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Glossary Terms for Glossary Definition Brand

Terms for Glossary Definition Brand Brand communities A community formed on the basis of attachment to a product or market. A brand community can 66
be defined as an enduring self-selected group of actors sharing a system of values, standards and
Aida model Characteristics that commercial expressions have to meet. Attention, Interest, Desire and Action. 178 representations (a culture) and recognising bonds of membership with each other and with the whole.

A-brand In the consumer goods market, A-brands have high brand name awareness and are a leader as far as 78 Brand competition Where products that perform the same function compete against each other. Competition between 50, 110
price and quality of a particular product is concerned. There is frequent advertising for A-brands in order firms that have developed brands or labels for their products in order to distinguish them from other
to enhance brand name awareness and to maintain or enhance the existing reputation. brands sold in the same market segment.

Advertising strategy An advertising strategy is a campaign developed to communicate ideas about products and services to 144 Brand concept The image that the brand sponsor wants a particular brand to have; the desired positioning of the brand 100, 170
potential consumers in the hopes of convincing them to buy those products and services. This strategy, in the market and in the minds of consumers.
when built in a rational and intelligent manner, will reflect other business considerations (overall budget,
brand recognition efforts) and objectives (public image enhancement, market share growth) as well. Brand culture Strong brand culture is determined by the internal attitudes towards branding, management behaviour 138
and practices of an organisation. These combined efforts are crucial to build and maintain strong brand
Brand alignment Brand Alignment solutions help an organisation close the gap between the brand promise and what is 70 equity through competitive advantages from branding.
actually delivered. They influence and educate employees to live the brand promise consistently, and
influence customers and sales partners to support their brand. Brand development Brand development involves integrating all elements to create a consistent message that reaches the 78
target consumer.
Brand association Degree to which a particular brand is associated with the general product category in the mind of the 204
consumer (share of mind). Often a consumer will ask for a product by the specific brand name rather Brand DNA Establishes the blueprint for the customer service and employee brand experience. It is the foundation 40, 72, 94, 138, 166,
that the general name. from which all other elements of the process will be shaped and organised. It helps everyone to 178, 188, 206, 210
understand the brand, at least as well as consumers.
Brand awareness Brand awareness is a common measure of marketing communications effectiveness. Brand awareness is 18, 24, 36, 44, 46, 86,
measured as the proportion of target customers which has prior knowledge of the brand. 114, 128 , 174 Brand driven company Organising your company around the brand. Building the Brand-driven business will be an invaluable 184
aid for the entire organisation to manage and live (not just think about) their brand.
Bonding strategy How to fully exploit customer potentials. 184
Branded house strategy One brand for all its business. 144
Brand activation The objective is to make brands active in their markets, building their reputations along with results. 188
Brand essence Brand essence is a way of articulating the emotional connection and lasting impression that defines 36, 66, 100, 104, 170,
Brand advocates The Brand Advocates will provide consultation on brand development and implementation throughout 206 the qualities, personality and uniqueness of a product. A product’s brand essence characterizes what it 184, 188
the network and create popular support in the marketplace. stands for in the minds of customers. It embodies core competencies, advantages, culture and values.

Brand appearance Your brand appearance is your first impression. 184 Brand experience The experience of the core values of a brand and its message in order to anchor these in head and 66, 70, 72, 114, 150,
heart. 156, 174, 202, 206,
Brand beliefs The consumer develops a set of brand beliefs about where each brand stands on each attribute. The set 66, 210 210
of beliefs about a brand make up the brand image.
Brand extension strategy Leveraging the values of the brand to take the brand into new markets/ sectors. 22, 122, 144, 166
Brand bonding Brand bonding may contribute to higher levels of involvement with a product/brand and brand loyalty. 166, 170, 178, 210
Brand Gestalt In a brand’s gestalt, all elements including product design, quality, performance, image and communica­ 66
Brand building Brand building from the CEO’s perspective is about business building, generating higher revenues and 58 tion, contribute to creating and nurturing a brand profile. One can change some of the elements
profits, which in turn will lead to greater shareholder value. To achieve these lofty goals, brands not providing that the consumer continues to recognise that the same brand values are still present after
only need to be built, they must also be continuously reinvented to remain relevant to ever-changing the change.
consumer needs and desires.
Brand icon A brand icon is a name and visual symbol that communicate a market position. An avatar is an icon that 72
Brand campaign The motivation comes from the belief that the product is more valuable. 50 can move, morph, or otherwise operate freely as the brand’s alter ego.

