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Western Electricity Coordinating Council

Relaying Current Transformer


Application Guide
Relay Work Group
NovemberJul
y 200!
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Section Title Page No.
Introduction 1
I. CURRENT TRANSFORMER CHARACTERISTICS..............................................................................................1
A. Core Construction and Accuracy Classes............................1
B. Exciting Current..................................................3
C. Remanence.........................................................4
D. Thermal Ratings...................................................7
II. CURRENT TRANSFORMER BUREN..............................................................................................................1!
Internal Resistance o CT...........................................13
III. ESTIMATES OF CT TRANSIENT PERFORMANCE......................................................................................1"
I#. ..............................................................................................................................................................................$%
I. PERFORMANCE RE&UIREMENTS OF CURRENT TRANSFORMERS FOR RELA'IN( PURPOSES.......$"
A. Distri!ution "eeders# $hase and %round &'ercurrent...............()
Dierentially Connected CT*s or Buses# Transormers and %enerators (7
C. Directional &'ercurrent and Distance.............................3+
E,- Transmission .ine /ystems.......................................30
#. E)AMPLES OF CALCULATIONS....................................................................................................................%1
A. Ratio and $hase Angle Error o CT1................................41
B. Estimation o Current Transormer $erormance1.................)2
C. A3/I CT Relaying Accuracy Classes1..............................)+
D. Eect o Current Transormer Connections on Burden.............)0
+0
%eneral case1.......................................................+0
+0
E. Estimates o Transient $erormance..............................72
#I. REFERENCES......................................................................................................................................................*%
-II. .I/T &" &$ERATI&3/ C&44ITTEE $5B.ICATI&3/......................7)

RELA'IN( CT APPLICATION (UIES
Introduction
T+i, guide -a, .re.ared /0 t+e 1SCC1ECC Rela0 1or2 (rou. 3or utilit0 engineer, -+o
a..l0 current tran,3or4er, 3or .rotecti5e rela0ing. It t+u, addre,,e, t+e need, and concern, o3
t+e u,er. It ,+ould .ro5e to /e a read0 re3erence6 .articularl0 a4ong 1SCC1ECC 4e4/er,
-+o are tr0ing to ,ol5e a 4utual .rotection .ro/le4 or o.eration. It i, al,o ,uita/le a, a tutorial
3or engineer, entering t+e .rotection 3ield.
a5id H. Col-ell6 -+o recentl0,ince retired 3ro4 P(7E6 initiated t+e -riting o3 t+i, guide and
.ro5ided leader,+i. and coordination in it, .roduction. He a, -ell contri/uted to t+e /od0 o3
t+e guide. T+e current -or2 grou. ac2no-ledge, +i, and t+e ot+er contri/utor,8 e33ort,.
I. CURRENT TRANSFORMER CHARACTERISTICS
A. Core Con,truction and Accurac0 Cla,,e,
Alt+oug+ t+ere e9i,t 4an0 current tran,3or4er de,ign, 3or 5ariou, .ur.o,e,6 t+e /a,ic
t0.e, o3 core con,truction can /e grou.ed into t-o categorie,6 toroidal or -ound.
T+e /u,+ing6 -indo-6 or /ar t0.e current tran,3or4er, are o3 t+e toroidal core
con,truction a, ,+o-n in Figure 1. T+e .ri4ar0 -inding i, t+e 4ain conductor .a,,ing
t+roug+ t+e center o3 t+e core. T+e ,econdar0 -inding i, uni3or4l0 di,tri/uted around
t+e toroidal core. E,,entiall06 all t+e 3lu9 -+ic+ lin2, t+e .ri4ar0 conductor al,o lin2,
t+e ,econdar0 -inding. T+e lea2age 3lu96 and t+u, t+e lea2age reactance6 i, negligi/le.
T+i, i, a co44on con,truction 3or H# and EH# current tran,3or4er,.
Since t+e lea2age 3lu9 i, negligi/le6 t+e e9citation c+aracteri,tic, :Section I:/;; can /e
u,ed directl0 to deter4ine .er3or4ance. Current tran,3or4er, o3 t+i, t0.e +a5e an
accurac0 cla,, de,ignation o3 <C= cla,,i3ication .er ANSI C"*.1!6 indicating t+at ratio
correction at an0 current can /e calculated Calculated ade>uatel0 i3 t+e /urden6
,econdar0 -inding re,i,tance6 and t+e e9citation c+aracteri,tic, are 2no-n. T+e C
cla,,C or ? cla,,i3ication a..lie, to all ta. ,ection, o3 t+e current tran,3or4er -inding.
Ho-e5er6 t+e .re5iou, ANSI cla,,i3ication :L; a..lied onl0 to t+e 3ull -inding. Ta.
,ection, o3 current tran,3or4er, -it+ an L cla,,i3ication 4a0 not /e uni3or4l0
di,tri/uted.
? cla,, current tran,3or4er, are identical to C cla,, de5ice, e9ce.t t+at ? cla,, current
tran,3or4er, ,+all +a5e a 2nee .oint 5oltage at lea,t *@A o3 t+e ,econdar0 ter4inal
5oltage rating. T+e ,econdar0 ter4inal 5oltage rating i, t+e 5oltage -+ic+ t+e
tran,3or4er -ill deli5er to a ,tandard /urden at $@ ti4e, nor4al ,econdar0 current6 i.e.
1@@ a4., 3or a " a4. no4inal CT6 -it+out e9ceeding 1@A ratio error.
T+e .re,ence o3 ,uc+ lea2age 3lu9 +a, a ,igni3icant e33ect on current tran,3or4er
.er3or4ance. 1+en t+i, 3lu9 i, a..recia/leB6 it i, not .o,,i/le to calculate ratio
correction. Unit, Current tran,3or4er, o3 t+i, t0.e +a5e an accurac0 cla,, de,ignation
o3 <T=. cla,,i3ication in accordance -it+ ANSI C"*.1!6 indicating t+at ratio correction
4u,ti, to /e deter4ined /0 Ttest.
1ound t0.e current tran,3or4er,6 T t0.e cla,,i3ication6 are u,uall0 con,tructed -it+
4ore t+an one .ri4ar0 turn and undi,tri/uted -inding,. Becau,e o3 t+e .+0,ical ,.ace
re>uired 3or in,ulation and /racing o3 t+e .ri4ar0 -inding and 3ringing e33ect, o3 nonC
uni3or4l0 di,tri/uted -inding,6 3lu9 i, .re,ent -+ic+ doe, not lin2 /ot+ .ri4ar0 and
,econdar0 -inding,. Figure $Figure 1 i, included to clearl0 illu,trate t+e e33ect /ut
doe, not re3lect u,ual con,truction .ractice. An au9iliar0 current tran,3or4er i, an
e9a4.le o3 a -ound t0.e current tran,3or4er.
B A, ,tated in ANSI C"*.1!6 an a..recia/le e33ect i, de3ined a, one .ercent di33erence
/et-een t+e actual ratio correction and t+e ratio correction calculated.
Figure 1 WINDOW, BAR, AND BUSHING TYPE CURRENT TRANSFORMER
B. E9citing Current
In an ideal current tran,3or4er6 t+e .ri4ar0 a4.ereCturn, are e>ual to t+e ,econdar0
a4.ereCturn,. Ho-e5er6 e5er0 core 4aterial re>uire, ,o4e energ0 to .roduce t+e
4agnetic 3lu9 -+ic+ induce, t+e ,econdar0 5oltage nece,,ar0 to deli5er t+e ,econdar0
current. T+u,6 in an actual current tran,3or4er6 t+e ,econdar0 a4.ereCturn, are e>ual to
t+e .ri4ar0 a4.ereCturn, 4inu, t+e e9citing a4.ereCturn,. For a C cla,,C or ? cla,,6 or
a toroidal core con,tructed current tran,3or4er6 t+e ,i4.li3ied e>ui5alent circuit i, ,+o-n
in Figure !Figure $. Figure %Figure !6 e9tracted 3ro4 ANSI C"*.1!6 ,+o-, t+e t0.ical
e9citation cur5e, 3or a 4ultiCratio C cla,,C or ? cla,, current tran,3or4er. T+e
4a9i4u4 tolerance o3 e9citation 5alue, a/o5e and /elo- t+e 2nee are al,o ,.eci3ied.
T+e,e cur5e, de3ine t+e relation,+i. o3 t+e ,econdar0 e9citing current :I
e
; to t+e
,econdar0 5oltage :E
e
;. T+e un,aturated ,lo.e i, deter4ined /0 t+e 4agnetic core
4aterial. T+e ,aturated region i, t+e airCcore reactance.
1+en t+e current tran,3or4er core i, un,aturated6 t+e error due to e9citing current i,
nor4all0 negligi/le. 1+en t+e 5oltage i, a/o5e t+e 2nee o3 t+e e9citation cur5e6 t+e
current tran,3or4er i, ,aid to /e o.erating in it, ,aturated region -+ere t+e e9citing
current i, no longer negligi/le. T+ere3ore6 t+e ratio error o3 t+e current tran,3or4er
/eco4e, 4uc+ greater /e0ond t+e 2nee.
For T cla,, current tran,3or4er,6 t+e lea2age 3lu9 could can /e a..recia/le. T+e e9citing
3lu9 ,+ould /e con,idered6 along -it+ t+e lea2age 3lu96 in deter4ining current
tran,3or4er accurac0. Alt+oug+ a te,t ,+ould /e done6 Figure "Figure %6 al,o e9tracted
3ro4 ANSI C"*.1!6 ,+o-, t0.ical o5ercurrent ratio cur5e, 3or a T cla,, current
tran,3or4er
C. Re4anence
Re4anent 3lu9 can /e ,et u. in t+e core o3 a current tran,3or4er under o.erating or te,t
condition,. uring o.erating condition,6 re4anent 3lu9 can /e le3t in t+e core -+en t+e
.ri4ar0 current i, interru.ted -+ile t+e 3lu9 den,it0 in t+e core o3 t+e tran,3or4er i,
+ig+. T+i, 4a0 occur -+en clearing 3ault current. Te,ting6 ,uc+ a, re,i,tance or
continuit0 4ea,ure4ent,6 4a0 al,o lea5e re4anence.
T+e re4anent 3lu9 in t+e core de.end, on 4an0 3actor,. T+e 4o,t i4.ortant one, are t+e
4agnitude o3 .ri4ar0 current6 t+e i4.edance o3 t+e ,econdar0 circuit and t+e a4.litude
and ti4e con,tant o3 an0 o33,et tran,ient. Since t+e i4.edance o3 t+e ,econdar0 circuit i,
generall0 3i9ed6 t+e 4agnitude o3 re4anent 3lu9 i, go5erned /0 t+e 4agnitude o3 t+e
,044etrical co4.onent o3 t+e .ri4ar0 current and t+e 4agnitude o3 t+e o33,et tran,ient
.rior to t+e .ri4ar0 current interru.tion. Ma9i4u4 re4anent 3lu9 can /e o/tained under
condition, -+ere/0 t+e .ri4ar0 current i, interru.ted -+ile t+e tran,3or4er i, in a
,aturated ,tate.
1+en t+e current tran,3or4er i, ne9t energiDed6 t+e 3lu9 c+ange, re>uired -ill ,tart 3ro4
t+e re4anent 5alue. I3 t+e re>uired c+ange i, in t+e direction to add to t+e re4anent 3lu96
a large .art o3 t+e c0cle 4a0 3ind t+e current tran,3or4er ,aturated. 1+en t+i, occur,6
4uc+ o3 t+e .ri4ar0 current i, re>uired 3or e9citation and ,econdar0 out.ut i,
,igni3icantl0 reduced and di,torted on alternate +al3 c0cle,. T+i, .+eno4enon i,
illu,trated in Figure EFigure ". T+e .er3or4ance o3 /ot+ C and T cla,, tran,3or4er, i,
in3luenced /0 t+i, re4anence or re,idual 4agneti,4. Rela0 action could /e ,lo- or e5en
incorrect.
T+e re4anence can /e corrected /0 deC4agnetiDing t+e current tran,3or4er. T+i, i,
acco4.li,+ed /0 a..l0ing a ,uita/le 5aria/le alternating 5oltage to t+e ,econdar06 -it+
initial 4agnitude ,u33icient to 3orce t+e 3lu9 den,it0 a/o5e t+e ,aturation .oint6 and t+en
decrea,ing t+e a..lied 5oltage ,lo-l0 and continuou,l0 to Dero. I3 t+ere i, an0 rea,on to
,u,.ect t+at a current tran,3or4er +a, /een ,u/Fected recentl0 to +ea50 current,6 .o,,i/l0
in5ol5ing a large C co4.onent6 it ,+ould /e de4agnetiDed /e3ore /eing u,ed 3or an0
te,t re>uiring accurate current 4ea,ure4ent.
Figure 1
LEAKAGE FLUX ASSOCIATED WITH CLASS T CURRENT TRANSFORMERS
Figure 2 LEAKAGE FLUX ASSOCIATED WITH CLASS T CURRENT
TRANSFORMERS
. T+er4al Rating,
Current tran,3or4er continuou, rating, can /e increa,ed /e0ond no4inal /0 u,e o3 a
continuou, t+er4al current rating 3actor. T+i, 3actor i, de3ined in ANSIGIEEE C"*.1!C
1H*I 1HH!R a, JT+e ,.eci3ied 3actor /0 -+ic+ t+e rated .ri4ar0 current o3 a current
tran,3or4er can /e 4ulti.lied to o/tain t+e 4a9i4u4 .ri4ar0 current t+at can /e carried
continuou,l0 -it+out e9ceeding t+e li4iting te4.erature ri,e 3ro4 !@KC a4/ient air
te4.erature. :1+en current tran,3or4er, are incor.orated internall0 a, .art, o3 larger
tran,3or4er, or .o-er circuit /rea2er,6 t+e0 ,+all 4eet allo-a/le a5erage -inding and
+ot ,.ot te4.erature, under t+e ,.eci3ic condition, and re>uire4ent, o3 t+e larger
a..aratu,J. Standard rating 3actor, are 1.@6 1.!!6 1."6 $.@6 !.@6 and %.@.
A, an a..lication e9a4.le6 a .o-er circuit /rea2er -it+ a 1E@@ a4. continuou, rating
could u,e 1$@@G" :4a9i4u4 ratio; current tran,3or4er, -it+ a t+er4al rating 3actor o3
1.!!. In t+i, -a0 t+e current tran,3or4er could continuou,l0 carr0 1E@@ a4., .ri4ar0
and -ould t+ere3ore not li4it t+e /rea2er ca.a/ilit0.
Au9iliar0 current tran,3or4er t+er4al rating, do not con3or4 to t+i, ,tandard6 and t+u,
are +andled di33erentl0 a4ong 4anu3acturer,. For in,tance6 one 4anu3acturer ,u..lie,
all au9iliar0 CT, rated /elo- $@ a4., .ri4ar0 -it+ t+er4al rating 3actor, o3 1.@6 -+ile
all CT, -it+ .ri4arie, rated greater t+an $@ a4., +a5e t+er4al rating 3actor, o3 1.".
Anot+er 4anu3acturer ,u..lie, au9iliar0 CT, -it+ t+er4al rating 3actor, 5ar0ing
/et-een 1.$" and $.@6 de.ending on t+e ratio /eing u,ed.
Figure 2
SIMPLIFIED EUI!ALENT CIRCUIT OF CT ON SECONDARY N TURN BASE
Figure " SIMPLIFIED EUI!ALENT CIRCUIT OF CT ON SECONDARY N TURN
BASE
Figure "
Figure # TYPICAL EXCITATION CUR!ES FOR MULTI$RATIO C %r K CLASS CURRENT
TRANSFORMERS WITH NON$GAPPED CORES
Figure #
Figure & TYPICAL O!ERCURRENT RATIO CUR!ES
Figure 'Figure &( Figure ')
NORMAL HYSTERESIS CUR!E
HYSTERESIS CUR!E WITH REMANENCE
Figure &)
HYSTERESIS CUR!E WITH REMANENCE
II. CURRENT TRANSFORMER BUREN
Internal Re,i,tance o3 CT
A. (eneral

