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4
1. TENSION TEST
Exp.No Date:..
AIM
To conduct tension test on a mild steel and HYSD specimen to obtain their mechanical
properties.
THEORY AND APPLICATION
Tension test is a basic test widely used for the study of the mechanical behaviour of
metals. In this test, a specimen of standard form and dimensions is subjected to a gradual axial
pull at a slow rate. As the specimen is loaded it gradually gets elongated. At the initial state
the elongation is proportional to the load. When the load is further increased, a point is
reached when the specimen yields, giving rise to large deformation with the load remaining
stationary. Then the specimen gets strain-hardened (work hardened) and the load starts
increasing. In this region, the load deformation curve is non-linear. When the ultimate load is
reached, the specimen undergoes excessive deformation due to the formation of a neck at the
weakest section of the specimen. Subsequently the total load taken by the specimen decreases
and at some load, less than the ultimate load, the specimen ruptures. The relevant mechanical
properties of mild steel are obtained from the load deformation curve obtained from the
tension test (Fig 1.1).

Load




Figure 1.1
1. Proportional limit
2. Elastic limit or yield
point
3. Ultimate load
4. Breaking load or Rupture
1
2
3

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Elongation
Definitions
Stress
The stress at a point is defined as

A
P
Lt
A

=
0

where P is the resultant force acting on an infinitesimal area A. In the static tension test, the
stress is uniform and normal across a transverse cross sectional plane, and hence is given by
P
A
=
where P is the load and A is the area of cross section.
Strain
The normal strain is defined as
l
l

=
where l is the change in length over a length l due to applied load.( Here it is assumed that
the strain over the length l is uniform)
Limit of Proportionality: It represents the maximum stress value up to which the stress is
directly proportional to the corresponding strain viz. the material obeys the Hookes law.
It can bee seen that the load elongation relationship is linear up to point 1 in Fig.1.The
ordinate of point 1 at which the load elongation curve begins to deviate from the linear
relationship represents a force which is made use of in calculating the limit of proportionality.
Elastic Limit or Yield Point: The point 2 in Fig.1 represents the limit up to which the
elongation (and hence the strain) disappears on unloading and there exists no residual strain
when the load is completely relieved. The stress corresponding to this point is called the
elastic limit or yield point of the material. Any further increase in loading beyond the elastic
limit will induce strain which will not completely disappear when the specimen is unloaded.

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Loading
Unloading
Loading
Unloading
Stress
Stress
Strain
Figure 1.2
This point lies in the immediate neighborhood of the limit of proportionality and is almost
indistinguishable from it for a mild steel specimen.
During this test, the yield point is identified by a progressive increase in strain in the
test specimen with the load remaining stationary. Certain materials exhibit a small reduction
of load on reaching the yield point and hence they have a upper and a lower yield point.
Youngs Modulus of Elasticity (E): The ratio of the normal stress to the corresponding normal
strain with in the elastic limit is called the Youngs Modulus of elasticity. It is given by

0

Stress P l
E
Normal Strain A l
= =


This represents the slope of the line 0-1 in Fig.1.The unit of stress is N/mm
2
and the strain
being dimensionless, the unit of E is also N/mm
2
.It can be seen that the load deformation
follows the same line on unloading from stress level with in the elastic limit where as
unloading from a stress level greater than the yield stress causes a residual strain as shown in
Fig.1.2.








Residual strain on unloading from a stress level


beyond the yield stress

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strain
stress
a
0.002
Proof stress
For many materials such as high carbon steel and alloy steel, no well defined yield
point is obtained during a tension test. In such cases the stress corresponding to an arbitrary
residual strain, equal to 0.002 is commonly taken as its yield point and it is qualified as proof
stress. For determining the proof stress a length equal to 0.2 percentage of the gauge length is
marked on the x-axis of the load-elongation graph. A line is drawn through this point parallel
to the straight line portion of the load-deformation curve until it intersects the curve a as
shown in Fig.1.3




Figure 1.3
The stress corresponding to this point is called 0.2% proof stress.
The stress corresponding to the maximum load taken by the test specimen its rupture
represented by point 3 in fig 1 is defined as the nominal ultimate stress.

0
(nominal) =
ult
ult
P
A

The ultimate load can be obtained directly from the load shown by the final position of
the dummy pointer of its load indication dial of the UTM.
Nominal Breaking Stress
The nominal breaking stress is given by

0
(normal) =
rup
rup
P
A


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where P
rup
is the breaking load indicated by in Fig.1.1
The breaking load (less than ultimate load) is obtained by observing the instantaneous
position of the load indicator at the time when the specimen breaks.
It may be observed that large plastic deformation occurs when loading exceeds the
yield point causing appreciable change in the original cross sectional area of the test
specimen. This change in cross-sectional area is not taken into account in calculating the
nominal ultimate and breaking stresses. The corresponding true stresses can be obtained by
making use of the actual cross sectional area. Hence
rup
(actual)= P
rup
/A
f
where A
f
is the actual
cross sectional area at the breaking point.
Percentage Elongation
The total elongation of the test specimen up to failure represents the recoverable elastic
deformation, the residual uniform elongation up to the neck formation and the concentrated
elongation from the instant of neck formation until its failure. The ratio of the total residual
elongation measured over a specified length (gauge length) to the f gauge length of the
specimen is given by
0
0
L
L L
f

100
Where, L
f
is the final elongated length and L
0
is the original gauge length.
The ratio expressed as a percentage is called the percentage elongation (relative elongation).
This gives an index of the ductility of the material.
Percentage reduction in area
The percentage reduction in area is given by the ratio of the reduction of the cross-sectional
area at the point of rupture to the original cross-sectional area.
=
0
0
f
A A
A

100

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Where, A
f
is the final cross-sectional area of the neck and A
0
represents the original cross
sectional area.This value also gives a measure of ductility of the material.
Fracture Pattern: A study of the fracture surface will indicate whether the failure is brittle or
ductile. In the case of brittle failure, fracture occurs suddenly and practically without any
plastic deformation. The formation of neck before failure is not present in this type of
material. The facture surfaces have a fibrous appearance due to failure by separation. Such
type of failure is seen in the case of cast iron or high carbon steel.
In ductile fracture, fracture occurs after considerable plastic stretching material particle
sliding over each other giving the familiar cup and cone form. This is essentially a shear
failure and occurs approximately at 45 to the axis of the specimen. This type of failure
occurs is the case of mild steel, Aluminium and other ductile materials. The value of A P , at
which this occurs is designated as a tensile stress, although it does not represent a true tension
failure.
EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION
Instrumentation
The tensile testing machine consists of mechanisms for applying known forces on the test
piece and for measuring the corresponding deformations. The most commonly used machine
is of hydraulic type. Here the specimen is gripped between two cross heads and the force is
applied on the specimen by moving one of the cross heads relative to the other by means of
hydraulic pressure. The applied force is measured through mechanisms based on the lever
pendulum principles and directly recorded on the dial of the testing machine. The test piece
used for tensile test are of standard dimensions have a gauge length of 100, 200mm and a
diameter of 20mm.
However when the non-standard samples are to be tested, in order to ensure that values are
comparable, the condition that L
0
/ A
0
equal to a constant must be satisfied. For long pieces,
the constant is 11.3 and for short specimens, it is 5.65. Test pieces of gauge length, L
0
=
11.3A
0
or L= 5.65A
0
are referred to as proportional test specimen ( IS code 3803).

