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# There are two major types of tests that have been used in recent years to

## measure the distribution of strengths of particles to impact. The first type

consists of firing a stream of the particles at a target at known velocity, or
of hitting suspended (sized) particles or a stream of falling particles by a
hammer moving at a known velocity (Vogel and Peukert2003).
The second type of test is impact by a drop weight on a single particle
using an instrumented apparatus called a rapid-response impact load cell
(King and Bourgeois 1993). The test particle is laid resting flat on the end
of a vertical steel rod (that acts as the anvil) and can be held in place by a
thin film of grease in order to limit relocation during contact. The theory of
wave propagation along a rigid cylinder is used to get a measure of the
force-time curve produced by the impact and, hence, the force-
deformation curves (Tavares and King 1998). An advantage of a single-
particle test of this kind is that the impact energy can be made low enough
to produce deformation without fracture, and then the particle can be
impacted again.

The equation relating force and deformation for a sphere between anvils is,
for a constant stiffness modulus (particle stiffness) kp where ks is the
stiffness of the anvil. The degree of damage was defined as a measure
of the degradation of particle stiffness

Where k
o
is the initial value at the start of the curve. The variation of k with
deformation was fitted by the empirical equation
1
2

where is the critical deformation at the point of fracture, Dc is the critical
damage, and is the damage accumulation coefficient. A large value
of this coefficient means that damage accumulation is small until the
deformation approaches the critical value where as low values give large
increases of damage as the deformation increases. Considering that the
stiffness of the anvil is typically reasonably higher than that of the particle

where Dc corresponds to the value of damage for which the derivative of
above Equation 4 is equal to zero, giving Dc = 3/(2 + 3). The critical
force to produce fracture is approximately given by

If the response curve of the impact of a weight falling on a particle follows
this pattern, then the values of the three parameters k
o
,
c
, and can be
determined from the curve.
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