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Newport BMC 2013 Dry dock Yehya Shakeel Siddiqui



TSHD (Trailing Suction Hopper Dredge)


Self-propelled Sea or inland waterway vessel, equipped with a hold (hopper) and a dredge installation
to load and unload itself.

One or more suction pipes with suction mouths, called dragheads that are dragged over the seabed
while dredging.
One or more dredge pumps to suck up the loosened soil by the dragheads.
A hold (hopper) in which the material sucked up is dumped.
An overflow system to discharge the redundant water.
Closable doors or valves in the hold to unload the cargo.
Suction pipe gantries to hoist the suction pipes on board.
An installation, called the swell compensator, to compensate for the vertical movement of the ship in
relation with the sea-bed.


Ship doesnt dredge on a fixed position. No anchors and cables, moves freely.
Able to work under offshore conditions.

Marco Den Burger (2003)

Spillage, defined as the soil that is cut during the dredging process but not sucked up by the suction
pipe, reduces the productivity of the cutter suction dredger and therefore needs to be minimized.
Because insight into the phenomenon of spillage enables more accurate production estimates and
makes it possible to design better cutter heads, a test model was set up. As shown from the test models,
both cutter head speed and pump capacity have a major influence on the spillage of the cutter.


Research - focused on the mixture forming processes rather than the cutting process.
Cutting of rock or hard clay - inertial forces play an important role

Condition 1:

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- Mass of particle

- Radius of cutter head

- Angular velocity of cutter head

- Density of particle

- Density of water

- Volume of the particle

Buoyancy effect is included in the gravitational force.

Condition 2

Magnitude of the suction force acting on particle:

( )
( )


- Mixture Velocity

- Radius of suction pipe


- Represents Flow number

Haul velocity + cut off area amount of material that is cut per unit of time, or concentration of
particles inside the cutter head.
Cut off area area perpendicular to the haul velocity

Concentration of particles inside the cutter head determine:
Forces resulting from fluid-particle interaction;
Inter particle forces (such as friction or inter-particle collision).

Condition 3

Filing degree of cutter head (concentration) = model and prototype scale

- Cutoff area

- Transport concentration of particles in the suction pipe

- Density of the bank

- Hauling speed

- Pump capacity

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Figure 1: Production vs. RPM at different mixture velocity.

Figure 1: Production percentage is plotted against the rotational velocity.

Production curves at constant mixture velocity have optimum values.
Initial increase in rotational velocity of cutter head increase in production.
Further increase in rotational velocity decrease in production.
Increasing mixture velocity always results in increased production.

Figure 2: Production vs. mixture velocity at different RPM.
Figure 4: The production percentage is plotted against the mixture velocity for the different rotational

Max production percentage varies linearly for

max attainable production deviate from dashed line.

o Increase in centrifugal forces particles thrown out of cutter head.
o Higher rotational velocity of cutter head higher centrifugal forces lower production
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o Rotational velocity of cutter head increase pump effect of cutter head thus
increasing outflow when suction flow remains constant.
More particles escape from cutter head
Increase in production results from increase in rotation speed :
o Low rotation gravitational forces dominant, particles gather at lowest point in cutter
head spillage.
o Particles slide along cutter blades towards cutter ring, this motion increases with
increase in rotational velocity. As particles move closer towards cutter ring, they get
closer to suction mouth and sucked up more easily
Sliding Motion
o Caused by centrifugal forces acting on particle + geometry of the blades
Centrifugal force has component along blades inner surface, directing particle
towards cutter ring.

For large improvements, pump capacities and cutter head sizes are better tuned for different
soil types.

Camp (1954) and Miedema (1992)
Soil analysis and dredging by Verbeek (1984)
Dredge Buckey Comapsirson , Demonstration at Boston Harbor (U.S. Army Corps)

Ooijens (1999) Hopper sedimentation theory

Sergio C. Ooijens: Adding Dynamics to the Camp Model for the Calculation of Overflow Losses

Efficiency of the hopper: fraction of the sand that settles in the hopper.
Overflow losses: Fraction that doesnt settle and flows overboard. Sum of losses of all fractions of the
grain size distribution.
Described as function of:
Grain size.
Average flow (

Concentration in the hopper (

Height and surface in hopper
Bed on the bottom ()


