The dhaba food tastes better than FORE Mess food.
FOR PAIR 2:
NULL HYPOTHESIS:
There is no significant difference between the kind of variety in the food items provided by
both dhabhas and FORE Mess.
ALTERNATIVE HYPOTHESIS:
The dhaba food has more variety than FORE Mess food.
FOR PAIR 3:
NULL HYPOTHESIS:
There is no significant difference between of cost dhabhas and FORE Mess.
ALTERNATIVE HYPOTHESIS:
The dhaba food is less costlier than FORE Mess food.
FOR PAIR 4:
NULL HYPOTHESIS:
There is no significant difference between the quality of ingredients used by dhabhas and
FORE Mess.
ALTERNATIVE HYPOTHESIS:
The dhaba uses better quality ingredients than FORE Mess food.
FOR PAIR 5:
NULL HYPOTHESIS:
There is no significant difference between the hygiene maintained by dhabhas and FORE
Mess.
ALTERNATIVE HYPOTHESIS:
The dhaba maintains better hygiene than FORE Mess.
FOR PAIR 6:
NULL HYPOTHESIS:
There is no significant difference between the service provided by dhabhas and FORE Mess.
ALTERNATIVE HYPOTHESIS:
The dhaba service quality is better than FORE Mess food.
FOR PAIR 7:
NULL HYPOTHESIS:
There is no significant difference between the ambience of dhabhas and FORE Mess
ALTERNATIVE HYPOTHESIS:
The dhaba ambience is better than FORE Mess food.
FOR PAIR 8:
NULL HYPOTHESIS:
There is no significant difference between the nutritional value of the food of dhabhas and
FORE Mess.
ALTERNATIVE HYPOTHESIS:
The dhaba food is more nutritious than FORE Mess food.
FOR PAIR 9:
NULL HYPOTHESIS:
There is no significant difference between the delivery time of dhabhas and FORE Mess.
ALTERNATIVE HYPOTHESIS:
The dhaba delievery time is faster than FORE Mess food.
FOR PAIR 10:
NULL HYPOTHESIS:
There is no significant difference between the opening time of dhabhas and FORE Mess.
ALTERNATIVE HYPOTHESIS:
The dhaba opens at a more convenient time than FORE mess .
RESPONSE TO QUESTIONNAIRE
DATA ENTERED IN SPSS
OUTPUT
Paired Samples Statistics
Mean N Std. Deviation Std. Error Mean
Pair 1 Food taste for mess 3.50 30 .682 .125
Food taste for dhaba 2.60 30 .894 .163
Pair 2 Food vareity for mess 3.07 30 .828 .151
Food vareity for dhaba 1.87 30 .681 .124
Pair 3 Food cost for mess 3.20 30 .610 .111
Food cost for dhaba 2.70 30 .794 .145
Pair 4 Quality of ingredients for
mess
1.90 30 .759 .139
Quality of ingredients for
dhaba
2.80 30 .714 .130
Pair 5 Hygine for mess 1.93 30 .691 .126
Hygine for dhaba 3.37 30 .490 .089
Pair 6 Service quality for mess 1.67 30 .606 .111
Service quality for dhaba 3.10 30 .607 .111
Pair 7 Ambience for mess 2.53 30 .776 .142
Ambience for dhaba 2.80 30 .551 .101
Pair 8 Food nuitrition for mess 1.53 30 .507 .093
Food nuitrition for dhaba 2.80 30 .551 .101
Pair 9 Food delivery time for mess 1.67 30 .479 .088
Food delivery time for dhaba 3.03 30 .414 .076
Pair 10 Opening Time for mess 3.43 30 .568 .104
Opening Time for dhaba 2.33 30 .606 .111
Paired Samples Correlations
N Correlation Sig.
Pair 1 Food taste for mess & Food taste for
dhaba
30 .170 .371
Pair 2 Food vareity for mess & Food vareity for
dhaba
30 .106 .577
Pair 3 Food cost for mess & Food cost for
dhaba
30 .057 .765
Pair 4 Quality of ingredients for mess & Quality
of ingredients for dhaba
30 .089 .640
Pair 5 Hygine for mess & Hygine for dhaba 30 .027 .887
Pair 6 Service quality for mess & Service
quality for dhaba
30 .094 .623
Pair 7 Ambience for mess & Ambience for
dhaba
30 .016 .933
Pair 8 Food nuitrition for mess & Food nuitrition
for dhaba
30 .345 .062
Pair 9 Food delivery time for mess & Food
delivery time for dhaba
30 .058 .761
Pair 10 Opening Time for mess & Opening Time
for dhaba
30 .367 .046
Paired Samples Test
Paired Differences t df Sig. (2
tailed) Mea
n
Std.
Deviatio
n
Std.
Error
Mean
95% Confidence
Interval of the
Difference
Lower Upper
Pa
ir
1
Food taste for
mess  Food
taste for dhaba
.900 1.213 .222 .447 1.353 4.06
2
29 .000
Pa
ir
2
Food vareity for
mess  Food
vareity for dhaba
1.20
0
1.126 .206 .779 1.621 5.83
5
29 .000
Pa
ir
3
Food cost for
mess  Food cost
for dhaba
.500 .974 .178 .136 .864 2.81
2
29 .009
Pa
ir
4
Quality of
ingredients for
mess  Quality of
ingredients for
dhaba