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Universal Testing Machine Extensometer
The gauge length is marked in the central region of the test piece b chisel marks and
divided into suitable divisions of say 10mm each. This is mainly to study the relative
elongation of the specimen after the failure. The failure will occur at the weakest section of
the specimen which may be outside the central region. Hence, in practice the chisel marks are
made over a large length than the actual gauge length. After the failure of the specimen,
observing the chisel marks on either side of the fracture section, the final relative elongation
over the gauge length (which includes the failure section) can be determined. The ends which
go into the grips hold ideally be made of a larger section so that the test specimen does not fail
in this region by the high concentration of local stresses.
The elongation of the test specimen in the initial stages of elastic deformation corresponding
to different values of loads is measured using suitable extensometers. A load deformation
graph is drawn with this data, which will help to establish the Hookes law of linear
relationship between stresses and strain within the elastic limit. The graph also helps to
compute the modulus of elasticity (Youngs Modulus) of the material.
Certain machines incorporate the capability recording the load-deformation curve from the
point of loading up to failure. The mechanical properties such as the limit of proportionality,
the yield stress, ultimate stress and breaking stress etc. can be calculated directly from the

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curve. Alternatively these mechanical properties can be determined from the observation of
the test specimen during loading as explained earlier.
TESTING PROCEDURE
1. Study the gripping device and operation of U.T.M. Prepare a schematic sketch of the test
set up.
2. Measure the mean diameter and compute the area of cross-section of test specimen.
Make chisel marks on it an interval of 10mm for a length of 200mm.
3. Assuming the ultimate tensile stress (4000kg/cm
2
or 400 N/mm
2
) compute the ultimate
load to be applied and fix the range of the loading in the U.T.M.
4. Assuming an upper limit for the elastic range (2800kg/cm
2
or 280 N/mm
2
)Compute the
load corresponding to elastic deformations. The observations in the elastic range are to
be limited to a load well below the value of this commuted load so that the extensometer
readings do not exceed its range. Prepare a tabular form showing suitable increments of
loads in this region corresponding to which elastic deformations are to be measured.
5. Fix the test piece in the grips of the machine firmly such that the test piece bears evenly
in the wedge grips. Displace the grips slightly by mechanical means to ensure that the
test piece is firmly clamped.
6. Study the working principle of the extensometer. Note the gauge length and prepare a
sketch. Fix the extensometer to the specimen properly.
7. Switch on the machine, gradually applying the load without jerk and maintaining the
standard rate of load application (strain rate = 0.01 per minute). Note the extensometer
reading, corresponding to increments of loads noted in the tabular column. The load
readings should be maintained for at least 30 seconds and it should be ensured that such
readings are reproducible. After the end of sufficient observations, remove the
extensometer.
8. Continue the application of the load, noting (a) the yield point (b) the ultimate load and
(c) the breaking load.
9. After the specimen is broken, remove it and note the fracture pattern. Keep the two parts
of the fractured specimen together and measure the deformed length corresponding to
the gauge length. Also measure the diameter of the neck where the fracture has occurred.

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10. Draw a P Vs graph with load on the y-axis and elongation on the x-axis for mild steel. For
HYSD bars, yield stress is to be obtained in the manner specified in Figure 1.3.
OBSERVATIONS (for mild steel specimen)
Mean diameter of the specimen, d =
1 2 3
3
d d d + +
=
Original cross-sectional area A
0
=
Gauge length L
0
=
0
5.65 A =
Approximate ultimate load =
Approximate load at yield point =
Range of the machine =
Least count of the extensometer =

Sl.No,

Load P (kg)
Extensometer Reading
Elongation l in cm
Left Right Mean
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
RESULTS
Load at yield point, P
y
=
Ultimate load, P
u
=

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Breaking load, P
f
=
Increased length corresponding to the gauge length, L
p
=
Reduced area at the neck, A
f
=
Calculation
Yield stress,
y
= P
y
/ A
0
=
Ultimate stress,
ult
= P
u
/ A
0
=
Nominal breaking stress,
rup
(nominal) = P
f
/ A
0
=
Actual breaking stress =
Percentage reduction in area, =
0
0
A
A A
f

100 =
Slope of P/ from the graph =
Modulus of elasticity E=
Strain
Stress
(within elastic limit) =
% Elongation =
0
0
L
L L
f

100 =
OBSERVATIONS (for HYSD bars)
Mean diameter of the specimen, d =
Original cross-sectional area A
0
=
Gauge length L
0
=
0
5.65 A =
Approximate ultimate load =
Range of the machine =
Least count of the extensometer =

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Sl.No,

Load P (kg)
Extensometer Reading
Elongation l in cm
Left Right Mean
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
RESULTS
Ultimate load, P
u
=
Breaking load, P
f
=
Increased length corresponding to the gauge length, L
p
=
Reduced area at the neck, A
f
=
Calculation
Yield stress,
y
(from graph) =
Ultimate stress,
ult
= P
u
/ A
0
=
Nominal breaking stress,
rup
(nominal) = P
f
/ A
0
=
Actual breaking stress =
Percentage reduction in area, =
0
0
A
A A
f

100 =

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Material Testing Lab Manual Page 12 of 62
Modulus of elasticity E=
Strain
Stress
(within elastic limit) =
% Elongation =
0
0
L
L L
f

100 =
QUESTIONS FOR REVIEW
1. What is the effect of increasing the carbon content on (a) ultimate strength and (b)
ductility of steel?
2. Sketch the nominal stress-strain curve and compare it with the actual stress-strain
curve?
3. What is meant by strain hardening? What are its implications in the manufacture of
metal products?
4. Discuss the types of fracture in tension with suitable examples?
5. Why does sliding of ductile material during a tension test generally occur at an
inclination of 45 to the axis of the bar?
6. Determine the values of the principal stresses and the maximum shear stress at any
point in the test specimen, subjected to an axial tension of 500 kg.
7. Draw the schematic diagram of the experimental set-up.

REFERENCES
1. Egor P. Popov. Engineering Mechanics of Solids. Prentice Hall: Englewood
Cliffs, New Jersey, 1990
2. IS 1608-1995
3. IS 3803-1974

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2. DOUBLE SHEAR TEST
Exp.No Date:..
AIM
To determine the shear resistance of the material of the given specimen under double
shear.
THEORY AND APPLICATION
Structures are designed to withstand deformation under various loading conditions.
The material of the body offers resistance to the deformation by developing internal stress.
The stress at a point on a given plane through the point can be resolved into two orthogonal
components- one perpendicular to the plane (normal stress either compressive or tensile) and
the other tangential to the plane (shear stress).When there exists only uniform shear on the
plane(shear stress and complementary shear stress on the four faces of an element), it is called
pure shear state.
The behaviour of the material under normal stress is studied using the tension test
where as the material behaviours under shear stress is obtained by conducting a direct shear
test. Direct shear occurs when parallel forces are applied in opposite directions. The
maximum resistance offered by the material force failure under the action of shear force is
called the ultimate shear stress of the material. The mechanism of failure in shear is due to
relative sliding of molecules.
Shear strength is determined by inserting a cylindrical specimen through round holes
in three hardened steel blocks(shear shackle), the centre of which is pulled ( or pushed )
between the other two so as to shear the specimen on two planes. A cylindrical specimen of is
subjected to double shear loading using a suitable test rig in a testing machine under a
compressive load or tensile pull. As the load is gradually increased, the shear stress also
increases till the rod gets sheared across section. The maximum load at fracture, P
u
(in kg) is
recorded. The ultimate shear stress,
ult
is calculated by dividing the maximum load by the
combined cross-sectional area of the two planes given as below:

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o
u
ult
A
P
2
=
where A
0
is the cross sectional area of the specimen in cm
2
. It is clear that 2 A
0
, is used in the
above relation to account for the double shear.
The assumption that the shear stress is uniform across the cross section is not strictly
true. There is a small bending effect over the short length of the specimen which is neglected.
Further, the value of
ult
obtained represents only an average value, based on the assumption
that the shear stress is uniformly distributed across the cross-section.
EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION
Testing in double shear can be done using U.T.M. with the help of shear shackle. The
shear shackle consists of three circular hardened collars (for inserting the specimen) and a
steel yoke. The assembly is held together by bolts. The shackle is placed in the U.T.M. and a
compressive force is applied. This produces the double shear across the two cross sections.
The load is gradually increased till the specimen fails by shear.
TESTING PROCEDURE

1. Measure the diameter of the rod accurately at three places using a screw gauge and
find the diameter. Determine the area of cross-section A
0

2. Set the loading range for the U.T.M. This is done by assuming the value of the
ult
for
the given specimen and multiplying the same in the U.T.M. to apply the compressive
load.
3. Fix the rod in the shear shackle and place the same in the U.T.M. to apply the
compressive load.
4. Operate the U.T.M. and gradually apply the load. Increase the load gradually till the
specimen fails. Note down the ultimate load P
u
indicated by the dummy pointer.
5. Calculate the value of
ult


o
u
ult
A
P
2
=
6. Repeat the test and determine the average of the three test results.

