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Prime Minister of Japan

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Prime Minister of Japan
Prime Minister of Japan
Official Emblem of the Prime Minister of Japan
Incumbent
Shinz Abe
since26 December 2012
Style His Excellency
Residence Kantei
Appointer The Emperor
Term length Four years or less. (The Cabinet shall resign en masse after a general election of members of the House of
Representatives. Their term of office is four years and can be terminated earlier. No limits are imposed on total times or
length of Prime Minister tenures of the same person.) The Prime Minister is, by convention, the leader of the victorious
party.
Inaugural holder It Hirobumi
Formation 22 December 1885
Website
www.kantei.go.jp
[1]
Prime Minister of Japan
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Japan
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series:
Politics and government of
Japan
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The Prime Minister of Japan ( Naikaku-sri-daijin) is the head of government of Japan. He is
appointed by the Emperor of Japan after being designated by the Diet from among its members and must enjoy the
confidence of the House of Representatives to remain in office. He is the head of the Cabinet and appoints and
dismisses the Ministers of State; the literal translation of the Japanese name for the office is Minister for the
Comprehensive Administration of the Cabinet or Minister who Presides over the Cabinet.
The office was created in 1885, four years before the enactment of the Meiji Constitution. It took its current form
with the adoption of the current constitution in 1947.
The current Prime Minister is Shinz Abe, who took office on 26 December 2012.
Appointment
The Prime Minister is designated by both houses of the Diet, before the conduct of any other business. For that
purpose, each conducts a ballot under the run-off system. If the two houses choose different individuals, then a joint
committee of both houses is appointed to agree on a common candidate. Ultimately, however, if the two houses do
not agree within ten days, the decision of the House of Representatives is deemed to be that of the Diet. Therefore,
the House of Representatives can theoretically ensure the appointment of any Prime Minister it wishes.
[2]
The
candidate is then presented with their commission, and formally appointed to office by the Emperor.
[3]
Qualifications
Must be a member of either house of the Diet. (This implies a minimum age of 25 and a Japanese nationality
requirement.)
Must be a "civilian". This excludes serving members of the Japan Self-Defense Forces, as well as any former
member of the Imperial Japanese Army and Imperial Japanese Navy, who are strongly connected to militarist
thought. Note that former military officers from the World War II-era may be appointed prime minister despite
the "civilian" requirement, Yasuhiro Nakasone being one prominent example.
Prime Minister of Japan
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Role
Constitutional roles
Exercises "control and supervision" over the entire executive branch.
[4]
Presents bills to the Diet on behalf of the Cabinet.
[5]
Signs laws and Cabinet orders (along with other members of the Cabinet).
[6]
Appoints all Cabinet ministers, and can dismiss them at any time.
[7]
May permit legal action to be taken against Cabinet ministers.
[8]
Must make reports on domestic and foreign relations to the Diet.
[5]
Must report to the Diet upon demand to provide answers or explanations.
[9]
Statutory roles
Presides over meetings of the Cabinet.
[10]
Commander in chief of the Japan Self-Defense Forces.
[11]
May override a court injunction against an administrative act upon showing of cause.
[12]
Insignia
Standard of Prime Minister Emblem of the Prime Minister Crest for the Prime Minister
History
After the Meiji Restoration, the Daij-kan system, which was used in the Nara period, was adopted as the Japanese
government entity. Political powers of their leader, Daij Daijin and his aides, Sadaijin and Nadaijin were
ambiguous and frequently conflicted with other positions such as Sangi. In the 1880s, It Hirobumi, then one of
Sangi, started to examine the reformation of the governmental organization. In 1882, Ito and his staff, It Miyoji and
Saionji Kinmochi, traveled to Europe and investigated constitutions in constitutional monarchies, the British Empire
and the German Empire. After his return to Japan, Ito urged the need of a Constitution and a modern governmental
system and persuaded conservatives to approve his plan.
On December 22, 1885, in the Daij-kan order No. 69, abolition of Daij-kan and the induction of the Prime
Minister ( ) and his cabinet were published.
Prime Minister of Japan
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Official office and residence
Kantei, the Office of the Prime Minister
The Office of the Prime Minister of Japan is called the Kantei ( ).
The original Kantei served from 1929 until 2002, when a new building
was inaugurated to serve as the current Kantei.
[13]
The old Kantei was
then converted into the Official Residence, or Ktei ( ).
[]
The
Ktei lies to the southwest of the Kantei, and is linked by a walkway.
