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# 1

## Spatial data Spatial data

presentation and presentation and
visualization visualization
Course Course Outline Outline
GIS and Maps GIS and Maps
Map types Map types
The dimensions The dimensions
of spatial data of spatial data
Visualization Visualization
Process Process
Visualization Visualization
Strategies Strategies
The cartographic The cartographic
toolbox toolbox
Map elements Map elements
Map dissemination Map dissemination
GIS and Maps (1): Maps Function GIS and Maps (1): Maps Function
Function of maps Function of maps
where where ? ? (location) (location)
what what ? ? (characteristics) (characteristics)
when when ? ? (time) (time)
or a combination of these. or a combination of these.
Maps and location: Maps and location:
" "Where Where is lake is lake Kivu Kivu
located in Rwanda?" located in Rwanda?"
GIS and Maps GIS and Maps
(2): Function (2): Function - -
Where Where
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"What is the distribution
of power lines in Rwanda?
GIS and Maps (3): GIS and Maps (3):
Data Characteristics Data Characteristics
Maps and time: "When Mukura Forest was smallest?"
GIS and Maps (4): Function GIS and Maps (4): Function
When When
2005 2005
1988 1988
49,09 Km
31, 61 Km
Maps are Maps are generalizations generalizations , or , or abstractions abstractions , of reality , of reality
GIS and Maps (5) GIS and Maps (5)
GIS and Maps (7) GIS and Maps (7)
Map definition Map definition
A map is a reduced and simplified A map is a reduced and simplified
representation of (parts of) the earth representation of (parts of) the earth
surface on a plane. surface on a plane.
A representation, or abstraction, of A representation, or abstraction, of
geographic reality. geographic reality.
A tool for presenting geographic A tool for presenting geographic
information in a way that is visual, digital information in a way that is visual, digital
or tactile. or tactile.
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Types of maps (1) Types of maps (1)
Topographic maps Topographic maps
visualize the visualize the
earth earth s surface as s surface as
accurately as accurately as
possible (within the possible (within the
limitations of map limitations of map
scale). scale).
It shows in general natural It shows in general natural
features like forest, rivers, features like forest, rivers,
elevation, and some man elevation, and some man
Definition: thematic map
A thematic map displays spatial pattern
of a theme or series of attributes.
In contrast to topographic maps which
show many geographic features (forests,
maps emphasize spatial variation of one
or a small number of geographic
distributions.
Thematic Map: Distribution Population per District Thematic Map: Distribution Population per District
Choropleth maps Choropleth maps
(Maps visualizing (Maps visualizing
relative values) relative values) are are
frequently used to frequently used to
present classified present classified
data on socio data on socio- -
economic variables economic variables
such as population, such as population,
density by area density by area . .
Types of maps (3) : Choropleth map Types of maps (3) : Choropleth map
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Visualization process Visualization process
Visualization
strategies (1)
Maps as final products Maps as final products
a means of visual communication a means of visual communication
Maps as intermediate products Maps as intermediate products
an aid to visual thinking an aid to visual thinking
Visualization strategies (2) Visualization strategies (2)
What is the purpose of the map ? What is the purpose of the map ?
Who will read the map ? Who will read the map ?
Where will the map be used ? Where will the map be used ?
What data are available to What data are available to
compose the map ? compose the map ?
.. ? .. ?
Scale?
Scale?
Objecti ve?
Objecti ve?
Audience?
Audience?
Reality?
Reality?
Technical
limits?
Technical
limits?
Need to
generalize?
Need to
generalize?
Mode
of use?
Mode
of use?
Final
design
Final design
Visualization strategies (4) Visualization strategies (4)
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Visualization strategies (5) Visualization strategies (5)
Map
Map
Mental image
of reality
Mental image
of reality
Reality
Reality
Map user
Map user
Cartographer
Cartographer
Compile
Imagine
Recognize
Select
Classify
Simplify
Symbolize
Analyze
Interpret
?
Map
Map
Visualization strategies (6) Visualization strategies (6)
The cartographic The cartographic
toolbox toolbox
How can I map the data ? How can I map the data ?
Point, line and area symbols Point, line and area symbols
Bertin Bertin s 6 visual variables s 6 visual variables
The cartographic The cartographic
toolbox (2) toolbox (2)
Point, line and area symbols
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Bertin Bertin s 6 graphical variables (3) s 6 graphical variables (3)
Size
SIZE refers to the dimensions of the symbols or in the
case of area symbols, to the dimensions of the individual
elements with which the symbol is built up. SIZE is
applicable to all three cartographic primitives however,
commonly used for line and point primitives.
Value
Refers to values on the grey scale ranging from white to
black.
VALUE is measured in terms of the ability to reflect light.
VALUE can also be applied to COLOUR visual variable.
Grain (Texture)
TEXTURE refers to the variation in density of the
graphic elements forming the overall symbol. It
is less effective for point and line primitives
unless they are exaggerated.
Color
COLOUR is the most powerful and most
frequently used
visual variable in symbol design.
COLOUR is applicable to the three primitives.
Orientation
ORIENTATION refers to the direction in which
symbols are placed.
Depending upon the individual elements
used, ORIENTATION has its limitation in
terms of the number of angles each element
can be rotated.
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It is important that maps only It is important that maps only
show what is necessary to show what is necessary to
communicate. communicate.
The level of detail shown in a map The level of detail shown in a map
can also determine how well a can also determine how well a
map communicates information. map communicates information.
Too much detail and the map can Too much detail and the map can
As Wood (1993) points out, what As Wood (1993) points out, what
you choose to leave out is as you choose to leave out is as
important as what you important as what you leave in leave in
IGN 1:100,000
IGN 1:250,000
The level of details The level of details
Map elements Map elements
Title
Map body
North arrow
Legend
Scale bar
Designed by Makram 2002
Author text
What is missing ? Source, Logo
A grid may be used to A grid may be used to
give a spatial frame of give a spatial frame of
reference reference
An inset map showing An inset map showing
the location of the the location of the
main map area within main map area within
its wider geographical its wider geographical
setting is a very setting is a very
useful device useful device
Maps Maps
Elements Elements
TALDOGS
T - Title
A - Author
L - Legend
D - Date
O - Orientation
G - Grid
S - Scale
The acronym helps to The acronym helps to
remember what to include remember what to include
on a map. on a map.
Main elements Main elements
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Map Map
dissemination dissemination
Hard-copy
Soft-copy