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Shear Shackle
OBSERVATIONS
Trial
Diameter of the rod Average
Value of
d (in cm)
A
o
(in cm
2
)
P
u
(in kg

)

ult
= P
u
/2 A
o
(in kg/cm
2
)
i
(mm)
ii
(mm)
iii
(mm)










RESULT
The ultimate shear stress of the material of the test specimen,
ut
=

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QUESTIONS FOR REVIEW
1. State the limitation of the test.
2. Give sketches showing single shear and double shear.
3. How will you use the
ult
value for getting the load required to punch a hole in the
sheet metal?
4. It is seen that, unlike the tensile test, the double shear test does not generate heat in
the specimen at failure. Give suitable explanation.
REFERENCES
1. IS: 5242-1979 Method of test for determining shear strength of metals (first revision).















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3. TORSION TEST
Exp.No Date:..
AIM
To conduct the torsion test on a given cylindrical specimen and to find out the
modulus of rigidity G of the material.
THEORY AND APPLICATION
Consider a prismatic bar of arbitrary cross-section subjected to twisting moment.
Shear stresses will be set up in the plane of any transverse cross-section of the bar such that an
equal and opposite torque is developed to maintain equilibrium. The cross-sections of the bar
will generally undergo warping and the solution to the problem for stress and deformation can
be obtained only by solving the governing differential equations of theory of elasticity (saint
Venant).
However, in the case of torsion of a circular shaft, since the section is symmetric about
a centroidal axis, warping of the cross-sections does not occur and this simplifies the solution.
A strength of material solution which is also an exact solution in the case of circular shaft is
obtained using the following assumptions (Refer to Fig. 3.1)
a) The cross-sections of the shaft do not undergo warping and hence a plane
section will remain plane before and after the application of the twisting
moment.
b) The shearing stress at any point of the cross-section is perpendicular to the
radius r and proportional to the length l and
c) The shear stress is proportional to the angle of twist per unit length of the
shaft.
Based on the above assumptions the following relation can be established in the case of
cylindrical shaft subjected to equal and opposite twisting moments at the ends.

r
G T
r L J

= =

32
4
D
J

=



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Material Testing Lab Manual Page 18 of 62
Where,
r
= Shear stress at distance r from the centre of the shaft
r = distance to the point from the centre
G = modulus of rigidity of the material
= angle of twist per unit length
T = torque
J = polar moment of inertia of the cross-section
D = diameter of bar





Figure 3.1
Compare the above torsion formula with the bending formula
M f E
I y R
= =

It is clear from the above relation that the shear stress is maximum at the outer
periphery of the shaft, and varies linearly in the radial direction, having a zero value and the
centre of any transverse cross-section.
It should be understood that the shaft transmitting power rotates at uniform speed.
Whether it rotates at uniform speed or is at rest, the shear stresses and the resulting strain will
remain the same. Hence, the analysis of the problem of a rotating shaft solved by treating it to
be at rest, with one end fixed and a torque applied at the other end.

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Torsion tests allow direct measurement of the shear modulus (G) of a material. This
ability makes torsion testing, although not as common, a useful partner for tensile testing in
determining the mechanical properties of a material.
There are two kinds of torsion experiments: torque control and angular speed control.
Torque control experiments apply a uniformly increasing torque to the specimen and the
amount of strain is measured as an angle through which the specimen has turned. Angular
speed control turns the specimen at a specific angular speed while the torque is measured.
EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION
The test specimen is cylindrical is shape with usually 10mm diameter with a gauge
length of 10 to 20 times the diameter. The specimen is prepared by turning a larger diameter
rod leaving enlarged ends suitably shaped to fit into the grips of the testing machine.
A torque can be applied to the specimen through one of the grips of the testing
machine manually or mechanically. The other grip is linked to a pendulum weight. The
applied torque T is measured through a suitable mechanism operated by the deflection of the
pendulum weight. The relative rotation between the two cross-section separated by the gauge
length can be measured by means of a angle measuring device. The applied torque and the
resulting angle of twist form the basic data of the test.








Torsion testing machine

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TESTING PROCEDURE
1) Measure the diameter of the test specimen accurately at three different places using
vernier calipers.
2) Mount the specimen properly in the grips of the testing machine.
3) Clamp the angle measuring instrument on the specimen. Note down the gauge length.
4) Make zero correction, if any for the torque indicator dial.
5) Apply the torque gradually at the loading end of the specimen.
6) Note down the angle of twist corresponding to the applied torque.
7) Increase the torque at a rate of say 100 kg cm and note down the corresponding angles
off twist.
8) After taking sufficient number of measurements (6 to 7 readings) decrease the applied
torque gradually. Note down the angles of twist on decreasing the load as a check for
the already obtained data.
9) On completion, remove the specimen from the machine.
OBSERVATIONS
Least count of screw gauge =
Gauge length

L (cm)
Diameter of rod (cm)
Polar moment of inertia
32
4
D
J

=
4
cm
D1 D2 D3
Average
D




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Least count of the vernier =
Sl.
No
Torque
in
kg cm
Readings from the scale Angle of twist in degree
Average
angle of
twist
(degree)
Average
angle of
twist
(radians)
Load
increasing
Load
decreasing
Load
increasing
Load
decreasing











Draw a graph relating torque T on the y axis and the angle of twist on the x axis. Within the
elastic limit, the graph will be a straight line.

T
from graph=
Modulus of rigidity, G =
T L
J
=
Maximum shear stress,
=

=
J
R T
max
max


RESULT
Modulus of rigidity of the material of the specimen, G =

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QUENSTIONS FOR REVIEW
1. Compare the shear stress distribution for the following cases
a) Across the cross-section of the wire of a spring subjected to axial load.
b) Across the cross-section of a rectangular beam subjected to UDL
c) Across the cross-section of the specimen of the double shear test.
d) Across the cross-section of a circular shaft subjected to twisting.
2. Why is that the simple torsion formula is not applicable to bars which have non
circular cross-sections?
3. Establish a relationship between the shearing strain, r , and the angle of twist per unit
length, /L.
4. Draw a sketch showing the distribution of complementary shear stress in an axial
plane on a suitably cut segment of shaft.
5. If a cylinder piece of chalk is twisted to failure, a crack along a helix generally occurs
at an angle of 45 to the axis of the shaft. Explain this phenomenon with the help of a
suitable sketch.
6. What is meant by shear centre? Explain in terms of a channel and I cross section.
7. If Poisson's ratio for material A is larger than for material B, what is the qualitative
difference between the two materials?

REFERENCES
1. Egor P. Popov. Engineering Mechanics of Solids. Prentice Hall: Englewood Cliffs,
New Jersey, 1990.