Settling Velocity
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o Factors affecting settling velocity:
Concentration of particles
When grains settle to the bottom, water is pushed out. This causes a
current in the other direction (upwards) and reduces the settling
velocity. With an increasing concentration not only more water is
replaced, but at the same time it will be harder for the replaced water
to flow in the opposite direction, causing an even lower settlement

Figure 3: Parameters in the hopper

Stages of loading:

1. Beginning of the dredging
TSHD (trailing suction hopper dredge) starts dredging hopper loaded with :
i. Residue
ii. Water
Until overflow reached (max volume) no outgoing flow, therefore no overflow losses.
Low avg velocity in the hopper good condition for grains to settle (low turbulence &
low avg concentration of dredge material)
2. CVS (Constant Volume System)
Overflow reached continue loading till constant total volume.
Incoming flow = avg flow in hopper = outgoing flow.
Settlement increased volume of bed settled sand decrease in volume of mixture
Equal volume, but increased avg density displacement of ship increases.
3. CTS (Constant Tonnage System)
Max draught reached try to get max load in hopper.
Displacement is constant when

Overflow efficiency known , calculate outgoing flow when loading with CTS as a function
of incoming parameters
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Settlement efficiency: fraction of the incoming sand that settles in
the hopper

Development of the overflow losses

Figure: Phase in the overflow losses

I. Before overflow has been reached outgoing flow = 0. overflow losses = 0.
horizontal velocity in hopper good sedimentation of grains avg concentration of mixture
in hopper will be low when overflow is reached.
II. Overflow reached. Flow out of hopper starts, velocity in hopper . in velocity in
settling efficiency.
a. in settling efficiency + in higher incoming concentration avg concentration in
hopper slowly in settling velocity in overflow losses.
III. Quasi-static phase (process that happens infinitely slowly) incoming flow and total volume
stay constant. Volume of mixture, and thus height to settle and horizontal velocity slowly
IV. Free volume in hopper , horizontal velocity in hopper will . Scouring will dominate settling
process, and overflow losses will excessively.

Additional information on CTS and CVS

TSHD sucks the soil from seabed at sailing speed of 1-1.5m/s.
Bad-setting soils dredging stopped when surface of mixture in hopper reaches upper edge of
overflow. Hopper filling is at max or fill rate 100%. Pumping for to remove floating water on
mix through overflow.
Settling soils dredging continues till max level of overflow is reached. Most solids settle, rest
discharged with water through overflow.

Newport BMC 2013 Dry dock Yehya Shakeel Siddiqui

TSHD equipped with fixed overflow (not adjustable) ship loaded till max dredge mark (fixed allowed

Ship has height adjustable overflow system possible when hopper is full and ship is on its mark, lower
overflow level such that total weight in hopper (water + soil) remains constant.

Newport BMC 2013 Dry dock Yehya Shakeel Siddiqui

Work Method

Arrival on dredging area speed of TSHD approx. 3 knots (1.5m/s)
Suction pipes swung outboard. Lowered approx. horizontal until trunnion slide is positioned in front
of the suction intake.
Intermediate gantry and draghead winch gantry
lowered. Such that pipe rotates like a straight line
around trunnion.
Suction mouth arrives a few meters above sea
bottom pumps started dragheads lowered
onto seabed (can be seen by the rise of the swell
[See previous notes on CVS and CTS]

Dredging is stopped when:
Hopped is full. Overflow is not allowed.
Max allowable draught is reached and overflow cant be lowered usefully anymore.
Economical filling rate is reached.
Dredging stops suction pipes pumped clean to prevent settling sand/gravel/mud during hoisting of
pipe, preventing additional load for winches to lift.

Newport BMC 2013 Dry dock Yehya Shakeel Siddiqui

Discharge area is a dump opening doors/valves on the
base of hopper does the unloading. During dumping
water is pumped onto loads by means of sand pump
stimulates the dumping process.
May be equipped with jet pumps fluidize load to
improve the dumping process.

The design

Productivity Capacity

Production capacity is expressed in

, or

Expected avg cycle time of the TSHD on different jobs.
Type of soil to be dredged
Production capacity translated to
Required payload in ton mass
The max hopper volume in

For dredge contractors above mentioned points are more complicated.
How will avg cycle and required production capacity evolve in the future.
Main requirement dredge cheaper than competition
Demand for large dredges dredge cheaper more competitive.

Problem with building larger vessels
draught of the ship.
Draught usability of ship .

