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A cement is a binder, a substance that sets and hardens as the cement dries and also reacts with carbon
dioxide in the air dependently, and can bind other materials together. The word "cement" traces to
the Romans, who used the term opus caementicium to describe masonry resembling
modern concrete that was made from crushed rock with burnt lime as binder. The volcanic ash and
pulverized brickadditives that were added to the burnt lime to obtain a hydraulic binder were later referred
to as cementum, cimentum, cment, and cement.
Cements used in construction can be characterized as being either hydraulic ornon-hydraulic, depending
upon the ability of the cement to be used in the presence of water (see hydraulic and non-hydraulic lime
Non-hydraulic cement will not set in wet conditions or underwater, and is attacked by some aggressive
chemicals after setting.
Hydraulic cement is made by replacing some of the cement in a concrete mix with activated aluminium
silcates, pozzolanas, such as fly ash, to activate cement setting in wet condition or underwater and further
protects hardened concrete from chemical attack. (e.g., Portland cement) hardening because
of hydration.
The chemical process for hydraulic cement found by ancient Romans used volcanic ash (activated
aluminium silicates), to activate cement hardening between theanhydrous cement powder and water or
plaster and water instead of relying on water drying out and simultaneously reacting with airborn carbon
Presently cheaper, pollution free fly ash from power stations or other waste or by products are used as
pozzolanas with plain cement to produce hydraulic cement. Pozzolanas can replace up to 40% of
Portland cement.
Thus, cement can harden underwater or when constantly exposed to wet weather. The chemical reaction
results in hydrates that are not very water-soluble and so are quite durable in water and from chemical
attack. Non-hydraulic cements and plasters do not harden in wet conditions.
The most important uses of cement are as an ingredient in the production of mortar in masonry, and
of concrete, a combination of cement and an aggregate to form a strong building material.

Types of cement and its uses

1. Ordinary Portland Cement
It is used in general construction works. All other varieties of Cement are derived from this Cement.

White Cement
OPC with pure white color produced with white chalk or clay free from iron oxide.
Instead of coal, oil fuel is used for burning.
Much more costlier than OPC.

Colored Cement
Suitable pigments used to impart desired color.
Pigments used should be chemically inert and durable under light, sun or weather.

2. Modified Portland Cement
This cement on setting develops less heat of generation than OPC.
It is best suited in hot climate for civil works construction.

3. Rapid Hardening or High Early Strength Cement (Type III)
Gains strength faster than OPC. In 3 days develops 7 days strength of OPC with same water cement
After 24 hours not less than 160 kg/cm2
After 72 hours not less than 275 kg/cm2
Initial and final setting times are same as OPC.
Contains more tri-calcium silicate (C3S) and finely ground.
Emits more heat during setting, therefore unsuitable for mass concreting.
Lighter and costlier than OPC. Short curing period makes it economical.
Used for structures where immediate loading is required e.g. repair works.

4. Quick Setting Cement
Sets faster than OPC.
Initial setting time is 5 minutes.
Final setting time is 30 minutes.
Used for concreting underwater and in running water.
Mixing and placing has to be faster to avoid initial setting prior to laying.

5. Low Heat Cement
Low percentage (5%) of tri-calcium aluminates (C3A) and silicate (C3S) and high (46%) of di-calcium
silicate (C2S) to keep heat generation low.
It has low lime content and less compressive strength.
Initial and final setting times nearly same as OPC.
Very slow rate of developing strength.
Not suitable for ordinary structures.
Shuttering required for long duration so cost will increase.
Prolonged curing is required.
Structure utilization will be delayed.

6. Sulphate Resistant Portland Cement
Percentage of tri-calcium Aluminate (C3A) is kept below 5% resulting in increase in resisting power
against sulphates.
Heat developed is almost same as Low Heat Cement.
Theoretically ideal cement. Costly manufacturing because of stringent composition requirements.
Used for structures likely to be damaged by severe alkaline conditions like bridges, culverts, canal
lining, siphons, etc.