2. Method of simple torsion testing of copper and copper alloy wire -6253-1971.
3. Simple torsion test of aluminium alloy aluminium alloy wire, method for 4176-
1967
4. Simple torsion testing of steel wire method for (first version): 1717-1971



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P/2
P/2
P/2
P/2
4. BENDING TEST ON BEAMS
Exp.No Date:..
AIM
To find out the Youngs modulus of steel by conducting a bending test on steel I joist.
THEORY AND APPLICATION
For any material, load, within elastic limits, the ratio of normal stress to normal strain
is defined as its modulus of elasticity. A direct method of finding out E is by conducting a uni
- axial bending test. An alternate procedure is to carry out a bending test on a joist.
In a bending test, the test specimen is subjected to transverse loading so as to produce
pure bending of the beam. In pure bending, the fiber stress is related to the bending moment
and moment of inertia of the cross section of the beam by the bending formula
M f E
I y R
= =
.The strain is related to the radius of curvature (R) of deflected beam and indirectly to the
deflection. Hence for a given beam, deflection can be expressed as a function of loading, the
material property E and geometrical property I (Moment of inertia of the cross section with
respect to the centroidal axis). If the deflection can be measured for the given loading, the
material property can be computed.
The test is conducted in UTM. The steel joist is supported at a convenient span and
loading is applied centrally. A dial gauge is arranged to measure the deflection at the center of
the beam.
In this test set up, i.e. a simple supported beam of the span l and 1/3 load P the
deflection at the center due to bending is given by
3
23
1296
Pl
EI
= . E is computed from the
known values of , P and I.

Figure 4.1

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It may be noted that the beam is not under a state of pure bending for a central loading.
The shear at section vise also contributes to the total deflection at the center. The contribution
of shear in the case of deep beams will be significant whereas for beams where span to depth
ratio is large, the effect due to shear is negligible.
TESTING PROCEDURE
1. Note down the dimensions of the cross section of the region I-joist and compute moment of
inertia I.
t
w
= average thickness of web
t
f
= average thickness of flange
Moment of inertia,
3 3
12 12
bH bh
I =
2. Mark the midpoint of the joist and a convenient span 90cm tapping 15 cm on both sides
(either side of the midpoint)
3. Place the beam supported on two rollers on the bench of the UTM and bring down the load
to the midpoint.
4. Study the operation of the dial gauge and note down its least count.
5. Arrange the dial gauge on the bench of the UTM so as to measure the deflection of the
point at the midpoint span of the beam.
6. Apply the load gradually at the center, rate of 500 kg/sec by operating the UTM and note
down the dial gauge reading corresponding to the loading interval.
7. On reaching 3000 kg the release load gradually and once again note down the dial gauge
reading for the decreasing load.
8. Plot the graph with load on the Y-axis and deflection on X-axis and ascertain the condition
of loading within the elastic limit.
t
w
t
f
H

h
b


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9. Note down the loading and deflection corresponding to any point on the load defection
graph and compute the modulus of elasticity E from the following formula
3
23
1296
Pl
EI
=
where is the deflection for applied load P
OBSERVATIONS AND CALCULATIONS
Height, H =
Flange thickness, t
f
=
Web thickness, t
w
=

Height of the web, h =
Width of the flange, b =
( )
3 3
1
12
g w
I bH b t h =

=

Sl No
Load in kg Deflection Reading (cm) Mean deflection
reading 0.01 mm
Increasing Decreasing Average














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W

from the graph =


3
23
1296
W l
E
I
= =
RESULT
Youngs modulus =
Maximum bending stress =

QUESTIONS FOR REVIEW
1) What is the significance of giving a two point loading instead of a central loading in this
experiment?
2) How can you apply a uniformly distributed load using UTM?
3) Derive the expression
3
23
1296
Pl
EI
= for the loading diagram given in connection with this
experiment.





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5. SPRING TEST
Exp.No Date:..
AIM
To determine the modulus of rigidity of the material and the stiffness of the given
spring.
THEORY AND APPLICATION
A helical spring is formed when a wire of solid circular cross section is wound on a circular
core in a spiral form. The spring can undergo considerable deformation without getting
permanently distorted. Hence, it is a device for storing up strain energy.
Stresses induced in the body of the spring under axial load are predominantly due to
torsion. Since the line of action of the external load is eccentric with respect to the reaction at
any section of the spring (by the distance equal to the mean radius of the coir), a couple is set
up, causing twisting action, In addition to this torque, small of bending moment, axial force
and shear force are also present due to the helical profile of the spring.
Under the axial load, the spring is subjected to both twist and bending. At any point in the
coir, the tangent to the helical centerline is not perpendicular to the axial force. If W is the
axial force, the component parallel to the tangent at any point viz. W (sin ) produces the
bending moment M and the component W (cos ), torque T, where is the angle of helix.
Angle of helix is the angle between the plane of coil and the plane perpendicular to the
axis of the helix.
For a spring with n turns and mean radius of the coir R (which is half the centre to centre
distance of the coils perpendicular to the axis of the helix).
M = WR sin
T = WR cos (refer to the figure 5.1 and 5.2)
Angle of helix is obtained from tan =
2
p
R
(1)


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Where p is the pitch of the coil

Figure 5.1 Figure 5.2
I = Principal moment of inertia of the cross section of the wires = d
4
/64
J = Polar moment of

inertia of the cross section of the wire = d
4
/32
If is the total deflection
Under the action of load w, the work done by the axial load is w /2
This can be equated to the total strain energy stored in bending and torsion i.e.

1 1 2 2
0
0 0
1
1 1
2 2 2
M
w d d
EI EI

= +


Where
E = Modulus of elasticity
G = Modulus of rigidity
Substituting the expressions for M and T derived earlier, and expressing d
1
= Rd, the
integration may be performed between the limits 2 and 0, to obtain
3 2 2
4
64 sec cos 2sin wR n
G E d


= +


(2)

Wsin
W
Wcos

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d being the diameter of the material of the coil. The relation between E and G is given by E =
2G(1+) where is the Poissons ratio ( = 0.3 for mild steel).
When the coils are wound very closely, the angle of the helix becomes very small.
Hence, the effect of component of axial load parallel to the tangent of the point, viz, (W sin)
can be neglected or in other words, the work done by the axial load may be equated to
torsional strain energy stored in a spring which gives.

3
4
64wR n
Gd
=
(3)

Springs, for which the effect of angle of helix cannot be neglected, are called open coil
helical spring. For the open coil spring under the action of axial load, both torsional and
bending moments are to be considered.
Springs, for which the effect of angle of helix is neglected, are called closed coil
helical springs, Here, the effect of torque only need be considered.
Usually when the angle of helix is less than 5 degrees the spring is considered as a
closed coiled one, otherwise as an open coiled one. Generally on an open coiled helical spring
compression test is carried out, and on a closed coiled spring, the tension test is to be
conducted.
Shear stress induced at any cross-section of a helical spring subjected to axial load is
obtained from the torsion formulas.
T G
J r L

= =
Where
= shear stress
r = distance of any point from the centre of cross section of the wire
/L= angle of twist per unit length

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max 3
16 cos wR
d

=
Since T = wR cos for a closed coil spring direct shear stress equal to w cos/A and it is
assumed to be uniform across the cross section.
Stiffness of the spring is the load required to produce unit axial deformation, that is
stiffness (k = /l ) where is the total elongation or shortening of the spring under the action
of load. It is directly obtained from the slope of the load deformation graph.
Strain energy stored when the spring is subjected to the axial load w is given by
1
2
U w =
To calculate the modulus of rigidity G, equation (2) (3) may be used. From a graph
connecting load w and deflection, the mean value can be obtained and G can be calculated.
EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION
Instrumentation
The test setup consists of a loading device in which the load can be applied manually
by turning a hand lever. The applied load is directly read from the deliberated dial of the
loading device and the corresponding deflection can be obtained using a deflection dial guage.
The spring is placed between two plates of the loading device in the case of compression test,
or suspended on two studs in case of tension test. After placing the coil on the loading device,
zero error if any on the lead dial may be corrected by means of lever attached to it. The
deflection of the spring is obtained on the dial guage attached to the loading device.
TESTING PROCEDURE
1. Measure the diameter of the wire of the spring d, pitch of the coil p and the mean
radius of coil R.
2. Note down the number of turns of the spring, n.

