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California is a state located on the West Coast of the United States. It is the most
populous U.S. state, and the third most extensive (after Alaska and Texas). It is home to
the nations second and sixth lar!est census statistical areas ("reater #os An!eles
area and San $rancisco %a& Area, respectivel&), and ei!ht of the nations '( most
populated cities (#os An!eles, San )ie!o, San *ose, San
$rancisco, $resno, Sacramento, #on! %each, and +akland).The capital cit& is
Californias diverse !eo!raph& ran!es from the ,acific Coast in the -est, to the Sierra
.evada mountains in the east / from the 0ed-ood/)ou!las1fir forests of the north-est,
to the 2o3ave )esert areas in the southeast. The center of the state is dominated
4& Central 5alle&, a ma3or a!ricultural area. California contains 4oth the hi!hest and
lo-est points in the conti!uous United States (2ount Whitne& and )eath 5alle&), and
has the 6rd lon!est coastline of all states (after Alaska and $lorida). 7arth8uakes are a
common occurrence due to the states location alon! the ,acific 0in! of $ire9 a4out
6:,((( are recorded annuall&.
The name California once referred to a lar!e area of .orth America claimed 4& Spain
that included much of modern1da& South-estern United States and the %a3a California
peninsula. %e!innin! in the late ;<th centur&, the area kno-n as Alta California,
comprisin! the California territor& north of the %a3a ,eninsula, -as coloni=ed 4&
theSpanish 7mpire as part of .e- Spain. In ;<>;, Alta California 4ecame a part
of2exico follo-in! its successful -ar for independence. Shortl& after the 4e!innin! of
the 2exican1American War in ;<?@, a !roup of American settlers in Sonoma declared
an independent California 0epu4lic in Alta California. Thou!h its existence -as short1
lived, its fla! 4ecame the precursor for Californias current state fla!. American victor&
in the -ar led to the Treat& of "uadalupe Aidal!o, in -hich 2exico ceded Alta
California to the United States. Western areas of Alta California 4ecame the state of
California, -hich -as admitted as the 6;st state on Septem4er B, ;<'(.
The California "old 0ush 4e!innin! in ;<?< led to dramatic social and demo!raphic
chan!e, -ith lar!e scale immi!ration from the U.S. and a4road and an accompan&in!
economic 4oom. Ce& developments in the earl& >(th centur& included the emer!ence of
#os An!eles as the center of the American entertainment industr&, and the !ro-th of a
lar!e, state1-ide tourism sector. The late >(th centur& sa- the development of the
technolo!& and information sectors, punctuated 4& the !ro-th of Silicon 5alle&(part of
the San $rancisco %a& Area). Californias prosperous a!ricultural industr& also
emer!edD at least half of the fresh fruit produced in the United States are no- cultivated
in California, and the state also leads in the production of ve!eta4les. +ther important
contri4utors to its econom& include aerospace, education, and manufacturin!. If
California -ere a countr&, it -ould have the <th lar!est econom& in the -orld and it
-ould 4e the 6?th most populous nation.
California ad3oins the ,acific +cean to the -est, +re!on to the
north, .evada and Ari=ona to the east, and the 2exican state of %a3a California to the
south. With an area of ;@(,((( s8uare miles (?;?,((( km
), it is the 6rd lar!est state in
the United States in si=e, afterAlaska and Texas. If it -ere a countr&, California -ould
4e the 'Bth1lar!est in the -orld in area.
In the middle of the state lies the California Central 5alle&, 4ounded 4& the coastal
mountain ran!es in the -est, the Sierra .evada to the east, the Cascade 0an!e in the
north and theTehachapi 2ountains in the south. The Central 5alle& is Californias
a!ricultural heartland and !ro-s approximatel& one1third of the nations food
)ivided in t-o 4& the Sacramento1San *oa8uin 0iver )elta, the northern portion,
theSacramento 5alle& serves as the -atershed of the Sacramento 0iver, -hile the
southern portion, the San *oa8uin 5alle& is the -atershed for the San *oa8uin 0iverD
4oth areas derive their names from the rivers that transit them. With dred!in!, the
Sacramento and the San *oa8uin 0ivers have remained sufficientl& deep that several
inland cities are seaports.
The Sacramento1San *oa8uin 0iver )elta serves as a critical -ater suppl& hu4 for the
state. Water is routed throu!h an extensive net-ork of canals and pumps out of the
delta, that traverse nearl& the len!th of the state, includin! the Central 5alle& ,ro3ect
and the State Water ,ro3ect. Water from the )elta provides drinkin! -ater for nearl& >6
million people, almost t-o1thirds of the states population, and provides -ater to
farmers on the -est side of the San *oa8uin 5alle&. The Channel Islands are located off
the southern coast.
The Sierra .evada (Spanish for Esno-& ran!eE) includes the hi!hest peak in
the conti!uous fort&1ei!ht states, 2ount Whitne&, at ;?,'(' ft (??>; m). The ran!e
em4racesFosemite 5alle&, famous for its !laciall& carved domes, and Se8uoia .ational
,ark, home to the !iant se8uoia trees, the lar!est livin! or!anisms on 7arth, and the
deep fresh-ater lake,#ake Tahoe, the lar!est lake in the state 4& volume.
To the east of the Sierra .evada are +-ens 5alle& and 2ono #ake, an
essential mi!rator& 4ird ha4itat. In the -estern part of the state is Clear #ake, the lar!est
fresh-ater lake 4& area entirel& in California. Thou!h #ake Tahoe is lar!er, it is divided
4& the CaliforniaG.evada 4order. The Sierra .evada falls to Arctic temperatures in
-inter and has several do=en small !laciers, includin! ,alisade "lacier, the
southernmost !lacier in the United States.
A4out ?' percent of the states total surface area is covered 4& forests, and Californias
diversit& of pine species is unmatched 4& an& other state. California contains more
forestland than an& other state except Alaska. 2an& of the trees in the California White
2ountains are the oldest in the -orldD one %ristlecone pine has an a!e of ?,:(( &ears.
In the south is a lar!e inland salt lake, the Salton Sea. The south1central desert is called
the2o3aveD to the northeast of the 2o3ave lies )eath 5alle&, -hich contains the lo-est
and hottest place in .orth America, the %ad-ater %asin at H><> feet (H<@.( m). The
hori=ontal distance from the nadir of )eath 5alle& to the summit of 2ount Whitne& is
less than B( miles (;?( km). Indeed, almost all of southeastern California is arid, hot
desert, -ith routine extreme hi!h temperatures durin! the summer. The southeastern
4order of California -ith Ari=ona is entirel& formed 4& the Colorado 0iver, from -hich
the southern part of the state !ets a4out half of its -ater.
Alon! the California coast are several ma3or metropolitan areas, includin! "reater #os
An!eles Area, the San $rancisco %a& Area, and the San )ie!o metropolitan area.
As part of the 0in! of $ire, California is su43ect to tsunamis, floods, drou!hts, Santa
Ana -inds, -ildfires, landslides on steep terrain, and has several volcanoes. It sees
numerous earth8uakes due to several faults, in particular the San Andreas $ault.
