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Dydaktyka angielska

silent period
natural order
ross!setional studies
longitudinal studies "d#ugofalo$e%
de&elopmental se'uenes
you an(t )eat t*e se'uene of S+A
t*e effet of instrution
ommuniation transfer:
ode!s$it*ing "$*en a speaker alternates )et$een t$o or more languages. or language
&arieties. in t*e onte/t of a single on&ersation% . ode!mi/ing "
negati&e transfer &s0positi&e transfer
languages differ )ut t*ey *a&e some ommon features
e&eryone is )orn $it* t*e innate kno$ledge of linguisti uni&ersals
Audio!lingual 2et*od
T*e ,rammar Translation 2et*od
T*e Army 2et*od
3e*a&ioristi t*eories
4a)it formation ",ood *a)its are formed )y gi&ing orret responses rat*er t*an )y making
5Quik suess6
poor long!term results
to de&elope ommuniati&e ompetene
to form a language *a)it
to o&erlearn a struture
key features:
ne$ material is presented in dialog form
t*ere is dependene of mimiry. memori8ation of set p*rases and o&erlearning
strutures are taug*t one at a time
strutural patterns are taug*t using repetiti&e drills
little or no grammatial e/planation
grammar is taug*t induti&ely.
&oa)ulary is stritly limited and learned in onte/t
mu* use of tapes. language la)s and &isual aids
great importane of pronouniation
&ery little use of mot*er tongue
suessful responses are immediately reinfored "$8maniane%
great effort to get students to produe error!free utternaes
tendeny to manipulate language and disregard ontent
typial te*ni'ues:
dialog memori8ation
)ak$ard )uild!up "e/pansion drill%
repetition drill
transformation drill
'uestion!and!ans$er drill
omplete t*e dialog
grammar games
,rammar ompetene
inludes le/is. morp*ology. sentene grammar. semantis. p*onology
soiolinguisti ompetene
in&ol&ing t*e mastery of t*e soioultural ode of t*e language
strategi ompetene
t*e &er)al and non!&er)al ommuniation strategies t*at may )e alled into ation to
ompensate for )reakdo$ns in ommuniation due to performane &aria)les or to insuffiient
t*ese strategies an also play an offensi&e role. alt*oug* t*is $ould )e *arateristi of more
ad&aned language users
ommuniation strategies:
literal translation
appeal for assistane
$ord oinage
disourse ompetene
omprises rules of o*esion and o*erene
omprises mastery of *o$ to om)ine grammatial forms and meanings to a*ie&e a unified
spoken or $ritten te/t in different genres
represents t*e mastery of +; disourse me*anisms
unity of te/t in&ol&es appropriateness and depends on onte/tual fators su* as status of t*e
partiipiants. purpose of interation and norms or on&entions of interation
skilled language users use automati proesses to reogni8e $ords. proess sentenes. and
ompre*end reading passages. $*ereas )eginning learners use ontrolled proesses t*at
demand more of t*e learners( time and attention0
9a&lo&. Skinner. and 3runer
+; learning is a*ie&ed t*roug* reinforement t*at is a kind of a$ard or positi&e response gi&en to
students after t*eir demonstration of +;
All learning takes plaes as learners reei&e linguisti input from speakers in t*eir en&ironment
Ta)ula Rasa
4a)it -ormation "Conditioning < Assoiati&e +earning%: +earner form assoiations )et$een $ords
and o)7ets or e&ents in t*eir en&ironment0T*ese assoiations )eome stronger as soon as
e/perienes are repeated0 If t*e enouragement for orret imitations is pro&ided t*e learner
forms *a)its0
9ositi&e Transfer: +earners use t*e similarities )et$een t*eir += and +;0
Negati&e Transfer "Interferene%: >*en a grammatial struture or sound is different in t*e first
language and t*e target language. t*e first language may intrude and ause diffiulty in produing
t*e ne$ form "4or$it8. ;??@%0 T*is is kno$n as interferene
T*e role of pratie: Audio!lingual 2et*od praties )ased on 3e*a&iorism
Auray is important
C*ildren only listen and memori8e. t*ey donAt produe )y using t*eir reati&ity
Error Corretion: Errors *a&e to )e orreted as soon as t*ey our )eause t*ey may ause
It is important )eause learners imitate and pratie t*e input
e&eryone is a)le to produe an infinite num)er of sentenes t*ey *a&e ne&er *eart )efore
e&eryone is )orn $it* t*e innate kno$ledge of linguisti uni&ersals
>e donAt *a&e to pro&ide input
Our students s*ould not 7ust repeat after t*e model
Our students are reati&e
1i&ian Cook
t*e proess of a'uiring t*e kno$ledge of t*e language )y attempting to understand messages.
and leads to rules. parameter!settings. and so on ! t*e reation of kno$ledge in t*e mind
Error analysis
Creati&e onstrution
+= transfer "$*en t*e learners transfer nati&e language *a)its into t*e +;%
>eakness of error analysis
3ased on performane samples
Soures of errors:
Inati&e monitor
+= transfer
Creati&e onstrution
'uestions you ask to see if t*e person you are speaking to kno$s t*e ans$er0 T*is normally
means 'uestions tea*ers ask learners to see if t*ey understand or remem)er somet*ing. e0g0
D>*at is t*e past simple form of lea&eE(
'uestions you ask someone )eause you don(t kno$ t*e ans$er0 t*is an mean 'uestions
tea*ers ask learners and learners ask ea* ot*er. e0g0 D>*at did you do at t*e $eekendE(
Description of Krashen's Theory of Second Language Acquisition
Bras*en(s t*eory of seond language a'uisition onsists of fi&e main *ypot*eses:
=0 t*e A'uisition!+earning *ypot*esis.