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3. Calculate the angle of helix using Equation (1).
4. Set up loading arrangement for compression and tension test, as desired.
5. Remove the zero error of the load dial using the lever and bring the deflection dial
pointer to read zero.
6. Apply the load at an increment of 5kgs. By operating the hand lever and note down the
corresponding dial guage readings.
7. Multiply the dial guage reading by the least count and obtain the deflection.
8. Calculate the shear stress, stiffness and strain energy for each set up of observation
and draw
a) Load vs deflection
b) Load vs maximum shear stress
c) Load vs strain energy
Load is generally taken along the y axis of the graph.
9. Get the slope of the load deflection graph and calculate the value of modulus of rigidity
G using Equ. (2) and (3) depending on whether the spring is closed or open coiled. The slope
of the load deflection graph gives the stiffness of the spring may be assumed as 0.3 for M.S
OBSERVATIONS
For open coiled spring
1. Diameter of the wire d = d
1
+d
2
+d
3
=
2. Mean radius of the coil, R = D/2 =
3. Pitch of the coil p =
4. Number of turns of the spring n =

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5. Angle of helix
1
tan
2 r

=

=


6. Stiffness of spring from graph K =
7. Modulus of rigidity, G =
Sl.no
Axial load
W in Kg
Deflection dial guage
reading
Deflection
in cm
Shear stress
kg/cm
2

Strain
energy
Loading unloading












For Close Coiled Spring
1. Diameter of the wire, d =
2. Mean radius of coil, R =

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3. Pitch of the coil p =
4. No of turns of the spring n =
5. Angle of helix
1
tan
2 r

=

=
6. Stiffness of spring from graph K =
7. Modulus of rigidity, G =
Sl.no
Axial load
W in kg
Deflection dial guage
reading
Deflection in
cm
Shear
stress
kg/cm
2

Strain
energy
loading unloading mean













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QUESTIONS FOR REVIEW
1) Draw the cross section of the wire of the spring and indicate the shear stress distribution on
the cross section due to an axial loading of the spring. Show the stress due to
a) Torsional effect b) Bending effect c) Direct stress
2) Explain why you can use compressive loading for an spring test in the case of a closed coir
spring
3) For a slender open coiled spring will you use the spring for test as compression spring or
tension spring, why?
4) Obtain an expression for the equivalent stiffness, a system of two springs of stiffness, K
1

and K
2
if the springs are connected?
a) in series b) in parallel.
5) Experience with heavy helical spring (as used in railway carriages) indicates that usually
start on the inner side of the coil. Why does this occur?







REFERENCE
Egor P. Popov. Engineering Mechanics of Solids. Prentice Hall: Englewood Cliffs, New
Jersey, 1990.



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6. WORKABILITY TESTS
Exp.No Date:..
AIM
To determine the workability of concrete by different methods
THEORY AND APPLICATIONS
Workability of concrete is defined as the easiness with which it can be
transported, placed into moulds and compacted with sufficient surface finishing without
segregation of concrete. The strength of concrete of a given mix depends very much on
the degree of compaction. The process of compaction eliminates the entrapped air from
the concrete until it achieves as close a configuration as is possible for that mix. The
work done in compacting the concrete is thus used to overcome the friction between the
individual particles in the concrete and also between the concrete and the surface of the
mould or of the reinforcement. Based on the internal friction and surface friction,
workability can be defined as that property of concrete which determines the amount of
useful internal work necessary to produce full compaction. Following are the factors
which affect workability of concrete.
(a) Water content
(b) Size and shape of aggregates
(c) Grading of aggregate
(d) Coarse to fine aggregate ratio.
(e) Mix proportions
Water content in a concrete increase the workability to a certain extent, but it reduces the
strength and density.
Increase in the maximum size of aggregate without any change in the mix
improves the workability since the surface area of particles to be wetted by the water gets
reduced .Also the workability increases with the use of aggregates which are round and
have smooth surface texture.

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If the voids in the coarse aggregate are not filled up by the aggregate of
lesser size, the mixing water will fill up the local voids between the aggregates of some
size. Thus in turn reduces the water required to lubricate the concrete and hence the
workability.
The following are the laboratory test conducted for measuring the workability of
concrete.
1. Slump test
2. Compaction factor test
3. Vee-Bee test
4. Flow test
SLUMP TEST
Slump test is carried out to measure the consistency of concrete which is measure of
workability. Consistency refers to ability of fresh concrete to flow without segregation of
ingredients. A concrete mix with less consistency is called stiff mix where as that with high
consistency is called as soft mix. The major factors influencing the consistency and
workability of concrete is water cement ratio. Consistency tests are usually recommended
concrete having aggregate size lower than 40 mm.
TESTING PROCEDURE
1. The internal surfaces of the mould are thoroughly cleaned and kept free from superfluous
moisture and any set concrete before commencing the test.
2. The mould is placed on a smooth, horizontal, rigid and non-absorbent surface, such as
carefully leveled metal plate, the mould being firmly held in place while it is being filled.
3. The mould is filled in four layers, each approximately one-quarter of height of mould.
4. Each layer is tamped with 25 strokes of the rounded end of the tamping rod.
5. The strokes are distributed in uniform manner over the cross section of the mould and for
the second and subsequent layers should penetrate into the under lying layer.

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6. The bottom layer should be tamped thoroughly throughout its depth.
7. After the top layer has been rodded, the concrete is struck off level with a trowel or taming
rod, so that the mould is exactly filled.
8. Any mortar which has leaked out between the mould & the base plate is cleaned away.
9. The mould is removed from the concrete immediately by raising it slowly and carefully in a
vertical direction.
10. This allows the concrete to subside and the slump is measured immediately by determine
the difference between height of the mould and that of the highest point of the specimen being
tested.
11. The above operation is carried out a place free from vibration or shock, and within a
period of two minutes after sampling.
OBSERVATIONS
S L NO W /C Ratio Slump in mm




RESULT
The slump of concrete for various water-cement ratios are as given in the tabulation above.
COMPACTION FACTOR TEST
The compacting factor test is done to determine the workability of concrete
.Workability of concrete is determined as the amount of work required to place concrete and
to achieve full compaction. This test measures the degree of compaction achieved by a
standard amount of work and thus is a measure of workability .In the slump test the flowing

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Weight of partially compacted concrete
Weight of fully compacted concrete
property of wet concrete is observed .But the amount of work required to compact concrete
having the same slump may not be the same in all cases.
The degree of compaction or compacting factor is expressed as the ratio of the density
actually achieved in the test to the density of the same concrete when fully compacted. When
the compacting factors are low, workability will be low, resulting in great amount of
additional work during the placement of concrete.
TESTING PROCEDURE
1. The sample of concrete to be tested is placed gently in the upper hopper using the hand
scoop.
2. The hopper is filled level with its brim and the trap-door is opened so that the concrete falls
into the lower hopper. Certain mixes have tendency to stick in one or both of the hoppers.
3. During this process, the cylinder is covered by the trowels.
4. Immediately after the concrete has to come to rest, the cylinder is uncovered, the trap door
of the lower hopper opened, and the concrete allowed falling into the cylinder.
5. The excess of concrete remaining above the level of the top of the cylinder, at the same
time keeping them pressed on the top edge of the cylinder.
6. The outside of the cylinder is then wiped clean.
7. The above operation is carried out at a place free from vibration or shock.
8. The concrete in the cylinder is weighed to the nearest 10 grams. This weight is known as
the weight of partially compacted concrete.
9. The fully compacted density is found out by actually filling the cylinder with concrete in
four layers, each layer being tamped 25 times using a standard tamping rod of 16 mm dia. and
60 cm long.
Now, Compacting factor =