Californias climate varies from 2editerranean to su4arctic.
2uch of the state has a 2editerranean climate, -ith cool, rain& -inters and dr&
summers. The cool California Current offshore often creates summer fo! near the coast.
$arther inland, one encounters colder -inters and hotter summers.
.orthern parts of the state avera!e hi!her annual rainfall than the south. Californias
mountain ran!es influence the climate as -ell9 some of the rainiest parts of the state are
-est1facin! mountain slopes. .orth-estern California has a temperate climate, and the
Central 5alle& has a 2editerranean climate 4ut -ith !reater temperature extremes than
the coast. The hi!h mountains, includin! the Sierra .evada, have an alpine climate -ith
sno- in -inter and mild to moderate heat in summer.
The east side of Californias mountains produce a rain shado-, creatin!
expansive deserts. The hi!her elevation deserts of eastern California see hot summers
and cold -inters, -hile the lo- deserts east of the southern California mountains
experience hot summers and nearl& frostless mild -inters. )eath 5alle&, a desert -ith
lar!e expanses 4elo- sea level, is considered the hottest location in .orth AmericaD the
hi!hest temperature in the Western Aemisphere, ;6? I$ (': IC), -as recorded there on
*ul& ;(, ;B;6. The lo-est temperature in California -as H?' I$ in ;B6: in %oca.
California is one of the richest and most diverse parts of the -orld, and includes some
of the most endan!ered ecolo!ical communities. California is part of the .earctic
eco=one and spans a num4er of terrestrial ecore!ions.
Californias lar!e num4er of endemic species includes relict species, -hich have died
out else-here, such as the Catalina Iron-ood (#&onothamnus flori4undus). 2an& other
endemics ori!inated throu!h differentiation or adaptive radiation, -here4& multiple
species develop from a common ancestor to take advanta!e of diverse ecolo!ical
conditions such as the California lilac (Ceanothus). 2an& California endemics have
4ecome endan!ered, as ur4ani=ation, lo!!in!, over!ra=in!, and the introduction
of exotic species have encroached on their ha4itat.
Flora and fauna
California 4oasts several superlatives in its collection of flora9 the lar!est trees,
the tallest trees, and the oldest trees. Californias native !rasses are perennial plants.
After 7uropean contact, these -ere !enerall& replaced 4& invasive species of
7uropean annual !rassesD and, in modern times, Californias hills turn a characteristic
!olden14ro-n in summer.
%ecause California has the !reatest diversit& of climate and terrain, the state has six life
=ones -hich are the lo-er Sonoran (desert)D upper Sonoran (foothill re!ions and some
coastal lands), transition (coastal areas and moist northeastern counties)D and the
Canadian, Audsonian, and Arctic Lones, comprisin! the states hi!hest elevations.
,lant life in the dr& climate of the lo-er Sonoran =one contains a diversit& of native
cactus, mes8uite, and paloverde. The *oshua tree is found in the 2o3ave )esert.
$lo-erin! plants include the d-arf desert popp& and a variet& of asters. $remont
cotton-ood and valle& oakthrive in the Central 5alle&. The upper Sonoran =one
includes the chaparral 4elt, characteri=ed 4& forests of small shru4s, stunted trees, and
her4aceous plants. .emophila, mint, ,hacelia, 5iola, and the California popp&
(7schschol=ia californica) / the state flo-er / also flourish in this =one, alon! -ith the
lupine, more species of -hich occur here than an&-here else in the -orld.
The transition =one includes most of Californias forests -ith the red-ood (Se8uoia
sempervirens) and the E4i! treeE or !iant se8uoia (Se8uoia !i!antea), amon! the oldest
livin! thin!s on earth (some are said to have lived at least ?,((( &ears). Tan4ark
oak, California laurel, Su!ar ,ine, madrona, 4road1leaved maple, and )ou!las1fir also
!ro- here. $orest floors are covered -ith s-ordfern, alumnroot,4arren-ort,
and trillium, and there are tickets of huckle4err&, a=alea, elder, and -ild currant.
Characteristic -ild flo-ers include varieties of mariposa, tulip,
and ti!er and leopard lilies.
The hi!h elevations of the Canadian =one allo- the *effre& ,ine, red fir, and #od!epole
,ine to thrive. %rush& areas are a4undant -ith d-arf man=anita and ceanothusD the
uni8ue Sierra puff4all is also found here. 0i!ht 4elo- the time4erline, in the Audsonian
=one, the -hite4ark, foxtail, and silver pines !ro-. At a4out ;(,'(( ft (6,>(( m), 4e!ins
the Arctic =one, a treeless re!ion -hose flora include a num4er of -ildflo-ers,
includin! Sierra primrose, &ello- colum4ine, alpine 4uttercup, and alpine shootin! star.
Common plants that have 4een introduced to the state include
the eucal&ptus, acacia, pepper tree, !eranium, and Scotch 4room. The species that are
federall& classified as endan!ered are the Contra Costa -allflo-er, Antioch )unes
evenin! primrose, Solano "rass,San Clemente Island larkspur, salt marsh 4irds
4eak, 2c)onalds rock1cress, and Santa %ar4ara Island #iveforever. As of )ecem4er
;BB:, <' plant species -ere listed as threatened or endan!ered.
In the deserts of the lo-er Sonoran =one, the mammals include the 3ackra44it, kan!aroo
rat, s8uirrel, and opossum. Common 4irds include the o-l, roadrunner, Cactus Wren,
and various species of ha-k. The areas reptilian life include the side-inder
viper, desert tortoise, and horned toad. The upper Sonoran =one 4oasts mammals such
as the antelope, 4ro-n1footed -oodrat, and 0in!1tailed cat. %irds uni8ue to this =one
are the California Thrasher, 4ushtit, and California Condor.
In the transition =one, there are Colom4ian %lack1tailed )eer, 4lack 4ears, !ra&
foxes, cou!ars, 4o4cats, and 0oosevelt elk. 0eptiles such as the !arter snakes and
rattlesnakes inha4it the =one. In addition, amphi4ians such as the -ater
pupp& and red-ood salamanderare common too. %irds such as the kin!fisher,
chickadee, to-hee, and hummin!4ird thrive here as -ell.
The Canadian =one mammals include the 2ountain -easel, Sno-shoe hare, and several
species of chipmunks. Conspicuous 4irds include the 4lue1fronted 3a&, Sierra chickadee.
Sierra Aermit Thrush, -ater ou=el, and To-nsends Solitaire. As one ascends into the
Audsonian =one, 4irds 4ecome scarcer. While the Sierra ros& finch is the onl& 4ird
native to the hi!h Arctic re!ion, other 4ird species such as the hummin!4ird and Clarks
.utcracker. ,rincipal mammals found in this re!ion include the Sierra cone&, White1
tailed 3ackra44it, and the %i!horn Sheep. As of April >((6, the %i!horn Sheep -as
listed as endan!ered 4& the US $ish and Wildlife Service. The fauna found throu!hout
several =ones are the mule deer, co&ote, mountain lion, .orthern $licker, and several
species of ha-k and sparro-.
