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Introductory Statistics






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OpenStax College
Rice University
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ISBN-10 1938168208

ISBN-13

978-1-938168-20-8

Revision

ST-1-000-RS







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OpenStax College
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2;<F? I@ !IHN?HNM
.L?@;=? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
!B;JN?L 1: 1;GJFCHA ;H> ";N; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
1.1 #ABEJEPEKJO KB 2P=PEOPE?O, /NK>=>EHEPU, =J@ *AU 3ANIO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
1.2 #=P=, 2=ILHEJC, =J@ 5=NE=PEKJ EJ #=P= =J@ 2=ILHEJC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
1.3 %NAMQAJ?U, %NAMQAJ?U 3=>HAO, =J@ +ARAHO KB ,A=OQNAIAJP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
1.4 $TLANEIAJP=H #AOECJ =J@ $PDE?O . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
!B;JN?L 2: "?M=LCJNCP? 1N;NCMNC=M . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
2.1 ,A=OQNAO KB PDA 2LNA=@ KB PDA #=P= . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
2.2 2PAI-=J@-+A=B &N=LDO (2PAILHKPO), +EJA &N=LDO, =J@ !=N &N=LDO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
2.3 'EOPKCN=IO, %NAMQAJ?U /KHUCKJO, =J@ 3EIA 2ANEAO &N=LDO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
2.4 !KT /HKPO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
2.5 ,A=OQNAO KB PDA +K?=PEKJ KB PDA #=P= . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
2.6 ,A=OQNAO KB PDA "AJPAN KB PDA #=P= . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
2.7 2GASJAOO =J@ PDA ,A=J, ,A@E=J, =J@ ,K@A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
!B;JN?L 3: .LI<;<CFCNS 2IJC=M . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183
3.1 3ANIEJKHKCU . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184
3.2 (J@ALAJ@AJP =J@ ,QPQ=HHU $T?HQOERA $RAJPO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188
3.3 3SK !=OE? 1QHAO KB /NK>=>EHEPU . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195
3.4 "KJPEJCAJ?U 3=>HAO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201
3.5 3NAA =J@ 5AJJ #E=CN=IO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206
!B;JN?L 4: "CM=L?N? 0;H>IG 4;LC;<F?M . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249
4.1 /NK>=>EHEPU #EOPNE>QPEKJ %QJ?PEKJ (/#%) BKN = #EO?NAPA 1=J@KI 5=NE=>HA . . . . . . . . . . . 250
4.2 ,A=J KN $TLA?PA@ 5=HQA =J@ 2P=J@=N@ #ARE=PEKJ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253
4.3 !EJKIE=H #EOPNE>QPEKJ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261
4.4 &AKIAPNE? #EOPNE>QPEKJ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267
4.5 'ULANCAKIAPNE? #EOPNE>QPEKJ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 270
4.6 /KEOOKJ #EOPNE>QPEKJ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 273
!B;JN?L 5: !IHNCHOIOM 0;H>IG 4;LC;<F?M . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315
5.1 "KJPEJQKQO /NK>=>EHEPU %QJ?PEKJO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 317
5.2 3DA 4JEBKNI #EOPNE>QPEKJ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 320
5.3 3DA $TLKJAJPE=H #EOPNE>QPEKJ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 328
!B;JN?L 6: 2B? ,ILG;F "CMNLC<ONCIH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 367
6.1 3DA 2P=J@=N@ -KNI=H #EOPNE>QPEKJ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 368
6.2 4OEJC PDA -KNI=H #EOPNE>QPEKJ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 372
!B;JN?L 7: 2B? !?HNL;F *CGCN 2B?IL?G . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 399
7.1 3DA "AJPN=H +EIEP 3DAKNAI BKN 2=ILHA ,A=JO (RAN=CAO) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 400
7.2 3DA "AJPN=H +EIEP 3DAKNAI BKN 2QIO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 405
7.3 4OEJC PDA "AJPN=H +EIEP 3DAKNAI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 408
