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COMMUNICATION THEORY

-PRELIM-
If only communication plans w! as simpl as communicatin"#$
- AT % T
&'at is communication(
- T' p!ocss )y w'ic' popl int!acti*ly c!at+ sustain+ an, mana" manin"#
- Con!a, %Pool+.//01
- T' flow of info!mation f!om on p!son to anot'!#
- A2ly+ ./031
- Viewed as simply one activity among many others, such as planning, controlling, and
managing. (Deetz, 1994)
&'at is Comptnt Communication(
Acco!,in" to !sa!c'+ it in,icats t'at Competent Communication is most oftn un,!stoo,
as ac'i*in" a succssful )alanc )twn ffcti*nss an, app!op!iatnss#
-4pit5)!" % Cupac'+./0/1#
Effcti*nss - is t' 2tnt to w'ic' you ac'i* you! "oals in an int!action#
App!op!iatnss 6 !f!s to fulfillin" social 2pctations fo! a pa!ticula! situation#
T'o!is ,!i*, f!om RE4EARCH
Must ) put in a systmatic fo!m 6 as a w!ittn st of ,sc!ipti* an, 2planato!y
statmnts )fo! it can ) call, a t'o!y#
Usually ,*lop, aft! som !sa!c'! 'as stu,i, a pa!ticula! 7in, of )'a*io! an,
'as sta!t, to "ain som insi"'t as to w'at mi"'t ) causin" w'at*! s' o! ' 'as
o)s!*,#
I,as fo! t'o!is a! oftn "n!at, )y t'os n"a"in" in 8ualitati*$ stu,is#
T'o!is 9!i*, f!om I,olo"is
A! t'o!is t'at a! not ,!i*, f!om+ o! tst, )y+ con,uctin" !sa!c' wit'in a
scintific f!amwo!7 but are obtained from some sort of ideology.
T' t!m i,olo"y$ coms f!om t' wo!, i,a$ -a concpt o! !p!sntation1 an,
lo"os$ -a )o,y of wis,om o! 7nowl,"#
T'o!is can ,o mo! t'an summa!i5#
Ot'! functions of t'o!is a! to focus attntion on pa!ticula! concpts+ cla!ify ou!
o)s!*ations+ p!,ict communication )'a*io!+ an, "n!at p!sonal an, social
c'an"#
T'! Typs of T'o!y
.# Commonsns T'o!y 6 also known as Theory-in-use.
- oftn c!at, )y an in,i*i,ual:s own p!sonal 2p!incs o! ,*lop, f!om
'lpful 'ints pass, on f!om family mm)!s+ f!in,s+ o! coll"us#
;# &o!7in" T'o!y 6 T's a! "n!ali5ations ma, in pa!ticula! p!ofssions a)out t' )st
tc'ni8us fo! ,oin" somt'in"#
<# 4c'ola!ly T'o!y 6 p!o*i, mo! t'o!ou"'+ accu!at+ an, a)st!act 2planations fo!
communication t'an ,o commonsns o! wo!7in" t'o!is#
T' T'o!y Rsa!c' Lin7
In,ucti* T'o!y 9*lopmnt
4om sc'ola!s a!"u t'at !sa!c' coms )fo! t'o!y#
Is also 7nown as =ROUN9E9 THEORY#
4c'ola!s usin" t'is t'o!y )li* t'at t' )st t'o!is m!" f!om t' !sults of
systmatic stu,y -=las! %4t!auss+ ./>?1
9,ucti* T'o!y 9*lopmnt
Associat, wit' a scintific mt'o,#
R8ui!s t'at a 'ypot'sis+ o! a wo!7in" t'o!y#
Onc t' t'o!y is ,*lop,+ t' t'o!ist t'n collcts ,ata to tst o! !fin t'
t'o!y#
T' T'o!y-Rsa!c' Lin7
&'at is Rsa!c'(
- t' mt'o,ical "at'!in" of ,ata as wll as t' ca!ful !po!tin" of t' !sults of t'
,ata analysis#
- 9isciplin, in8ui!y t'at in*ol*s stu,yin" somt'in" in a plann, mann! an,
!po!tin" it so t'at ot'! in8ui!is can potntially !plicat t' p!ocss if t'y c'oos#$
-@!y+ Aotan+ an, B!ps +;CC;1
Two Cat"o!is of Rsa!c'
P!ima!y !sa!c' 6 !sa!c' !po!t, )y t' p!son w'o con,uct, it# Oftn pu)lis', in
aca,mic Dou!nals#
4con,a!y !sa!c' 6 !sa!c' !po!t, )y somon ot'! t'an t' p!son w'o con,uct, it#
T'is is pu)lis', in nwspap!s o! t2t)oo7s#
Rsa!c' Mt'o,s in Communication
T'! a! ,iff!nt !sa!c' mt'o,s in communication# Alow you can s t' ,iff!nt
ons#
Experiments
E2p!imntation is ultimatly conc!n, wit' causation an, cont!ol# An 2p!imnt is t'
only !sa!c' mt'o, t'at allows !sa!c's to conclu, t'at on t'in" causs anot'!# T'!