.900
.995 .182 1.271 .529 
4.95
5
29 .000
Pa
ir
5
Hygine for mess
 Hygine for
dhaba

1.43
3
.858 .157 1.754 1.113 
9.14
6
29 .000
Pa
ir
6
Service quality
for mess 
Service quality
for dhaba

1.43
3
.817 .149 1.738 1.128 
9.60
7
29 .000
Pa
ir
7
Ambience for
mess  Ambience
for dhaba

.267
.944 .172 .619 .086 
1.54
7
29 .133
Pa
ir
8
Food nuitrition for
mess  Food
nuitrition for
dhaba

1.26
7
.868 .159 1.591 .942 
7.99
0
29 .000
Pa
ir
9
Food delivery
time for mess 
Food delivery
time for dhaba

1.36
7
.615 .112 1.596 1.137 
12.1
73
29 .000
Pa
ir
10
Opening Time for
mess  Opening
Time for dhaba
1.10
0
.662 .121 .853 1.347 9.10
4
29 .000
FINDINGS & CONCLUSION
PAIR 1
Since the output table states that t test is significant, thus we reject
the null hypothesis.
The taste of food of dhabhas is better than FORE Mess.
PAIR 2
Since the output table states that t test is significant, thus we reject
the null hypothesis.
Variety of food provided by dhabhas is more than FORE Mess.
PAIR 3
Since the output table states that t test is not significant, thus we do
not reject the null hypothesis.
There is no significant difference between cost of dhabhas and
FORE Mess.
PAIR 4
Since the output table states that t test is significant, thus we reject
the null hypothesis.
The quality of ingredients used by dhabhas is better than FORE
Mess.
There is no significant difference between ambience of dhabhas
and FORE Mess
PAIR 5
Since the output table states that t test is significant, thus we reject
the null hypothesis
Hygiene maintained by dhabhas is better.
PAIR 6
Since the output table states that t test is significant, thus we reject
the null hypothesis.
The service quality maintained by dhabhas is superior.
PAIR 7
Since the output table states that t test is not significant, thus we do
not reject the null hypothesis.
PAIR 8
Since the output table states that t test is significant, thus we do
reject the null hypothesis
Dhabha food is more nutritious.
PAIR 9
Since the output table states that t test is significant, thus we reject
the null hypothesis d.
Delivery time of dhabhas is quicker.
PAIR 10
FOR PAIR 10:
Since the output table states that t test is significant, thus we reject
the null hypothesis
Opening time of dhabhas is more convenient.
RECOMMENDATIONS
Based on the test conducted on the responses of the respondents on
the questionnaire ,following recommendations can be made:
DHABAS
1. If the Dhabas could improve the ambience that they offer to
their customers, it could greatly benefit.
2. If the Dhabas can improve the quality of ingredients that they
put into their food, customers would prefer Dhaba food
FORE MESS
1. Taste being a very important factor among customers who want
to eat, should be worked upon by the FORE mess to attract
customers.
BIBLIOGRAPHY
http://www.investopedia.com/terms/t/ttest.asp
http://archive.bio.ed.ac.uk/jdeacon/statistics/tress4a.html
http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/569907/Studentsttest
http://pic.dhe.ibm.com/infocenter/spssstat/v20r0m0/index.jsp?topic=%2Fcom.ibm.sps
s.statistics.help%2Fidh_ttpr.htm
http://www.stats.gla.ac.uk/glossary/?q=node/355
http://www.mathsstatisticstutor.com/paired_sample_t_test_pasw_spss.php
APPENDIX
Questionnaire
"This is purely an academic exercise and all information provided including personal details
and views would be treated in strict confidence. The Survey is a part of our assignment /
FMG22 Section A/C. Purpose of the study is to identify the parameters on which the dhaba
food has an edge over the mess food."
1. Please rate the food taste?
1) Extremely Unsatisfied
2) Unsatisfied
3) Neutral
4) Satisfied
5) Extremely Satisfied
2. Please rate the food menu variety?
1) Extremely Unsatisfied
2) Unsatisfied
3) Neutral
4) Satisfied
5) Extremely Satisfied
3. Please rate the cost of food?
1) Extremely Unsatisfied
2) Unsatisfied
3) Neutral
4) Satisfied
5) Extremely Satisfied
4. Please rate the Quantity of ingredients in food?
1) Extremely Unsatisfied
2) Unsatisfied
3) Neutral
4) Satisfied
5) Extremely Satisfied
5. Please rate the Hygiene of the place?
1) Extremely Unsatisfied
2) Unsatisfied
3) Neutral
4) Satisfied
5) Extremely Satisfied
6. Please rate the Service Quality of the place?
1) Extremely Unsatisfied
2) Unsatisfied
3) Neutral
4) Satisfied
5) Extremely Satisfied
7. Please rate the Ambience of the place?
1) Extremely Unsatisfied
2) Unsatisfied
3) Neutral
4) Satisfied
5) Extremely Satisfied
8. Please rate the Nutrition of food?
1) Extremely Unsatisfied
2) Unsatisfied
3) Neutral
4) Satisfied
5) Extremely Satisfied
9. Please rate the delivery time of food?
1) Extremely Unsatisfied
2) Unsatisfied
3) Neutral
4) Satisfied
5) Extremely Satisfied
10. Please rate if the opening and closing timings
convenient?
1) Extremely Unsatisfied
2) Unsatisfied
3) Neutral
4) Satisfied
5) Extremely Satisfied
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