A8uatic life in California thrives, from the states mountain lakes and streams to the
rock& ,acific coastline. .umerous trout species are found, amon!
them rain4o-, !olden, and Tahoe. 2i!rator& species of salmon are common as -ell.
)eep1sea life forms include sea 4ass, &ello-fin tuna, 4arracuda, and several t&pes of
-hale. .ative to the cliffs of northern California are seals, sea lions, and man& t&pes of
shore4irds, includin! mi!rator& species.
As of April >((6, ;;< California animals -ere on the federal endan!ered listD ;<; plants
-ere listed as endan!ered or threatened. 7ndan!ered animals include the San *oa8uin
kitfox, ,oint Arena mountain 4eaver, ,acific pocket mouse, Salt 2arsh Aarvest
2ouse,2orro %a& kan!aroo rat (and five other species of kan!aroo rat), Amar!osa
vole, California #east Tern, California Condor, #o!!erhead Shrike, San Clemente sa!e
sparro-, San $rancisco !arter snake, five species of salamander, three species of chu4,
and t-o species of pupfish. 7leven 4utterflies are also endan!ered and t-o that are
threatened are on the federal list. Amon! threatened animals are the coastal California
"natcatcher, ,aiute cutthroat trout, southern sea otter, and .orthern Spotted +-l.
California has a total of >B(,<>; acres (;,;:@.B; km
) of .ational Wildlife 0efu!es. As
of Septem4er >(;(, ;>6 California animals -ere listed as either endan!ered or
threatened on the federal list provided 4& the US $ish M Wildlife Service. Also, as of
the same &ear, ;:< species of California plants -ere listed either as endan!ered or
threatened on this federal list.
The vast ma3orit& of rivers in California are dammed as part of t-o massive -ater
pro3ects9 the Central 5alle& ,ro3ect, providin! -ater to the a!ricultural central valle&,
the California State Water ,ro3ect divertin! -ater to from northern to southern
California. The states coasts, rivers, and other 4odies of -ater are re!ulated 4&
the California Coastal Commission.
The t-o most prominent rivers -ithin California are the Sacramento 0iver and the San
*oa8uin 0iver, -hich drain the Central 5alle& and the -est slope of the Sierra .evada
and flo- to the ,acific +cean throu!h San $rancisco %a&. Several ma3or tri4utaries feed
into the Sacramento and the San *oa8uin, includin! the ,it 0iver, the Tuolumne 0iver,
and the $eather 0iver.
The 7el 0iver and Salinas 0iver each drain portions of the California coast, north and
south of San $rancisco %a&, respectivel&, and the 7el river is the lar!est river in the
state to remain in its natural un1dammed state. The 2o3ave 0iver is the primar&
-atercourse in the 2o3ave )esert, and the Santa Ana 0iver drains much of
the Transverse 0an!es as it 4isects Southern California. Some other important rivers are
the Clamath 0iver and the Trinit& 0iver in the far north coast, and the Colorado
0iver on the southeast 4order -ith Ari=ona.
The United States Census %ureau estimates that the population of California -as
6<,(?;,?6( on *ul& ;, >(;>, a >.;N increase since the >(;( United States
Census %et-een >((( and >((B, there -as a natural increase of 6,(B(,(;@ (',('<,??(
4irths minus >,;:B,B'< deaths).)urin! this time period, international
mi!ration produced a net increase of ;,<;@,@66 people -hile domestic mi!ration
produced a net decrease of ;,'(B,:(<, resultin! in a net in1mi!ration of 6(@,B>'
people. The State of Californias o-n statistics sho- a population of 6<,>B>,@<: for
*anuar& ;, >((B.
California is the second1most1populous su41national entit& in the Western
Aemisphere and the Americas, -ith a population second to that of State of SOo ,aulo,
%ra=il. Californias population is !reater than that of all 4ut 6? countries of the
-orld. Also, #os An!eles Count& has held the title of most populous U.S. count& for
decades, and it alone is more populous than ?> U.S. states. In addition, California is
home to ei!ht of the '( most populous cities in the United States9 #os An!eles (>nd),
San )ie!o (<th), San *ose (;(th), San $rancisco (;6th), $resno (6?th), Sacramento
(6'th), #on! %each (6@th), and +akland (?:th). The center of population of California
is located in the to-n of %utton-illo-, Cern Count&.
The culture of California is a Western culture and most clearl& has its modern roots in
theculture of the United States, 4ut also, historicall&, man& Aispanic influences. As a
4order and coastal state, Californian culture has 4een !reatl& influenced 4& several lar!e
immi!rant populations, especiall& those from #atin America.
California has lon! 4een a su43ect of interest in the pu4lic mind and has often 4een
promoted 4& its 4oosters as a kind of paradise. In the earl& >(th centur&, fueled 4& the
efforts of state and local 4oosters, man& Americans sa- the "olden State as an ideal
resort destination, sunn& and dr& all &ear round -ith eas& access to the ocean and
mountains. In the ;B@(s, popular music !roups such as The %each %o&s promoted the
ima!e of Californians as laid14ack, tanned 4each1!oers.
The California "old 0ush of the ;<'(s is still seen as a s&m4ol of Californias economic
st&le, -hich tends to !enerate technolo!&, social, entertainment, and economic fads and
4ooms and related 4usts.
The econom& of California is lar!e enou!h to 4e compara4le to that of the lar!est of
countries. $F >(;;, the !ross state product ("S,) is a4out P;.B@ trillion, the lar!est in
the United States. California is responsi4le for ;6.; percent of the United States P;?.B@
trillion !ross domestic product ("),). Californias "), is lar!er than that of all 4ut <
countries in dollar terms (the United States, China, *apan,"erman&, $rance, %ra=il,
the United Cin!dom, and Ital&). Its lar!er than the "),s
of 0ussia, India, Canada, Australia, and Spain. In terms of ,urchasin! ,o-er ,arit&, its
lar!er than all 4ut B countries (the United States, China, India, *apan, "erman&, 0ussia,
%ra=il, $rance, the United Cin!dom, Ital&), lar!er than 2exico, South Corea, Spain,
Canada, and Turke&.
In terms of 3o4s, the five lar!est sectors in California are trade, transportation, and
utilitiesD !overnmentD professional and 4usiness servicesD education and health servicesD
and leisure and hospitalit&. In terms of output, the five lar!est sectors are financial
services, follo-ed 4& trade, transportation, and utilitiesD education and health servicesD
!overnmentD and manufacturin!.
California currentl& has the 6rd hi!hest unemplo&ment rate in the nation at B.<N as of
.ovem4er >(;>.
Californias econom& is ver& dependent on trade and international related commerce
accounts for approximatel& one18uarter of the stateQs econom&. In >((<, California
exported P;?? 4illion -orth of !oods, up from P;6? 4illion in >((: and P;>: 4illion in
Computers and electronic products are Californias top export, accountin! for ?>
percent of all the states exports in >((<.