7. Water Repellent Portland Cement
It contains a small percentage of water-proofing material with the cement and is manufactured under
the name Aqua-crete.
The cement is prepared with ordinary or rapid hardening cement and white cement.
It is used in to check moisture penetration in basements etc.

8. Water Proof Portland cement
It is prepared by mixing ordinary or rapid hardening cement and some percentage of some metal
stearate ( Ca, Al etc).
It is resistant to water and oil penetration.
It is also resistant to acids, alkaline and salt discharged by industrial water.
It is used for water retaining structure like tanks, reservoir, retaining walls, pool, dam etc

9. High Alumina Cement
Black chocolate color cement produced by fusing bauxite and limestone in correct proportion, at high
Resists attack of chemicals, Sulphates, seawater, frost action and also fire. Useful in chemical plants
and furnaces.
Ultimate strength is much higher than OPC.
Initial setting time is 2 hours, followed soon by final setting.
Most of the heat is emitted in first 10 hrs. Good for freezing temperatures in cold regions (below 18C).
Develops strength rapidly, useful during wartime emergency.
Unsuitable for mass concrete as it emits large heat on setting.

10. Portland Slag Cement
Produced by mixing Portland cement clinker, gypsum and granulated blast furnace slag.
Cheaper than OPC, blackish grey in color.
Lesser heat of hydration. Initial setting in 1 hr and final setting 10 hrs.
Better resistance to soil agents, sulphates of alkali metals, alumina, iron and acidic waters.
Suitable for marine works, mass concreting.
Due to low early strength, not suitable for RCC.

11. Air Entraining Cement
OPC with small quantity of air entraining materials (resins, oils, fats, fatty acids) ground together.
Air is entrained in the form of tiny air bubbles during chemical reaction.
Concrete is more plastic, more workable, more resistant to freezing.
Strength of concrete reduces to some degree.
Quantity of air entrained should not be more than 5% to prevent excess strength loss.

12. Portland Pozzolana Cement
OPC clinker and Pozzolana (Calcined Clay, Surkhi and Fly ash) ground together.
Properties same as OPC.
Produces less heat of hydration and offers great resistance to attacks of Sulphates and acidic waters.
Used in marine works and mass concreting.
Ultimate strength is more than OPC but setting timings are same as OPC.

13. Supersulphated Cement
Initially, not less than 70 per cent finely ground blast furnace slag, Calcium Sulphate and a small
quantity of ordinary Portland cement or Portland cement clinker.
It is finer than ordinary Portland cement.
Its physical and other properties are almost same as are of ordinary Portland cement except the heat
of hydration which is considerably lower.
It is a slag cement and is resistant to majority of chemicals found in construction industry. It is also
resistant to Sulphate attack.
It is used in:
Marine Structures.
Mass concrete works subjected to aggressive waters.
Reinforced concrete pipes in ground water.
Concrete construction in Sulphate bearing soils.
In factories where concrete is exposed to highly concentrated Sulphates.
Construction of concrete sewers carrying industrial effluents.
Underside of railway bridges.
Under tropical conditions, its use is recommended only below 40`C.
Can be used as a general purpose cement with adequate precautions.
It should never be used for casting steam cured concrete products.

14. Masonry Cement
Unlike ordinary cement, it is more plastic.
Made by mixing hydrated lime, crushed stone, granulated slag or highly colloidal clays are mixed with
Addition of above mentioned materials reduces the strength of cement.

15. Expansive or Expanding Cement
The main difference in this cement is the increase in volume that occurs when it settles.
Used to neutralize shrinkage of concrete made from ordinary cement so as to eliminate cracks. A small
percentage of this cement with concrete will not let it crack. It is specially desirable for hydraulic
In repair work, it is essential that the new concrete should be tight fitting in the old concrete. This can
be done by using this cement

16. Other Varieties
High Alumina Cement alumina cement is an inorganic material that form a dense texture when it
reacts with water. It has excellent refractoriness, quick hardening and resistance to chemical attacks.
Our high alumina cement is widely used for the production of high quality refractory castables and
other special materials. It is made from bauxite and limestone with high temperature fusion process

Blast Furnace Slag Cement - is obtained by quenching molten iron slag (a by-product of iron and
steel-making) from a blast furnace in water or steam, to produce a glassy, granular product that is then
dried and ground into a fine powder.

