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I.

AGGREGATE is the inert filler materials, such as sand or stone, used in making
concrete. Sand, gravel and crushed stone are the primary aggregates used. All aggregates
must be essentially free of silt and/or organic matter.

Function of Aggregate :
-They reduce the cost of concrete
-Well graded aggregates produce workable yet cohesive concrete
-They reduce the heat of hydration of concrete since they are normally chemically inert and act as a heat
sink for hydrating cement
-They reduce the shrinkage of concrete since most aggregates are not affected by water and they
restrain shrinkage of the hydrating cement.
Normal Weight Aggregate : Aggregate that have a specific gravity of 2.50 to 2.70. Concrete with normal
aggregate will have a density of about 2.3 with compressive strength 15 Mpa- 40 Mpa.
Light Weight Aggregate : Agregate that have a specific gravity less than 2.0 usually used to make light
weigt concrete.
Heavy Aggregate : Aggregates that have a specific gravity more than 2.8, usually used for concrete
exposed to X-ray radiation. Example: Magnetite, iron granules
VOID
Void content affects mortar requirements in mix design; water and mortar requirement tend to increase
as aggregate void content increases.
Void content between aggregate particles increases with increasing aggregate angularity.
Void contents range from 30-45% for coarse aggregates to about 40-50% for fine aggregates.
Total volume of voids can be reduced by using a collection of aggregate sizes.

WATER CONTENT
Water content of Aggregate is the amount of water contained in aggregate.
Type of water content in the aggregate :
- Oven dry water content, is completely dry with no water
- Air dry water content, the condition of the surface aggregate dry, but have a little water in
pores so still absorb water
- Saturated surface dry ( SSD ), there is no water on the surface of aggregate, but inside the
aggregate is saturated water. In SSD, the water contained do not increase or decrease of
water in concrete mixture
- Wet/moist conditions, is the conditions which the inside aggregate and aggregate surface
contains a lot of water, so it will increase the quantity of water in concrete mixture
MOISTURE CONTENT
2 types of moisture measurement recognized in aggregate particles are:
a) Absorbed moisture
Moisture retained within the pores of aggregate
b) Surface moisture
Moisture that is held on the surface of aggregate
STRENGTH
Aggregate Crushing Value
The crushing value of aggregate is restricted to 30% for concrete used for roads and pavements
and 45% may be permitted for other structures.
Aggregate Impact Value
As aggregate impact value IS 283-1970 specifies that aggregate impact value shall not exceed
45% by weight for aggregate used for concrete other than wearing surface and 30% by weight, for
concrete for wearing surfaces, such as run ways, road, and pavement.
Aggregate Abrasion Value
Three test are in common use to test aggregate for its abrasion resistance:
1. Deval attrition test
2. Dorry abrasion test
3. Los Angles test.
SOURCE
Natural aggregate consists of material composed of rock fragments (both sand and gravel, and crushed
stone) that may be used in their natural state or used after mechanical processing, such as crushing,
washing and sizing. Natural aggregate is grouped in three kinds :
1. Igneous Rock
2. Sedimentary Rock
3. Metamorphic Rock Natural
SHAPE CLASSIFICATION : Rounded, Irregular, Angular, flaky, cubical, elongated.
PARTICLE SHAPE AND SURFACE TEXTURE:
- Rough textured, angular, elongated particles require more water to produce workable
concrete than do smooth, rounded, compact aggregates
- Aggregates should be relatively free of flat and elongated particles (limit to 15% by
weight of total aggregate).
- Important for coarse and crushed fine aggregate - these require an increase in mixing
water and may affect the strength of the concrete, if cement water ratio is not maintained.

PARTICLE SIZE :
Rocks : Aggregate that have size of grain more than 40 mm
Gravel : Aggregate that have size of grain 4.8 mm-40 mm
Sand : Aggregate that have size of grain 0.15 mm 4.8 mm
Silt : Aggregate that have size of grain less than 0.15 mm

II. ADMIXTURES are those ingredients in concrete other than Portland cement, water, and
aggregates that are added to the mixture before or during mixing.

Purpose of using admixtures are :
- To reduce the cost of concrete construction.
- To maintain the quality of concrete
- To reduce water content without changing workability.
- To adjust setting time.
- To increase strength.
- To reduce segregation and/or bleeding.
- To improve pumpability.
- To improve potential durability and reduce permeability.