;0 t*e Natural Order *ypot*esis.
F0 t*e 2onitor *ypot*esis.
G0 t*e Input *ypot*esis.
H0 and t*e Affeti&e -ilter *ypot*esis0
=0 T*e A'uisition!+earning distintion is t*e most fundamental of all t*e *ypot*eses in Bras*en(s t*eory
and t*e most $idely kno$n among linguists and language pratitioners0
Aording to Bras*en t*ere are t$o independent systems of seond language performane: (t*e
a'uired system( and (t*e learned system(0 T*e (a'uired system( or (a'uisition( is t*e produt of a
su)onsious proess &ery similar to t*e proess *ildren undergo $*en t*ey a'uire t*eir first
language0 It re'uires meaningful interation in t*e target language ! natural ommuniation ! in $*i*
speakers are onentrated not in t*e form of t*eir utteranes. )ut in t*e ommuniati&e at0
T*e (learned system( or (learning( is t*e produt of formal instrution and it omprises a onsious
proess $*i* results in onsious kno$ledge (a)out( t*e language. for e/ample kno$ledge of grammar
rules0 Aording to Bras*en (learning( is less important t*an (a'uisition(0
Turning on into su) )y t*e proess of automati8ation is not possi)le0 >*en $e respond automatially
$e donAt t*ink a)out t*e ontent0
Consious an not )e turned into su)onsious
Su)onsious an )e turned into onsious0
;0 T*e Natural Order *ypot*esis is )ased on resear* findings "Dulay : 3urt. =IJGK -at*man. =IJHK
2akino. =I@? ited in Bras*en. =I@J% $*i* suggested t*at t*e a'uisition of grammatial strutures
follo$s a (natural order( $*i* is predita)le0 -or a gi&en language. some grammatial strutures tend to
)e a'uired early $*ile ot*ers late0 T*is order seemed to )e independent of t*e learners( age. +=
)akground. onditions of e/posure. and alt*oug* t*e agreement )et$een indi&idual a'uirers $as not
al$ays =??L in t*e studies. t*ere $ere statistially signifiant similarities t*at reinfored t*e e/istene of
Natural Order of language a'uisition0 Bras*en *o$e&er points out t*at t*e impliation of t*e natural
order *ypot*esis is not t*at a language program sylla)us s*ould )e )ased on t*e order found in t*e
studies0 In fat. *e re7ets grammatial se'uening $*en t*e goal is language a'uisition0
If $e follo$ t*e natural order in +;. 7ust like $e do in +=. t*e proess of learning is longer su)onsious0
Bras*enAs t*eory is mainly Input!oriented0
F0 T*e 2onitor *ypot*esis e/plains t*e relations*ip )et$een a'uisition and learning0 T*e monitoring
funtion is t*e pratial result of t*e learned grammar0 Aording to Bras*en. t*e a'uisition system is
t*e utterane initiator. $*ile t*e learning system performs t*e role of t*e (monitor( or t*e (editor(0 T*e
(monitor( ats in a planning. editing and orreting funtion $*en t*ree speifi onditions are met: t*at
is. t*e seond language learner *as suffiient time at *is<*er disposal. *e<s*e fouses on form or t*inks
a)out orretness. and *e<s*e kno$s t*e rule0
T*e monitoring funtion is t*e pratial result of t*e learned grammar0
G0 T*e Input *ypot*esis is Bras*en(s attempt to e/plain *o$ t*e learner a'uires a seond language0 In
ot*er $ords. t*is *ypot*esis is Bras*en(s e/planation of *o$ seond language a'uisition takes plae0
So. t*e Input *ypot*esis is only onerned $it* (a'uisition(. not (learning(0 Aording to t*is *ypot*esis.
t*e learner impro&es and progresses along t*e (natural order( $*en *e<s*e reei&es seond language
(input( t*at is one step )eyond *is<*er urrent stage of linguisti ompetene0 -or e/ample. if a learner is
at a stage (i(. t*en a'uisition takes plae $*en *e<s*e is e/posed to (Compre*ensi)le Input( t*at
)elongs to le&el (i M =(0 Sine not all of t*e learners an )e at t*e same le&el of linguisti ompetene at
t*e same time. Bras*en suggests t*at natural ommuniati&e input is t*e key to designing a sylla)us.