A!riculture is an important sector in Californias econom&. $armin!1related sales more
than 8uadrupled over the past three decades, from P:.6 4illion in ;B:? to nearl& P6;
4illion in >((?.
This increase has occurred despite a ;' percent decline in acrea!e
devoted to farmin! durin! the period, and -ater suppl& sufferin! from chronic
insta4ilit&. $actors contri4utin! to the !ro-th in sales1per1acre include more intensive
use of active farmlands and technolo!ical improvements in crop production. In >((<,
Californias <;,'(( farms and ranches !enerated P6@.> 4illion products revenue.
,er capita "), in >((: -as P6<,B'@, rankin! eleventh in the nation. ,er capita
income varies -idel& 4& !eo!raphic re!ion and profession. The Central 5alle& is the
most impoverished, -ith mi!rant farm -orkers makin! less than minimum -a!e.
0ecentl&, the San *oa8uin 5alle& -as characteri=ed as one of the most economicall&
depressed re!ions in the U.S., on par -ith the re!ion of Appalachia. 2an& coastal cities
include some of the -ealthiest per1capita areas in the U.S. The hi!h1technolo!& sectors
in .orthern California, specificall& Silicon 5alle&, in Santa Clara and San 2ateo
counties, have emer!ed from the economic do-nturn caused 4& the dot1com 4ust.
In >(;(, there -ere more than @@6,((( millionaires in the state, more than an& other
state in the nation
Los Angeles
#os An!eles, officiall& the Cit& of #os An!eles, often kno-n 4& its initials #.A., is
the most populous cit& in theU.S. state of California and the second most populous in
the United States, after.e- Fork Cit&, -ith a population at the >(;( United States
Census of 6,:B>,@>;.It has an area of ?@B s8uare miles (;,>;' km
), and is located
in Southern California. The cit& is the focal point of the lar!er #os An!eles/#on!
%each/Santa Ana metropolitan statistical area and "reater #os An!eles Area re!ion,
-hich contain ;>,<><,<6: and nearl& ;< million people respectivel& as of >(;(, makin!
it one of themost populous metropolitan areas in the -orld
and the second lar!est in the
United States. #os An!eles is also the seat of #os An!eles Count&, the most populated
and one of the most ethnicall& diverse counties in the United States, -hile the entire #os
An!eles area itself has 4een reco!ni=ed as the most diverse of the nations lar!est
cities.The cit&s inha4itants are referred to as An!elenos.
#os An!eles -as founded on Septem4er ?, ;:<;, 4& Spanish !overnor $elipe de
.eve. It 4ecame a part of 2exico in ;<>; follo-in! the 2exican War of
Independence. In ;<?<, at the end of the 2exican/American War, #os An!eles and the
rest of California -ere purchased as part of the Treat& of "uadalupe Aidal!o, there4&
4ecomin! part of the United States. #os An!eles -as incorporated as a municipalit& on
April ?, ;<'(, five months 4efore California achieved statehood.
.icknamed the Cit& of An!els, #os An!eles is a leadin! -orld center of 4usiness,
international trade, entertainment, culture, media, fashion, science, sports, technolo!&,
and education, and has 4een ranked sixth in the "lo4al Cities Index and ;6th in
the "lo4al ,o-er Cit& Index. The cit& is home to reno-ned institutions coverin! a
4road ran!e of professional and cultural fields and is one of the most su4stantial
economic en!ines -ithin the United States. The #os An!eles com4ined statistical
area (CSA) has a !ross metropolitan product ("2,) of P<6; 4illion (as of >((<),
makin! it the third lar!est in the -orld, after the "reater Tok&o and .e-
Forkmetropolitan areas. As the home 4ase of Aoll&-ood, it leads the -orld in the
creation of television productions, video !ames, and recorded musicD it is also one of the
leaders in motion picture production. Additionall&, #os An!eles hosted theSummer
+l&mpic "ames in ;B6> and ;B<?.
#os An!eles is irre!ularl& shaped and covers a total area of '(>.: s8uare miles
(;,6(> km
), comprisin! ?@<.: s8uare miles (;,>;? km
) of land and 6?.( s8uare miles
(<< km
) of -ater. The cit& extends for ?? miles (:; km) lon!itudinall& and for >B miles
(?: km) latitudinall&. The perimeter of the cit& is 6?> miles (''( km).
#os An!eles is 4oth flat and hill&. The hi!hest point in the cit& is ',(:? ft
(;,'?: m)2ount #ukens,
located at the northeastern end of the San $ernando
5alle&. The eastern end of the Santa 2onica 2ountains stretches from )o-nto-n to
the ,acific +cean and separates the #os An!eles %asin from the San $ernando 5alle&.
+ther hill& parts of #os An!eles include the 2t. Washin!ton area north of )o-nto-n,
eastern parts such as %o&le Aei!hts, the Crensha- district around the %ald-in Aills,
and the San ,edro district.
The #os An!eles 0iver, -hich is lar!el& seasonal, is the primar& draina!e channel. It
-as strai!htened and lined in '; miles of concrete 4& the Arm& Corps of 7n!ineers to
act as a flood control channel. The river 4e!ins in the Cano!a ,ark district of the cit&,
flo-s east from the San $ernando 5alle& alon! the north ed!e of the Santa 2onica
2ountains, and turns south throu!h the cit& center, flo-in! to its mouth in the ,ort
of #on! %each at the ,acific +cean. The smaller %allona Creek flo-s into the Santa
2onica %a& at ,la&a del 0e&.
The #os An!eles area is rich in native plant species due in part to a diversit& in ha4itats,
includin! 4eaches, -etlands, and mountains. The most prevalent 4otanical environment
is coastal sa!e scru4,
-hich covers the hillsides in com4usti4le chaparral. .ative
plants include9 California popp&,matili3a popp&, to&on, Coast #ive +ak, and "iant
Wildr&e. 2an& of these native species, such as the #os An!eles sunflo-er, have
4ecome so rare as to 4e considered endan!ered. Thou!h it is not native to the area, the
official tree of #os An!eles is the Coral Tree (7r&thrina caffra)and the official flo-er of
#os An!eles is the %ird of ,aradise (Strelit=ia re!inae). 2exican $an ,alms, Canar&
Island ,alms, and California $an ,alms are common in the #os An!eles area, althou!h
onl& the last is native.
#os An!eles is su43ect to earth8uakes due to its location on the ,acific 0in! of $ire. The
!eolo!ic insta4ilit& has produced numerousfaults, -hich cause approximatel& ;(,(((
earth8uakes annuall&.