TYPE OF ADMIXTURE ACCORDING TO ASTM C494:
Type A : Water Reducing Admixtures / Plasticizer
The type of admixture that used to reduce the quantity of mixing water required in the fresh concrete
but concrete has a good workability
Type B : Retarding Admixture
These admixtures slow the chemical reaction of the cement and water leading to longer setting times
and slower initial strength gain.
Type C : Accelerate Admixture
It used to accelerate the process of binding and strength development of concrete at an early age. It is
used to shorten the time of the binding cement to accelerate the achievement of concrete strength.
Type D : Water Reducing and Retarding Admixture
This type have dual function. There are to reduce the quantity of mixing water required and to retard
the process of binding.
Type E : Water Reducing and Accelerating Admixture
This type have dual function. There are to reduce the quantity of mixing water required and accelerate
the process of binding and hardening concrete.

Type F : Water Reducing, High Range Admixture/ Super plasticizer
This type have function to reduce the quantity of mixing water that required to produce concrete with
consistency as much as 12% or more than 12%.
Type G : Water Reducing High Range and Retarding Admixture
This admixture have function to reduce the quantity of mixing water that required to produce concrete
with consistency as much as 12% or more than 12% and to retard binding and hardening concrete.
This material is combined by super plasticizer with retard the setting time of concrete.
TYPE OF ADMIXTURE ACCORDING TO ASTM C-260
Air Entraining Agent
It used to stabilize or forming microscopic air bubbles in concrete.
There are two types of AEA :
Type detergent
In general AEA represent detergent type, the active agent to the surface. This substance is usually in the
form of organic matter as the raw material of soap, so that when mixed with water will be foamed and
the foam will be scattered in the concrete mix.
Type of non detergent
This type usually a fine aluminum powder. When this powder mixed with water in the concrete will
react to form hydrogen air bubbles.
Another Type of admixture :
- Pigments
- Corrosion Inhibitors
- Bonding agents

ADDITIVE
A substance added to a material in concrete mix to improve the properties of concrete (mineral
admixtures), or as a replacement for Portland cement (blended cements).
Additive is a solid material which is refined
Purpose of using additive are :
- Repairing Concrete Workability
- Reduce heat of hydration
- Improve the durability of concrete
- Increase the compressive strength
- Enhance resistance against alkali-silica reaction
- To adjust setting time.
- To make concrete more watertight
TYPE OF ADDITIVE ARE:
Fly ash
Fly ash is the result of a subtle separation of combustion from the combustion of coal
supplied from coal combustion chamber. The low calcium fly ashes retard the setting of cement
Ground granulated blast furnace slag
Ground granulated blast furnace slag is a product of steel production is used to partially
replace Portland cement.
Silica Fume
Silica Fume is a product of the production of silicon. Silica fume is similar to fly ash, but
has a particle size 100 times smaller. Silica fume is used to increase strength and durability of concrete,
but generally requires the use of superplasticizers for workability
High Reactivity Metakaolin
Metakaolin produces concrete with strength and durability similar to concrete made
with silica fume. metakaolin is usually bright white in color.
there are some consideration in usage of ADMIXTURE/additive :
1. Don't use admixture if not know the target.
2. Admixture will not make poor concrete become good concrete
3. An admixture can change more than one characteristic of informing against concrete
4. Observation to this materials very important, including observation of its influence to concrete.

III. SEMEN (cementum) is the ingredient or binder, in other words can be defined cement is
an adhesive in the form of fine powder, when added to water will occur the hydration
reaction can hardened and used as a binder (glue mineral).

FUNCTION : Cement is a substance used to glue the stone, brick, concrete block, and other building
materials.
Function cement is the binding grains aggregate to form a solid mass and filling cavities of air between
aggregate grains. Cement used for concrete work plan should be tailored to the power and technical
specifications given.


TYPES OF CEMENT :
1. Portland cement
Portland Cement is the powder or bulk bluish gray - bluish, formed from the main
ingredient of limestone
2. White cement that is more pure than ash and cement used
for job completion (finishing)
3. Oil Well Cement is a special cement is used in the process of drilling oil or natural gas
4. Mixed & Fly Ash Cement is a mixture of gray cement with artificial Pozzolan (fly ash)
Artificial Pozzolan (fly ash) is a byproduct of burning coal that contains amorphous
silica, aluminum oxide, iron oxide and other oxides in the variation of the number.

PROPERTIES OF CEMENT
The physical properties of cement include
- fineness grains of cement ,
- binding time,
- eternity,
- power press,
- binding false,
- heat of hydration
ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF CEMENT
Advantages:
- Very Strong
- Can create large structures quickly
- Conforms to different shapes (arcs and circles, etc).
- High thermal mass (moderates temperature)

Disadvantages:
- Very heavy
- Expensive