Hydrophobic Cement - other filler together with an air-entraining agent or a water-repellent additive.
Waterproof cement is the name given to a portland cement to which a water-repellent agent has been
added. Hydrophobic cement is obtained by grinding portland cement clinker with a film-forming
substance such as oleic acid in order to reduce the rate of deterioration when the cement is stored

Oil-well Cement - Oil-well cements are used for cementing work in the drilling of oil wells where they
are subject to high temperatures and pressures. They usually consist of portland or pozzolanic cement


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=woaUs5XnjUo - PROCESS

dump truck- is a truck used for transporting loose material (such as sand, gravel, or dirt) forconstruction. A
typical dump truck is equipped with an open-box bed, which is hinged at the rear and equipped
with hydraulic pistons to lift the front, allowing the material in the bed to be deposited ("dumped") on the
ground behind the truck at the site of delivery.

crusher is a machine designed to reduce large rocks into smaller rocks, gravel, or rock dust









Rank Company/Group Country Capacity (Mt/yr) No. of plants
1 Lafarge France 225 166
2 Holcim Switzerland 217 149
3 CNBM China 200 69
4 Anhui Conch China 180 34
5 HeidelbergCement Germany 118 71
6 Jidong China 100 100
7 Cemex Mexico 96 61
8 China Resources China 89 16
9 Sinoma China 87 24
10 Shanshui China 84 13
11 Italcementi Italy 74 55
12 Taiwan Cement Taiwan 70 -
13 Votorantim* Brazil 57 37
14 CRH** Ireland 56 11
15 UltraTech India 53 12
16 Huaxin China 52 51
17 Buzzi Italy 45 39
18 Eurocement Russia 40 16
19 Tianrui China 35 11
20 Jaypee*** India 34 16



Throughout history, cementing materials have played a vital role. They were used widely in the ancient
world. The Egyptians used calcined gypsum as a cement. The Greeks and Romans used lime made by
heating limestone and added sand to make mortar, with coarser stones for concrete.
The Romans found that a cement could be made which set under water and this was used for the
construction of harbours. The cement was made by adding crushed volcanic ash to lime and was later
called a "pozzolanic" cement, named after the village of Pozzuoli near Vesuvius.
In places such as Britain, where volcanic ash was scarce, crushed brick or tile was used instead. The
Romans were therefore probably the first to manipulate the properties of cementitious materials for
specific applications and situations.

Hadrian's Wall, England, a few miles east of Housesteads.

