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Q1: What is the difference between quality assurance and quality engineering?

Quality Engraining is responsible to define the set of processes which everyone involved in project/Product
development should follow. This may include development standards, documentation standards,
communication, source control standard, various templates and tools that need to be used in this process.
Quality Assurance is actually responsible to cross check weather everyone is following the standards defined
by QE. They are responsible to find out deviations from the standards and to comments on the overall uality
they also comment on uality of the product with the different analysis.
Q2: why is the quantification of quality goods important?
!f " cf#pf !f"Total failure cost , cf"$ingle failure cost,pf "failure probability
!ost can be divided into two major components
failure cost
The deelopment cost!
The customers typically care more about the total
failure cost, C f , which can be estimated by the average single failure cost, c f , and failure probability, p f
To minimi%e C f , one can either try to minimi%e cf or p f .
cf is typically determined by the nature of software applications and the overall environment the software is
used in. !onseuently, not much can be done about cf reduction without incurring substantial amount of other
cost. &ne e'ception to this is in the safety critical systems, where much additional cost was incurred to
establish barriers and containment in order to reduce failure impact, $o that additional cost not problem or
issue here
&n the other hand, minimi%ing p f , or improving reliability, typically reuires additional development cost, in the
form of additional testing time, use of additional QA techniues, etc.
Therefore, an engineering decision need to be made to match the uantified customer(s uality e'pectations
above with their willingness to pay for the uality. $uch uantitative cost)of)uality analyses should help us
reach a set of uality goals.
Q": What can you do if certain quality goals are hard to quantify?
#iscuss the signification of quantification of quality goals?
Quantify these uality e'pectations to set appropriate uality goals in two steps*
+. We need to select or define the quality measurements and models commonly accepted by the
customers and in the software engineering community. ,or e'ample, as pointed out in !hapter -, reliability and
safety are e'amples of correctness)centered uality measures that are meaningful to customers and users,
which can be related to various internal measures of faults commonly used within software development
-. We need to find out the expected values or ranges of the corresponding uality measurements.
,or e'ample, different market segments might have different reliability e'pectations. $uch uality e'pectations
are also influenced by the general market conditions and competitive pressure.
Q.* E'plain the assess of analysis and follow)up actions in the conte't of Q/ activities0
The major activities in this category include*
$easurement: 1esides defect measurements collected during defect handling, which is typically carried out
as part of the normal Q/ activities, various other measurements are typically needed for us to track the Q/
activities as well as for project management and various other purposes. These measurements provide the
data input to subseuent analysis and modeling activities that provide feedback and useful information to
manage software project and uality.
Analysis and modeling: These activities analy%e measurement data from software projects and fit them to
analytical models that provide uantitative assessment of selected uality characteristics or sub)
characteristics. $uch models can help us obtain an objective assessment of the current product uality,
accurate prediction of the future uality, and some models can also help us identify problematic areas.
%roiding feedbac& and identifying improement potentials: 2esults from the above analysis and
modeling activities can provide feedback to the uality engineering process to help us make project
scheduling, resource allocation, and other management decisions. 3hen problematic areas are identified by
related models, appropriate remedial actions can be applied for uality and process improvement. 'ollow(up
actiities: 1esides the immediate use of analysis and modeling results described above, various follow)up
activities can be carried out to affect the longterm uality and organi%ational performance. ,or e'ample, if
major changes are suggested for the uality engineering process or the software development process, they
typically need to wait until the current process is finished to avoid unnecessary disturbance and risk to the
current project
QQ: Quality engineering and Q)%
Quality improvement was achieved through measurement, analysis, feedback, and organi%ational support. The
overall framework is called Q4P, or uality improvement paradigm. Q4P includes three interconnected steps*
understanding, assessing, and packaging
+. The first step is to understand the baseline so that improvement opportunities can be identified and clear,
measurable goals can be set. /ll future process changes are measured against this baseline.
-. The second step is to introduce process changes through e'periments, pilot projects, assess their impact,
and fine tune these process changes. 5. The last step is to package baseline data, e'periment results, local
e'perience, and updated process as the way to infuse the findings of the improvement program into the
development organi%ation.