T+e .er3or4ance o3 a current tran,3or4er u,ed in .rotecti5e rela0ing i, largel0 de.endent
on t+e total /urden or i4.edance in t+e ,econdar0 circuit o3 t+e current tran,3or4er. T+e
current tran,3or4er core 3lu9 den,it0 :and t+u, t+e a4ount o3 ,aturation; i, directl0
.ro.ortional to t+e 5oltage t+at t+e current tran,3or4er or ,econdar0 4u,t .roduce. So
3or a gi5en a4ount o3 ,econdar0 current6 t+e larger t+e /urden i4.edance /eco4e,6 t+e
greater i, t+e tendenc0 o3 t+e current tran,3or4er to ,aturate.
Ideall06 .rotecti5e rela0 ,0,te4, -ould ignore current tran,3or4er ,aturation. Ho-e5er6
t+at i, u,uall0 not .o,,i/leL ,o it /e+oo5e, t+e rela0 engineer to 4ini4iDe current
tran,3or4er /urden i4.edance. Manu3acturer,8 .u/lication, gi5e t+e /urden, o3
indi5idual rela0,6 4eter,6 and ot+er e>ui.4ent. Adding t+e re,i,tance o3 interconnecting
lead, and internal re,i,tance o3 t+e current tran,3or4er gi5e, t+e total current tran,3or4er
/urden.
In 4odern ,olid ,tate rela0, -it+ 5er0 ,4all /urden,6 t+e total rela0 /urden i, o3ten
do4inated /0 t+e lead i4.edance.
Su33icient accurac0 re,ult, i3 ,erie, /urden i4.edance, are added arit+4eticall0. T+e
re,ult, -ill /e ,lig+tl0 .e,,i4i,tic6 indicating ,lig+tl0 greater t+an actual CT ratio
inaccurac0. But6 i3 a gi5en a..lication i, ,o /orderline t+at 5ector addition o3 i4.edance
i, nece,,ar0 to .ro5e t+at t+e CT, -ill /e ,uita/le6 ,uc+ an a..lication ,+ould /e
a5oided.
T+e current tran,3or4er /urden i4.edance o3 4o,t electro4ec+anical rela0, decrea,e, a,
t+e ,econdar0 current increa,e, /ecau,e o3 ,aturation in t+e 4agnetic circuit, o3 t+e
de5ice,. T+ere3ore6 a gi5en /urden 4a0 a..l0 onl0 3or a .articular 5alue o3 current. I3 a
.u/lication doe, not clearl0 ,tate 3or -+at 5alue o3 current t+e /urden a..lie,6 t+i,
in3or4ation ,+ould /e re>ue,ted.
At +ig+ ,aturation6 t+e /urden i4.edance a..roac+e, it, C re,i,tance. T+i, e33ect i,
e9.loited in +ig+ i4.edance /u, di33erential rela0,. Neglecting t+e reduction in
i4.edance -it+ ,aturation .ro5ide, a >uic2 con,er5ati5e anal0,i,6 /ut an accurate
calculation 4a0 /e nece,,ar0 i3 t+e initial calculation indicate, 4arginal .er3or4ance.
B. E33ect o3 CT Connection,
T+e interconnection o3 t-o or 4ore current tran,3or4er, ,u..l0ing a co44on /urden
in3luence, t+e /urden ,een /0 eac+ indi5idual current tran,3or4er.
1+en current tran,3or4er .ri4arie, and ,econdarie, are connected in ,erie,6 t+e /urden
on eac+ indi5idual tran,3or4er i, decrea,ed in .ro.ortion to t+e nu4/er o3 current
tran,3or4er, in u,e.
1+en current tran,3or4er, are connected in .arallel t+e e33ect i, to increa,e t+e /urden
on eac+ indi5idual tran,3or4er. T+e a4ount o3 increa,e i, de.endent u.on t+e nu4/er o3
tran,3or4er, and t+e di,tri/ution o3 current /et-een t+e tran,3or4er,. T+i, i, t+e ca,e in
/rea2er and a +al36 ring6 and dou/le /u, arrange4ent,.
In t+ree .+a,e current tran,3or4er connection,6 t+e /urden on an indi5idual current
tran,3or4er can 5ar0 -it+ t+e t0.e o3 connection :-0e or delta; and t+e t0.e o3 3ault on
t+e ,0,te4 :1 or $Cline to ground or 4ultiC.+a,e;. T+e,e to.ic, -ill /e di,cu,,ed 3urt+er
in Section #..
C. E33ect o3 Au9iliar0 CT,
Be-are o3 atte4.t, to J,te.Cu.J current 3ro4 t+e 4ain CT to t+e rela0 -it+ t+e u,e o3 an
au9iliar0 CT. T+e au9iliar0 CT 4a0 /e ade>uate6 /ut re4e4/er t+e 4ain CT -ill ,ee t+e
/urden i4.edance 4ulti.lied /0 t+e au9iliar0 ratio ,>uared.
III. ESTIMATES OF CT TRANSIENT PERFORMANCE
T+e .ri4ar0 3ault current in t+e .o-er ,0,te4 i, ,044etrical onl0 a3ter t+e tran,ient, o3 t+e
.redo4inantl0 RCL circuit +a5e deca0ed to Dero. Con,idering t+e -or,t ca,e condition, o3
,-itc+ing angle and .o-er 3actor t+at .roduce t+e +ig+e,t o33,et6 t+e 3ault current i, o3 t+e
3or4M
N
t
e C t; : co, O I8 ; :
; GL C:R
1 1
* t I
-+ere I8 i, t+e .ea2 5alue o3 t+e ,044etrical -a5e6
R1
R
1
t+e re,i,tance and
Ll
L
1
t+e
inductance o3 t+e entire .ri4ar0 circuit. T+i, i,A ti4e re,.on,e .lot i, ,+o-n in Figure
*Figure E.
T+e e9.onential .ortion o3 t+i, -a5e i, a +ig+ .ea2 nonCdirectional or C co4.onent6 and
i, re,.on,i/le 3or ,aturation o3 CT, -+en it i, .re,ent. T+i, i, /ecau,e t+e C co4.onent
cau,e, t+e 3lu9 in t+e CT core to e9ceed t+e ,aturation le5el 5er0 ea,il0. T+e e9.ected 3lu9
and e33ect, on CT .er3or4ance are illu,trated in 3igure, I6 HA and HB.
In 4o,t a..lication,6 t+e ,aturation o3 t+e CT /0 t+e AC co4.onent i, a5oided /0 .ro.erl0
,electing t+e turn, ratio6 /urden6 and CT accurac0 cla,,. A, long a, t+e .roduct o3 e9.ected
,econdar0 current and /urden i4.edance doe, not e9ceed t+e ,aturation or 2nee .oint
5oltage o3 t+e CT6 t+en t+e CT .er3or4ance -ill /e ,ati,3actor0 on t+e AC co4.onent.
Figure 1@Figure H de3ine, ,aturation 5oltage on a t0.ical CT ,econdar0 e9citation cur5e.
I3 ,aturation i, to /e a5oided on t+e C co4.onent a, -ell a, t+e AC co4.onent6 t+en 5er0
,e5ere re>uire4ent, are i4.o,ed on t+e CT t+at 4an0 ti4e, are i4.ractical or i4.o,,i/le to
,ati,30. A ,i4.li3ied anal0,i, o3 t+e ,econdar0 5oltage re>uire4ent, ,+o-, t+at t+e
a5aila/le 5oltage 4u,t /e
; G 1 : R L +
:1 P 1L
1
GR
1
; ti4e, t+e 5oltage re>uired 3or t+e AC
co4.onent. In t+e -or,t ca,e t+i, re>uire4ent 4a0 not /e attaina/le.
O/5iou,l0 t+e .o,,i/ilit0 o3 ,aturation ,+ould /e 2no-n and a5oided i3 .o,,i/le /0 de,ign
and o.eration o3 t+e CTGrela0 co4/ination.
T+e IEEE Po-er S0,te4, Rela0ing Co44ittee .roduced a re.ort on tran,ient .er3or4ance
o3 current tran,3or4er, in 1H*E. T+e re.ort titled JTran,ient Re,.on,e o3 Current
Tran,3or4er,J. Pu/lication *ECH11!C% P1R contain, 5er0 u,e3ul di,cu,,ion and cur5e,
3ro4 -+ic+ t+e ti4e to ,aturation can /e e,ti4ated. In t+i, ,ection -e .re,ent a 4et+od t+at
.er4it, direct calculation o3 t+e ti4e to ,aturation.
Certain ,0,te46 CT6 and rela0 .ara4eter, 4u,t /e deter4ined /e3ore t+e cur5e, or
e>uation, can /e u,ed. T+e,e are a, 3ollo-,M
A+ K
,
- S(.ur(.i%/ 0(1.%r+
T+i, i, t+e ratio o3 t+e ,aturation 5oltage :Figure 1@Figure H; to t+e 5oltage deter4ined
/0 t+e .roduct o3 t+e e9.ected ,044etrical ,econdar0 current and t+e total ,econdar0
/urden i4.edance.

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?
,
Q #
9
GO:I1GN$;R$N K
1+ereM
#
9)
Q ,aturation 5oltage o3 CT.
I1
1
Q ,044etrical .ri4ar0 current.
N$
$
Q ,econdar0 turn, o3 CT.
R$
$
Q total ,econdar0 /urden o3 CT.
T+i, 3actor i, a 4ea,ure o3 t+e 4argin t+at e9i,t, /et-een t+e a5aila/le 5oltage and t+e
5oltage nece,,ar0 to re.roduce t+e 4a9i4u4 ,044etrical .ri4ar0 current in t+e
,econdar0 /urden circuit.
B+ T
1
- 2ri3(r4 ,4,.e3 .i3e 1%/,.(/.+
T+i, ti4e con,tant in3luence, t+e core 3lu9Cti4e relation,+i., and i, t+e .ri4ar0
deter4inant o3 t+e ti4e it ta2e, t+e core 3lu9 to reac+ ,aturation.