Brand communication Brand communication is the art of bridging the gap between our target audiences and the organisation 138, 154, 166, 188 Brand identity A unique set of functional and mental associations the brand aspires to create or maintain. These 18, 22, 28, 58, 66, 86,
(or product or service) we are promoting. It is the ethereal connection between the physical entity, and associations represent what the brand should ideally stand for in the minds of customers, and imply a 94, 105, 114, 120,
the audiences we believe are best suited to its purchase or promotion. It can therefore be argued that potential promise to customers. 130, 144, 204
a brand only exists when this link has been made i.e. a brand is only a brand when it is communicated
Terms for Glossary Definition Brand Terms for Glossary Definition Brand

Brand image A unique set of associations within the minds of target customers which represent what the brand 24, 28, 40, 82, 86, 90, Brand positioning Brand positioning is the ‘market space’ a brand is perceived to occupy in the mind of the target audience. 18, 24, 36, 46, 50, 58,
currently stands for and implies the current promise to customers. The brand image is what is currently 134, 162, 194, 202 All strong marketing communications programs need to focus on only few messages to achieve better 62, 100, 105, 124, 128,
in the minds of consumers, whereas brand identity is aspirational from the brand owners’ point of view. impact in an increasingly noisy environment. The brand positioning is the part of the brand identity that 130, 134, 138, 154,
management decides to actively communicate to the market. 160, 170, 174, 178,
Brand imagery Powerful imagery can make or break a brand. Imagery is the kind of associations a brand could get 50 184, 194, 204, 210
linked with over a period of time. It has an impact on how consumers perceive the brand and how they
will react to it in the long run. Brand imagery plays an important role in shaping the association in the Brand promise A brand promise is essentially what the company says it will do for the customer. This promise is what 14, 22, 24, 28, 30, 44,
consumer’s psyche. customers perceive they can expect from the company. 46, 54, 58, 62, 70, 86,
90, 114, 120, 122,
Branding The means by which names, logos, symbols, trademarks, or product design endow goods or services with 144 124, 128, 134, 150,
a recognisable presence and a set of associated values or expectations on the part of the consumer. 154, 156, 160, 162,
174, 192, 194, 198,
Brand integrated scope Brand Integrated Scope model® is an integrated brand and business model from de Merkcommissarissen® 178, 184 202, 204
that covers all elementary strategy areas.
Brand recognition Brand recognition is the customers’ ability to confirm prior exposure/knowledge of a brand when shown 110
Brand laws These statutes and (sometimes) administrative regulations establish brand registration systems. These 206 or asked explicitly about the brand (also referred to as aided or prompted awareness).
systems require the registration of brands with country or state officials to avoid duplication of brands
or brands that are confusingly alike. Brand roots The origin of the brand. 50, 66, 72, 94, 110