a! ; possi)l sttin"s fo! an 2p!imnt+ a la)o!ato!y 2p!imnt o! a fil, 2p!imnt#
La)o!ato!y 2p!imnt 6 ta7s plac in a cont!oll, sttin"+ so t'at t' !sa!c'! mi"'t
)tt! cont!ol 'is o! '! ffo!ts at manipulations#
@il, 2p!imnts 6 ta7 plac in pa!ticipants: natu!al su!!oun,in"s#
T'! a! always ; *a!ia)ls wit'in a !sa!c'#
Ea!ia)l any concpts t'at 'as ; o! mo! *alus+ suc' as "n,!#
In,pn,nt *a!ia)l p!sum, caus
9pn,nt *a!ia)l p!sum, ffct
If you a! int!st, in 7nowin" w't'! )!i"'t colo!s in a,*!tismnts caus inc!as,
sals+ you! in,pn,nt *a!ia)l is t' colo! an, t' ,pn,nt *a!ia)l is t' amount of sals
,olla!s#
Survey research
T' most common mans of stu,yin" communication is t'!ou"' t' us of su!*ys# Ma!7t
!sa!c' an, ot'! su!*ys a! an 2ampl of t'is# In "n!al+ t'! a! ; typs of su!*ys#
Int!*iws 6 pa!ticipants !spon, o!ally#
Fustionnai!s 6 !spon, in w!itin"#
- Opn n,, 8ustions answ! in t'i! own wo!,s
- Clos, n,, 8ustions
4amplin" 6 small num)! of popl in t' population of int!st# If t' sampl is wll
slct,+ t' !sults of t' su!*y a! li7ly also to 'ol, t!u fo! t' nti! "!oup#
Ran,om sampls *!y mm)! of t' ta!"t "!oup 'as an 8ual c'anc of )in" slct,#
Non !an,om sampls *olunt!s#
Ran,om sampls a! mo! li7ly to us+ )caus t'y "i* a mo! !p!sntati* *iw of t'
situation#
Textual analysis
Is us, to unco*! t' contnt+ natu! o! st!uctu! of mssa"s#
T'! a! < ,istinct fo!ms t'at t2tual analyss ta7 in t' communication ,isciplinG
- R'to!ical c!iticism a systmatic mt'o, fo! ,sc!i)in"+ analy5in"+ int!p!tin"
an, *aluatin" t' p!suasi* fo!c of mssa"s#
- Contnt analysis in,ntify+ classify an, analy5 t' occu!!nc of pa!ticula! typs
of mssa"s# 9*lop, to stu,y mass m,iat, mssa"s#
- Int!action analysis - con*!sation analysis1 focus on int!p!sonal o! "!oup
communication int!actions t'at 'a* )n !co!,,+ wit' a spcific mp'asis on t'
natu! o! st!uctu! of int!action#
Ethnoraphy
Us, )y sc'ola!s of communication# T' !sa!c'! must plac 'im o! '!slf into a
pa!ticula! cultu! o! cont2t to un,!stan, t' communication !uls an, manin"s fo! t'at
cultu! o! cont2t#
Complt pa!ticipants !sa!c'! is fully in*ol*, in t' social sttin" an, t' pa!ticipants
,o not 7now t'at somon is stu,yin" t'm#
Pa!ticipant 6 o)s!*! !sa!c'! )coms fully in*ol*, wit' t' cultu! o! cont2ts+ )ut
s' o! ' 'as a,mitt, 'is o! '! !sa!c' a"n,a )fo! nt!in" t' n*i!onmnt# A! mo!