1
1
1
R
X
T ,econd,
T1 Q )1G:R1-; ,econd,
1+ere
)1
)
1
Q reactance o3 t+e .ri4ar0 ,0,te4 to t+e .oint o3 3ault6

1 1
X L
- L1 Q )1.
R1
1
Q rRe,i,tance o3 t+e .ri4ar0 ,0,te4 to t+e .oint o3 3ault.
- Q !**
!**
at E@ HD
C+
T
2
- Curre/. .r(/,0%r3er ,e1%/5(r4 .i3e 1%/,.(/.+ T+i, ti4e con,tant al,o in3luence, t+e
core 3lu9Cti4e relation,+i. and i, 4o,t i4.ortant in deter4ining t+e ti4e 3or t+e 3lu9 to
return to and /elo- ,aturation le5el a, t+e C co4.onent deca0,.

( )
$
$ $
$
R
M L
T
+

,econd,
T$ Q :L$P M$;GR
$
,econd,
1+ereM
L
$$
Q /urden inductance i3 an0.
M
$$
Q CT inductance.
R
$$
Q re,i,tance o3 total ,econdar0 /urden circuit :rela0 P lead, P CT -inding;.
In 4o,t ca,e, t+e /urden inductance i, negligi/le and t+e CT inductance i, t+e e>ui5alent
e9citing inductance6 deter4ined 3ro4 t+e ,econdar0 e9citation cur5e at t+e .oint o3
4a9i4u4 .er4ea/ilit0 :,ee Figure 1@Figure H;L t+u,M T$ Q #eG:Ie R$-;
( )
$ $
R I V T
e e

1it+ t+e,e t+ree .ara4eter,6 t+e cur5e, in t+e IEEE re.ort can /e u,ed to deter4ine t+e
ti4e to ,aturation o3 t+e CT.
A, an alternati5e6 u,ing e>uation, deri5ed 3ro4 t+e re,ult, o3 t+e IEEE re.ort and 3ro4
ot+er re3erence,6 t+e ti4e to ,aturation and t+e ti4e to e9it 3ro4 ,aturation can /e
calculated.
T+e,e gi5e re,ult, in clo,e agree4ent -it+ t+e cur5e, in t+e IEEE re.ort.
t, t
S
Q tTi4e to ,aturation in ,econd,
t
S
Q
1
]
1

,
_

1
1
1
1 ln
T
K
T
s
1
]
1

,
_



R 1 T
1 ?,
1 n 1 1 T
t
e
te Q ti4e to e9it 3ro4 ,aturation in ,econd,.
t
e
Q
,
_

S
K
T
T
$
1
ln

Ti Oln:RT
$
G?
,
;N
Anot+er u,e3ul e>uation can /e de5elo.ed /0 ,ol5ing t+e 3ir,t e>uation 3or ?
,
t+u,M

1
1
1
1
1
+

,
_

T
e
K
T
t
S
S

1
T
1
e 1
?,
1
1
T
Ct,

+
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
]
1

*
I3 -e no- a,,u4e t
,
goe, to in3init06 t+at i, ,aturation doe, not occur6 t+en -e can
deter4ine t+e 5alue 3or ?
,
re>uired to acco44odate t+e ,044etrical and C co4.onent,
and not ,aturate.
t+en 1
1
+ T K
S
?
,
Q R

T1 P 1
Co4/ining t+i, e>uation -it+ t+e de3inition o3 ?
,
in ,ection AM
( )
$ $ 1
N R I V K
k S
1
1
+ T L and ,ol5ing 3or #
2
?
,
Q #
2
G:I1 R$GN$; Q R T1 P 1L and ,ol5ing 3or #
2
6
t+en
( ) ( ) 1
1 $ $ 1
+ T N R I V
k

