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School of

Electrical, Electronics and Computer Engineering


Experiment 7
Forced and Natural Response of RC circuits with DC excitation Forced and Natural Response of RC circuits with DC excitation
&roup No%' (
Date of )erformance' Fe*ruar+ ,,, ,-..
Date of Su*mission' "arch -., ,-..
Engr% John "ercado
/% O1JEC0/$ES
.%2 0o anal+3e the effect of energ+ storing de4ices li5e capacitors in DC
,%2 0o demonstrate the charging and discharging response of a capacitor with
DC excitation
6%2 0o 4erif+ the natural response and forced response of a DC excited RC
(%2 0o distinguish among the natural response, forced response and complete
response of a d+namic RC circuit
//% D!0!70!1LES7&R!)8S
Preliminary Data Sheet
Experiment 7: Forced and Natural Response of RC circuits with DC excitation
Name:Coronel, Jullan "er+l $% Date: Fe*ruar+ ,,, ,-..
Crs/Sec: EE.-.L719 Group no: (
0a*le :%. Charging ;Complete response2
0ime ;ms2 $oltage;$
<=-m$2 Charge
- - -
.- ;.,2 .9> m$ .9%>
,- ;,-2 ,6, m$ ,6%,
6- ;6,2 ,>( m$ ,>%(
(- ;(-2 6-- m$ 6-
=- ;=,2 6.9 m$ 6.%9
9- ;9-2 6.9 m$ 6.%9
>- ;>-2 6,( m$ 6,%(
.-- ;.--2 6,( m$ 6,%(
.,- ;.,-2 6,( m$ 6,%(
0a*le :%, Discharging ;Natural response2
0ime ;ms2 $oltage ;m$2 Charge
- 6,> 6,%>
.- ;.,2 .:9 .:%9
,- ;,-2 >( >%(
6- ;6,2 (- (
(- ;(-2 ,- ,
=- ;=-2 ., .%,
9- ;9-2 ( -%(
>- ;>-2 - -
.-- ;.--2 - -
.,- ;.,-2 - -
ppro!ed "#:
Engr. John Mercado
///% /N0ER)RE0!0/ON
/n this experiment, we use oscilloscope to 5now the $oltage across
the capacitor at specific time and its wa4eforms% Since, we 5now the 4oltage
across the capacitor at specific time, and then we were a*le to 5now the
4alue of the charge of the capacitor at specific time%
!s / o*ser4ed, *ased on m+ research, the resisti4e?capitance time
constant is the time re@uired to charge a capacitor to approximatel+ 96A of
the maximum 4oltage or to discharge a capacitor to approximatel+ 6:A of
the initial 4oltage of the capacitor% Be use 0ina pro *ecause the amount of
time re@uired to charge and discharge a capacitor is 4er+ small% /n RC
circuit, it composed of a source, resistor and a capacitor% Be use resistor to
control the charge and discharge time necessar+% /f the resistance of the
resistor decreases, it ta5es less time to charge a capacitor% 1ecause of that,
the amount of time of the capacitor to *ecome full+ charged is depends on
the capacitances of the capacitor and the resistance of the resistor%
0he natural response of an RC circuit is the exponential part of the
response that usuall+ dies out, due to the presence of capacitor in the circuit%
0herefore, this is the charging and discharging of the capacitor%
!fter this experiment in Forced and Natural Response of RC circuits
with DC excitation, / was a*le to 5now that when the 4oltage across a
capacitor is not changing with time, the current through the capacitor is 3ero%
0herefore, / conclude that a capacitor is an open circuit to dc and that the
4oltage on a capacitor cannot change a*ruptl+ *ecause the capacitor resists
an a*rupt change in the 4oltage across it%
8ere, / also conclude that capacitance is directl+ proportional to the
area of the plates and in4ersel+ proportional to the distance *etween the
plates of the capacitor% / also learned that the role of a capacitor is to store
!dditionall+, / also conclude that natural response of an RC circuit is
the circuitCs temporar+ response that will die out with time% 8ere, / conclude
that forced response of an RC circuit is the *eha4ior of the circuit a long
time after an external excitation is applied% !nd lastl+, complete response is
the summation of all the response%
Electrical Circuits La*orator+ . "anual *+ 8ortinela and $allestero

1. What are the factors governing capacitance?
0he factors that go4ern capacitance are charge and 4oltage% !lso, the
following can still include' surface area of the plates where the greater plate area
the greater the capacitance whereas, the lesser the plate area the lesser the
capacitance, distance *etween plates where the greater the plate spacing the lesser
the capacitance whereas, the closer the plate spacing the greater the capacitance
and permitti4it+ of material where the higher the permitti4it+ the greater the
2. What are the characteristics of the capacitor when connected to a !
0he following are the characteristics of the capacitor in DC source'
0he capacitor is an open circuit
! finite amount of energ+ can *e stored in a capacitor e4en if the
current through it is 3ero%
! capacitor resists an a*rupt change in the 4oltage through it%
0he capacitor ne4er dissipates energ+ *ut onl+ stores it%
#. isc"ss $rief%& the different t&pes of capacitors
Dielectric Capacitors are usuall+ of the 4aria*le t+pe such as used for
tuning transmitters, recei4ers and transistor radios%
Film Capacitors are the most commonl+ a4aila*le of all t+pes of
capacitors, consisting of a relati4el+ large famil+ of capacitors with the
difference *eing in their dielectric properties%
Ceramic Capacitors or Disc Capacitors as the+ are generall+ called, are
made *+ coating two sides of a small porcelain or ceramic disc with sil4er
and are then stac5ed together to ma5e a capacitor%
Electrol+tic Capacitors are generall+ used when 4er+ large capacitance
4alues are re@uired%
'. What are the $asic app%ications of an (! circ"it?
0he *asic applications of an RC circuit are dela+ circuit and electronic flash
unit% /t *asicall+ consists of an RC circuit with the capacitor connected in parallel
with a neon lamp%
). efine the time constant of an (! circ"it?
0he time re@uired to charge a capacitor to 96 percent ;actuall+ 96%, percent2
of full charge or to discharge it to 6: percent ;actuall+ 69%> percent2 of its initial
4oltage is 5nown as the 0/"E CONS0!N0 ;0C2 of the circuit%
6. etermine the e*"iva%ence capacitance when a capacitor is p%aced in
para%%e% with series connect and #0 capacitors.
7. +ind the e*"iva%ent capacitance when series connected and
capacitors are connected in para%%e% with series connected and
,. etermine the time constant of an (! circ"it with a resistance (- 200 .hms
and a )0 micro +arad capacitor connected in series with a 20/ d! so"rce.
9. etermine the time constant of an (! circ"it with a resistance ( - and
a capacitor connected in para%%e% with a #0/ dc so"rce.

10. etermine the vo%tage after ) after the switch is c%osed if the circ"it is
connected to a #0/ s"pp%& and the capacitor is initia%%& "ncharged.