Brand loyalty Degree to which a consumer repeatedly purchases a brand. For advertisers to achieve their ultimate 86, 134 Brand smashing The idea of smashing the brand is simple. It’s all about identifying the components you want to be 110
goal of brand loyalty, the consumer must perceive that the brand offers the right combination of quality famous for and leverage the fact that the logo is only a very small component of your overall brand
and price. Many factors influence brand loyalty, such as consumer attitudes, family or peer pressure, and visibility. Smashing your brand is in fact all about keeping focus on everything beyond the logo, because
friendship with the salesperson. The advertiser must consider all such factors. a good 90 percent of the real estate on your product or service should also be branded. Smashing your
brand requires attention to every signal, every tone, touch or shape of your product, merchandising and
Brand manual A brand manual is a work and management tool for the people in the company’s international 178 even wrapping.
organisation who are responsible for branding. The brand values are described in the brand manual.
Brand salience The brand’s prosperity to be noticed or come to mind in buying situations. Brand salience reflects the 50
Brand perception Brand is essentially the sum of all experiences related to the product, service, and companies that make 24, 124 quantity and quality of the network of memory structures buyers’ hold about the brands.
and deliver the product. Brand perceptions are shaped by functional experiences (i.e. speed, quality,
reliability, ease of use) as well as emotional experiences (i.e. make me feel better, improve my performance, Brand strategy The ‘big picture’ plans and tactics deployed by an organisation/brand owner to create long-term brand 40, 50, 54, 58, 70, 72,
make my life/job more gratifying or easier) the customer associates with the product and company. equity and competitive advantages from branding. 86, 94, 105, 138, 144,
150, 154, 170, 178,
Brand performance Brand performance occurs when a vision is distilled, the story developed and culture aligned to the 50 188, 194, 206
resulting brand in a well-managed manner.
Brand touch points Brand touch points are all the points where the company, company’s employees, products, services or 50
Brand personality The brand personality is the brand image or brand identity expressed in terms of human characteristics. 54, 82, 100, 110 messages touch a prospect or customer.
The brand personality must ideally include distinguishing and identifiable characteristics which offer
consistent, enduring and predictable messages and mental perceptions. Brand values Brand value is the financial premium derived from loyal target audiences committed to a brand and 14, 22, 24, 28, 30, 40,
willing to pay extra for the brand as compared to a generic product or service in the same category. 44, 46, 50, 54, 58, 66,
Brand philosophy Set of principles built around the physical, rational and emotional benefits of the company’s products 100 82, 86, 94, 100, 114,
and how they are portrayed to their market. 120, 122, 124, 128,
130, 134, 150, 154,
Brand portfolio The brand portfolio is the set of all brands and brand lines that a particular firm offers for sale to buyers 32, 110 160, 166, 174, 178,
in a particular category. 192, 194, 202, 204,

Brand victory model This model encapsulates ‘the essence’ of a brand’s identity and provides a comprehensive and practical 140, 144
framework for analysing, creating, planning, and evaluating brand concepts.
Terms for Glossary Definition Brand Terms for Glossary Definition Brand

Customer Based Brand Kevin Lane Keller’s ‘Customer Based Brand Equity’ model maps out the process of building strong brands. 94 Instrumental values Instrumental values are values like ambition, courage, persistence, politeness etc. They are not the end 156
Equity Pyramid The model describes six dimensions of ‘brand-added value’: brand salience, brand performance, brand but a mean of achieving Terminal values.
imagery, consumer judgements, consumer feelings and brand resonance.
Line extensions Existing brand name extended to new sizes or flavours in the existing product category. 166
Corporate identity a corporate identity (CI) is the ‘person’ of a corporation which is designed to accord with and 162
facilitate the attainment of business objectives, and is usually visibly manifested by way of branding Market penetration Market penetration is one of the four growth strategies as defined by Ansoff. Market penetration occurs 22
and the use of trademarks. Corporate Identity is often viewed as being composed of three parts: when a company enters/penetrates a market with current products. The best way to achieve this is by
• Corporate Design (logos, uniforms, etc.) gaining competitors’ customers (part of their market share). Other ways include attracting non-users of
• Corporate Communication (commercials, public relations, information, etc.) your product or convincing current clients to use more of your product/service.
• Corporate Behaviour (internal values, norms, etc.)
Marketing-driven A marketing driven company recognises that each business activity is essentially marketing in action. 44, 184, 188
Cross-selling Cross-selling is the strategy of selling other products to a customer who has already purchased (or 70 company From the CEO on down, all are performing a marketing function.
signalled their intention to purchase) a product from the vendor. Cross-selling is designed to increase
the customer’s reliance on the company and decrease the likelihood of the customer switching to a Marketing paradigm A marketing paradigm is a set of procedures and attitudes that, taken together, define how marketing 18
competitor. is done.