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OBSERVATIONS
S L NO. W /C Ratio Compacting factors





RESULTS
Compacting factor of cement for various water cement ratios are as tabulated above
VEE-BEE TEST
The test is based on the principle of measuring the energy required to fill and
compact fresh concrete in a mould. The amount of effort required to change the shape of
the sample of concrete from one to another, gives the workability of concrete. Here the
time necessary for the remoulding to be complete (i.e. in Vee-Bee seconds) is a measure
of workability.
During the remoulding, some compaction takes place and the volume of the
concrete gets reduced. Taking into the consideration the decrease of volume due to the
compaction, the Vee-Bee second is multiplied by the ratio volume of concrete after and
before the vibrations.
In the Vee-Bee test, time taken to transform the concrete from conical
shape to cylindrical shape is measured. A standard slump cone is placed in a cylinder of
standard size. The cylinder being mounted rigidly on a vibrating table. Freshly prepared
concrete is placed inside the slump cone in four layers and is compacted by tamping 25
times using a standard tamping rod. A sliding glass disc gives the height of concrete at
different levels. After removing the slump cone. The subsidence of concrete can be noted
using the glass plate riser. This gives the slump value of concrete.

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Vibration is given to the table till the remoulding is complete
ie.when the glass plate rider is completely covered with concrete and all cavities in the
surface of concrete have disappeared. .Stop watch operated at the start of vibration gives
the vee-bee seconds. The time required for the remoulding to be complete is noted as the
workability of the mix with different water cement ratios, the test is repeated.
A graph drawn between slump and vee-bee seconds can be used to study the
behaviour of concrete.
TESTING PROCEDURE:
1. Clean the slump cone and cylinder well.
2. Prepare the concrete of a nominal mix with an initial water/cement ratio=0.5.
3. Place the slump cone inside the cylinder and fill it as described earlier in layers.
4. Remove the slump cone and note the subsidence or slump of concrete with the
help of glass plate rider.
5. Vibrate the table till the concrete is completely remoulded. When the vibration is
started, start a stop watch.
6. Note the time taken for the complete transformation from conical shape to
cylindrical form.
7. Repeat the test using different water cement ratios such as 0.6, 0.7, 0.8 etc.
8. Draw a graph taking Vee-Bee seconds along the x-axis and slump along the y-axis.
OBSERVATIONS & CALCULATIONS

Sl. No.

W/C ratio

Mix ratio

Slump

Vee-bee
seconds
1
2
3
4


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RESULT
Workability of concrete is expressed in the Vee-Bee seconds as shown in the
tabulation above.
FLOW TEST
Flow test a convenient method of measuring the tendency of segregation and consisting
of concrete. In concrete, aggregates are the major ingredient. The cement paste acts as a
binder. When properly mixed, concrete becomes a homogeneous material having uniform
cohesion between the ingredients. In the absence of cohesion, there will be a tendency for the
segregation of aggregates. The cohesion gives concrete a workable consistency.
When there is a tendency for particle interference to become excessive in a
mixture, some of the particles are free to move into a more favorable position. But some of
them become only half embedded and thus increases the freedom for relative movement of
those remaining within the mass .Hence when a jolting action is given to the fresh concrete
placed over a flow table using a standard mould, it spreads out. The percentage increase in the
average diameter of the spread concrete over the original diameter of the base gives the flow
of concrete in percentage .i.e.


Flow of concrete = 100
where 25 cm is the original diameter of the mould.
The flow of concrete is influenced by the water/cement ratio, size and
shape of aggregates and grading of aggregate. The flow of concrete as determined by the flow
test is an index of the workability.
Flow test is carried out using a standard mould and a flow table. The flow table consists
of a circular table with brass surfacing. The table can be plotted by suitable mechanism.
The mould is placed at the centre of the flow table is held firmly. It is then
filled with freshly prepared concrete in two layers, each layer being tamped 25 times with
Spread diameter in cm 25
25

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tamping rod of 16mm diameter and 60cm long. The strokes shall be distributed over the
surface uniformly so that it shall penetrate into the underlying layer. The top surface is leveled
using a trowel so that the mould is exactly. After cleaning the outside portions of the mould
and flow table, the mould is quickly removed. The table is then raised 12.5mm and dropped,
15 times in 15 minutes.
TESTING PROCEDURE
1. Prepare a nominal concrete mix with an initial water/cement ratio equal to 0.5.
2. Clean the mould and flow table. Place the mould over the table centrally and hold it
firmly.
3. Fill the mould by fresh concrete in the standard manner as explained earlier.
4. Clean the outer surface of the mould and the table and remove the mould quickly.
5. Jolt the table 15 times in 15 minutes.
6. Measure the spread diameter of concrete water/cement ratios such as 0.6, 0.7, and 0.8.
OBSERVATIONS
SI.NO. Water/cement
ratio
Mix ratio Spread
dia.
Flow =
100
1
2
3
4
5
6
Spread diameter in cm 25
25

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RESULT
Flow of concrete is as tabulated in the table above.
QUESTIONS FOR REVIEW
Slump test
1. What are the advantages of slump test?
2. What are the standard heights of slump for the various types of work?
3. The slump test is not suitable for stiff mixes. Why?
4. What is consistency of concrete?
Compacting factor test
5. What are the standards values of the compacting factor values for different type of mixes?
6. What are the dimensions of compacting apparatus?
Vee Bee Test
7. Write the limitations of the Vee Bee test in determining the workability.
8. What factors would have affected the Vee Beetest result.
9. Discuss the significance of modifying the workability obtained in Vee-Bee seconds by
the ratio of the volume of concrete after and before the vibration.
10. Draw the figure for vee-bee test.
Flow Test
11. Discuss about the workability of mix used, based on the test results.
12. Discuss the influence of the richness of mix on the flow test.
13. What are the limitations of the test?
14. What are the advantages and disadvantages of the test?


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REFFERENCES
1. M.S.Shetty,Concrete Technology (Theory and Practice) S.Chand & company
2. R.S. Varshney Concrete Technology
3. H.J.Shah Reinforced cement concrete
4. IS-7320 1974 Concrete slump test
5. IS 5515-1969-Compaction factor test
6. IS 10850:1984 specifications for vee-bee consistometer test
















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Department of Civil EngineeringNational Institute of Technology Calicut
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7. COMPRESSION TEST ON CONCRETE SPECIMENS
Exp.No Date:..
AIM
To determine the modulus of elasticity of concrete.
THEORY AND APPLICATION
Concrete is not really an elastic material, ie it does not fully recover its original
dimensions upon unloading. It is not only inelastic but is also nonlinear. Hence, the
conventional elastic constants (modulus of elasticity and Poissons ratio) are not strictly
applicable to a material like concrete. Nevertheless, these find place in design practice,
because, despite their obvious limitations when related to concrete, they are material
properties which have to be necessarily considered in the conventional linear elastic analysis
of reinforced concrete structures.
The Youngs modulus of elasticity is a constant, defined as the ratio, within the linear
elastic range, of axial stress to axial strain, under uni-axial loading. In the case of concrete
under uni-axial compression, it has some validity in the very initial portion of the stress strain
curve, which is practically linear; that is, when the loading is of low intensity, and of very
short duration.
The code ( IS 456, 2000) gives the following empirical expression for the static
modulus E
c
( in MPa units) in terms of the characteristic cube strength f
ck
( in MPa units):
5000
c ck
E f =
The modulus of elasticity is experimentally determined by subjecting a cube and
cylinder specimen to uni-axial compression (as per IS 516 -1959) and measuring the
deformations by means of dial gauges fixed between certain gauge length. Dial gauge reading
divided by gauge length will give the strain and load applied divided by area of cross section
will give the stress. A series of readings are taken and the stress - strain relationship is
established.