!B;JN?L 8: !IH@C>?H=? 'HN?LP;FM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 441
8.1 "KJBE@AJ?A (JPANR=H, 2EJCHA /KLQH=PEKJ ,A=J, /KLQH=PEKJ 2P=J@=N@ #ARE=PEKJ *JKSJ, -KNI=H 443
8.2 "KJBE@AJ?A (JPANR=H, 2EJCHA /KLQH=PEKJ ,A=J, 2P=J@=N@ #ARE=PEKJ 4JGJKSJ, 2PQ@AJP'O P-
@EOPNE>QPEKJ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 454
8.3 "KJBE@AJ?A (JPANR=H BKN = /KLQH=PEKJ /NKLKNPEKJ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 459
!B;JN?L 9: &SJINB?MCM 2?MNCHA: 1CHAF? +?;H ;H> 1CHAF? .LIJILNCIH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 499
9.1 -QHH =J@ HPANJ=PERA 'ULKPDAOAO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 500
9.2 .QP?KIAO =J@ PDA 3ULA ( =J@ 3ULA (( $NNKNO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 502
9.3 #EOPNE>QPEKJ -AA@A@ BKN 'ULKPDAOEO 3AOPEJC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 504
9.4 1=NA $RAJPO, PDA 2=ILHA, #A?EOEKJ =J@ "KJ?HQOEKJ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 505
9.5 @@EPEKJ=H (JBKNI=PEKJ =J@ %QHH 'ULKPDAOEO 3AOP $T=ILHAO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 507
!B;JN?L 10: &SJINB?MCM 2?MNCHA: 2QI +?;HM, .;CL?> ";N;, 2QI .LIJILNCIHM . . . . . . . . . . . 551
10.1 "KIL=NEJC 3SK (J@ALAJ@AJP /KLQH=PEKJ ,A=JO SEPD 4JGJKSJ /KLQH=PEKJ 2P=J@=N@
#ARE=PEKJO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 552
10.2 "KIL=NEJC 3SK (J@ALAJ@AJP /KLQH=PEKJ ,A=JO SEPD *JKSJ /KLQH=PEKJ 2P=J@=N@ #ARE=PEKJO560
10.3 "KIL=NEJC 3SK (J@ALAJ@AJP /KLQH=PEKJ /NKLKNPEKJO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 563
10.4 ,=P?DA@ KN /=ENA@ 2=ILHAO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 567
!B;JN?L 11: 2B? !BC-1KO;L? "CMNLC<ONCIH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 605
11.1 %=?PO >KQP PDA "DE-2MQ=NA #EOPNE>QPEKJ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 606
11.2 &KK@JAOO-KB-%EP 3AOP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 607
11.3 3AOP KB (J@ALAJ@AJ?A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 618
11.4 3AOP BKN 'KIKCAJAEPU . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 624
3
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11.5 "KIL=NEOKJ 2QII=NU KB PDA "DE-2MQ=NA 3AOPO &KK@JAOO-KB-%EP, (J@ALAJ@AJ?A =J@
'KIKCAJAEPU . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 627
11.6 3AOP KB = 2EJCHA 5=NE=J?A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 628
!B;JN?L 12: *CH?;L 0?AL?MMCIH ;H> !ILL?F;NCIH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 665
12.1 +EJA=N $MQ=PEKJO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 666
12.2 2?=PPAN /HKPO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 669
12.3 3DA 1ACNAOOEKJ $MQ=PEKJ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 671
12.4 3AOPEJC PDA 2ECJEBE?=J?A KB PDA "KNNAH=PEKJ "KABBE?EAJP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 677
12.5 /NA@E?PEKJ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 682
12.6 .QPHEANO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 683
!B;JN?L 13: $ "CMNLC<ONCIH ;H> -H?-5;S A,-4A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 733
13.1 .JA-6=U -.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 734
13.2 3DA % #EOPNE>QPEKJ =J@ PDA %-1=PEK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 734
13.3 %=?PO >KQP PDA % #EOPNE>QPEKJ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 739
13.4 3AOP KB 3SK 5=NE=J?AO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 747
!B;JN?L 14: AJJ?H>CR A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 777
14.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0
!B;JN?L 15: AJJ?H>CR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 799
15.1 /N=?PE?A 3AOP 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 799
15.2 /N=?PE?A 3AOP 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 806
15.3 /N=?PE?A 3AOP 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 813
15.4 /N=?PE?A 3AOP 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 821