[]
Honours and emoluments
Until the mid-1930s, the Prime Minister of Japan was normally granted
a title in the peerage (kazoku) usually just prior to entering office if he
had not already been ennobled. Titles were usually bestowed in the
ranks of count, viscount or baron, depending on the relative seniority and status of the Prime Minister. The two
highest ranks, marquess and prince, were only conferred upon extremely senior statesmen, and were not conferred
upon a Prime Minister after 1916. The last Prime Minister who was a peer was Baron Kijuro Shidehara, who served
as Prime Minister from October 1945 to May 1946. The peerage was abolished by the Supreme Commander Allied
Powers in October 1947.
Depending on tenure, the Prime Minister is ranked in the first place in accordance, or second. Certain eminent Prime
Ministers have been awarded the Order of the Chrysanthemum, typically in the degree of Grand Cordon. The highest
honour in the Japanese honours system, the Collar of the Order of the Chrysanthemum, has only been conferred
upon select Prime Ministers and eminent statesmen, and rarely when they were still alive; the last such award to a
living Prime Minister was to Saionji Kinmochi in 1928. More often, the Order of the Chrysanthemum has been a
posthumous award; the Collar of the order was last awarded, posthumously, to former Prime Minister Sato Eisaku in
June 1975. The most recent posthumous award of the Grand Cordon was to Hashimoto Ryutaro in July 2006.
Currently, Nakasone Yasuhiro is the only living former Prime Minister to hold the Grand Cordon of the Order of the
Chrysanthemum, which he received in 1997.
Since the 1920s, Prime Ministers have typically been conferred the Grand Cordon of the Order of the Rising Sun, or
the Grand Cordon of the Order of the Paulownia Flowers (until 2003 a special higher class of the Order of the Rising
Sun), depending on tenure and eminence. However, honours may be withheld due to misconduct or refusal on the
part of the Prime Minister (for example, Kiichi Miyazawa).
List of Living Former Prime Ministers
Name Term of office Dates of birth
Yasuhiro Nakasone 19821987 27 May 1918
Toshiki Kaifu 19891991 2 January 1931
Morihiro Hosokawa 19931994 14 January 1938
Tsutomu Hata 1994 24 August 1935
Tomiichi Murayama 19941996 3 March 1924
Yoshir Mori 20002001 14 July 1937
Junichiro Koizumi 20012006 8 January 1942
Shinzo Abe 20062007 21 September 1954
Yasuo Fukuda 20072008 16 July 1936
Taro Aso 20082009 20 September 1940
Prime Minister of Japan
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Yukio Hatoyama 20092010 11 February 1947
Naoto Kan 20102011 10 October 1946
Yoshihiko Noda 20112012 20 May 1957
Lists of Prime Ministers of Japan
List of Prime Ministers of Japan
List of Japanese Prime Ministers by longevity
References
[1] http:/ / www. kantei. go. jp/ foreign/ index-e.html
[2] Article 67 of the Constitution of Japan
[3] Article 6 of the Constitution of Japan
[4] [4] Article 5 of the Constitution of Japan
[5] [5] Article 72 of the Constitution of Japan
[6] [6] Article 74 of the Constitution of Japan
[7] [7] Article 68 of the Constitution of Japan
[8] [8] Article 75 of the Constitution of Japan
[9] [9] Article 63 of the Constitution of Japan
[10] [10] Cabinet Act, article 4
[11] [11] Self-Defense Forces Act of 1954
[12] Administrative Litigation Act, article 27
Kenkyusha's New Japanese-English Dictionary, Kenkyusha Limited, Tokyo 1991, ISBN 4-7674-2015-6
External links
Prime Minister of Japan and His Cabinet (http:/ / www. kantei. go. jp/ foreign/ index-e. html) Official website
List of Japanese cabinets 1885 to 1989 (http:/ / www. geocities. co. jp/ WallStreet-Bull/ 6515/ rekidaiNaikaku.
htm) (Japanese)
Article Sources and Contributors
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Prime Minister of Japan Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=552109096 Contributors: 58.188user, 7, ACSE, ASDFGH, Addshore, Adherent of the Enlightenment 10.0,
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File:Emblem of the Prime Minister of Japan.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Emblem_of_the_Prime_Minister_of_Japan.svg License: Public Domain Contributors:
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File:Abe Shinzo 2012 02.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Abe_Shinzo_2012_02.jpg License: Creative Commons Zero Contributors: TTTNIS
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