+ne of the ma3or faults is the San Andreas $ault. #ocated at the
4oundar& 4et-een the ,acific ,late and the .orth American ,late, it is predicted to 4e
the source of Southern Californias next 4i! earth8uake.2a3or earth8uakes to have hit
the #os An!eles area include the ;BB? .orthrid!e earth8uake, the ;B<: Whittier
.arro-s earth8uake, the ;B:; San $ernando earth8uake near S&lmar, and the ;B66
#on! %each earth8uake. .evertheless, all 4ut a fe- 8uakes are of lo- intensit& and are
not felt. The #os An!eles 4asin and metropolitan area are also at risk from 4lind thrust
earth8uakes,arts of the cit& are also vulnera4le to tsunamisD har4or areas -ere dama!ed
4& -aves from the 5aldivia earth8uake in ;B@(.
#os An!eles has a Subtropical1Mediterranean climate (Kppen climate
classification Cs4on the coast, Csa inland), and receives 3ust enou!h annual
precipitation to avoid either CRppens %Sh or %Sk (semi!arid climate)
classification. #os An!eles has plent& of sunshine throu!hout the &ear, -ith an
avera!e of onl& 6' da&s -ith measura4le precipitation annuall&.
The avera!e annual temperature in do-nto-n is @@ I$ (;B IC)9 :' I$ (>? IC) durin! the
da& and ': I$ (;? IC) at ni!ht. In the coldest month, *anuar&, the temperature t&picall&
ran!es from 'B to :6 I$ (;' to >6 IC) durin! the da& and ?' to '' I$ (: to ;6 IC) at
ni!ht. In the -armest month / Au!ust / the temperature t&picall& ran!es from :B to B(
I$ (>@ to 6> IC) durin! the da& and around @? I$ (;< IC) at ni!ht. Temperatures
exceedB( I$ (6> IC) on a do=en or so da&s in the &ear, from one da& a month in April,
2a&, *une and .ovem4er to three da&s a month in *ul&, Au!ust, +cto4er and to five
da&s in Septem4er.Temperatures are su43ect to su4stantial dail& s-in!sD in inland areas
the difference 4et-een the avera!e dail& lo- and the avera!e dail& hi!h is over 6( I$
(;: IC). The avera!e annual temperature of the sea is @6 I$ (;: IC), from '<
I$ (;? IC) in *anuar& to @< I$ (>( IC) in Au!ust. Aours of sunshine total more than
6,((( per &ear, from an avera!e of : hours of sunshine per da& in )ecem4er to an
avera!e of ;> in *ul&.
The #os An!eles area is also su43ect to phenomena t&pical of a microclimate, causin!
extreme variations in temperature in close ph&sical proximit& to each other. $or
instance, the avera!e *ul& maximum temperature at the Santa 2onica ,ier is :'
I$ (>? IC)-hereas it is B' I$ (6' IC) in Cano!a ,ark.

The cit&, like much of the
southern California coast, is su43ect to a late sprin!Gearl& summer -eather phenomenon
called E*une "loom.E This involves overcast or fo!!& skies in the mornin! -hich &ield
to sun 4& earl& afternoon.
)o-nto-n #os An!eles avera!es ;'.;? inches (6<?.@ mm) of precipitation annuall&,
-hich mainl& occurs durin! the -inter and sprin! (.ovem4er throu!h April), !enerall&
in the form of moderate rain sho-ers, 4ut often as heav& rainfall and thunderstorms
durin! -inter storms. The coast !ets sli!htl& less rainfall, -hile the mountains !et
sli!htl& more. Ao-ever the San $ernando 5alle& 0e!ion of #os An!eles can !et
4et-een ;@ and >( inches (?;( and ';( mm) of rain per &ear. Fears of avera!e rainfall
are rareD the usual pattern is4imodal, -ith a short strin! of dr& &ears (perhaps :/<
inchesG;<(/>(( millimetres) follo-ed 4& one or t-o -et &ears that make up the
avera!e. Sno-fall is extremel& rare in the cit& 4asin, 4ut the mountains -ithin cit&
limits t&picall& receive sno-fall ever& -inter. The !reatest sno-fall recorded in
do-nto-n #os An!eles -as > inches (' cm) in ;B6>. The hi!hest recorded temperature
in do-nto-n #os An!eles is ;;6 I$ (?' IC) on Septem4er >:, >(;( and the lo-est
recorded temperature is >? I$ (H? IC) on )ecem4er >>, ;B??.
#os An!eles is often 4illed as the ECreative Capital of the WorldE, due to the fact that
one in ever& six of its residents -orks in a creative industr&. Accordin! to the USC
Stevens Institute for Innovation, Ethere are more artists, -riters, filmmakers, actors,
dancers and musicians livin! and -orkin! in #os An!eles than an& other cit& at an&
time in the histor& of civili=ation.E
#os An!eles is home to Aoll&-ood, !lo4all& reco!ni=ed as the epicenter of the motion
picture industr&. A testament to its preeminence in film, the cit& pla&s host to the
annual Academ& A-ards, the oldest and one of the most prominent a-ard ceremonies
in the -orld. $inall&, #os An!eles is home to the USC School of Cinematic Arts, the
oldest film school in the United States.
The performin! arts pla& a ma3or role in #os An!eles cultural identit&. Accordin! to the
USC Stevens Institute for Innovation, Ethere are more than ;,;(( annual theatrical
productions and >; openin!s ever& -eek. The #os An!eles 2usic Center is Eone of the
three lar!est performin! arts centers in the nation,E -ith more than ;.6 million visitors
per &ear. The Walt )isne& Concert Aall, centerpiece of the 2usic Center, is home to the
presti!ious #os An!eles ,hilharmonic. .ota4le or!ani=ations such as Center Theatre
"roup, the #os An!eles 2aster Chorale, and the #os An!eles +peraare also resident
companies of the 2usic Center. Talent is locall& cultivated at premier institutions such
as the Col4urn School and the USC Thornton School of 2usic.
Museums and galleries
There are <?; museums and art !alleries in #os An!eles Count&. In fact, #os An!eles
has more museums per capita than an& other cit& in the -orld.

Some of the nota4le
museums are the #os An!eles Count& 2useum of Art (the lar!est art museum in the
Western United States), the "ett& Center (part of the lar!er *. ,aul "ett& Trust, the
-orlds -ealthiest art institution), and the 2useum of Contemporar& Art. A si!nificant
num4er of art !alleries are located on "aller& 0o-, and tens of thousands attend the
monthl& )o-nto-n Art Walk there.