Economies of scale Economies of scale characterises a production process in which an increase in the scale of the firm 62, 182 Means-end analysis This analyses lays a link between brand values, consequences or meaning and concrete (tangible) 166
causes a decrease in the long run average cost of each unit. properties.

Five (5) P’s Marketing tools from the marketing mix: product, place, price, promotion and personnel. The marketing 138 Mission The mission corresponds to what a company stands for and relates to values and identity. Who are we? 30, 58, 82, 86, 144,
mix relates to the alignment between the elements that a company has to meet the needs of the target What are our values? How do we want to treat our clients? And how do we treat our staff? 154, 160
market. The fulfilment of each of these tools and their mutual interrelationship is dependent on matters
such as the objectives, the market, the target group and the competition. Monolithic monobrand A single brand name that is used to ‘Masterbrand’ all products and services in a range. 70

Focus groups Focus groups are a data collection tool that gathers the opinions of six to ten people who are carefully 46 Multibrand strategy Marketing of two or more similar and competing products by the same firm under different and 184, 188
selected to freely discuss various topics of interest at length. unrelated brands.

Global brand A brand which is perceived to reflect the same set of values around the world. 116, 174, 184, 188 Power brand Brand power: A measure of the ability of the brand to dominate its product category. 184

Global branding Global branding is not simply a marketing or advertising program. It is a way of doing business that 58, 78, 114 Premium brand This is a quality brand with considerable brand equity that may command a premium price for the 188
transcends the requirements of advertising and affects every aspect of the business enterprise. perceived quality.

Globalisation Globalisation refers to increasing global connectivity, integration and interdependence in the economic, 62 Product diversification Diversification is a ‘must’. By diversifying a company limits its portfolio risk without to many concessions 110
social, technological, cultural, political, and ecological spheres. Globalisation is an umbrella term and to returns.
is perhaps best understood as a unitary process inclusive of many sub-processes (such as enhanced
economic interdependence, increased cultural influence, rapid advances of information technology, and Resource-based view Strategies must be based mainly on a company’s strength, on its core competences. 18
novel governance and geopolitical challenges) that are increasingly binding people and the biosphere
more tightly into one global system. Social responsibility Social responsibility is a doctrine that claims that an entity whether it is state, government, corporation, 144, 204
organisation or individual has a responsibility to society. This responsibility can be ‘negative’, in that it
House brands A proprietary brand of merchandise sold by one retailer and often bearing the name of the retailer. 78 is a responsibility to refrain from acting (resistance stance) or it can be ‘positive’, meaning there is a
responsibility to act (proactive stance).
Internal branding Internal branding is the process of aligning day-to-day activities, business processes, job design, and 178
recognition & reward with the brand identity to drive business results. Top-of-mind awareness Top-of-mind awareness is owning the space that your product or service occupies between your 86
prospects ears. That way, when they’re ready to buy they think of you first.

Total branding Total branding is about unifying the activities of the whole company to win customer preference. 22
By linking brand values with the corporate vision, a company becomes more effective and efficient.
Terms for Glossary Definition Brand Index
Up-selling Up-selling is a sales technique whereby a salesman attempts to have the consumer purchase more 70 Accenture 178 BrandKey Vision model 78
expensive items, upgrades, or other add-ons in an attempt to make a more profitable sale. Up-selling
usually involves marketing more profitable services or products, but up-selling can also be simply Alsem, Karel Jan 18 Brandmanagement as a culture clash 32
exposing the customer to other options he or she may not have considered previously.
AMOREPACIFIC 40 Brandmeyer, Klaus 32
Value chain The value chain, also known as value chain analysis, is a concept from business management that was 204
first described and popularised by Michael Porter. The value chain categorises the generic value-adding Apple 22, 140 Brand Smashing model 110
activities of an organisation. The ‘primary activities’ include: inbound logistics, operations (production),
outbound logistics, marketing and sales, and services (maintenance). The ‘support activities’ include: Australian Homemade 14 Brand Victory model 140, 144
administrative infrastructure management, human resource management, R&D, and procurement. The
costs and value drivers are identified for each value activity. The value chain framework quickly made Bacardi 184 Camper 206
its way to the forefront of management thought as a powerful analysis tool for strategic planning. Its
ultimate goal is to maximise value creation while minimising costs. Bakker, Peter 144 Campina 36