#
2
Q :I1 R$GN$; :R T1 P 1;.
T+i, e>uation 3or #
2
indicate, t+at i3 ,aturation i, to /e a5oided -+en t+e C co4.onent
i, .re,ent6 t+en #
2
:t+e 2nee .oint 5oltage; 4u,t /e ( ) 1
1
+ T :R T1 P 1; ti4e, t+e
,tead0 ,tate 5oltage re>uire4ent ( )
$ $ 1
N R I
I1 R$GN$. T+i, 4a0 /e >uite +ig+ and i4.o,,i/le to .ro5ide.
Figure &
Figure 6 PRIMARY CURRENT WA!ES
Figure '
Figure 7 RISE OF FLUX IN THE CORE OF A CURRENT TRANSFORMER
Figure 8Figure 7( DISTORTION IN SECONDARY CURRENT DUE TO SATURATION
Figure 6
Figure 8Figure 7) DISTORTION IN SECONDARY CURRENT DUE TO SATURATION
Figure 7
Figure 19 SECONDARY EXCITATION CUR!E 2"9$:!K; CURRENT
TRANSFORMER
RATIO< 1299$& AMPERES
FREUENCY< '&9 H=
I#.
I. PERFORMANCE RE&UIREMENTS OF CURRENT TRANSFORMERS FOR
RELA'IN( PURPOSES
A. i,tri/ution Feeder,6 P+a,e and (round O5ercurrent
Current tran,3or4er, -+ic+ o.erate t+e ti4e o5ercurrent rela0, u,ed 3or 3eeder
.rotection6 u,uall0 -ill -ill t0.icall0 .ro5ide ,ati,3actor0 .rotection i3 t+e0 4eet or
e9ceed t+e a..lica/le ANSI ,tandard. For ,-itc+ gear 5oltage cla,,e, I.$" t+roug+
%!.I2# :-+ere 4o,t di,tri/ution circuit, lie;6 t+e accurac0 cla,,e, are a, 3ollo-,M
:1;
Mu>.i$R(.i%
Curre/.
Tr(/,0%r3er,
A11ur(14
!%>.(ge
C>(,,e,
E@@M" C1@@
1$@@M" C$@@
$@@@M"6 !@@@M" C%@@
%@@@M"6 "@@@M" CI@@
MultiCRatio Accurac0
Current #oltage
Tran,3or4er, Cla,,e,
E@@M" C1@@
1$@@M" C$@@
$@@@M"6 !@@@M" C%@@
%@@@M"6 "@@@M" CI@@
T+e current tran,3or4er .ri4ar0 ratio nor4all0 corre,.ond, to t+e continuou, current
rating o3 t+e circuit /rea2er :e9ce.t t+at I@@ and 1E@@ a4. PCB, u,e 1$@@ and $@@@ a4.
current tran,3or4er,;.
T+e CT ratio i, u,uall0 c+o,en ,o t+at a..ro9i4atel0 " a4.ere, 3lo- in t+e ,econdar0
.+a,e rela0, 3or 3ull load in t+e .ri4ar0. 1+ere " a4. 4eter, are u,ed in rela0 circuit,6 a
+ig+er ratio 4a0 /e c+o,en to .er4it o5erload reading, on t+e 3eeder circuit. Al,o6 t+e
+ig+er ratio 4a0 /e nece,,ar0 or de,ira/le to 4ini4iDe t+e ,econdar0 current during 3ault
condition,.
Since o5ercurrent rela0, +a5e a -ide range o3 ta.,6 t+e actual CT ratio i, u,uall0 not
critical. Ho-e5er6 u,ing +ig+er ratio 4a0 li4it t+e .ri4ar0 ,en,iti5it0 o3 ground
rela0ing.
In in,tallation,6 -+ere 5er0 +ig+ 3ault current, are a5aila/le6 care ,+ould /e e9erci,ed not
to e9ceed t+e ,+ort ti4e :one ,econd; rating o3 de5ice, connected to t+e ,econdar0.
Anot+er .o,,i/le .ro/le4 -it+ +ig+ 3ault current, i, ,e5ere ,aturation o3 t+e CT core6
re,ulting in 5er0 +ig+ 5oltage .ea2, or ,.i2e,. I3 t+e CT /urden i, +ig+ and t+e .ri4ar0
current i, 4an0 ti4e, t+e CT8, continuou, rating6 it i, .o,,i/le to de5elo. 5oltage ,.i2e,
o3 ,u33icient 4agnitude to da4age CT in,ulation or ,-itc+ gear ,econdar0 -iring.
:$;
Al,o6 -+en t+e ,econdar0 current i, 5er0 di,torted6 t+e induction di,2 ele4ent o3 an
o5ercurrent rela0 -ill de5iate 3ro4 t+e .u/li,+ed ti4e cur5e.
:!;
T+e .re,ence o3 t+e C
co4.onent o3 an o33,et -a5e not onl0 cau,e, ,aturation o3 t+e CT /ut al,o 4u,t /e
con,idered -+en ,etting +inged ar4ature in,tantaneou, tri. attac+4ent,.
eter4ining CT .er3or4ance re>uire, t+e e9citation cur5e6 t+e i4.edance o3 t+e
,econdar0 connected de5ice, and ,econdar0 -iring and t+e re,i,tance, o3 t+e ,econdar0
CT turn,. T+e i4.edance o3 t+e 4eter, and rela0, -ill 5ar0 -it+ t+e a4ount o3 current
/ecau,e t+eir 4agnetic circuit, ,aturate at +ig+ current,. Neglecting t+i, ,aturation -ill
0ield o.ti4i,tic re,ult, -+en c+ec2ing t+er4al condition, /ut .e,,i4i,tic re,ult, 3or
accurac0 calculation,. At 5er0 +ig+ current,6 :$@ ti4e, nor4al;6 4o,t ,econdar0 /urden,
/eco4e ,o ,aturated t+e0 are .redo4inantl0 re,i,ti5e.
On 4ultiCgrounded %C-ire di,tri/ution circuit,6 t+e ground rela0 ,etting i, u,uall0 2e.t at
a relati5el0 +ig+ 5alue /0 t+e un/alanced load 3lo-ing in t+e neutral. 1+ere ,en,iti5e
ground rela0 ,etting, are de,ired6 care 4u,t /e e9erci,ed to a,,ure t+at t+e +ig+ /urden
introduced /0 a 5er0 ,en,iti5e re,idual rela0 doe, not dri5e a .oor >ualit0 current
tran,3or4er into ,aturation. Al,o6 a, ,+o-n in t+e calculation ,ection6 t+e i4.edance o3
t+e ground rela0 a33ect, t+e di,tri/ution o3 ,econdar0 current and t+ere/0 a33ect, t+e
.ri4ar0 ,en,iti5it0 o3 t+e ground rela0ing.
B.
i33erentiall0 Connected CT8, 3or Bu,e,6 Tran,3or4er, and (enerator,
i33erentiall0 connected current tran,3or4er, 3or e>ui.4ent .rotection .roduce, t+e
4o,t ,e5ere te,t o3 current tran,3or4er .er3or4ance. T+i, i, /ecau,e ,en,iti5it0 and
,.eed o3 o.eration o3 t+e rela0 i, 5er0 i4.ortant.
In 4o,t rela0 ,c+e4e, -+ere current tran,3or4er, are di33erentiall0 connected6 t+e 4o,t
i4.ortant con,ideration i, t+at t+e e9citation c+aracteri,tic, o3 all current tran,3or4er,
are -ell 4atc+ed. T+i, doe, not al-a0, en,ure .ro.er o.eration /ut it allo-, 4uc+
ea,ier and de.enda/le calculation o3 .er3or4ance.
T+e .ri4ar0 current 3lo- on eac+ o3 t+e current tran,3or4er, t+at are .aralleled andGor
di33erentiall0 connected can /e 5a,tl0 di33erent and t+ere/0 t+e .er3or4ance calculation
i, 5er0 di33icult. Modern /u, .rotection can /e ,u/di5ided into t+ree 4ain categorie,M
Hig+ I4.edance O5erC5oltage Rela0,6 Lo- I4.edance O5ercurrent Rela0,6 and Mediu4
I4.edance Percentage Re,traint Rela0,.
1. Hig+ I4.edance i33erentiall0 Connected Bu, Protection Rela0,
Since it, introduction in t+e 4idC1H"@8, +ig+ i4.edance rela0, +a5e do4inated
t+e /u, .rotection .ractice, in t+e U.S. 1+en .ro.erl0 a..lied6 t+e0 are
de.enda/le and ,ecure.
T+e /a,ic ,etting 3or t+e .ic2Cu. o3 a +ig+ i4.edance rela0 i, 4ade ,o t+at t+e rela0
-ill not o.erate 3or a near/0 e9ternal 3ault -it+ t+e CT on t+e 3aulted circuit
co4.letel0 ,aturated6 -+ile t+e re4aining CT, are not ,aturated at all. T+e re,ulting
5oltage6 de5elo.ed /0 t+e good CT,6 4u,t 3orce current t+roug+ t+e i4.edance o3 t+e
,aturated CT and lead, -it+out e9ceeding t+e 5oltage .ic2u. ,etting o3 t+e rela06 .lu,
t+e ,a3et0 3actor. T+i, calculation i, onl0 5alid i3 all CT, are -ound on toroidal core,
and +a5e t+eir -inding, co4.letel0 di,tri/uted around t+eir core,.
T+e ,econdar0 -iring re,i,tance6 including t+e CT ,econdar0 -inding6 i, critical in
deter4ining t+e rela0 .ic2u. ,etting. O/5iou,l0 a CT -it+ an unu,uall0 +ig+ -inding
re,i,tance -ill li4it t+e ,en,iti5it0 o3 t+e rela0 .rotection 3or t+e -+ole /u,.
I3 one or 4ore CT, +a5e an o5erall ratio t+at di33er, 3ro4 t+e re,t o3 t+e CT, on t+e
/u,6 t+ere i, a te4.tation to 4erel0 connect t+e co44on ratio, in .arallel. On
e9ternal 3ault,6 t+e +ig+ /urden o3 t+e rela0 -ill re,ult in t+e de,ign 5oltage acro,, t+e
CT ta. u,ed. Ho-e5er6 /0 autoCtran,3or4er action6 a +ig+er 5oltage -ill a..ear
acro,, t+e 3ull CT -inding. T+i, +ig+er 5oltage 4a0 e9ceed t+e ca.a/ilit0 o3 t+e
circuit in,ulation.
Se5eral .o,,i/le ,olution, 3or t+e .ro/le4 -+ere t+e o5erall ratio, di33er are ,+o-n
/elo-M
:T+e reader i, cautioned t+at 4o,t o3 t+e,e ,olution, :e9ce.t Solution S1; are >uite
co4.le9 in t+eir a..lication. T+e (eneral Electric .u/lication entitled6 JBu, i33erential
Protection6 (ETCE%""J
:1!;
,+ould /e re3erred to 3or ,.ecial cur5e, and 3or4ulae needed to
4a2e t+e .ro.er ,etting,.;
SOLUTION S olution S1
T+e /e,t ,olution i, to 4a2e all CT ratio, t+e ,a4e /0 retro3itting t+e o33ending /rea2er,
-it+ ,li.Con CT, o3 t+e .ro.er ratio.
S olution OLUTION S$
T+e rela0, 4o,t co44onl0 u,ed +a5e 3our t+0rite :or 5ari,tor; nonClinear 5oltage
de.endent re,i,tor di,2, connected in ,erie,6 t+en in .arallel -it+ t+e rela0. T+e,e
re,i,tor, li4it t+e 5oltage -+ic+ a..ear, acro,, t+e CT circuit, 3or t+e 3ir,t c0cle :or until
t+e au9iliar0 rela0 +a, ,+orted t+e CT lead,;. Since t+e a4ount o3 5oltage -+ic+ can
a..ear i, a 3unction o3 t+e total rela0 current and t+e re,i,tance o3 t+e 5oltage de.endent
re,i,tor6 reducing t+e a4ount o3 re,i,tance -ill li4it t+e .ea2 5oltage. U,ing t-o di,2,
in ,erie, in,tead o3 t+e u,ual 3our -ill cut t+e .ea2 5oltage in +al3.
Ho-e5er6 t+e energ0 di,,i.ated in eac+ di,2 i, a 3unction o3 t+e current t+roug+ t+e di,2
and t+e 5oltage dro. acro,, it ,o it i, u,uall0 nece,,ar0 to add a ,econd .air o3 t-o di,2,
in ,erie, in .arallel -it+ t+e 3ir,t .air to +andle t+e e9tra energ0.
Since t+e in,tantaneou, or +ig+ current tri..ing rela0 i, in ,erie, -it+ t+e 5oltage
de.endent re,i,tor di,26 it, .ic2u. increa,e, dra4aticall0. A t0.ical c+ange in .ic2u.
,etting 4ig+t /e 3ro4 !A to "@A.
Solution S!
T+i, a..roac+ i, to 4atc+ t+e +ig+er CT ratio -it+ t+e lo-er one -it+ a ,.ecial
au9iliar0 CT. T+i, au9iliar0 CT 4u,t +a5e di,tri/uted -inding, on a toroidal core :a
/u,+ing CT;. :Ne5er tr0 to u,e an ordinar0 au9iliar0 CT in a current or 5oltage /u,
di33erential circuit.;
A 5ariation o3 t+i, 4et+od i, to u,e one o3 t+e +ig+er ratio CT, on one o3 t+e .o-er
circuit /rea2er, 3or dou/le dut0 :au9iliar0 CT and /u, di33erential CT;. T+e
di,ad5antage, o3 t+i, ,c+e4e i, t+at -+en t+e PCB -it+ t+e +ig+er ratio i, re4o5ed
3ro4 ,er5ice6 t+e /u, .rotection 4u,t /e re4o5ed 3ro4 ,er5ice.
Solution S%
T+i, ,olution re4o5e, t+e concern a/out re4o5ing t+e critical 4atc+ing CT 3ro4 ,er5ice6
/ut t+e di33icult0 o3 deter4ining t+e CT ,econdar0 current di,tri/ution in t+e CT
connection, o3 t+e 1$@@M" CT, li4it, it, a..lication.
Solution S"
T+i, ,olution .re,ent, a +aDard to e>ui.4ent and .er,onnel /ecau,e o3 t+e +ig+ 5oltage
t+at 4a0 /e generated. It re>uire, t+e calculation o3 t+e 5oltage de5elo.ed /0 +ig+e,t
ratio CT -+en connected a, de,cri/ed a/o5e. T+e .ea2 5oltage de5elo.ed 4u,t /e le,,
t+an t+e circuit in,ulation rating :1"@@ 5olt, RMS; /0 an a..ro.riate ,a3et0 3actor6 and
t+e ta..ed 5oltage 4u,t /e enoug+ to ,ati,30 t+e rela0 4anu3acturer8, ,etting in,truction.
E9tra t+0ri,tor,G5ari,tor, 4a0 /e re>uired in t+e rela06 or acro,, t+e unu,ed .ortion o3 t+e
CT:,;.
$. Lo- I4.edance i33erentiall0 Connected Bu, Protection Rela0,
O5ercurrent rela0, +a5e /een connected in /u, di33erential circuit, -it+ 5ar0ing
degree, o3 ,ucce,, 3or o5er "@ 0ear,. A 3e- Jrule, o3 t+u4/J 3or t+eir a..lication
areM
a. U,e t+e +ig+e,t a5aila/le CT ratio,. :T+e 4a9i4u4 t+roug+ 3ault current ,+ould
not e9ceed $@ ti4e, t+e CT rating.;
:$;
/. Ne5er u,e an ordinar0 au9iliar0 CT. I3 an au9iliar0 CT 4u,t /e u,ed6 u,e a
toroidal t0.e :/u,+ing CT; -it+ a di,tri/uted -inding.
c. Ne5er u,e an o5ercurrent di33erentiall0Cconnected rela0 near a generating ,tation
or -+ere +ig+ )GR ratio, e9i,t ,ince t+e ti4e con,tant at t+e,e location, -ill
.roduce 5er0 ,e5ere CT ,aturation .ro/le4,.
d. Ne5er u,e .lunger t0.e or +inged ar4ature in,tantaneou, rela0, -it+out ti4e
dela0 in t+i, t0.e o3 circuit unle,, t+e0 are ,et 5er0 +ig+. T+e0 o.erate too 3a,t
and o.erate e>uall0 -ell on C. :T+e0 4a0 /e u,e3ul6 +o-e5er6 -+en u,ed in
conFunction -it+ induction di,2 o5ercurrent rela0,. I3 t+e in,tantaneou, unit i,
,et 3or t+e ,a4e .ic2u. a, t+e ti4e unit -it+ t+e contact, connected in ,erie,6 /0
dro..ing out 3a,ter6 it .re5ent, t+e ti4e unit 3ro4 3al,e tri..ing /0 coa,ting
clo,ed a3ter t+e error current i, gone. T+i, a,,u4e, t+at t+e dro. out o3 t+e
in,tantaneou, de5ice +a, not /een e9tended /0 t+e C co4.onent o3 an o33,et
-a5e.;
e. Ne5er u,e on /u,e, t+at +a5e 4ore t+an t+ree or 3our ,ource, o3 3ault current.
T+e current tran,3or4er on t+e 3aulted line -ill .ro/a/l0 ,aturate ,o ,e5erel0 t+at
t+e error current -ill cau,e t+e rela0 to tri. 3or t+roug+ 3ault,.
3. A ,ta/iliDing re,i,tor can /e 5er0 u,e3ul in i4.ro5ing t+e ,ecurit0 o3 an
o5ercurrent rela0 in a di33erential circuit.
:See e9a4.le in calculation ,ection;
:$; :E;
!. Mediu4 Hig+ I4.edance Percentage Re,traint i33erential Rela0,
T+e a/o5e rela0 -a, introduced in t+e U.S. a/out 1H*@. It 5iolate, 4o,t o3 t+e
a..lication rule,6 noted a/o5e6 3or ot+er /u, di33erential rela0, in t+at it doe, not
re>uire current tran,3or4er, -it+ ,i4ilar c+aracteri,tic, or e5en t+e ,a4e ratio. T+e
rela0 u,e, recti30ing diode, to ,u4 t+e total o3 t+e ,econdar0 current, 3or u,e a,
re,traint. T+e di33erential current -+ic+ 3lo-, i, 4atc+ed again,t t+i, re,traint and
u,ed to o.erate a 1 to $ 4illi,econd tri..ing rela0. T+e rela0 i, de,igned to re,.ond
to t+e out.ut o3 t+e current tran,3or4er, /e3ore t+e0 ,aturate and to reFect 3al,e
in3or4ation a3ter ,aturation. T+u,6 t+e rela0 doe, not re>uire 4atc+ed CT
c+aracteri,tic, or ratio,6 lo- lea2age reactance, or lo- ,econdar0 circuit re,i,tance.
T+e +ig+ li4it, o3 4a9i4u4 internal or e9ternal 3ault current,6 and t+e +ig+
,en,iti5it0 3or internal 3ault, e5en -it+ an e9tre4e u4/er o3 ,ource, to t+e /u,6 4a2e
t+i, rela0 ea,0 to a..l0.
Ho-e5er it i, trou/le,o4e and e9.en,i5e to /ring t+e ,econdarie, o3 all o3 t+e PCB
CT, into t+e rela0 +ou,e in,tead o3 .aralleling t+e4 in t+e 3ield. Since t+e rela0
o.erate, on 1 a4.ere6 au9iliar0 CT, are u,uall0 re>uired 3or all o3 t+e CT,. T+i, i,
al,o e9.en,i5e and con,u4e, 4uc+ ,.ace.
%. Tran,3or4er i33erential Rela0ing
Current tran,3or4er, u,ed 3or tran,3or4er di33erential rela0ing are ,u/Fect to ,e5eral
3actor, t+at are not ordinaril0 .re,ent -it+ ot+er 3or4, o3 di33erential .rotection.
Follo-ing are a..lication .rinci.le, .ertaining to electro4ec+anical rela0,6 -it+
co44ent, a..ro.riate to ,olid ,tate rela0, incor.orated.
a. Becau,e o3 t+e current tran,3or4ation /0 t+e .o-er /an26 t+e CT ratio, 4u,t /e
di33erent to co4.en,ate 3or t+e di33erent .ri4ar0 current,. 1+ile 4an0 CT ta.,
and rela0 ta., are a5aila/le6 t+e0 ,eldo4 4a2e a .er3ect 4atc+. T+i,6 o3 cour,e6
re,ult, in error current in t+e rela0. I3 t+e tran,3or4er +a, a load ta. c+anger6 t+i,
error -ill c+ange -it+ t+e ta. .o,ition.
/. Since t+e .o-er circuit /rea2er, on t+e +ig+ and lo- ,ide o3 t+e .o-er
tran,3or4er are ,eldo4 o3 t+e ,a4e 5oltage cla,,6 t+e CT, a,,ociated -it+ t+e4
+a5e di33erent c+aracteri,tic, and o3ten di33erent accurac0 cla,,e,.
c.
d. T+e .o-er tran,3or4er +a, a !@K .+a,e ,+i3t i3 it i, connected -0eCdelta or deltaC
-0e. T+i, re>uire, t+e CT to /e connected deltaC-0e :or -0eCdelta; to ,+i3t t+e
,econdar0 current, into .+a,e ,o t+at t+e0 4a0 /e co4.ared in t+e rela0.
e. A .o-er tran,3or4er connected deltaC-0e grounded /eco4e, a ,ource o3 Dero
,e>uence current, 3or e9ternal 3ault, on t+e -0e ,ide6 ,o t+e,e current, 4u,t /e
eli4inated 3ro4 t+e rela0 ,econdar0 circuit,.
3. 1+en a .o-er tran,3or4er i, energiDed6 4agnetic inCru,+ current, a..ear in t+e
.ri4ar0 circuit. T+e,e current, are o3ten 4an0 ti4e, t+e 3ullCload rating and are
,een /0 t+e rela0 a, internal 3ault,.
A, -it+ ot+er 3or4, o3 di33erential .rotection6 tran,3or4er, -ere originall0 .rotected
-it+ ordinar0 o5ercurrent rela0, connected di33erentiall0. T+e0 +ad to /e 4ade >uite
,lo- and in,en,iti5e to o5erco4e t+e .ro/le4, 4entioned a/o5e. Modern rela0, u,e
.ercentage re,traint to ta2e care o3 t+e 3ir,t t+ree .ro/le4, :noted a/o5e;6 and
+ar4onic re,traint or +ar4onic /loc2ing 3or t+e inCru,+ current .ro/le4,.
". Internal Fault,
Fault, -+ic+ occur -it+in t+e .rotected Done o3 t+e di33erential rela0 -ill o3ten re,ult
in 5er0 ,e5ere ,aturation o3 at lea,t ,o4e o3 t+e CT,. T+i, i, o3 little con,e>uence
unle,, t+e +ig+ +ar4onic content o3 t+e CT ,econdar0 current /loc2, t+e o.eration o3
t+e di33erential rela0.
A ,aturated CT .roduce, a +ig+l0 di,torted current. Second and t+ird +ar4onic,
.redo4inate initiall06 and eac+ 4a0 /e greater t+an t+e 3unda4ental. E5entuall0 t+e
e5en +ar4onic, -ill di,a..ear. T+e odd +ar4onic, -ill .er,i,t a, long a, t+e CT
re4ain, ,aturated. For t+e,e rea,on,6 a +ig+ ,et in,tantaneou, unit ,+ould /e included
in t+e di33erential circuit o3 +ar4onic re,trained rela0, t+at -ill tri. in ,.ite o3 an0
+ar4onic,.
E. E9ternal Fault,
I3 onl0 one PCB6 +ence6 one CT i, u,ed at eac+ 5oltage le5el6 t+e t+roug+ 3ault
current i, li4ited /0 t+e .o-er tran,3or4er i4.edance and all o3 t+e ,econdar0
current 3lo-, t+roug+ t+e re,traint -inding, o3 t+e di33erential rela0. I3 t-o PCB,
are u,ed at one 5oltage le5el6 ,uc+ a, -it+ a ring /u,6 /rea2erCandCa +al36 or dou/leC
/u,Cdou/leC/rea2er6 t+e ,+ort circuit current i, not li4ited /0 t+e .o-er tran,3or4er
i4.edance -+en it 3lo-, t+roug+ t+e,e PCB,. I3 t+e CT, are 4erel0 .aralleled6 t+e0
can ,aturate une>uall0 and .roduce error current, t+at 4a0 cau,e an incorrect
o.eration. I3 a ring /u, or /rea2erCandC aC+al3 ,c+e4e i, in5ol5ed6 t+e c+ance, o3
t+i, t0.e o3 t+roug+ 3ault occurring i, +ig+ enoug+ t+at eac+ CT ,+ould /e connected
to it, o-n re,traint -inding. I3 t+e PCB, are .art o3 a dou/leC/u,C,c+e4e6 t+e
c+ance, o3 t+i, t+roug+ current 3lo-ing are re4ote.
T-o PCB, -it+ .aralleled CT, al,o 4a0 .re,ent .ro/le4, -it+ ,ecurit0 3or
t+roug+ 3ault, on t+e lo- ,ide o3 t+e tran,3or4er /ecau,e t+e error current o3 t+e
e9i,ting CT, i, dou/led.
Current tran,3or4er, connected in delta al,o 4a0 cau,e .ro/le4, -it+ ,ecurit0 3or
t+roug+ 3ault, /ecau,e t+e current tran,3or4er 4u,t circulate current t+roug+ t-o
rela0, and lead /urden, 3or ,o4e 3ault,. :See ,a4.le .ro/le4.;
C. irectional O5ercurrent and i,tance
T+e general re>uire4ent, o3 4ini4iDing t+e /urden .laced u.on current tran,3or4er
,econdarie, a..lie, to directional o5ercurrent and di,tance rela0, a, -ell. U,ing
ade>uate CT ,econdar0 lead conductor ,iDe,6 u,ing +ig+er CT ratio,6 +ig+er o5ercurrent
rela0 ta., -+en .o,,i/le :,ince t+e rela0 /urden i, in5er,el0 .ro.ortional to rela0 ta.
,>uared;6 and ta2ing care in .aralleling ,e5eral CT .olariDing ,ource, 3or u,e -it+
directional ele4ent,
:1;6 :";
are Fu,t a 3e- e9a4.le, o3 t+e area, o3 concern -+en a..l0ing
t+e,e rela0,. E5en -+en t+e,e .recaution, are ta2en6 rela0 circuit, 4a0 /e e9.o,ed to
tran,ient :ac and dc; and +ar4onic current -a5e3or4, cau,ed /0 CT ,aturation e33ect,.
T+e e33ect, on t+e di33erent t0.e, o3 rela0, -ill de.end u.on t+e ,.eci3ic rela0 de,ign
u,ed.
1. irectional Ele4ent,
T+e directional ele4ent, u,ed in rela0, o3ten utiliDe a J.olariDingJ 5oltage or current
,ource to e,ta/li,+ a re3erence .+a,or relation,+i. /et-een t+e Jo.eratingJ
:4onitored .o-er ,0,te4; ,econdar0 current and t+e .olariDing ,ource 5alue. T+i,
.+a,or relation,+i. e,ta/li,+e, an o.erating tor>ue :in an electro4ec+anical de,ign;
or digital ,ignal :in a ,olid ,tate de,ign; 3or 3ault, in t+e .rotected Done.
CT ,aturation can cau,e .+a,e ,+i3t, and +ar4onic, in 6t+e o.erating current ,ource
t+at are di33erent t+an -+at 4a0 /e generated in t+e .olariDing 5oltage or current
,ource. For e9a4.le6 induction cu. electro4ec+anical rela0, tend to /e 3re>uenc0
de.endentL o.erating tor>ue i, created onl0 3or li2eC3re>uenc0 o.erating and
.olariDing -a5e3or4, :e.g. t+e 3unda4ental 3re>uenc0 -a5e3or4,8 .+a,e angle, are
co4.ared;
:$;
.