ensuring in t*is $ay t*at ea* learner $ill reei&e some (i M =( input t*at is appropriate for *is<*er urrent
stage of linguisti ompetene0
H0 -inally. t*e fift* *ypot*esis. t*e Affeti&e -ilter *ypot*esis. em)odies Bras*en(s &ie$ t*at a num)er of
(affeti&e &aria)les( play a failitati&e. )ut non!ausal. role in seond language a'uisition0 T*ese
&aria)les inlude: moti&ation. self!onfidene and an/iety0 Bras*en laims t*at learners $it* *ig*
moti&ation. self!onfidene. a good self!image. and a lo$ le&el of an/iety are )etter e'uipped for
suess in seond language a'uisition0 +o$ moti&ation. lo$ self!esteem. and de)ilitating an/iety an
om)ine to (raise( t*e affeti&e filter and form a (mental )lok( t*at pre&ents ompre*ensi)le input from
)eing used for a'uisition0 In ot*er $ords. $*en t*e filter is (up( it impedes language a'uisition0 On t*e
ot*er *and. positi&e affet is neessary. )ut not suffiient on its o$n. for a'uisition to take plae0
t*e idea t*at $*en a language is learned. t*ere s*ould )e a period in $*i* t*e learner is not
e/peted to ati&ely produe any language0 T*is is )ased on o)ser&ations of a listening period in
infants $*en t*ey learn a first language0
>*en learners )egin to study a ne$ language. t*ey an go t*roug* a silent period $*ere t*ey are
e/posed to suffiient comprehensible input to allo$ t*em to )egin to a'uire language0
earners remain una$are of t*e learning t*at *as taken plae. alt*oug* it is e&ident in t*e
responses t*ey make0 T*us. learners annot &er)ali8e $*at t*ey *a&e learned
learners are a$are t*at t*ey *a&e learned somet*ing and an &er)ali8e $*at t*ey *a&e learned
an approa* to language eduation in $*i* learners are made a$are of t*e grammatial form of
language features t*at t*ey are already a)le to use ommuniati&ely
S+A settings
natural &0 eduational setting
segregation "+; learner is eduated separately from t*e ma7ority $*o speaks t*e target
language as t*eir mot*er tongue%
mot*er tongue maintenane "type of )illingual eduation. in t*e $eaker form students are
gi&en lasses in t*eir mot*er tongue. in t*e stronger form pupils are eduated t*roug* t*e
medium of t*eir mot*er tongue%
immersion "met*od of tea*ing t*e seond language in $*i* t*e learnersA seond language
"+;% is t*e medium of lassroom instrution0 T*roug* t*is met*od. learners study s*ool
su)7ets. su* as mat*. siene. and soial studies. in t*eir +;%
foreign language lassroom
referene groups
soiolinguisti &aria)les
soial lass
et*ni mem)ers*ip
t*e learner(s urrent &ersion of t*e language t*ey are learning0 Interlanguage *anges all t*e time
)ut an )eome fossilised language $*en t*e learners do not *a&e t*e opportunity to impro&e
T*ings t*ey an do t*emsel&es
T*ings t*ey an do $it* t*e *elp of ot*ers
T*ings t*ey anAt do at all
soial onstruti&ism
ogniti&e skills and patterns of t*inking are not primarily determined )y innate fators. )ut are
t*e produts of t*e ati&ities pratied in t*e soial institutions of t*e ulture in $*i* t*e
indi&idual gro$s up
many internal de&elopmental proesses are a)le to operate only $*en t*e *ild is in t*e ation
of interating $it* people in t*eiren&ironment and in ooperation $it* t*eir peers
Tea*ing impliations:
Role of interation
Re7etion of kno$ledge transfer
Ne$ lassroom arrangements"group$ork. pair$ork
t*e aut*entiity of t*e en&ironment and t*e affinity )et$een its partiipants are essential
elements to make t*e learner feel part of t*is en&ironment
e&eryone passed t*roug* an in&ariant se'uene of four 'ualitati&ely distint stages
Sensorimotor"? !; t*e mental strutures are mainly onerned $it* t*e mastery of onrete
9re!operational"; PJ T*e mastery of sym)ols%
Conrete operational"J P== *ildren learn mastery of lasses. relations. and num)ers and *o$
to reason%
-ormal operational"o&er== t*e mastery of t*oug*tPa)strat t*inking%
in&ol&es t*e inorporation of ne$ e&ents into pree/isting ogniti&e strutures
means e/isting strututres *ange to aommodate to t*e ne$ information
in&ol&es t*e person striking t*e )alane )et$een *imself and t*e en&ironment. )et$een
assimilation and aommodationQ
(STM): t*e memory used for keeping information for periods of time
up to a fe$ seonds
group to $*i* an indi&idual or anot*er group is ompared
+; a'uisition $it*out lassroom instrution
follo$ ordered de&elopmental se'uenes
*uman )eing possesses a mind $*i* *as onsiousness. ideas. et0 . and t*at t*e mind an
influene t*e )e*a&ior of t*e )ody0
language is a *uman!speifi faulty
language e/ists as an independent faulty in t*e *uman mind
t*e a'uisition de&ie disappears $it* age