Vision (statement) An organisation’s vision is a brief and clear-cut answer to the question: how do we see ourselves in the 5, 78, 82, 144, 160 Bangle, Chris 66 Canon 46
world of tomorrow? It represents a company’s idea of the developments in its sector and the direction
in which the company and staff would like to head. Bavaria 24 Chang, Dae Ryun 40, 50

Been, Gonnie 134 Choho, Abdeluheb 178

Berg, Herwin van den 188 Cloosterman, Raymond 170

Berssenbrügge, Gerhard 150 Club Med 54

Bertolli 78 Coca-Cola 18, 58, 110

Bilderberg 28 Coenen, Jeroen 70

Bleichrodt, Nico 54 Concepting model 170

blowUP media 30 Cornelis, Frans 162

BMW 66 Customer Based Brand Equity model 50

Bon-Keul, Koo 50 Customer Based Brand Equity pyramid 94

Bosman, Juriaan 22 Customer Experience Management Framework 40

Bower, Marvin 210 David, Stella 184

Brand Bonding Heineken model 188 Denie, Frenkel 24

Brand identity prism 72 DHL 62

Brand Integrated Scope model 178, 184 Diele, Oscar 122

Dreteler, Jan Willem 192 Houten, Manon 82 Means-end analysis 166 Rueck, Joost 120

DSB Bank 44 Identity based marketing paradigm 18 Meeùs 128 Samsonite 174

Dubbelman, Huub 130 Identity Marketing 18 Mercedes 130 Siemes van der Made, Ingrid 58

Duurland, Jean Paul 62 innocent 166 Microsoft 134 Sister, Leo van 178, 184, 188

5 P’s model 138 Jack Daniel’s 72 Mignot, Damien 174 Sixt 182

Franzen, Giep 66, 72 Jägermeister 90 Mosmans, Andy 140, 144 SNS Bank 192

Garderen, Ton van 22 Keller, Kevin Lane 94 Muller, Victor 194 Sony Ericsson 202

Google 116 Kingma, Taco 36 Nespresso 150 Spyker 194

Graaff, Willy de 78 Koningsberger, Menno 124 NIVEA 94 Stubbé, Maarten 128

Haas, Rene-Paul 86 Kralingen, Roland van 100, 104 Océ 114 Three fundamental branding laws 206, 210

Hagenaars, Guido 78 Krapp, Norbert 94 Opdam, Monique 154 TNO 198

Hagenaars, Hans 104 Kunisch, Rolf 94 Panke, Helmut 66 TNT 144

Haneman, Paul 66 Lamers, Bastian 14 Pet, Richard 44 USG Restart 204

Hazzys 50 Lanza, Conny 156 Philips 18 Veraart, Arjan 160

Heest, Cocky van 198 Leinders, Paul 14 Popcorn, Faith 110 Versluis, Arnoud 128

Heineken 188 Leurs, Jacco 46 Postbank 104, 154 Visser, Marc 62

Heineken Brand Idea model 188 Light, Larry 138 Privium 156 Vlist, Menno van der 82

Heinz 82 Lindstrom, Martin 110, 116 Rabobank 160 Vorst, Roland van der 206, 210

HEMA 100 Logica CMG 120 Randstad 162 Vos, Ernst 30

Herfkens, John 204 Made, Angelique van de 78 Repko, Rene 100 Winter, Bert de 90

Hewlett-Packard 70 Marktplaats 122 Riezebos, Rik 166 Wolters, Thomas 182

Hielkema, Marcel 28 MARS® 124 Rikken, Eric 202 Zetten, Ronald van 100

Hol, Jan 114 McDonald’s 138 Rijkenberg, Jan 138, 170 Zijlstra, Peter 130

Holland Casino 86 McKinsey & Company 210 Rituals 170