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EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION (AS PER IS 516 1959)
Size of Specimens
The test specimens shall consist of concrete cylinders 15.0 cm in diameter and 30.0 cm
long. Alternately, other sizes of cylinders or square prisms may be used provided that the
height/diameter or height/width ratio is at least 2.
Preparation of Test specimens
The test specimens shall be prepared in and shall be stored in water at a temperature of
24 to 30C for at least 48 hours before testing. At least three specimens shall be made and
tested.
Age at Test
Normally test shall be made when the specimens reach the age of 28 days.
TESTING PROCEDURE
In order to determine the compressive strength of the concrete, three test specimens for
compressive strength shall be made together with each set of cylinders or prisms in
accordance with the size specified. The test specimens for compressive strength shall be made
from the same sample of concrete as the cylinders or prisms and shall be cured and stored
under identical conditions.
Apparatus
Testing Machine: The testing machine may be of any reliable type, of sufficient capacity for
the tests and capable of applying the load at the rate of approximately 140 kg/sq cm/min until
the resistance of the specimen to the increasing load breaks down and no greater load can be
sustained. The permissible error shall be not greater than 2 percent of the maximum load. In
addition shall be capable of maintaining the load at any desired value.

Extensometers: Two extensometers are required each having a gauge length of not less than
10.2 cm and not more than half the length of the specimen. They shall be capable of
measuring strains to an accuracy of 2 10
6
. Mirror extensometers of the roller or rocker type
are suitable.

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TESTING PROCEDURE
1. The three test specimens for compressive strength shall first be tested in accordance with
the procedure for determining the compressive strength of concrete specimens and the
average compressive strength shall be recorded.
2. Immediately on removing the cylinder or prism from the water and while it is still in a
wet condition, the extensometers shall be attached at the ends, or on opposite sides of the
specimen and parallel to its axis, in such a way that the gauge points are symmetrical
about the centre of the specimen and in no case are nearer to either end of the specimen
than a distance equal to half the diameter or half the width of the specimen.
3. The extensometers shall be fixed with the recording points at the same end. The specimen
shall be immediately placed in the testing machine and accurately centred.
4. The load shall be applied continuously and without shock at a rate of 140 kg/sq cm/min
until an average stress of ( C + 5 ) kg/sq cm is reached, where C is one-third of the
average compressive strength of the cubes calculated to the nearest 5 kg/sq cm.
5. The load shall be maintained at this stress for at least one minute and shall then be
reduced gradually to an average stress of 1.5 kg/sq cm when extensometer readings shall
be taken.
6. The load shall be applied a second time at the same rate until an average stress of
( C + 1.5 ) kg/sq cm is reached. The load shall be maintained at this figure while
extensometer readings are taken. The load shall again be reduced gradually and readings
again taken at 1.5 kg/sq cm.
7. The load shall then be applied a third time and extensometer readings taken at ten
approximately equal increments of stress up to an average stress of (C + 1.5) kg/sq cm.
8. Readings shall be taken at each stage of loading with as little delay as possible.
9. If the overall strains observed on the second and third readings differ by more than 5
percent, the loading cycle shall be repeated until the difference in strain between
consecutive readings at ( C + 1.5 ) kg/sq cm does not exceed 5 percent.
OBSERVATIONS
Average compressive strength of three cubes =
Value of C =

Department of Civil EngineeringNational Institute of Technology Calicut
Material Testing Lab Manual Page 50 of 62
Diameter of cylinder =
Length of cylinder =
Area of cross section of cylinder =
Date of casting =
Date of testing =
Age of specimen in days =
Mix ratio =
Gauge length of the compressometer =
Sl No.
Load in
kg
Dial gauge reading
Stress Strain values for
the last two cycles
Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial 3 Trial 4
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18

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Material Testing Lab Manual Page 51 of 62
CALCULATION
The strains at the various loads in the last two cycles shall be calculated separately for
each extensometer and the results shall be plotted graphically against the stress. Straight lines
shall be drawn through the points for each extensometer; the slopes of these two lines shall be
determined and from them the average value shall be found. If the difference between the
individual values is less than 15 percent of the average value, this average value, expressed in
kg/sq cm to the nearest 1000 kg/sq cm shall be recorded as the modulus of elasticity of the
concrete. If the difference is greater than 15 percent, the specimen shall be re-centered in the
testing machine and the test repeated. If the difference after re-centering and testing is still
greater than 15 percent of the average value, the results of the test shall be discarded.

RESULT
The modulus of elasticity of the given concrete specimen =

REFERENCES
1. IS 516 1959 Methods of tests for strength of concrete
2. S Unnikrishna Pillai and Devdas Menon, Reinforced Concrete Design , Tata
McGraw Hill.

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Material Testing Lab Manual Page 52 of 62

Department of Civil EngineeringNational Institute of Technology Calicut
Material Testing Lab Manual Page 53 of 62
8. FLEXURE TEST AND SPLIT TEST ON CONCRETE
Exp.No Date:..
AIM
To determine the tensile strength of concrete by flexure test and split test
THEORY AND APPLICATION
Concrete as we know is relatively strong in compression and weak in tension. In
reinforced concrete members, little dependence is placed on the tensile strength of concrete
since steel reinforcing bars are provided to resist all tensile forces. However tensile stresses
are likely to develop in concrete due to drying shrinkage, rusting of steel reinforcement,
temperature gradients and many other reasons. Therefore the knowledge of tensile strength of
concrete is of importance.
Determination of Tensile strength
Direct measurement of tensile strength of concrete is difficult. Neither specimens nor
testing apparatus have been designed which assure uniform distribution of the pull applied
to the concrete. While a number of investigations involving the direct measurement of tensile
strength have been made, beam tests are found to be dependable to measure flexural strength
property of concrete.
FLEXURE TEST.
The value of modulus of rupture (extreme fiber stress in bending) depends on the
dimensions of the beam and manner of loading. The system of loading used in finding out the
flexural tension are central point loading and third point loading. In the centre point loading,
maximum fiber stress will come below the point of loading where the bending moment is
maximum. In the case of symmetrical two point loading the critical crack may appear at any
section, not strong enough to resist the stress within the middle third, where the bending
moment is maximum. It can be expected that the two point loading will yield a lower value of
modulus of rupture than the centre point loading. IS 516 1959 specifies two point loading.

Department of Civil EngineeringNational Institute of Technology Calicut
Material Testing Lab Manual Page 54 of 62
Preparation of the Specimen
The standard size of the specimens are 15 15 70 cm. Alternatively, if the largest
nominal size of the aggregated does not exceed 20 mm, specimens 10 10 50 cm may be
used.
The mould should be of metal, preferably steel or cast iron and the metal should be of
sufficient thickness to prevent spreading or warping. The mould should be constructed with
the longer dimension horizontal and in such a manner as to facilitate the removal of the
moulded specimen without damage. The tamping bar should be a steel bar weighing 2 kg, 40
cm long and should have a ramming face 25 mm square.
Flexural strength
The flexural strength of concrete is expressed as the modulus of rupture f
b
depending
on the magnitude of a, the distance between the line of fracture and the nearest support. It is
given as follows.