The ma3or dail& 7n!lish1lan!ua!e ne-spaper in the area is the #os An!eles Times. #a
+piniSn is the cit&s ma3or dail& Spanish1lan!ua!e paper, The Corea Times is the cit&s
ma3or dail& Corean lan!ua!e paper, and The #os An!eles Sentinel is the cit&s
ma3or African1American dail& paper, 4oastin! the lar!est %lack readership in
the Western United States.Investors %usiness )ail& is distri4uted from its #.A.
corporate offices, -hich are head8uartered in ,la&a )el 0e&. There are also a num4er of
smaller re!ional ne-spapers, alternative -eeklies and ma!a=ines, includin! the )ail&
.e-s (-hich focuses covera!e on the San $ernando 5alle&), #A Weekl&, #os An!eles
Cit&%eat, #.A. 0ecord (-hich focuses covera!e on the music scene in the "reater #os
An!eles Area), #os An!eles ma!a=ine, #os An!eles %usiness *ournal, #os An!eles
)ail& *ournal (le!al industr& paper), The Aoll&-ood
0eporter and 5ariet& (entertainment industr& papers), and #os An!eles )o-nto-n
.e-s. In addition to the ma3or papers, numerous local periodicals serve immi!rant
communities in their native lan!ua!es, includin! Armenian, 7n!lish, Corean, ,ersian,
0ussian, Chinese, *apanese, Ae4re-, and Ara4ic. 2an& cities ad3acent to #os An!eles
also have their o-n dail& ne-spapers -hose covera!e and availa4ilit& overlaps into
certain #os An!eles nei!h4orhoods. 7xamples include The )ail& %ree=e (servin!
the South %a&), and The #on! %each ,ress1Tele!ram.
#os An!eles and .e- Fork Cit& are the onl& t-o media markets to have seven 5A$
allocations assi!ned to them.
The cit& has ma3or 4roadcast channels as -ell as three ,%S stations. World T5 operates
on t-o channels and the area has several Spanish1lan!ua!e television
net-orks. CT%. ?( is the fla!ship station of the reli!ious Trinit& %roadcastin!
.et-ork, 4ased out of Santa Ana. A variet& of independent television stations also
operate in the area.
#os An!eles is the home of the #os An!eles )od!ers of 2a3or #ea!ue %ase4all,
the #os An!eles Cin!s of the .ational Aocke& #ea!ue, the #os An!eles
Clippers and #os An!eles #akers of the .ational %asket4all Association, the #os
An!eles )1$enders, an .%A )evelopment team o-ned 4& the #os An!eles #akers, and
the #os An!eles Sparks of theWomens .ational %asket4all Association. #os An!eles is
also home to the USC Tro3ansand the UC#A %ruins in the .CAA, 4oth of -hich
are )ivision I teams in the ,acific1;> Conference. The #os An!eles "alax& and Clu4
)eportivo Chivas USA of 2a3or #ea!ue Soccer are 4ased in Carson.
#os An!eles is the second1lar!est cit& and television market in the United States, 4ut
has no .$# teamD the nearest team is located in San )ie!o and are called the Char!ers.
At one time #os An!eles area had t-o .$# teams, the 0ams and the 0aiders. %oth left
the cit& in ;BB', -ith the 0ams movin! to St. #ouis and the 0aiders headin! 4ack to
their ori!inal home of +akland. ,rior to ;BB', the 0ams called 2emorial Coliseum
home (;B?@/;B:B) and the 0aiders pla&ed their home !ames at 2emorial Coliseum
from ;B<> to ;BB?.
Since the franchises departures the .$# as an or!ani=ation, and individual .$#
o-ners, have attempted to relocate a team to the cit&. Immediatel& follo-in! the ;BB'
.$# season,Seattle Seaha-ks o-ner Cen %ehrin! -ent as far as packin! up movin!
vans to start pla& in the 0ose %o-l under a ne- team name and lo!o for the ;BB@
season. The State of Washin!ton filed a la-suit to prevent the move.In >((6, then1.$#
Commissioner ,aul Ta!lia4ue said that he thou!ht that #os An!eles -ould !et a
ne- expansion team, a thirt&1third franchise, after the choice of Aouston over #os
An!eles in the >((> lea!ue expansion round.

)espite these efforts, and the failure to
4uild a ne- stadium for an .$# team, #os An!eles is still expected to return to the
lea!ue throu!h expansion or relocation. +n Au!ust B, >(;; the #A Cit& Council
approved plans to 4uild $armers $ield, -hich -ill 4ecome home to an .$# team in the
future. The stadium is expected to 4e completed 4& >(;@.
#os An!eles has t-ice pla&ed host to the Summer +l&mpic "ames, in ;B6> and
in ;B<?. When the tenth +l&mpic "ames -ere hosted in ;B6>, the former ;(th Street
-as renamed +l&mpic %lvd. Super %o-ls I and 5II -ere also held in the cit& as -ell as
multiple $I$A World Cup !ames in ;BB? includin! the final. #os An!eles -ill host
the Special +l&mpics World Summer "ames in >(;'.
#os An!eles also 4oasts a num4er of sports venues, includin! )od!er Stadium, #os
An!eles Coliseum, The $orum, Staples Center, a sports and entertainment complex that
also hosts concerts and a-ards sho-s such as the "ramm&s. Staples Center also serves
as the home arena for the #os An!eles Clippers and #os An!eles #akers of the .%A,
the #os An!eles Sparks of the W.%A, and the #os An!eles Cin!s of the .A#. It -as
also home to the #os An!eles Aven!ers of the ori!inal A$#, a team that did not
participate in that lea!ues on!oin! revival.
The #os An!eles An!els of Anaheim of 2a3or #ea!ue %ase4all and the Anaheim
)ucks of the .ational Aocke& #ea!ue are in the #os An!eles media market and are
4ased in Anaheim in +ran!e Count&. The An!els 4e!an as an expansion franchise team
in #os An!eles in ;B@; and pla&ed at #os An!eles Wri!le& $ield and then )od!er
Stadium 4efore movin! to Anaheim in ;B@@. The )ucks, -ho have pla&ed in Anaheim
since their inception as an expansion team in ;BB6, -ere ori!inall& o-ned
4& )isne& and kno-n as the 2i!ht& )ucks of Anaheim, after the popular )isne& film.
The team adopted its current name in >((@, a &ear after )isne& sold the franchise.
Aoll&-ood is a district in #os An!eles, California, United States situated -est1
north-est of do-nto-n #os An!eles. )ue to its fame and cultural identit& as the
historical center of movie studios and movie stars, the -ord Aoll&-ood is often used as
a meton&m of American cinema. 7ven thou!h much of the movie industr& has dispersed
into surroundin! areas such as West #os An!eles and the San $ernandoand Santa
Clarita 5alle&s, si!nificant auxiliar& industries, such as editin!, effects, props, post1
production, and li!htin! companies remain in Aoll&-ood, as does the
4acklot of ,aramount ,ictures.
As a district -ithin the #os An!eles cit& limits, Aoll&-ood does not have its o-n
municipal !overnment. There -as an official, appointed 4& the Aoll&-ood Cham4er of
Commerce, -ho served as an honorar& E2a&or of Aoll&-oodE for ceremonial purposes
onl&. *ohnn& "rant held this position from ;B<( until his death on *anuar& B, >((<.
replacement for "rant has since 4een named.
Motion picture industry
The film patent -ars of the earl& >(th centur& led to the spread of film companies
across the U.S. 2an& -orked -ith e8uipment for -hich the& did not o-n the ri!hts, and
thus filmin! in .e- Fork could 4e dan!erousD it -as close to 7disons Compan&
head8uarters, and a!ents of the compan& set out to sei=e cameras. %& ;B;>, most ma3or
film companies had set up production facilities inSouthern California near or in #os
An!eles 4ecause of the locations proximit& to 2exico, as -ell as the re!ions favora4le
&ear1round -eather.