T+ere3ore6 t+e relati5e .+a,e ,+i3t /et-een t+e co4.ared -a5e3or4,
4a0 le,,en t+e o.erating tor>ue 3or 3ault, in t+e .rotected Done. Under e9tre4e
ca,e,6 .+a,e ,+i3t, 4a0 e5en cau,e 3al,e o.eration 3or 3ault, in t+e re5er,e direction.
A, in electro4ec+anical rela0,6 ,olid ,tate rela0 de,ign, al,o 4a0 u,e a .olariDing
,ource in addition to an o.erating current. So4e de,ign, incor.orate -a5e3or4 DeroC
cro,,ing .oint, 3or .+a,e re3erence and t+ere3ore 4a0 /e ,u,ce.ti/le to .+a,e ,+i3t,
cau,ed /0 CT ,aturation e33ect. So4e ,tatic rela0, 4a0 /e +ig+er ,.eed :le,, t+an 1G$
c0cle o.erate ti4e; and lo-er /urden t+an t+eir electro4ec+anical counter.art,.
T+ere3ore6 de.ending u.on t+e CT8, ti4e to ,aturation :,ee Section III C JE,ti4ate, o3
CT Tran,ient Per3or4anceJ;6 ,olid ,tate rela0, 4a0 /e le,, li2el0 t+an
electro4ec+anical rela0, to o.erate :or not o.erate; incorrectl06 due to t+e 3act t+at
t+e ,tatic rela0, 4a0 +a5e co4.leted t+eir 4ea,ure4ent, .rior to CT ,aturation.
Man0 ,olid ,tate de,ign, 3ilter t+e in.ut -a5e3or4, and con,e>uentl0 are 3re>uenc0
de.endent6 a, -ell.
$. O5ercurrent Ele4ent,
T+e co44on electro4ec+anical induction di,2 de,ign, u,ed 3or ti4eCo5ercurrent
:TOC; c+aracteri,tic, 4ea,ure t+e r4, o.erating current. Under CT ,aturation
condition,6 t+e actual r4, 5alue o3 t+e rela0 current -ill /e le,, t+an under nonC
,aturated CT condition,. T+ere3ore6 t+e TOC rela0 ele4ent -ill ta2e longer to
o.erate t+an de,ired. Lo,, o3 rela0 coordination 4a0 re,ult 3ro4 t+i, dela06
e,.eciall0 -it+ t+e a..lication, u,ing 4ore in5er,e ti4eCo5ercurrent c+aracteri,tic
rela0,. Ti4e o5ercurrent rela0, t0.icall0 are not 5er0 ,u,ce.ti/le to do o33,et, due to
t+e 3act t+at do o33,et, u,uall0 +a5e died out -it+in t+e dela0 .eriod o3 t+e rela0.
In,tantaneou, o5ercurrent unit, :IOC; can /e 5er0 ,en,iti5e to do o33,et,. T+e do
o33,et, 4a0 cau,e +ig+ le5el tran,ient ,.i2e, in t+e rela0 current -+ic+ could cau,e
t+e IOC ele4ent to tri. 3or 3ault current le5el, /elo- it, ,etC.oint. Additionall06 3or
CT di,tortion o3 3ault current, near t+e in,tantaneou, .ic2 u. ,etting6 t+e
in,tantaneou, rela0 4a0 +a5e an unde,ira/le tri. dela0 :e.g.6 additional $@C$" 4, or
4ore;.
Solid ,tate rela0 de,ign, u,ing analog or digital tec+ni>ue, :,uc+ a, 4icro.roce,,or
/a,ed; -ill t0.icall0 3ilter t+e in.ut current -a5e3or4 to eli4inate dc o33,et,6
+ar4onic,6 etc. T+i, 4a0 alle5iate ,o4e o3 t+e .ro/le4, relating to t+e
in,tantaneou, ele4ent,. Ho-e5er6 t+e ti4e dela0 ele4ent,8 o.erating ti4e, 4a0
e9.erience t+e ,a4e t0.e o3 un.redicta/ilit06 lo-er ,en,iti5it06 and e9tra dela0 ti4e,
a, e9.erienced -it+ t+e electro4ec+anical de,ign,.
!. i,tance Rela0,
In general6 t+e reac+ o3 di,tance rela0, -ill /e a33ected /0 CT ,aturation. T+i, i, true
-+et+er t+e rela0 de,ign i, an electro4ec+anical de,ign utiliDing r4, current
4ea,ure4ent6 or a ,olid ,tate de,ign re3erencing .ea2 in,tantaneou, or r4, current
le5el, or 5ariou, co4/ination, o3 -a5e3or4 5alue, 3or 4ea,ure4ent. T+e di,tance
rela0 -ill /e de,en,itiDed 3or 3ault, near t+e end o3 it, Done6 ,en,ing t+e 3ault a, /eing
3urt+er a-a0 t+an it actuall0 i,6 /a,ed u.on t+e reduced current, .roduced 3ro4 t+e
CT ,econdar0 circuit,. S+ort line and .articularl0 Done 1 in,tantaneou, rela0
a..lication, -it+ a 3ault 5alue near t+e rela0 o.erating deci,ion .oint ,+ould /e
con,idered care3ull0 i3 CT ,aturation i, .o,,i/le. A guideline re3erred to /0 (..
Roc2e3eller 3ro4 Con,olidated Edi,on Co. o3 Ne- 'or2 i,M JTo a5oid dela0ed
tri..ing 3or 3ault, near t+e Done 1 deci,ion .oint6 ti4e to :CT; ,aturation ,+ould
e9ceed 1." c0cle,J. Solid ,tate rela0, -it+ t+eir +ig+ ,.eed o.eration and lo- /urden
4a0 /e .re3erred in t+e,e a..lication,6 de.ending on t+e indi5idual ,ituation, and
,0,te4, in5ol5ed.
T+e directional c+aracteri,tic, o3 di,tance rela0, are generall0 ade>uate and ,electi5e
3or re5er,e direction 3ault, e5en -it+ .+a,e ,+i3t, in t+e current -a5e3or4
4ea,ure4ent. Ho-e5er6 clo,eCin +ig+ 4agnitude 3ault, in t+e re5er,e direction 4a0
re,ult in 3al,e tri..ing /0 directional rela0,. T+i, 4a0 occur i3 t+e re3erence
,ta/iliDing 5oltage a, 4ea,ured /0 t+e rela0 i, /elo- a de,ign 4ini4u4 5alue in t+e
.re,ence o3 DeroCcro,,ing .+a,e ,+i3t error in t+e current -a5e3or4 cau,ed /0
,aturated CT8,. Electro4ec+anical rela0, u,ing induction unit, .roduce an o.erating
tor>ue /a,ed u.on t+e .roduct o3 an integrated 3ull c0cle o3 5oltage and t+e
3unda4ental current -a5e3or4. T+i, reduce, t+e .o,,i/ilit0 o3 di,tortion related
3al,e tri..ing.
In ,u44ar06 current tran,3or4er ,aturation e33ect, ,+ould /e con,idered -+en
a..l0ing directional o5ercurrent and di,tance rela0,. For rela0 directional
ele4ent,6 CT ,aturation 4a0 cau,e 3al,e directional inter.retation created /0
.+a,e ,+i3t, /et-een t+e relati5e 4ea,ure4ent .oint, on t+e di,torted current
and undi,torted 5oltage -a5e3or4, :or .o,,i/l0 di,torted 5oltage -a5e3or4, i3
CC#T8, are u,ed;. Un.redicta/le or added ti4e dela0 and lo-er ,en,iti5it0 4a0
/e e9.erienced -it+ o5ercurrent ele4ent,. Inaccurate di,tance 4ea,ure4ent,6
4a9i4u4 tor>ue angle c+aracteri,tic c+ange,6 etc.6 4a0 lead to 3al,e o.eration,
in directional o5ercurrent and di,tance rela0,. T+e /e,t -a0 to a5oid t+e,e
.otential .ro/le4, i, to ta2e .recautionar0 ,te., t+roug+ 4ini4iDing CT
,econdar0 /urden6 /0 u,ing larger conductor ,iDe, in CT lead,6 and u,ing lo-er
/urden rela0, -+en .o,,i/le co4/ined -it+ u,ing ade>uate accurac0 cla,, CT,.
T+e tran,ient re,.on,e c+aracteri,tic, o3 t+e CT8, ,+ould /e con,idered :e.g.
ti4e to ,aturation; -+en deciding on electro4ec+anical or ,olid ,tate rela0
a..lication,. 1it+ .ro.er .lanning 4ea,ure, and con,ideration o3 t+e
a3ore4entioned 3actor,6 under t+e great 4aForit0 o3 3ault condition, correct rela0
o.eration ,+ould re,ult.
.
EH# Tran,4i,,ion Line S0,te4,
T+e e33ect, on t+e,e rela0 ,0,te4, due to CT ,aturation can /e 4o,t ,eriou, /ecau,e o3
t+eir o.erating ,.eed6 t+e con3iguration o3 current tran,3or4er ,ource, and t+e need 3or
e9actl0 t+e ,a4e .er3or4ance at t+e location o3 t+e rela0ing ,0,te4,.
T+e rela0 o.erating ,.eed i, t0.icall0 IC$" 4illi,econd,. In 4an0 ca,e, t+e,e 4a0
+a5e o.erated6 /e3ore an0 ,aturation e33ect, ta2e .lace. Ho-e5er6 on an e9ternal
3ault6 alt+oug+ ,aturation i, le,, li2el06 t+e ,0,te4 -ill /e de.endent u.on correct
CT o.eration t+roug+out t+e 3ault .eriod.
Mo,t .+a,e co4.ari,on ,0,te4, are de,igned to acce.t ,igni3icant .+a,e angle error,
-it+out undue e33ect,. A4ore li2el0 ,ource o3 .ro/le4 i, di,tortion o3 t+e 4agnitude o3
.+a,e >uantitie, and t+ere/0 .roducing incorrect co4.onent, on -+ic+ .ro.er o.eration
de.end, C.ri4aril0 internal 3ault,.
irectional co4.ari,on ,0,te4, -ill +a5e .er3or4ance .ro/le4, ,i4ilar to ,tandCalone
directional in,tantaneou, ele4ent,. One di33erence i, t+at in,tead o3 Fu,t one or t-o
CT, a33ecting t+e de5ice, .er3or4ance t+e CT, at /ot+ end, are in5ol5ed ,o t+ere 4a0
/e a, 3e- a, $ or a, 4an0 a, E CT, in5ol5ed.
T+e con3iguration o3 CT, i, an i4.ortant con,ideration in t+e o.eration o3 t+e,e ,c+e4e,
,ince t+e .ri4ar0 current, in eac+ CT and eac+ CT, +i,tor0 deter4ine, -+at in3or4ation
i, ,u..lied to t+e rela0. T+i, e9.o,e, t+e rela0 ,0,te4 to .o,,i/le .ro/le4, 3ro4 an0 o3
t+e connected CT,. In 4an0 ca,e, t+e EH# ,0,te4 -a, de,igned 3or ,+ort circuit dut0
t+at +a, not and 4a0 not e5er /e e9.erienced. T+i, 4ean, t+at it 4a0 /e 4an0 0ear, into
t+e li3e o3 t+e EH# ,0,te4 /e3ore trou/le i, e9.erienced -it+ CT ,aturation. Ho-e5er6
t+e 4i,4atc+ed CT, 4a0 .roduce .ro/le4, long /e3ore t+e .ro/le4, o3 ,aturation are
e5ident.
#. E)AMPLES OF CALCULATIONS
A. Ratio and P+a,e Angle Error o3 CTM
T+e Ratio Correction Factor :RCF; i, t+e 3actor /0 -+ic+ t+e 4ar2ed ratio 4u,t /e
4ulti.lied to o/tain t+e true ratio. T+e true ratio e>ual, t+e 4ar2ed ratio ti4e, t+e
ratio correction 3actor or6
ratio 4ar2ed
ratio true
RCF
RCF Q TRUE RATIO
MAR?E RATIO
1+ereM
tTrue rRatio CQ tT+e ratio o3 r4, .ri4ar0 current to t+e r4, ,econdar0 current6
,
I
I.
S P
I I