Marcus Vitruvius Pollio, a Roman architect and engineer in the 1st century BC wrote his "Ten books of
Architecture" - a revealing historical insight into ancient technology. Writing about concrete floors, for
"First I shall begin with the concrete flooring, which is the most important of the polished finishings,
observing that great pains and the utmost precaution must be taken to ensure its durability".
"On this, lay the nucleus, consisting of pounded tile mixed with lime in the proportions of three parts to
one, and forming a layer not less than six digits thick."
And on pozzolana:
"There is also a kind of powder from which natural causes produces astonishing results. This substance,
when mixed with lime and rubble, not only lends strength to buildings of other kinds, but even when piers
are constructed of it in the sea, they set hard under water."
(Vitruvius, "The Ten Books of Architecture," Dover Publications, 1960.)
His "Ten books of Architecture" are a real historical gem bringing together history and technology. Anyone
wishing to follow his instructions might first need to find a thousand or so slaves to dig, saw, pound and
After the Romans, there was a general loss in building skills in Europe, particularly with regard to cement.
Mortars hardened mainly by carbonation of lime, a slow process. The use of pozzolana was rediscovered
in the late Middle Ages.
The great mediaeval cathedrals, such as Durham, Lincoln and Rochester in England and Chartres and
Rheims in France, were clearly built by highly skilled masons. Despite this, it would probably be fair to say
they did not have the technology to manipulate the properties of cementitious materials in the way the
Romans had done a thousand years earlier.
The Renaissance and Age of Enlightenment brought new ways of thinking, which for better or worse, led
to the industrial revolution. In eighteenth century Britain, the interests of industry and empire coincided,
with the need to build lighthouses on exposed rocks to prevent shipping losses. The constant loss of
merchant ships and warships drove cement technology forwards.
Smeaton, building the third Eddystone lighthouse (1759) off the coast of Cornwall in Southwestern
England, found that a mix of lime, clay and crushed slag from iron-making produced a mortar which
hardened under water. Joseph Aspdin took out a patent in 1824 for "Portland Cement," a material he
produced by firing finely-ground clay and limestone until the limestone was calcined. He called it Portland
Cement because the concrete made from it looked like Portland stone, a widely-used building stone in
While Aspdin is usually regarded as the inventor of Portland cement, Aspdin's cement was not produced
at a high-enough temperature to be the real forerunner of modern Portland Cement. Nevertheless, his
was a major innovation and subsequent progress could be viewed as mere development.
A ship carrying barrels of Aspdin's cement sank off the Isle of Sheppey in Kent, England, and the barrels
of set cement, minus the wooden staves, were later incorporated into a pub in Sheerness and are still
there now.
A few years later, in 1845, Isaac Johnson made the first modern Portland Cement by firing a mixture of
chalk and clay at much higher temperatures, similar to those used today. At these temperatures (1400C-
1500C), clinkering occurs and minerals form which are very reactive and more strongly cementitious.
While Johnson used the same materials to make Portland cement as we use now, three important
developments in the manufacturing process lead to modern Portland cement:
- Development of rotary kilns
- Addition of gypsum to control setting
- Use of ball mills to grind clinker and raw materials
Rotary kilns gradually replaced the original vertical shaft kilns used for making lime from the 1890s.
Rotary kilns heat the clinker mainly by radiative heat transfer and this is more efficient at higher
temperatures, enabling higher burning temperatures to be achieved. Also, because the clinker is
constantly moving within the kiln, a fairly uniform clinkering temperature is achieved in the hottest part of
the kiln, the burning zone.
The two other principal technical developments, gypsum addition to control setting and the use of ball
mills to grind the clinker, were also introduced at around the end of the 19th century.


There are many ways and methods for the testing of cement. Some of them need a proper laboratory
setup while other can be conducted at field itself. For the sake of convenience we will divide the methods
under following two categories as (i) Tests in Field and (ii) Tests in Laboratory.
Tests in Field
Field tests are convenient way of primary inspection of cement when it is used in small scale works or
when decision has to be made during purchase process. These are some of the steps that can ensure
you good quality cement while inspection at site-
a) First cement bags should be open a little wide for visible inspection. There should not be any lumps
formation inside the bag.
b) Put your hand inside the bag and ensure additionally that there are not any hidden lumps. Also this
activity should give u a feel of cool sensation on your hands.
c) Take a sample of cement in your hand and rub it in between your fingers. It should be smooth in
d) Take another handful sample of cement and throw it in the bucket full of water. Particles of cement
should float a while before sinking down.
Tests in Laboratory
Field tests only indicate that cement is not bad and can be used for small scale works. Thus Laboratory
tests are necessary to confirm that cement is good in nature and can even be used for important works
too. Following tests are necessary to be conducted on cement in laboratory-
a) Fineness Test-The fineness of cement can be defined as the measure of size of particles of cement
or in simple form Specific Surface of Cement. This test is usually carried out using IS sieve no.9 or 90
b) Setting Time Test- Cement when mixed with water triggers a process which results in a hardened
mass of mixture wherein hardness gradually increases with time. There are two setting times for cement-
Initial Setting Time (IST) or Final Setting Time (FST).It is tested using Vicats Apparatus. Eg. For Portland
Cement IST is around 30 mins and FST is around 600 mins.
c) Strength Test- The strength of cement is defined in MPa or N/mm
. For grade 33 Portland cement,
strength should be around 33MPa in 28 days. Compression test is carried out to check the strength of
d) Soundness Test- Soundness of cement can be defined as a process in which cement does not
show any considerable change in volume after setting. Autoclave tests and Le Chateleir tests care carried
out to check the soundness of cement.
e) Heat of Hydration Test- The heat of hydration can be defined as heat from cement paste liberated
as a reaction of water with cement. This test is usually carried out in thermos flask.
f) Chemical Composition Test- A test is carried out on cement that tests the ratio of chemicals in the
cement. Different standards and codes specify different value of such ratios.
A standard oxide and chemical composition of Portland cement is as given below-
Chemical Compound Percentage
Lime, Cao 60-66
Silica, Sio
Iron Oxide, Fe
Magnesia, MgO 0.5-4
Sulphur trioxide, SO
Alkalis 0.5-1.3