The %io!raph Compan& filmed the short film A )arin! Aold1Up in Southern
California in #os An!eles in ;B(@. The first studio in the #os An!eles area -as
esta4lished 4& the Seli! ,ol&scope Compan& in 7dendale, -ith construction 4e!innin!
in Au!ust ;B(B.
,rolific director ). W. "riffith -as the first to make a motion picture in Aoll&-ood. Ais
;:1minute short film In +ld California, -hich -as released on 2arch ;(, ;B;(, -as
filmed entirel& in the villa!e of Aoll&-ood for the %io!raph Compan&. Althou!h
Aoll&-ood 4anned movie theatersTof -hich it had noneT4efore annexation that &ear,
#os An!eles had no such restriction.The first film 4& a Aoll&-ood Studio, .estor
2otion ,icture Compan&, -as shot on +cto4er >@, ;B;;. The Whitle& home -as used
as its set, and the unnamed movie -as filmed in the middle of their !roves on the corner
of Whitle& Ave and Aoll&-ood %oulevard 4& directors Al Christieand )avid and
William Aorsle&.
5arious producers and filmmakers moved 4ases from the east coast to escape punitive
licensin! from the 2otion ,icture ,atents Compan&.
The first studio in Aoll&-ood -as esta4lished 4& the .e- *erse&/4ased Centaur Co.,
-hich -anted to make -esterns in California. The& rented an unused roadhouse at
@;>; Sunset %oulevard at the corner of "o-er, and converted it into a movie studio in
+cto4er ;B;;, callin! it .estor Studio after the name of the -estern 4ranch of their
compan&. The first feature film made specificall& in a Aoll&-ood studio, in ;B;?,
-as The S8ua- 2an, directed 4& Cecil %. )e2ille and +scar Apfel, and -as filmed at
the #ask&1)e2ille %arn amon! other area locations.
%& ;B;;, #os An!eles -as second onl& to .e- Fork in motion picture production, and
4& ;B;', the ma3orit& of American films -ere 4ein! produced in the #os An!eles area.
$our ma3or film companies / ,aramount, Warner %ros., 0C+ and Colum4ia / had
studios in Aoll&-ood, as did several minor companies and rental studios. Aoll&-ood
had 4e!un its dramatic transformation from sleep& su4ur4 to movie production capital.
The residential and a!rarian Aoll&-ood %oulevard of ;B;( -as virtuall&
unreco!ni=a4le 4& ;B>( as the ne- commercial and retail sector replaced it. The sleep&
to-n -as no more, and, to the cha!rin of man& ori!inal residents, the 4oom to-n could
not 4e stopped.
%& ;B>(, Aoll&-ood had 4ecome -orld1famous as the center of the United States film
industr&. In ;B;<, A. *. Whitle& commissioned architect A. S. %arnes to desi!n Whitle&
Aei!hts as a 2editerranean1st&le villa!e on the steep hillsides a4ove Aoll&-ood
%oulevard, and it 4ecame the first cele4rit& communit&.The nei!h4orhood is rou!hl&
4ordered on the north and east 4& Cahuen!a %oulevard, on the -est 4& Ai!hland
Avenue, and on the south 4& $ranklin Avenue. Amon! Whitle& Aei!hts man& famous
residents have 4een 0udolph 5alentino,%ar4ara Stan-&ck, W.C. $ields, *ean
Aarlo-, Carole #om4ard, William ,o-ell. T&rone ,o-er, "loria S-anson, 0osalind
0ussell, *ud& "arland, and 2arlene )ietrich.
$rom the ;B>(s to the ;B?(s, a lar!e percenta!e of transportation to and from
Aoll&-ood -as 4& means of the red cars of the ,acific 7lectric 0ail-a&.
Modern (olly)ood
+n *anuar& >>, ;B?:, the first commercial television station -est of the 2ississippi
0iver, CT#A, 4e!an operatin! in Aoll&-ood. In )ecem4er of that &ear, The ,u4lic
,rosecutor 4ecame the first net-ork television series to 4e filmed in Aoll&-ood. In the
;B'(s, music recordin! studios and offices 4e!an movin! into Aoll&-ood. +ther
4usinesses, ho-ever, continued to mi!rate to different parts of the #os An!eles area,
primaril& to %ur4ank. 2uch of the movie industr& remained in Aoll&-ood, althou!h the
districts out-ard appearance chan!ed.
)urin! the earl& ;B'(s the famous Aoll&-ood $ree-a& -as constructed from the $our
#evel Interchan!e interchan!e in do-nto-n #os An!eles, past the Aoll&-ood %o-l, up
throu!h Cahuen!a ,ass and into the San $ernando 5alle&. In the earl& da&s, streetcars
ran throu!h the pass on rails runnin! alon! the central median.
The Capitol 0ecords %uildin! on 5ine St.3ust north of Aoll&-ood %oulevard -as 4uilt
in ;B'@. The 4uildin! houses offices and recordin! studios, -hich are not open to the
pu4lic, 4ut its circular desi!n looks like a stack of :1inch (;<( mm) vin&l records.
The no- derelict lot at the corner of Aoll&-ood %oulevard and Serrano Avenue -as
once the site of the illustrious Aoll&-ood ,rofessional School (;B6'/;B<?), -hose
alumni reads like a Aoll&-ood Whos Who of household EnamesE. 2an& of these
former child stars attended a Efare-ellE part& at the commemorative sealin! of a time
capsule 4uried on the lot.
The Aoll&-ood Walk of $ame -as created in ;B'< as a tri4ute to artists and other
si!nificant contri4utors -ithin the entertainment industr&. +fficial !round4reakin!
occurred on $e4ruar& <, ;B@(, and the first star to 4e permanentl& installed -as that of
director Stanle& Cramer(not *oanne Wood-ard, as commonl& related).A detailed
histor& of the Walk can 4e found in the Walk of $ame main article. Aonorees receive a
star 4ased on their achievements in motion pictures, live theatre, radio, television,
andGor music, as -ell as their charita4le and civic contri4utions.
)urin! the ;B<(s, Aoll&-ood -as the heart of a ne- Aard rock movement kno-n
as "lam metal. The most kno-n Aoll&-ood !lam metal and hard rock 4ands
include 2Rtle& CrUe,,oison, 0ATT, W.A.S.,, Vuiet 0iot, "uns . 0oses and 5an
Aalen. These 4ands -ere notorious for their de4auched and promiscuous lifest&le of
late1ni!ht parties, dru! and alcohol a4use, casual sex and 4acksta!e !roupie antics. A
haven for the pulsatin! music scene of the time, Aoll&-ood also sa- a num4er of
popular 4ands from different !enres emer!e, such as *anes Addiction, 2etallica and
various others.