4Mar2ed rRatio Q tT+e ratio o3 t+e rated .ri4ar0 current to t+e rated ,econdar0
current a, gi5en on t+e na4e.late.
T+e .+a,eCangle o3 a CT i, de,ignated /0 t+e (ree2 letter Beta :T;

. T+e P+a,eC
Angle Correction Factor :PACF; i, t+e 3actor /0 -+ic+ t+e reading o3 a -att 4eter6
o.erated 3ro4 t+e ,econdar0 o3 a CT 4u,t /e 4ulti.lied to correct 3or t+e e33ect o3
.+a,e di,.lace4ent o3 current due to t+e 4ea,uring a..aratu,. It i, t+e ratio o3 t+e
true .o-er 3actor to t+e 4ea,ured .o-er 3actor.
PACF Q co, UGco, :U V W;
( ) co, co, PACF
1+ereM
U Q angle o3 lag o3 load current /e+ind load 5oltage
co, co, U Q .Po-er 3Factor Q cCo,ine o3 t+e angle /et-een t+e 5oltage and
current.
T+e 3actor /0 -+ic+ t+e reading o3 a -att 4eter or t+e regi,tration o3 a -att +our
4eter 4u,t /e 4ulti.lied to correct 3or t+e e33ect o3 ratio error and .+a,e angle i, t+e
Tran,3or4er Correction Factor :TCF;.
TCF Q RCF 9 PACF
PACF RCF TCF
E?(32>e 1E?(32>e 1<<
I3 a CT +a, a .+a,e angle error Q P1"8 and i, u,ed 3or 4ea,uring a load -+o,e .o-er
3actor i, @."@@ lagging6 deter4ine it, .+a,e angle correction 3actor6 PACF.
1. T+e .ri4ar0 current lag, t+e line 5oltage /0 an angle -+o,e co,ine e>ual, t+e .o-er
3actor.
( )

E@ "@@ . @ co,
1

or "@@ . @ E@ co, co, co,
C1

:@."@@; Q E@K Q U
or co, U Q co, E@K Q @."@@
$. T+e ,econdar0 current lead, t+e .ri4ar0 current /0 1"8. T+ere3ore6 t+e .ri4ar0
current actuall0 lag, t+e .ri4ar0 5oltage /0 "HK %"8 8 %" "H .
8 E@ "H E@
U Q E@K Q "HK E@8
( ) 8 %" "H 8 1" @ 8 E@ "H

:U C T; Q "HK E@8 C @K 1"8 Q "HK %"
t+u,6
( ) ( ) "@!I . @ 8 %" "H co, co,
co, :U @ C W; Q co,
"HK %"8 Q @."@!I
HH$" . @
"@!I . @
"@@ . @
; co,:
co,

PACF
HH$" . @
"@!I . @
"@@ . @
; U :
U

B COS
COS
PACF
I3 t+e CT +a, a RCF o3 1.@@$@6 -+at i, t+e TCF at t+e ,a4e .o-er 3actorX
HH%" . @
HH$" . @ @@$@ . 1


PACF RCF TCF
TCFQ RCF 9 PACF
Q 1.@@$@ 9 @.HH$"
Q @.HH%"
E?(32>e 2E?(32>e 2<
M Calculation o3 t+e ratio o3 rela0ing CT
Con,ider a /u,+ing CT -it+ t+e 3ollo-ing c+aracteri,tic,M

@.$HI re,i,tance ,econdar0 CT


C1@@ ation cla,,i3i3c rela0ing
" E@@ ratio
Ratio C E@@G"
Rela0ing cla,,i3ication C C1@@
CT Sec. Re,i,tance C @.$HI o+4,
1. T+e rating o3 C1@@ 4ean, t+at t+e ratio i, to /e calculated on t+e /a,i, o3 1@@ 5olt, at t+e
,econdar0 ter4inal, -it+ 1@@ a4. 3lo-ing t+roug+ t+e /urden -+ic+6 in turn6 4ean, a /urden
o.3 BC1. Re3erring to Ta/le 1 3or a BC1 /urdenM
inductance 4H $.! L
re,i,tance @." R


R Q @." o+4, Q re,i,tance
L Q $.! 4H Q inductance
$. T+e inducti5e reactance6
L
X )
L
6 i, t+en calculatedM
1+ere 3 Q 3re>uenc0
( )

IEE . @
1@ ! . $ E@ 1% . ! $
$
!
H
fL X
L

1+ere 3 Q 3re>uenc0 in HD
!. To o/tain t+e induced or e9citation 5oltage SE
E
6 t+e re,i,tance o3 t+e ,econdar0
-inding 4u,t /e added to t+e i4.edance6 Y6 o3 t+e /urden.
)
L
Q $ 3L
Q $ :!.1%; :E@; :$.!91@
C!
H;
Q @.IEEE o+4,
To o/tain t+e induced or e9citation 5oltage E,e6 t+e re,i,tance o3 t+e ,econdar0 -inding
4u,t /e added to t+e i4.edance6 Y6 o3 /urden.
$ $
X R Z +
Y Q
$
)
$
R + Z
Y Q ( ) ( )
$ $
@.IEE @." $HI . @ + + Z

1I . 1
Q 1.1I o+4,
T+e induced 5oltage i, t+ere3oreM
( ) ( ) V ams E
SE
11I 1I . 1 1@@
E,e Q :1@@ a4.; :1.1I o+4,;
Q 11I #
Re3erring to Figure 11Figure 1@6 t+e e9citation cur5e 3or t+i, tran,3or4er indicate,
t+at an e9citation current6 I
e
I
e
6 o3 @.1" a4., i, re>uired to .roduce t+i, 5oltage.
Since t+i, e9citation current i, ,+o-n a, t+e e>ui5alent ,econdar0 current6 it ,+ould
/e co4.ared to t+e /urden ,econdar0 current o3 1@@ a4.,.
T+e ratio o3 e9citing current to /urden current i,
@@1" . @ 1@@ 1" . @
@.1"G1@@ Q .@@1"
T+ere3ore t+e Ratio Correction Factor :RCF; i, 1.@@1".
Ta/le 1
Standard Burden, 3or Current Tran,3or4er,
-it+ " a4. ,econdarie,
Tran,3or4er, -it+ " A Secondarie,
Burden
e,ignation
Re,i,tance
:Z;
Inductance
:4H;
I4.edance
:Z;
#olt
A4.ere,
:at "A;
Po-er Factor
Metering Burden,
BC@.1 @.@H @.11E @.1 $." @.H
BC@.$ @.1I @.$!$ @.$ ".@ @.H
BC@." @.%" @."I@ @." 1$." @.H
BC@.H @.I1 1.@% @.H $$." @.H
BC1.I 1.E$ $.@I 1.I %".@ @.H
Rela0ing Burden,
Rela0ing Burden,
BC1 @." $.! 1.@ $" @."
BC$ 1.@ %.E $.@ "@ @."
BC% $.@ H.$ %.@ 1@@ @."
BCI %.@ 1I.% I.@ $@@ @."
Figure 8
Figure 11, EXCITATION CUR!ES FOR MULTI$RATION BUSHING CT WITH ANSI
CLASSIFICATION OF CC OR L 199
B. E,ti4ation o3 Current Tran,3or4er Per3or4anceM
A current tran,3or4er8, .er3or4ance i, 4ea,ured /0 it, a/ilit0 to. re.roduce t+e
.ri4ar0 current in ter4, o3 t+e ,econdar0L in .articular6 /0 t+e +ig+e,t ,econdar0
5oltage t+e tran,3or4er can .roduce -it+out ,aturation. CT .er3or4ance can /e
e,ti4ated /0M
C T+e CT e9citation cur5e,.
C T+e ANSI tran,3or4er rela0ing accurac0 cla,,e,.
T+e,e 4et+od, re>uire deter4ining t+e ,econdar0 5oltage t+at 4u,t /e generated.
( )
B LEA L L S
Y Y Y I # + +
#, C IL
:YL P Ylead P YB;
1+ereM
S
#
#
,
Q T+e r4, ,044etrical ,econdar0 induced 5oltage.
L
I I
L
Q T+e 4a9i4u4 ,econdar0 current6 in a4.,
:t+i, can /e e,ti4ated /0 di5iding t+e 2no-n 4a9i4u4 3ault current /0 t+e
,elected CT ratio;.
YB C T+e connected e9ternal i4.edance.

L
Y
YL Q T+e ,econdar0 -inding i4.edance.

LEA
Y Ylead Q T+e connecting lead /urden.