Newport BMC 2013 Dry dock Yehya Shakeel Siddiqui

The main dimensions

Dimensions determined by:

TSHD built according to certain ship ratios (CHECK FOR: Newport, Bayport, Glenn)


Transverse view

Large initial stability heavy ship motions in swell
Adverse effect on resistance of ship

a lean ship
Plan View

Simple construction result of long equal mid-section (cheap)..?
Relatively low resistance higher velocity

Good Stability and longitude strength

Required block coefficient


B Width of ship at the main section in m
L Length b/w perpendiculars in m
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T Draught at international mark in m

The lower the

longer ship with same displacement


b/w 0.78 and 0.85

Mas dredging depth influence on length of ship long suction pipe needs to be stored on deck!

Figure: Comparison of block co-efficient with displacement for the Newport dredge 7/8/2013

Block Co-efficient MAX MIN AVE
Newport- 7/8/2013 0.834078 0.764255 0.799167

Dredge well placed in market compare specific weight with that of its competitors

Specific weight:

Determining the payload of a hopper:

1. Clear the hopper such that no remaining soil is present.
2. Determine the displacement of the ship with the draught and the trim of the ship, the displacement is
the weight of the ship including the water in the hopper.
0:00:00 4:48:00 9:36:00 14:24:00 19:12:00 0:00:00 4:48:00



Block co-efficient
Newport BMC 2013 Dry dock Yehya Shakeel Siddiqui

3. Determine the weight of the water present in the hopper by determining its volume and the specific
4. Subtract the weight of this water the ships weight determined under point 2. This is the weight of the
ship ready for service.
5. The payload is obtained by subtracting the ships mass (displacement x water density) in tons on the
maximum allowed draught with the weight of the ship ready for service.

Payload never constant varies with:

Weight of consumer goods
Drinking water

For light soils (SWP) max hopper volume decisive for production instead of payload.

Hopper Density

Production capacity of TSHD:
Max hopper volume

The quotient:


Hopper density measure for avg density that dredging contractor expects to dredge during the
economic lifetime of the ship.

Newport BMC 2013 Dry dock Yehya Shakeel Siddiqui


The Dredge Installation

Design of Dredge main dimensions and required powers of the following components:
Number of suction pipes
Pump capacity [m/s]
Suction and discharge pipe diameter [m]
Type dredge pump
Sand pump drive and power [W]
Type and size of the draghead(s)
Hopper shape
Jet pump power and drive [W]
Discharge systems
Payload of
Hopper volume

Avg loading time in sand with a

Density of soil in the hopper

Loaded hopper volume

Overflow losses

Loaded Hopper volume:

Average Load Rate:

Excavation Rate:

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Volume of Water in pores:

Therefore production of

Pump Capacity

Pump Capacity determined using several criteria:

1. Certain type of soil particular load time is required ( 1 hour for sand with a d50 of 200-300
Volume pure sand as a function of time is:

Volumetric concentration at overflow

Volumetric concentration at intake

Discharge at overflow (

Discharge at intake (

Flow rate at intake (

Loading time ()

Cumulative overflow losses

Volume sand in the hopper

Density of sand in the hopper (


Volumetric concentration: Almost independent of the in-situ density

Sand occupied in volume in the hopper

For TSHD constant volume system
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Pump capacity
Mass of the load:

( )


For 1 hour loading the flow rate is:

( )

2. Load rate in

or must have a min value.

No overflow losses load rate flow rate
Overflow with an in flow rate increasing deviation from linear relation
of higher suction production (load rate) must be considered against:
o Higher sand and Water pump power
o Larger suction pipe diameter
o Dragheads

3. When apart from the soil the cycle time is known too. Flow rate can be chosen cycle
production is maximal.
Cycle production quotient b/w loading time and cycle time

For no overflow losses

Monotone ascending function RESEARCH
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4. Pump capacity scaled from well working TSHD by using scale rule from Froude.