2 b
Pl
f
bd
= when a is greater than 20 cm and
2
3
b
Pa
f
bd
= when a is less than 20 cm
but greater than 17 cm. If a is less than 17 cm the results of the test is discarded.
TESTING PROCEDURE
1. The bearing surfaces of the supporting and loading rollers are wiped clean.
2. The specimen stored in water at a temperature of 24
0
to 30
0
C for 48 hours is then
placed in the machine in such a manner that the load is applied to the uppermost
surface as cast in the mould, along two lines spaced 20 cm apart.
3. The axis of the specimen is carefully aligned with the axis of the loading device.
4. The load is applied without shock and increasing continuously at the rate such that the
extreme fiber stress increases at approximately 0.7 kg/sq cm/ minute ie at a rate of
loading of 400 kg/minute for 15 cm specimens.

Department of Civil EngineeringNational Institute of Technology Calicut
Material Testing Lab Manual Page 55 of 62
5. The load is increased until the specimen fails, and the maximum load applied to the
specimen during the test is recorded. The appearance of the fractured faces of the
concrete and any unusual features in the type of failure is noted.
OBSERVATIONS
i) identification mark -
ii) date of test -
iii) age of specimen -
iv) curing condition -
v) size of specimen -
vi) span length -
vii) maximum load -
viii) position of fracture ( value a) -
Calculation:
Flexural strength of the specimen =
SPLIT TEST
Cylinder splitting tension test also some time referred to as Brazilian Test was
developed inBrazil in 1943. At about the same time this was also independently developed in
Japan.
This test is carried out by placing a cylindrical specimen horizontally between the
loading surfaces of the compression testing machine and the load is applied until failure of the
cylinder along the vertical diameter.
When the load is applied along the generatrix, an element on the vertical diameter of the
cylinder is subjected to a vertical compressive stress of
2
2
1
( )
P D
LD r D r


and a horizontal
stress of
2P
LD
where P is the compressive load on the cylinder, L is the length of the
cylinder, D is the diameter and D and (D-r) are the distances of the elements from the two
loads respectively.

Department of Civil EngineeringNational Institute of Technology Calicut
Material Testing Lab Manual Page 56 of 62
The loading condition produces a high compressive stress immediately below the two
generators to which the load is applied. But the larger portion corresponding to depth is
subjected to a uniform tensile stress acting horizontally. It is estimated that the compressive
stress is acting for about 1/6 depth and the remaining 5/6 depth is subjected to tension.
In order to reduce the magnitude of the high compression stresses near the points of
application of the load, narrow packing strips of suitable material such as plywood are placed
between the specimen and loading platens of the testing machine. The packing strips should
be soft enough to allow distribution of load over a reasonable area, yet narrow and thin
enough to prevent large contact area. Normally, a plywood strip 25 mm wide, 3 mm thick and
30 cm long is used.
The splitting test is simple to perform and gives more uniform results than other
tension tests. Strength determined in the splitting test is believed to be closer to the true tensile
strength of concrete, than the modulus of rupture. Splitting strength gives about 5 to 12 %
higher value than the direct tensile strength.
OBSERVATIONS
i) Date of casting -
ii) Date of testing -
iii) Age of specimen -
iv) Length of cylinder -
v) Load at failure -
CALCULATION
Split tensile strength =
2P
LD
=
RESULT
i) Modulus of rupture of by flexure test =
ii) Split tensile strength =

Department of Civil EngineeringNational Institute of Technology Calicut
Material Testing Lab Manual Page 57 of 62

Questions for Review:
1. What would have been the expression for modulus of rupture had we used a single
point load set up with P as the load at failure.
2. Draw the distribution of horizontal stress along a vertical diameter in a cylinder
loaded as shown in figure
3. List out few other methods for the determination of tensile strength of concrete.









Department of Civil EngineeringNational Institute of Technology Calicut
Material Testing Lab Manual Page 58 of 62

Department of Civil EngineeringNational Institute of Technology Calicut
Material Testing Lab Manual Page 59 of 62
9. SELF STUDY AND DEMONSTRATION
The topics for self study intended here are the following.
1. Extensometers and strain gauges.
2. Non destructive testing equipments
Exercise:
Students shall collect materials on the above mentioned topics and shall submit a write
up on the same. A demonstration of the measuring instruments available in the lab will also
be done.
Apart from the above two a live demonstration on the behaviour of under reinforced and
over reinforced concrete beams subjected to vertical loading also shall be done. Details on this
shall be explained in the class.

Department of Civil EngineeringNational Institute of Technology Calicut
Material Testing Lab Manual Page 60 of 62
APPENDIX
PHYSICAL AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF SOME
COMMON MATERIALS
D
e
n
s
i
t
y
(
g
/
c
c
)

2
.
7

2
.
7

2
.
2

-

4

7
.
8


U
l
t
i
m
a
t
e

t
e
n
s
i
l
e

s
t
r
e
n
g
t
h

(
M
P
a
)

5
0

-

1
1
4

5
0

-

1
1
4

3



9
0

1
0
0

-

2
3
0

4
0
0

-

1
5
0
0


E
l
o
n
g
a
t
i
o
n

(
%
)

6
0

1

-

4
5

1
0

-

5
0

0

-

1

3
5

3

-

4
0


U
l
t
i
m
a
t
e

s
t
r
e
s
s

(
M
P
a
)

7
0

1
0
0

-

5
5
0

7
-
7
0

1
0

-

7
0

2
3
0

-

3
8
0

3
0

-

1
0
0
0

6
9

-

4
8
0

3
4
0

3
4
0

-

1
9
0
0

5
0


1
0
0


Y
i
e
l
d

s
t
r
e
s
s

(
M
P
a
)

2
0

3
5

-

5
0
0

5
5


3
3
0

1
2
0

-

2
9
0

2
1
0

2
8
0

-

1
6
0
0

3
0

-

7
0


P
o
i
s
s
o
n

s

r
a
t
i
o

0
.
3
3

0
.
3
3

0
.
1

-

0
.
2

0
.
3
3

-

0
.
3
6

0
.
2

-


0
.
2
7

0
.
2

-

0
.
3

0
.
3

0
.
2
7

-

0
.
3


S
h
e
a
r

m
o
d
u
l
u
s



(
G
P
a
)

2
6

2
6

-

3
0

4
0

-

4
7

1
9

-

3
4

3
2

-

6
9

7
5

7
5

-

8
0


E
l
a
s
t
i
c

m
o
d
u
l
u
s

(
G
P
a
)

7
0

7
0

-

7
9

1
0

-

2
4

1
8

-

3
0

1
1
0

-

1
2
0

4
8

-

8
3

8
3

-

1
7
0

1
9
0

1
9
0

-

2
1
0

1
0

-

1
4

3
0

-

1
0
0

M
a
t
e
r
i
a
l
s

A
l
l
u
m
i
n
i
u
m

A
l
l
u
m
i
n
i
u
m

A
l
l
o
y

B
r
i
c
k

(
c
o
m
p
r
e
s
s
i
o
n
)

C
o
n
c
r
e
t
e

C
o
p
p
e
r

G
l
a
s
s

C
a
s
t

i
r
o
n

W
r
o
u
g
h
t

i
r
o
n

S
t
e
e
l

W
o
o
d
(
b
e
n
d
i
n
g
)

H
i
g
h

s
t
r
e
n
g
t
h

c
o
n
c
r
e
t
e


Department of Civil EngineeringNational Institute of Technology Calicut
Material Testing Lab Manual Page 61 of 62

Department of Civil EngineeringNational Institute of Technology Calicut
Material Testing Lab Manual Page 62 of 62