B
Y
T+e connected e9ternal i4.edance

1. E9citation Cur5e Met+od
T+e e9citation cur5e o3 Figure 11Figure 1@ can /e u,ed to deter4ine t+e
e9citation current re>uired /0 t+e CT 3or a .articular turn, ratio6 .ri4ar0 current
and ,econdar0 /urden .ara4eter,.
Procedure,M
a. a. deter4ine no4inal ,econdar0 current 3ro4 .ri4ar0 current and
de,ired turn, ratioM I
L
C I
P
GN
N P L
I I I
.
/. /. deter4ine re>uired ,econdar0 5oltage 3ro4
( )
B LEA! L L S
Z Z Z I V + +
#
S
C I
L
:Y
L
P Y
lead
P Y
B
;C
1. d eter4ine ,econdar0 e9citation current 3ro4 Figure 1@
c. c. eter4ine ,econdar0 e9citation current 3ro4
Figure 11 .
d. d. deter4ine a..ro9i4ate /urden current /0 arit+4etic ,u/traction o3
e9citation current 3ro4 no4inal ,econdar0 current.
E?(32>e 1<
(i5en a CT -it+ e9citation c+aracteri,tic, a, ,+o-n in Figure 11Figure 1@.
A /urden o3 rela0, and in,tru4ent, o3 @.1" Z C in,tru4ent, and o5ercurrent
rela0, -it+ a /urden o3 @.! Z on Ta. ".
Secondar0 lead re,i,tance including CT -inding o3 @.1" Z.
For ,i4.licit06 t+e,e i4.edance, are a,,u4ed to /e at t+e ,a4e angle.
( )
B LEA! L
Z Z Z + + Y
L
P Y
lead
P Y
B
Q @.1" P @.1" P @.! Q @.E Z.
T+e .ri4ar0 3ault current e9.ected i, 1$6@@@ a4.ere,.
T+e de,ired CT ratio i, I@M16 %@@M"6 or I@M1.
T+en I
L
Q 1$6@@@GI@ Q 1"@ a4.,
#
S
Q 1"@ :@.E; Q H@#
3ro4 Figure 11Figure 1@6 I
e
Q 1I.@
a4..
T+en 1"@ C 1I Q 1!$ a4., o3 /urden current6 3or an e33ecti5e ratio o3 1$6@@@G1!$ Q
%""M".
T+i, 4ean, t+e .er3or4ance i, not -it+in t+e intended accurac0 o3 a 1@OC1@@ CT.
:See Section C.;
I3 a "@@M" or 1@@M1 ratio i, ,elected t+enM
I
L
Q 1$6@@@G1@@ Q 1$@ a4.,
#
S
Q 1$@ :.E; Q *$#
I
e
Q @.1@" a a4., 3ro4 Figure
11Figure 1@
Burden current Q 1$@ C.C @.1 Q 11H.H 3or an e33ecti5e ratio o3 1$6@@@G11H.H
Q "@@.%M"L -ell -it+in t+e intended accurac0.
E?(32>e 2<
1it+ t+e re,ult, o3 Ee9a4.le 16 deter4ine t+e .ri4ar0 o.erating current 3or a
re,idual rela0 o3 /urden %." o+4,o+4, on Ta. @.".
See t+e ,2etc+ o3 Figure 1$Figure
11.
At .ic2 u.6 t+ere -ill /e $.$"# $" 5olt, acro,, t+e re,idual rela06 :@."A 9 %.";.
T+i, 5oltage al,o a..ear, acro,, t+e CT on t+e unC3aulted .+a,e,. Fro4 Figure
11Figure 1@ eac+ o3 t+e,e CT, -ill re>uire @.@1*A e9citing current.
T+e current 3ro4 t+e CT on t+e 3aulted .+a,e ,u..lie, @." P @.@1* P@ .@1* or
@."!% a4., a, ,+o-n in Figure 1$Figure 11.
T+i, @."!% a4., de5elo., $."*# acro,, t+e ,econdar0 o3 t+e CT on t+e 3aulted
.+a,e. T+i, re>uire, an additional @.@1I a4., o3 e9citing current.
T+e total ,econdar0 current ,u..lied /0 t+e CT on t+e 3aulted .+a,e i, t+en
@." P @.@1* P @.@1* P @.@1I Q @.""$ a4.,..
Figure 12Figure 11
SECONDARY CURRENT DISTRIBUTION AT PI CK UP OF RESIDUAL RELAY
I3 t+e CT ratio i, 1@@M16 t+en t+e .ri4ar0 current 4u,t /e "".$A at .ic2 u. o3
t+e re,idual rela0.
C. ANSI CT Rela0ing Accurac0 Cla,,e,M
T+e ANSI Rela0ing Accurac0 Cla,, i, de,cri/ed /0 t-o ,04/ol, C letter de,ignation
and 5oltage rating t+at de3ine t+e ca.a/ilit0 o3 t+e tran,3or4er. T+e letter de,ignation
code i, a, 3ollo-,M
C C indicate, t+at t+e tran,3or4er ratio can /e calculated :a, 3or t+e earlier lOL t0.e
tran,3or4er,;.
T C indicate, t+at t+e tran,3or4er ratio 4u,t /e deter4ined /0 te,t :,i4ilar to t+e earlier
1@H t0.e tran,3or4er,;.
T+e ,econdar0 ter4inal 5oltage rating i, t+e 5oltage t+at t+e tran,3or4er -ill deli5er to
a ,tandard /urden at $@ ti4e, nor4al ,econdar0 current6 -it+out e9ceeding 1@ .ercent
ratio correction. Furt+er4ore6 t+e ratio correction 4u,t /e li4ited to 1@ .ercent at an0
current 3ro4 1 to $@ ti4e, rated ,econdar0 current at t+e ,tandard /urden. For e9a4.le6
rela0 accurac0 cla,, C1@@ 4ean, t+at t+e ratio can /e calculated and t+at t+e ratio
correction -ill not e9ceed 1@ .ercent at an0 current 3ro4 1 to $@ ti4e, rated ,econdar0
current -it+ a ,tandard 1.@ /urden :1.@ ti4e, "A ti4e, $@ ti4e, rated ,econdar0 current
e>ual, 1@@#;.
ANSI accurac0 cla,, rating, a..l0 onl0 to t+e 3ull -inding. 1+ere t+ere i, a ta..ed
,econdar06 a .ro.ortionatel0 lo-er 5oltage rating e9i,t, on t+e ta.,.
E?(32>e<
T+e 4a9i4u4 calculated 3ault current 3or a .articular line i, 1$6@@@ a4.,. T+e current
tran,3or4er i, rated at 1$@@M" and i, to /e u,ed on t+e I@@M" ta.. It, rela0ing accurac0
cla,, i, C$@@ :3ull C rated -inding;L ,econdar0 re,i,tance i, @.$ o+4. T+e total
,econdar0 circuit /urden i, $.% o+4 at E@C.ercent .o-er 3actor. E9cluding t+e e33ect,
o3 re,idual 4agneti,4 and C o33,et6 -ill t+e error e9ceed 1@ .ercentX I3 ,o6 -+at
correcti5e action can /e ta2en to reduce t+e error to 1@ .ercent or le,,.
T+e current tran,3or4er ,econdar0 -inding re,i,tance 4a0 /e ignored /ecau,e t+e
C$@@ rela0ing accurac0 cla,, de,ignation indicate, t+at t+e current tran,3or4er can
,u..ort $@@ 5olt, .lu, t+e 5oltage dro. cau,ed /0 ,econdar0 re,i,tance at $@ ti4e, rated
current6 3or "@ .ercent .o-erC3actor /urden. T+e CT ,econdar0 5oltage dro. 4a0 /e
ignored t+en i3 t+e ,econdar0 current doe, not e9ceed 1@@ a4.,.
N Q I@@G" Q 1E@
I
L
Q 1$6@@@AG1E@ Q *" a4.,
T+e .er4i,,i/le /urden i, gi5en /0M
Y
B
Q :N
.P
#
CL
;G1@@
1+ereM
Y
B
Q .Per4i,,i/le /urden on t+e current tran,3or4er
N.
P
Q tTurn, in u,e di5ided /0 total turn,
##
CL
CL Qa cCurrent tran,3or4er 5oltage cla,,
N
.P
Q I@@G1$@@ Q @.EE* :.ro.ortion o3 total turn, in u,e;
T+u,6 Y
B
Q @.EE* :$@@;G1@@ Q 1.!!% Zo+4,
Since t+e circuit /urden6 $.% o+4,6 i, greater t+an t+e calculated .er4i,,i/le /urden6
1.!!%6 t+e error -ill /e in e9ce,, o3 1@ .ercent at all current, 3ro4 " to 1@@ a4.,.
Con,e>uentl06 it i, nece,,ar0 to reduce t+e /urden6 u,e a +ig+er current tran,3or4er ratio6
or u,e a current tran,3or4er -it+ a +ig+er 5oltage cla,,.
. E33ect o3 Current Tran,3or4er Connection, on Burden
1+ene5er t-o or 4ore current tran,3or4er, +a5e t+eir ,econdar0 circuit,
interconnected6 t+e e33ect i, to alter t+e ,econdar0 /urden on eac+ tran,3or4er. T+e
-a0 in -+ic+ t+e /urden i, a33ected i, de.endent u.on t+e .articular connection.
#ariou, t0.e, o3 connection, are de,cri/ed in t+e 3ollo-ing di,cu,,ion.
Se"#es C$%%ect#$%&
1+en current tran,3or4er, are connected -it+ t+eir ,econdarie, in ,erie,6 t+e general
e33ect i, to decrea,e t+e /urden on eac+ indi5idual tran,3or4er. T+i, ,tate4ent
a,,u4e, t+at t+e ,econdar0 current, are no4inall0 in .+a,e and o3 e>ual 4agnitude.
I3 N tran,3or4er, -it+ identical e9citation c+aracteri,tic, are connected in ,erie, and
are ,u..l0ing current to a /urden Y6 t+en t+e /urden on eac+ tran,3or4er e>ual, YGN.
Pa"allel C$%%ect#$%&
1+en t-o or 4ore current tran,3or4er, are connected in .arallel6 t+e general e33ect i,
to increa,e t+e /urden on eac+ indi5idual tran,3or4er. T+e a4ount o3 increa,e i,
de.endent u.on t+e t0.e o3 connection6 t+e nu4/er o3 tran,3or4er,6 and t+e
di,tri/ution o3 current /et-een tran,3or4er,.
1+en lo- ratio, are re>uired6 ,tandard CT, 4a0 not /e a5aila/le to ,u..l0 t+e
re>uired /urden. It i, ,o4eti4e, .o,,i/le to a..l0 $ ,tandard +ig+er ratio CT, +a5ing
a +ig+er rela0ing accurac0 cla,,i3ication 5oltage :-it+ t+e .ri4arie, connected in
,erie, and t+e ,econdarie, connected in .arallel; to ,u..l0 t+i, /urden. T+e de,ired
o5erall lo- ratio i, ac+ie5ed -it+ a ,u/,tantiall0 i4.ro5ed accurac0. In .aralleling t+e
,econdar0 circuit, o3 CT, t+e ,econdar0 -inding ,+all /e .aralleled at t+e 4eter to
2ee. t+e co44on /urden a, lo- a, .o,,i/le. T+e e33ecti5e /urden on eac+
tran,3or4er ,+ould not e9ceed it, rated /urden.
T+e 3ollo-ing diagra4, ,+o- ,o4e o3 t+e 4ore co44on -a0, in -+ic+ current
tran,3or4er, are interconnected. (eneral e>uation, are gi5en 3or t+e /urden on a
t0.ical current tran,3or4er. In a..l0ing t+e,e e>uation,6 it ,+ould /e noted t+at all
i4.edance, in ,erie,6 including lead re,i,tance6 +a5e /een lu4.ed into one 5alue to
,i4.li30 t+e e>uation,.
P(r(>>e> 1%//e1.i%/
(eneral ca,eM
1
]
1

+ +
+
1
$ 1
1
....
1
I
I I I
Z Z Z
N
C CT
S.ecial ca,e,M
1. T-o CT, in .arallel6 e>ual contri/ution, 3ro4 eac+ CT6
$ 1
I I M

C CT
Z Z Z $
1
1
+
$. T-o CT,6 une>ual contri/ution,M
K I I
1 $
L
( ) K Z Z Z
C CT
+ + 1
1
1
De>.( 1%//e1.i%/
(eneral ca,eM
1
]
1

+
1
]
1

+
1
!
1
$
1
1 1
1
I
I
Z
I
I
Z Z Z
C A CT
S.ecial ca,e,M
1. S044etrical /urden,M

1
]
1

+
+
1
! $
1
$
1
I
I I
Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z
L L CT L C B A
$. S044etrical /urden, and /alanced ! .+a,e current,M

L CT
Z Z Z !
1
1
+
W4e 1%//e1.i%/
(eneral ca,eM
1
]
1

+ +
+
1
! $ 1
1
1
I
I I I
Z Z Z
N CT
S.ecial ca,e,M
1. t+ree .+a,e 3aultM
1
1
Z Z
CT


$. .+a,eC.+a,e 3ault :1C$;M

1
1
Z Z
CT


!. lineCground 3aultM
N CT
Z Z Z +
1
1
%. t-o lineCground :1C$C(;M

1
]
1

+
+
1
$ 1
1
1
I
I I
Z Z Z
N CT

Tran,3or4er i33erential Connection
1+en u,ed 3or tran,3or4er di33erential rela0ing6 current tran,3or4er, can /e connected in ,e5eral
di33erent -a0 de.ending on t+e t0.e o3 tran,3or4er /eing .rotected. A, a general rule6 rela0
4i,Co.eration due to +ig+ /urden i, a .ro/le4 onl0 3or e9ternal 3ault, -+ere 3al,e tri..ing 4a0
occur i3 one current tran,3or4er ,aturate,.
WYE$WYE CT 1%//e1.i%/ @5e>.($5e>.( .r(/,0%r3erA
(eneral ca,eM
1
1
]
1