f!8untly c'osn#
Complt o)s!*!s ,o not int!act wit' t' mm)!s of t' cultu! o! cont2t#
!esearch metho" #hat it reveals #hat it conceals
E2p!imnt Caus an, ffct &'t'! t' caus-ffct
!lations'ip 'ol,s t!u in lss
cont!oll, n*i!onmnts
4u!*y Rspon,nts: t'ou"'ts+
flin"s an, intntions
Cannot sta)lis' causality+
cannot ,t!min w'at
popl actually ,o
T2tual analysis T' contnt+ natu! an,
st!uctu! of mssa"s
T' ffct of t' mssa" on
t' !ci*!
Et'no"!ap'y Ruls an, manin"s of
communication in a cultu!
o! cont2t
May p!o*i, a 'i"'ly
su)Dcti* - an, t'!fo!
)ias,1 *iw of t' cultu!
an, cont2t
4u)Dcti*ity on:s own int!p!tation is of int!st#
O)Dcti*ity a cnt!al fatu! of social scinc#
Fuantitati* mt'o,s !ly on num)!s of statistics as t' sou!c of ,ata
Fualitati* mt'o,s !Dct t' limitations on in,i*i,ual int!p!tation t'at cont!ol !8ui!s#
Evaluatin theory
E*aluatin" t' usfulnss of t' t'o!y#
T'! a! som c!it!ia fo! *aluatin" t'o!y+ w'ic' a! s'own )low#
A!a of *aluation &'at to loo7 fo!
Accu!acy Has t' !sa!c' suppo!t, t'at t' t'o!y
wo!7s t' way it says it ,os# Loo7 at t'
!sa!c' stu,is t'at 'a* su, t' t'o!y#
P!acticality Ha* !al-wo!l, applications )n foun, fo!
t' t'o!y(
4implicity Is t' t'o!y fo!mulat, as simply as
possi)l#
Consistncy
Int!nal i,as of t' t'o!y a! lo"ically
)uilt on on anot'!
E2t!nal !f!s to t' t'o!y:s consistncy
wit' ot'! wi,ly 'l, t'o!is#
Acuity To w'at 2tnt ,os t' t'o!y ma7 cla! an
ot'!wis compl2 2p!inc(
4*n T!a,itions in t' @il, of Communication T'o!y
.# T' 4ocio 6Psyc'olo"ical T!a,ition
Communication as interpersonal Interaction and influence
- 4c'ola!s in t'is t!a,ition )li* t'! a! communication t!ut's t'at can )
,isco*!, )y ca!ful+ systmatic o)s!*ation# T' loo7 fo! caus-an,-ffct
!lations'ips t'at will p!,ict t' !sults w'n popl communicat# &'n t'y fin,
casual lin7s+ t'y a! wll on t' way to answ!in" t' *!-p!snt 8ustion t'at
!lations'ip an, p!suasion p!actition!s as7G How can I get others to change
;# THE CYAERNETIC TRA9ITION
Communication as a !ystem of Information "rocessing
- MIT scintist No!)!t &in! coin, t' wo!, cybernetics to ,sc!i) t' fi l, of
a!tificial intlli"nc# / T' t!m is a t!anslit!ation of t' =!7 wo!, fo!
st!sman$ o! "o*!no!+$ an, it illust!ats t' way f,)ac7 ma7s info!mation
p!ocssin" possi)l in ou! 'a,s an, on ou! laptops# 9u!in" &o!l, &a! II+ &in!