Suction pipe diameters

Older TSHD large suction pipe diameters
o Size of diameter minimizing pressure loss in suction pipe to avoid cavitation of dredge pump
o It was understood that concentration distribution was homogenous over diameter NOT
always the case
For homogenous flow suction production is max for certain suction velocity
o Suction formula
Force balance over suction pipe
Coarser materials flow heterogonous volumetric concentration (amount of sand in the pipe)
and therefore also the pressure loss in the pipe
Modern TSHD smaller suction pipe diameters smaller pipes lower deadweight less
investment costs for heavier winches, gantries and their foundations.
Use of suction pipe with submerged pump direct influence on choice of diameter of suction pipe
Possible to choose suction pipe smaller & lighter (therefore cheaper)

The dredge pump


Pump is a machine which has the function to the total (mechanical) energy of a liquid; this means that
the pump transfers energy to the fluid that it receives from the driving motor.
The (total) head of the pump represents the in energy acquired by of liquid between the input
and the output section of the pump itself;
Indicated with the letter H. Measured in

Meters of carried liquid ( )
More convenient to speak not of the head as and measured in (metres of column of
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Certain pump gives a flow rate of

with a manometric head of pump can lift a

quantity of water amounting to

up to a maximum height of .
Required pump pressure during loading determined by static head from the hart(?) pump to the
discharge in the hopper and the losses in the discharge line
Manometric head:

Basic design of centrifugal pump turbine running backward.
Water b/w rotor vanes experiences centrifugal force & flows radially
outwards from the middle to the outside.
AS it flows gains K.E. and when thrown off the outer edge of the rotor
K.E. must be converted to flow energy.

Impeller diameter approx. (min) 2 times suction pipe diameter.
Dimensionless specific pump speed:


Figure 1:Newport impeller
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Flow rate

diameter of impeller
radius of impeller
density of fluid

angular velocity of pump impeller

Filling in and :

Figure 2: Relationship b/w Impeller Radius and Specific Speed

Smaller TSHD and smaller suction depths a fixed pump speed for dredging depth is often sufficient.
Difference b/w min and max dredging depth is large variable pump speed may be required.

pump size and depth may lead to large flow rate variations during dredging process.
Large flow rate variations water-hammer problems in pipeline need adjustable pump speed

Factors involving choice of pump:

3/4/5 impeller vanes dependant on required min opening area b/w blades
Single or double walled pump (wear considerations)
Inboard or submerged pump (or both)
o Great suction depths should be considered if installation of submerged pumps is
more economical.
o Limit where economical point is reached depth of inboard pump below water level
under service conditions
This breakpoint different for every ship

Newport BMC 2013 Dry dock Yehya Shakeel Siddiqui

Rotation 4
The Dredge pump drive

Before choosing a drive
Continuous pump speed control is required
OR Speed control by gearbox is sufficient
Following factors to look at:
Expected range of flow rate variation b/w pumping of water and of slurry
o Range with suction depth, provided no cavitation takes place.
o Limitation of variation necessary reduce risk of water-hammer
In that case constant pump speed or a stepped control is insufficient
Constant flow rate control is desired flow rate regulated by variation of pump speed
electric dive is necessary.
o Constant flow rate control by varying the number of revolutions is not suitable to
prevent water-hammer its too slow.
The dragheads

Dragheads designed to excavate soil and mix it with water for hydraulic transport.
Excavation done
o Either by erosion of dredge pump flow or by pressurized water jets or both
o Pure mechanical excavation is mainly done in cohesive soils (clay/soft rocks) teeth of
blades mounted in the draghead

Draghead with blade (mechanical excavation)
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Width of draghead dependent on

Expected cutting forces in particular soil in relation to available cutting force from propulsion
Length of visor of draghead flow pattern for the transport of the excavated material suits the
excavation process

Newport Starboard draghead
Modern dragheads water jets assisted with knives or teeth.
Assumption Jet production is linear with total momentum flux of the jet system | independent of trail
speed ????

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Momentum in N

Eroded sand mass in kg/s per jet

Jet pressure at the nozzle in Pa

Jet capacity in m3/s
Jet velocity at the nozzle in m/s
Coefficient depending on the particle size, jet pressure, jet capacity and trailspeed. A
reasonable assumption for alpha is

Water density in


Effectiveness of jet (somewhat) with pressure at constant momentum.
Low pressure high capacity jets more effective THAN
High pressure low capacity jets
Too much jetwater dilutes mixture density
loosening soil within dragheads
assist process during discharging the load
Flow rate of water pump 20 30% of the sand pump flow rate , pressure 5 15 bar ( 70-210 psi)

The Hopper

Removal ratio R % of incoming material that settles in the hopper, is a function of :

) (



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Camps Diagram

Conclusions from Camps Diagram keeping hopper volume constant

1. Width B constant & L2L and H0.5H
term of and 2
More sedimentation at long small hoppers or less in short deep hoppers