+
H
I
I
Z Z Z
X
H CT
1
1
@
1
1 1 1
S.ecial Ca,e,M
1. E9ternal 3ault -it+ ideall0 4atc+ed CT ratio,M

1 1
H CT
Z Z
$. Internal 3ault -it+ e>ual .erCunit contri/ution, 3ro4 eac+ ,ide o3 t+e tran,3or4erM

1 1 1
@
$Z Z Z
H CT
+
WYE$DELTA 1%//e1.i%/
(eneral ca,eM
1
1
]
1

+ +
H H
X
I I
I I
Z Z Z Z
X
H CT
! 1
1 !
@ @
1 1 1 1
1
1
]
1

1
1
]
1


+
1
1
]
1

1
1
]
1

+ + + +
X
X
X
X H
X
X H H
X
X
I
I
Z
I
I I I
Z
I
I I I
Z
I
I
Z Z Z Z Z Z Z
X
H
X X X CT
1
$
1
$ 1 $
@
1
! ! 1
@
1
!
@ @ %
$ $ 1 1 $ $ 1 1 %
S.ecial Ca,e, V a,,u4ing 4atc+ed CT, and ,044etrical /urden,
1. E9ternal t+ree .+a,e 3aultM
1 % 1 1
!
% X CT H CT
Z Z Z Z Z +

$. Internal t+ree .+a,e 3ault -it+ e>ual .erCunit contri/ution, 3ro4 eac+ ,ide o3 t+e tran,3or4erM

1 1 % 1 1 1
@ % @
E ! $ Z Z Z Z Z Z Z
X CT H CT
+ + +
DELTA $DELTA CT 1%//e1.i%/ @WYE$WYE .r(/,0%r3erA
(eneral ca,eM
[ ] [ ] [ ]
! 1 ! 1 ! ! 1 1 ! 1 ! 1 1
@
1
!
@
1
$
@ @
1
1
@
1
!
@
1
$
@ @ 1
[ Z
I
I
Z
I
I
Z Z
I
I
Z Z
I
I
Z Z
I
I
Z Z Z Z Z Z
H
X
H
X
H
X
H
H
H
H
H H H H CT
+ + + + + + + +
S.ecial ca,e,C a,,u4ing 4atc+ed CT, and ,044etrical /urden,M
1. E9ternal lineCground 3ault on .+a,e 1
1 1
$
1 H CT
Z Z Z +
$. E9ternal t+ree .+a,e or line to line :1C$; 3ault
1 1
!
1 H CT
Z Z Z +
!. Internal line to ground on .+a,e 1 -it+ e>ual .erCunit contri/ution, 3ro4 eac+ ,ide o3 t+e
tran,3or4er
1 1 1
@ 1
% $ Z Z Z Z
H CT
+ +
WYE$DELTA $WYE 1 %//e1.i%/
(eneral ca,eM
[ ]
$ $ $ 1 1 1 $ 1 1
$ @ @ ! @ @
1
1
1
H H H H CT
Z I Z I Z I Z I
I
Z Z Z Z
H H
H
+ + +
( )
[ ]
' ' X X H H
' '
I I I I I I
I I
Z
Z Z
' CT 1 ! 1 ! ! 1
1 !
@
1
1 %
+ +

+
S.ecial ca,eM
E9ternal t+ree .+a,e 3ault -it+ ,044etrical /urden and ideall0 4atc+ed CT,
1 1
1 H CT
Z Z Z +
1 %
' CT
Z Z
E. E,ti4ate, o3 Tran,ient Per3or4ance
E?(32>e 1
CT turn, Q N$
$
Q $%@
CT Sat.,aturation 5oltage Q #
9)
Q I"@ 5olt,
CT .ri4ar0 current Q I1
1
Q 1"6@@@ a4.,
CT ,ec. /urden Q R$
$
Q 1 Zo+4
Pri4ar0 ,0,te4 )1
1
GR1
1
Q 1"
Ks T(e%
$ $ 1
N R I
V)
E . 1!
$%@ @@@ 6 1"
I"@

Q
T+en ?, Q
$ $ 1 GN R I
#9
Q
1"@@@G$%@
I"@
Q 1!.E

X
V $"
,
_

+
+
1
!**
; 1" : !**
; 1 :
$%@
@@@ 6 1" ; 1 :
$
1 $ 1
N
T R I
*$lts @@@ 6 1
or #
9
Q
$
1 $ 1
N
l; T : R I +
Q
$%@
1"@@@
:1;
,
_

+1
!**
; 1" : !**
Q 1@@@ 5olt,
Co4.aring t+e calculated #
9)
C :1@@@; -it+ t+e a5aila/le #
9)
C :I"@; 4ean, -e can
e9.ect ,o4e ,aturation under 3ull0 o33,et condition,.
T+e ti4e to reac+ ,aturation i, gi5en /0 S
t
t
,
M
1
]
1

,
_

1
1
1
1 ln
T
K
T t
s
S
( ) @% . @ !** 1 1"
1 1 1
R X T
Q
1
]
1

,
_

* 1 T
1 C ?,
C 1 ln T1 C
T
1
Q )1GR1
*
Q 1" :1G!**; Q .@%
( ) ( )

,
_



!**
1 E . 1! @% . @ 1
1 ln @% . @
S
t T(e%
T+en t, Q.@% In
( ) ( )
1
]
1

!**
; 1 E . 1! @% . G 1
1
Q .@*$$ ,econd,
Q %.!! c0cle,
Note t+at t+e ti4e to ,aturation i, ,en,iti5e to t+e .ri4ar0 ,0,te4 ti4e con,tant and t+e
,aturation 3actor ?
S
?,. I3 t+e o33,et i, le,, t+an 3ull6 t+en ?
S
?, i, greater and t+e ti4e to
,aturation i, long or ,aturation 4a0 not occur.
T+e )GR ratio deter4ine, t+e .o,,i/le dc o33,et and t+e ,0,te4 ti4e con,tantL t+ere3ore6
?
S
?, can /e increa,ed 3ro4 t+e 5alue calculated to t+at corre,.onding to t+e )GR ratio.
In t+i, ca,e t+e )GR ratio i, 1" and 3ro4 t+e 3ollo-ing ta/leM
XBR ICBI
$ 1.1I
% 1.!I
* 1."$
1@ 1."%
$@ 1.EI
"@ 1.*!
1@@ 1.*"
)GR I8GI
$ 1.1I
% 1.!I
* 1."$ T+e o33,et could /e
1@ 1."% 1.E%G1.*" or .H% PU .er unit
o3
$@ 1.EI t+e 4a9i4u4 .o,,i/le.
"@ 1.*!
1@@ 1.*"
a%d K T(e%
S
%* . 1% H% . @ E . 1!
@I%" . @
S
t
,econd, in,tead o3 @.@*$$ ,econd,
T+en ?
,
Q 1!.EG.H% Q 1%.%*
t
,
Q .@I%" ,econd, in,tead o3 .@*$$ ,econd,.
T+e ti4e to lea5e ,aturation i, gi5en /0M
( )
S e
K T T t
$ 1
ln
,ec @ . $
$
T
E . 1!
S
K
( ) ,ec 1E1 . @ E . 1! ; $ : !** ln @% . @
e
t
;
S
T$G? : n 1
1
T t
e


T$ Q $.@ ,econd,
?
,
Q 1!.E
t
e
Q .@% In O!** :$;G1!.EN Q .1E1 ,econd,

c+cles EE . H
Q H.EE c0cle,

#I. REFERENCES
1. NEMA S(%6 Ta/le !C%.
$. T+e Art 7 Science o3 Protecti5e Rela0ing6 C. Ru,,ell Ma,on6 \o+n 1ile0 7 Son,.
!. Indu,trial and Co44ercial Po-er S0,te4 A..lication, Serie, C Rela0 Current
Tran,3or4er A..lication (uide :a .u/lication /0 1e,ting+ou,e Rela0CIn,tru4ent
i5i,ion PRSCCE6 Ma0 1HI$;.
%. A4erican National Standard C (uide 3or Protecti5e Rela0 A..lication, to Po-er
S0,te4 Bu,e,.
". A..lied Protecti5e Rela0ing6 1e,ting+ou,e Electric Cor..
E. Protecti5e Rela0,6 T+eir T+eor0 7 Practice,6 A. R. #an C. 1arrington6 C+a.4an 7
Hall6 London.
*. A Hal3CC0cle Bu, i33erential Rela0 and It, A..lication6 T. For3ord6 \. R. Linder,6
IEEE T*% @!!C*6 ... 111@C11$@.
I. a. IEEE Re.ort No. *ECH11!@C% P1R6 JTran,ient Re,.on,e o3 Current
Tran,3or4er,J.
/. JProtecti5e Current Tran,3or4er, and Circuit,J6 P. Mat+e-,. T+e MacMillan Co.6
Ne- 'or26 1H"".
H. ANSI C"*.1!.
1@. JCurrent Tran,3or4er Burden and SaturationJ6 Louie \. Po-ell6 \r.6 Senior Me4/er6
IEEE6 IEEE Tran,action, on Indu,tr0 A..lication,6 #ol. 1AC1"6 No. !.
11. JStatic Rela0ing Mea,uring Tec+ni>ue, 1+ic+ O.ti4iDe t+e U,e o3 A5aila/le
In3or4ationJ6 /0 A.T. (iuliante :ASEA;6 \o+n Linder, :con,ultant;6 L. Matele
:ASEA;6 .re,ented at 1e,tern Protecti5e Rela0 Con3erence6 Octo/er 1EC1I6 1H*H6
S.o2ane 1a,+ington.
1$. JRela0ing CT8, C A ,ource o3 #ital In3or4ation and Mi,in3or4ationJ6 (.. Roc2e3eller
:S0,te4 Protection Engineer; Con,olidated Edi,on Co. o3 N.'.6 Inc.6 .re,ented to 1H*!
Con3erence on Protecti5e Rela0ing6 (eorgia In,titute o3 Tec+nolog06 Atlanta6 (eorgia.
1!. JBu, i33erential ProtectionJ6 (eneral Electric Co4.an06 (ETCE%"".
1%. JTran,ient Re,.on,e o3 Current Tran,3or4er,L Pu/lication *ECH11!@C% P1R :IEEE
Po-er S0,te4, Rela0ing Co44ittee Re.ort;.
1". ANSIGIEEE C"*.1!.1C1HI16 (uide 3or Field Te,ting o3 Rela0ing Current Tran,3or4er,
1E. ANSIGIEEE C"*.1!.!C1HI!6 (uide 3or t+e (rounding o3 In,tru4ent Tran,3or4er
Secondar0 Circuit, and Ca,e,
#II. LIST OF OPERATIONS COMMITTEE PUBLICATIONS
T+e 3ollo-ing i, a li,t o3 additional O.eration, Co44ittee Pu/lication, t+at are a5aila/le
u.on re>ue,t 3ro4M
1e,tern S0,te4, Coordinating Council "%@
Ara.een ri5e6 Suite $@!
Salt La2e Cit06 Uta+6 I%1@I
:I@1; "I$C@!"!
1. S0,te4 Protection (uide, and Te,t Procedure, :\ul0 1HI";
:Con,olidation o3 t+e 3ollo-ing .u/lication,M
(uide 3or Model Te,ting o3 Rela0 S0,te4,
S0,te4 Protection (uide,
Under3re>uenc0 Load S+edding Rela0 A..lication (uide
Te,t Procedure 3or Po-er S0,te4 Sta/iliDer,;
$. O.erating Procedure, C Co4.iled in accordance -it+ Article #6 Section ! o3 t+e
1SCC1ECC Agree4ent :Marc+ $I6 1HH@;
!. Li,ting o3 S.are Tran,3or4er, O-ned /0 1SCC1ECC Me4/er, and A33iliate
Me4/er, :\anuar0 16 1HIH;
%. i,.atc+erCS0,te4 O.erator Training Manual :\une !@6 1HIE;
". i,.atc+erGS0,te4 O.erator Hand/oo2 :\ul0 1HIE;
E. Co44unication S0,te4 O.erator8, (uide :No5e4/er 1HII;
*. Energ0 Manage4ent S0,te4 InterCUtilit0 Co44unication (uideline, :Octo/er
1HIH;
I. O.eration, Co44ittee Balloon iagra4, and Inad5ertent Interc+ange Su44arie,
:Co4.iled t-ice -ee2l0 and di,tri/uted to O.eration, Co44ittee 4e4/er,;
H. (uide 3or e5elo.4ent and Te,ting o3 Re4edial Action Sta/ilit0 Sc+e4e, :Ma0
1HIE;
1@. Rela0ing Current Tran,3or4er A..lication (uide :\une 1HIH;
11. (uide 3or S.eci3ication o3 a igital Fault Recording S0,te4 :\une 1HII;
1$. (uideline, 3or S0nc+roniDation o3 O,cillogra.+, and E5ent Recorder,
:\anuar0 1HH@;