,*lop, an anti-ai!c!aft fi !in" systm t'at a,Dust, futu! t!aDcto!y )y ta7in" into
account t' !sults of past p!fo!manc# His concpt of f,)ac7 anc'o!, t'
cy)!ntic t!a,ition+ w'ic' !"a!,s communication as t' lin7 connctin" t' spa!at
pa!ts of any systm+ suc' as a comput! systm+ a family systm+ a m,ia systm+ o! a
systm of social suppo!t# T'o!ists in t' cy)!ntic t!a,ition s7 to answ! suc'
8ustions as How does the system work #hat could change it an, How can we get
the bugs out
<# THE RHETORICAL TRA9ITION
Communication as $rtful "ublic $ddress
- T' a!t of usin" all a*aila)l mans of p!suasion+ focusin" upon lins of
a!"umnt+ o!"ani5ation of i,as+ lan"ua" us+ an, ,li*!y in pu)lic spa7in"#
- &'t'! spa7in" to a c!ow,+ con"!"ation+ l"islati* assm)ly+ o! Du!y+
pu)lic spa7!s 'a* sou"'t p!actical a,*ic on 'ow to )st p!snt t'i! cas# &ll
into t' twntit' cntu!y+ t' !'to!ical t'o!y an, a,*ic f!om Plato+ A!istotl+
Cic!o+ Fuintilian+ an, ot'! =!co-Roman !'to!s s!*, as t' main sou!c of
wis,om a)out pu)lic spa7in"# T'! a! a 'alf-,o5n fatu!s t'at c'a!act!i5 t'is
influntial t!a,ition of !'to!ical communicationG
H A con*iction t'at spc' ,istin"uis's 'umans f!om ot'! animals# Cic!o
su""st, t'at only o!al communication 'a, t' pow! to la, 'umanity out of its
)!utis' 2istnc an, sta)lis' communitis wit' !i"'ts of citi5ns'ip#
H A confi,nc t'at pu)lic a,,!ss ,li*!, in a ,moc!atic fo!um is a mo!
ffcti* way to sol* political p!o)lms t'an !ul )y ,c! o! !so!tin" to fo!c#
&it'in t'is t!a,ition+ t' p'!as mere rhetoric is a cont!a,iction in t!ms#
H A sttin" in w'ic' a sin"l spa7! attmpts to influnc multipl listn!s t'!ou"'
p!suasi* ,iscou!s# Effcti* communication !8ui!s au,inc a,aptation#
H O!ato!ical t!ainin" as t' co!n!ston of a la,!:s ,ucation# 4pa7!s la!n
to ,li*! st!on" a!"umnts in pow!ful *oics t'at ca!!y to t' ," of a c!ow,#
3# THE 4EMIOTIC TRA9ITION
Communication as the "rocess of !haring %eaning Through !igns
- 4miotics is t' stu,y of si"ns# A sign is anyt'in" t'at can stan, fo! somt'in"
ls# Hi"' )o,y tmp!atu! is a si"n of infction# Ai!,s flyin" sout' si"nal t'
comin" of wint!# A w'it can si"nifis )lin,nss# An a!!ow ,si"nats w'ic'
,i!ction to "o# &o!,s a! also si"ns+ )ut of a spcial 7in,# T'y a! symbols. Unli7
t' 2ampls I:* Dust cit,+ wo!,s a! a!)it!a!y sym)ols t'at 'a* no in'!nt
manin"+ no natu!al connction wit' t' t'in"s t'y ,sc!i)# @o! 2ampl+ t'!:s
not'in" in t' soun, of t' wo!, share o! anyt'in" *isual in t' ltt!s h-u-g t'at
si"nifi s a "oo, f!in,s'ip# On coul, Dust as asily coin t' t!m snarf o! clag to
sym)oli5 a clos !lations'ip )twn f!in,s# T' sam t'in" is t!u fo! non*!)al
sym)ols li7 winks o! waves#
I# THE 4OCIO-CULTURAL TRA9ITION
Communication as the Creation and &nactment of !ocial 'eality
- T' socio-cultu!al t!a,ition is )as, on t' p!mis t'at as popl tal7+ t'y