Four main compounds that are present in cement and percentage of which decides (one of the
parameter) the quality of cement are as follows-
1. Tricalcium Silcate
2. Dicalcium Silicate
3. Trialcium Aluminate
4. Tetracalcium Alumino Ferrite

News for the cement industry

Lafarge Republic launches ash-based cement
Wednesday 14 May 2014
Philippines: Lafarge Republic and the Global Business Power Corporation (GBPC) has launched an
initiative aimed to lower the costs of rehabilitation projects, such as the rebuilding efforts for Yolanda and
the Bohol earthquake-affected areas, through the introduction of a ash-based cement called called Kapit-
Balay cement.
Kapit-Balay cement is a result of the Total Ash management partnership between Lafarge Republic and
GBPC. Under this collaboration, Lafarge uses the fly ash from GBPC's power generation processes to
produce blended cement. Under the partnership, the two companies worked on optimising the cost of
producing the ash-cement, which enables them to contribute in lowering the overall cost of rebuilding with
the additional support from Lafarge's packaging partner and a direct sales distribution model to
rehabilitation projects

Post-typhoon rebuilding drives Philippines cement sales in Q1
Wednesday 30 April 2014
Philippines: Cement sales rose by 8.6% in the first quarter of 2014. The surge was largely driven by
rebuilding following the destruction wrought by typhoon Haiyan in November 2013, according to the
Cement Manufacturers Association of the Philippines (CEMAP). Cement producers sold 5.2Mt of cement
in the first quarter of 2014 compared to 4.8Mt in the same period in 2013.
"The increase was primarily due to reconstruction efforts following super-typhoon Haiyan," said CEMAP
president Ernesto Ordoez in a phone interview with local media. He added that rebuilding is likely to
drive cement sales for 'more than a year' and that private sector confidence was also helping sales.
Following typhoon Haiyan the government of the Philippines raised its budget for infrastructure in 2014 by
37% to US$9bn from US$6.6bn in 2013 to provide for rehabilitation and reconstruction in areas affected
by the typhoon. In 2013 sales by the local cement industry grew by 6% to 19.4Mt/yr from 18.4Mt/yr in

Some safety practices

The risk assessments should contain the following:
x The location of the plant or equipment
x The work to be done
x List of the hazards identified
x List of the precautions taken
x Personal Protective Equipment that should be worn
x Issuer of Permit and length of time permit is valid for

Cembureau, BIBM, ERMCO, FIEC, December 2002
x The producers should clearly indicate the potential risk and the means of protection
against cement dermatitis by appropriate labeling and Material Safety Data Sheets.
x The contractors (employers) should provide adequate information and related
operational instructions to workers about potential risks when dealing with cement
x The contractors (employers) should provide adequate protective equipment (e.g.
special Chromium VI-free gloves, boots etc.)
x The workers should effectively follow the instructions received and use the protective
equipment correctly

pg 51-onwards


Cement overview en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cement
General reference
Types of cement http://cescientist.com/types-of-cement/





pg 51-onwards

Images/ video source
HOW CEMENT IS MADE http://d-build.org/blog/wp-content/uploads/2010/11/cement-making-