In ;B<', the Aoll&-ood %oulevard Commercial and 7ntertainment )istrict -as
officiall& listed in the .ational 0e!ister of Aistoric ,laces protectin! important
4uildin!s and ensurin! that the si!nificance of Aoll&-oods past -ould al-a&s 4e a part
of its future.
In *une ;BBB, the Aoll&-ood extension of the #os An!eles Count& 2etro 0ail 0ed
#ine su4-a& opened, runnin! from )o-nto-n #os An!eles to the San $ernando
5alle&, -ith stops alon! Aoll&-ood %oulevard at Western Avenue, 5ine Street and
Ai!hland Avenue.
The )ol4& Theatre, -hich opened in >((; on Aoll&-ood %oulevard at Ai!hland
Avenue (as the Codak Theatre), -here the historic Aoll&-ood Aotel once stood, is the
home of the +scarsceremon&.
While motion picture production still occurs -ithin the Aoll&-ood district, most ma3or
studios are actuall& located else-here in the #os An!eles re!ion. ,aramount ,ictures is
the onl& ma3or studio still ph&sicall& located -ithin Aoll&-ood. +ther studios in the
district include the aforementioned *im Aenson (formerl& Chaplin) Studios, Sunset
"o-er Studios, and 0alei!h Studios.
While Aoll&-ood and the ad3acent nei!h4orhood of #os $eli= served as the initial
homes for all of the earl& television stations in the #os An!eles market, most have no-
relocated to other locations -ithin the metropolitan area. C.%C 4e!an this exodus in
;B@>, -hen it moved from the former .%C 0adio Cit& Studios located at the northeast
corner of Sunset %oulevard and 5ine Street to .%C Studios in
%ur4ank. CTT5 (purchased 4& $+W) pulled up stakes in ;BB@ from its former home
at 2etromedia S8uare on Sunset %oulevard to relocate to the $+W Studio lot in West
#os An!eles. CA%C1T5 moved from its ori!inal location at A%C Television Center
(no- 4randed The ,rospect Studios) 3ust east of Aoll&-ood to "lendale in >(((, thou!h
the #os An!eles 4ureau of A%C .e-s still resides at ,rospect and still serves as an
A%C .et-ork studios facilit&. After 4ein! purchased 4& >(th Centur& $ox in
>((;, CC+, left its former home on #a %rea Avenue to 3oin CTT5 on the $ox lot.
The C%S Corporation1o-ned duopol& of CC%S1T5 and CCA#1T5 moved from its
lon!time home at C%S Colum4ia S8uare on Sunset %oulevard to a ne- facilit& at C%S
Studio Center in Studio Cit&. CT#A andCC7T, 4oth located on Sunset %oulevard, are
the last 4roadcasters (television or radio) -ith Aoll&-ood addresses. Ao-ever, CC7T
has since sold its studios on Sunset and plans to move to another location.
In addition, Aoll&-ood once served as the home of nearl& ever& radio station in #os
An!eles, all of -hich have no- moved into other communities, especiall& %ur4ank, 4ut
a fair num4er also relocated to Wilshire Center and 2iracle 2ile district -ith the latter
4ein! home to man& T5 production companies includin! 2ark "oodson and the 7X
net-ork. C.W -as the last station to 4roadcast from Aoll&-ood, -hen it left C%S
Colum4ia S8uare for a studio in the 2iracle 2ile in >(('. While Aoll&-ood -as home
to several forei!n1lan!ua!e radio stations, the& too moved to man& of the same areas as
their 7n!lish lan!ua!e counterparts. In fact, toda&, not a sin!le #.A. market radio
station has operations in Aoll&-ood.
In >((>, a num4er of Aoll&-ood citi=ens 4e!an a campai!n for the district to secede
from #os An!eles and 4ecome, as it had 4een a centur& earlier, its o-n incorporated
municipalit&. Secession supporters ar!ued that the needs of their communit& -ere 4ein!
i!nored 4& the leaders of #os An!eles. In *une of that &ear, the #os An!eles Count&
%oard of Supervisors placed secession referendums for 4oth Aoll&-ood and the San
$ernando 5alle& on the 4allots for a Ecit&-ide election.E To pass, the& re8uired the
approval of a ma3orit& of voters in the proposed ne- municipalit& as -ell as a ma3orit&
of voters in all of #os An!eles. In the .ovem4er election, 4oth referendums failed 4&
-ide mar!ins in the cit&-ide vote.
Aoll&-ood is served 4& several nei!h4orhood councils, includin! the Aoll&-ood
United .ei!h4orhood Council (AU.C)and the Aoll&-ood Studio )istrict
.ei!h4orhood Council.These t-o !roups are part of the net-ork of nei!h4orhood
councils certified 4& the Cit& of #os An!eles )epartment of .ei!h4orhood
7mpo-erment..ei!h4orhood Councils cast advisor& votes on such issues as =onin!,
plannin!, and other communit& issues. The council mem4ers are voted in 4&
stakeholders, !enerall& defined as an&one livin!, -orkin!, o-nin! propert&, or
4elon!in! to an or!ani=ation -ithin the 4oundaries of the council.
After &ears of serious decline, -hen man& Aoll&-ood landmarks -ere threatened -ith
demolition, Aoll&-ood is no- under!oin! rapid !entrification and revitali=ation -ith
the !oal of ur4an densit& in mind. The Aoll&-ood and Ai!hland complex (site of
the )ol4& Theater) has 4een a ma3or catal&st for the redevelopment of the area. In
addition, numerous fashiona4le 4ars, clu4s, hotels, and retail 4usinesses have opened on
or near the 4oulevard, returnin! Aoll&-ood to a center of ni!htlife in #os An!eles.
Hollywood neighborhoods and communities
+n $e4ruar& ;@, >((', California Assem4l& 2em4ers *ackie "old4er! and ,aul
Coret=introduced a 4ill to re8uire California to keep specific records on Aoll&-ood as if
it -ere independent, althou!h it is not the t&pical practice of the Cit& of #os An!eles to
esta4lish specific 4oundaries for districts or nei!h4orhoods. $or this to 4e done, the
4oundaries -ere defined. The 4ill -as unanimousl& supported 4& the
Aoll&-ood Cham4er of Commerce and the #os An!eles Cit& Council. Assem4l& %ill
'<< -as approved 4& the "overnor of Californiaon Au!ust ><, >((@, and no- the
district of Aoll&-ood has official 4orders. The 4order can 4e loosel& descri4ed as the
area surroundin! West Aoll&-ood to the 4order of %everl& Aills, south of 2ulholland
)rive, #aurel Can&on, Cahuen!a %oulevard, and %arham %oulevard, and south of the
cities of %ur4ank and "lendale, north of 2elrose Avenue and -est of the "olden State
$ree-a& and A&perion Avenue. This includes all of "riffith ,ark and #os $eli= / t-o
areas that -ere hitherto considered separate from Aoll&-ood 4& most An!elenos.The
population of the district, includin! #os $eli=, as of the >((( census -as ;>6,?6@ and
themedian household income -as P66,?(B in ;BBB.