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Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2007 Feb;58(1):18-28. Total phenol, antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities of some medicinal plants.

Prakash D, Suri S, Upadhyay G, Singh BN. Nutraceutical Chemistry, National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow, India.

Phenols, a major group of antioxidant phytochemicals, have profound importance due to their biological and free radical scavenging activities. To identify their potential sources, extracts of some plants were studied for their total phenolic content (TPC), antioxidant (AOA) and free radical scavenging activities (FRSA) by different methods at multiple concentrations followed by specific phenolic composition. The amount of TPC varied from 2.8 mg/g (Withania somnifera, roots) to 107.8 mg/g (Cassia fistula, fruits) and the AOA from 24.2% (Curcuma zeoderia, leaves) to 96.9% (Trewia nudiflora, leaves). Bark of Azadirachta indica, fruits of C. fistula, and leaves and fruits of T. nudiflora were found to have high TPC (89.8- 107.8 mg/g) and high AOA (84.8-96.9%). Promising plant parts were studied for their FRSA and reducing power (RP), where the bark of A. indica, Casuarina equisetifolia and Cinnamomum zeylanicum, flowers of Indigofera tinctoria, fruits of Lawsonia inermis, and fruits and leaves of T. nudiflora showed a very low inhibitory concentration value ranging from 0.14 to 0.26 mg/ml, efficiency concentration value from 6.1 to 11.6 mg/mg DPPH and reducing power value from 0.6 to 2.8 ascorbic acid equivalents (ASE/ml), and reasonably high values (8.5 -16.2) of anti-radical power (ARP), indicating their strong FRSA. They also showed better inhibition of hydroxyl radical induced deoxyribose degradation than that of reference standard. Fruits of C. fistula with high phenols (107.8 mg/g) showed poor reducing power (5.9 ASE/ml) and ARP (4.7); in contrast, the bark of C. equisetifolia and fruits of L. inermis were with comparatively lower phenols (72.1 and 75.8 mg/g) but exhibited good ARP (16.2 and 14.4) and reducing power (0.7 and 0.6 ASE/ ml, respectively). Some of the plants were also found effective in protecting plasmid DNA nicking induced by hydroxyl radicals generated by Fenton's reaction. They were further assayed for their specific phenolic composition through high-performance liquid chromatography and MS/MS, where the amount of caffeic acid varied from 0.312 to 0.797 mg/g, chlorogenic acid from 0.018 to 2.109 mg/g, ellagic acid from 0.009 to 0.902 mg/g, ferulic acid from 0.036 to 0.078 mg/g, gallic acid from 0.192 to 3.597 mg/g, kaempferol from 0.011 to 0.910 mg/g, quercetin from 0.047 to 1.106 mg/g and rutin from 0.059 to 2.029 mg/g.

PMID: 17415953 [Pubmed - in process]

Food Chem Toxicol. 2006 Feb;44(2):198-206. Epub 2005 Aug 8. In vitro antioxidant activity and scavenging effects of Cinnamomum verum leaf extract assayed by different methodologies.

Mathew S, Abraham TE.

Bioactive Polymer Engineering Section, Chemical Science Division, Regional Research Laboratory, Pappanamcode, Trivandrum 695 019, Kerala, India.

The free radical scavenging capacity and antioxidant activities of the methanolic extract of Cinnamomum verum leaf (CLE) were studied and compared to antioxidant compounds like trolox, butylated hydroxyl anisole, gallic acid and ascorbic acid. The CLE exhibited free radical scavenging activity, especially against DPPH radical and ABTS radical cation. They also exhibited reducing power and metal ion chelating activity, along with hydroxyl radical scavenging activity. The peroxidation inhibiting activity of CLE recorded using the linoleic acid emulsion system, showed very good antioxidant activity.

Publication Types: Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't PMID: 16087283 [Pubmed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Indian J Exp Biol. 1999 Mar;37(3):238-42. Anti-oxidant effects of cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum) bark and greater cardamom (Amomum subulatum) seeds in rats fed high fat diet.

Dhuley JN. Pharmacology and Toxicology Division, Hindustan Antibiotics Limited, Pimpri, Pune, India.

In order to gain insight into the antioxidant effect of cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum; Lauraceae) and cardamom (Amomum subulatum; Zingiberaceae) hepatic and cardiac antioxidant enzymes, glutathione (GSH) content and lipid conjugated dienes were studied in rats fed high fat diet along with cinnamon or cardamom. The antioxidant enzyme activities were found to be significantly enhanced whereas GSH content was markedly restored in rats fed a fat diet with spices. In addition, these spices partially counteracted increase in lipid conjugated dienes and hydroperoxides, the primary products of lipid peroxidation. Thus, it appears that these spices exert antioxidant protection through their ability to activate the antioxidant enzymes.

PMID: 10641152 [Pubmed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Boll Chim Farm. 1998 Dec;137(11):443-7. Antioxidant activity of cinnamon (Cinnamomum Zeylanicum, Breyne) extracts.

Mancini-Filho J, Van-Koiij A, Mancini DA, Cozzolino FF, Torres RP. Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas, Depto. de Alimentos e Nutrição Experimental, SÃo Paulo, Brasil.

JUSTIFICATION: Lipid oxidation is one of the major changes that can occur during processing, distribution, storage and final preparation of foods. The oxidation could be prevented by adding synthetic or natural antioxidants in spite of safety of synthetic ones has been questioned. This situation promotes increasing demand for food additives of natural origin. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant activity of cinnamon extracts. METHODS: Cinnamon samples were obtained at local market, milled (32 mesh sieve) and submitted to sequential extraction using as solvents: ether, methanol and water. The antioxidant activity in the extracts was measured by the b-carotene/linoleic acid system, at 50 degrees C and absorbances reading at 470 nm every 15 min intervals for 120 min. Two controls were used in this determination: one with synthetic antioxidant (BHT, 100 ppm) and other without antioxidant. The water extract was fraccionated using silica Gel 60 and 60G and through chromatographic processes: thin layer, (T.L.C.) and column, using BAW as mobile phase and ethylacetate, petroleum ether, methanol and water as eluent, respectively. RESULTS: The etheric (0.69 mg), methanolic (0.88 mg) and aqueous (0.44 mg) cinnamon extracts, inhibited the oxidative process in 68%; 95.5% and 87.5% respectively. The BHT control inhibited 80% oxidation. The spray reagents (1) beta-carotene/linoleic acid and (2) Fe Cl3/K3 Fe (CN)4 1% sol, showed spots in T.L.C. with antioxidant activity (1) and blue color (2), indicating the presence of phenolic compounds with Rf values of 0.50. Five fractions were obtained by column partition with antioxidant activity and the presence of phenolic compounds. SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest that the cinnamon extracts can be used as food antioxidant together with the improvement of food palatability. Further studies are in processing of analysing the sinergic association of extracts with synthetic antioxidant and to identify compounds with antioxidant activity in cinnamon extracts.

PMID: 10077878 [Pubmed - indexed for MEDLINE]