p!o,uc an, !p!o,uc cultu!# Most of us assum t'at wo!,s !flct w'at actually
2ists# How*!+ t'o!ists in t'is t!a,ition su""st t'at t' p!ocss oftn wo!7s t'
ot'! way a!oun,# Ou! *iw of !ality is st!on"ly s'ap, )y t' lan"ua" w:* us,
sinc w w! infants#
- Contmpo!a!y socio-cultu!al t'o!ists "!ant *n mo! pow! to lan"ua"#
T'y claim t'at it is t'!ou"' t' p!ocss of communication t'at !ality is p!o,uc,+
maintain,+ !pai!,+ an, t!ansfo!m,#$ ;C O!+ stat, in t' acti* *oic+ persons-in-
conversation co-construct their own social worlds. ;. &'n t's wo!l,s colli,+ t'
socio-cultu!al t!a,ition off!s 'lp in )!i,"in" t' cultu! "ap t'at 2ists )twn us$
an, t'm#$
># THE CRITICAL TRA9ITION
Communication as a 'eflective Challenge of (n)ust *iscourse

- Alt'ou"' phenomenology is an imposin" p'ilosop'ical t!m+ it )asically !f!s
to t' intntional analysis of *!y,ay lif f!om t' stan,point of t' p!son w'o is
li*in" it# T'us+ t' p'nomnolo"ical t!a,ition placs "!at mp'asis on popl:s
p!cption an, t'i! int!p!tation of t'i! own 2p!inc# @o! t' p'nomnolo"ist+
an in,i*i,ual:s sto!y is mo! impo!tant+ an, mo! aut'o!itati*+ t'an any !sa!c'
'ypot'sis o! communication a2iom# As psyc'olo"ist Ca!l Ro"!s ass!ts+ Nit'!
t' Ai)l no! t' p!op'tsJnit'! @!u, no! !sa!c'Jnit'! t' !*lations of
=o, no! manJcan ta7 p!c,nc o*! my own ,i!ct 2p!inc#$T' p!o)lm+
of cou!s+ is t'at no two popl 'a* t' sam lif sto!y# 4inc w cannot 2p!inc
anot'! p!son:s 2p!inc+ w tn, to tal7 past ac' ot'! an, t'n lamnt+
No)o,y un,!stan,s w'at it:s li7 to ) m#$ T'us+ t'o!ists w'o wo!7 wit'in t'
p'nomnolo"ical t!a,ition s7 to answ! two 8ustionsG #hy is it so hard to
establish and sustain authentic human relationships an, How can this problem be
overcome
?# THE PHENOMENOLO=ICAL TRA9ITION
Communication as the &+perience of !elf and ,thers Through *ialogue
- Alt'ou"' phenomenology is an imposin" p'ilosop'ical t!m+ it )asically !f!s
to t' intntional analysis of *!y,ay lif f!om t' stan,point of t' p!son w'o is
li*in" it# T'us+ t' p'nomnolo"ical t!a,ition placs "!at mp'asis on popl:s
p!cption an, t'i! int!p!tation of t'i! own 2p!inc# @o! t' p'nomnolo"ist+
an in,i*i,ual:s sto!y is mo! impo!tant+ an, mo! aut'o!itati*+ t'an any !sa!c'
'ypot'sis o! communication a2iom# As psyc'olo"ist Ca!l Ro"!s ass!ts+ Nit'!
t' Ai)l no! t' p!op'tsJnit'! @!u, no! !sa!c'Jnit'! t' !*lations of
=o, no! manJcan ta7 p!c,nc o*! my own ,i!ct 2p!inc#$ T' p!o)lm+
of cou!s+ is t'at no two popl 'a* t' sam lif sto!y# 4inc w cannot 2p!inc
anot'! p!son:s 2p!inc+ w tn, to tal7 past ac' ot'! an, t'n lamnt+
No)o,y un,!stan,s w'at it:s li7 to ) m#$ T'us+ t'o!ists w'o wo!7 wit'in t'
p'nomnolo"ical t!a,ition s7 to answ! two 8ustionsG #hy is it so hard to
establish and sustain authentic human relationships an, How can this problem be
overcome

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