!B;JN?L 16: AJJ?H>CR ! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 845
16.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0
!B;JN?L 17: AJJ?H>CR " . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 849
17.1 &NKQL /NKFA?P: 4JER=NE=PA #=P= . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 849
17.2 &NKQL /NKFA?P: "KJPEJQKQO #EOPNE>QPEKJO =J@ "AJPN=H +EIEP 3DAKNAI . . . . . . . . . . . . . 850
17.3 /=NPJAN /NKFA?P: 'ULKPDAOEO 3AOPEJC-NPE?HA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 852
17.4 &NKQL /NKFA?P: !ER=NE=PA #=P=, +EJA=N 1ACNAOOEKJ, =J@ 4JER=NE=PA #=P= . . . . . . . . . . . 852
!B;JN?L 18: AJJ?H>CR # . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 855
18.1 'ULKPDAOEO 3AOPEJC SEPD .JA 2=ILHA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 855
18.2 'ULKPDAOEO 3AOPEJC SEPD 3SK 2=ILHAO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 856
18.3 3DA "DE-2MQ=NA #EOPNE>QPEKJ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 856
18.4 % #EOPNE>QPEKJ =J@ .JA-6=U -.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 857
!B;JN?L 19: AJJ?H>CR $ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 859
19.1 $JCHEOD /DN=OAO 6NEPPAJ ,=PDAI=PE?=HHU . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 859
19.2 2UI>KHO =J@ 3DAEN ,A=JEJCO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 860
19.3 %KNIQH=O . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 865
!B;JN?L 20: AJJ?H>CR % . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 867
20.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0
!B;JN?L 21: AJJ?H>CR & . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 879
21.1 1AREAS $TAN?EOAO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 879
21.2 /N=?PE?A 3AOP 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 883
21.3 /N=?PE?A 3AOP 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 888
21.4 /N=?PE?A 3AOP 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 892
21.5 /N=?PE?A 3AOP 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 897
21.6 /N=?PE?A %EJ=H $T=I 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 899
21.7 /N=?PE?A %EJ=H $T=I 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 900
!B;JN?L 22: AJJ?H>CR ' . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 903
22.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0
'H>?R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 904
4
3DEO ?KJPAJP EO =R=EH=>HA BKN BNAA =P DPPL://?JT.KNC/?KJPAJP/?KH11562/1.11
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A<ION I1642(7'624; S6%6-56-'5
"DJHE:K9JEHO ,J7J?IJ?9I HR CDRHFMDC ENQ SGD NMD-RDLDRSDQ, HMSQNCTBSHNM SN RS@SHRSHBR BNTQRD @MC HR FD@QDC SNV@QC RSTCDMSR
L@INQHMF HM EHDKCR NSGDQ SG@M L@SG NQ DMFHMDDQHMF. 5GHR SDWS @RRTLDR RSTCDMSR G@UD ADDM DWONRDC SN HMSDQLDCH@SD @KFDAQ@,
@MC HS ENBTRDR NM SGD @OOKHB@SHNMR NE RS@SHRSHB@K JMNVKDCFD Q@SGDQ SG@M SGD SGDNQX ADGHMC HS.
5GD ENTMC@SHNM NE SGHR SDWSANNJ HR CEBB78EH7J?L; ,J7J?IJ?9I, AX #@QA@Q@ *KKNVRJX @MC 4TR@M %D@M. "CCHSHNM@K SNOHBR,
DW@LOKDR, @MC @LOKD NOONQSTMHSHDR ENQ OQ@BSHBD G@UD ADDM @CCDC SN D@BG BG@OSDQ. 5GD CDUDKNOLDMS BGNHBDR ENQ SGHR SDWSANNJ
VDQD L@CD VHSG SGD FTHC@MBD NE L@MX E@BTKSX LDLADQR VGN @QD CDDOKX HMUNKUDC HM SD@BGHMF SGHR BNTQRD. 5GDRD BGNHBDR KDC
SN HMMNU@SHNMR HM @QS, SDQLHMNKNFX, @MC OQ@BSHB@K @OOKHB@SHNMR, @KK VHSG @ FN@K NE HMBQD@RHMF QDKDU@MBD @MC @BBDRRHAHKHSX ENQ
RSTCDMSR. 8D RSQNUD SN L@JD SGD CHRBHOKHMD LD@MHMFETK, RN SG@S RSTCDMSR B@M CQ@V EQNL HS @ VNQJHMF JMNVKDCFD SG@S VHKK
DMQHBG SGDHQ ETSTQD RSTCHDR @MC GDKO SGDL L@JD RDMRD NE SGD VNQKC @QNTMC SGDL.
!IP?L;A? ;H> 1=IJ?
$G@OSDQ 1 4@LOKHMF @MC %@S@
$G@OSDQ 2 %DRBQHOSHUD 4S@SHRSHBR
$G@OSDQ 3 1QNA@AHKHSX 5NOHBR
$G@OSDQ 4 %HRBQDSD 3@MCNL 7@QH@AKDR
$G@OSDQ 5 $NMSHMTNTR 3@MCNL 7@QH@AKDR
$G@OSDQ 6 5GD /NQL@K %HRSQHATSHNM
$G@OSDQ 7 5GD $DMSQ@K -HLHS 5GDNQDL
$G@OSDQ 8 $NMEHCDMBD *MSDQU@KR
$G@OSDQ 9 )XONSGDRHR 5DRSHMF VHSG 0MD 4@LOKD
$G@OSDQ 10 )XONSGDRHR 5DRSHMF VHSG 5VN 4@LOKDR
$G@OSDQ 11 5GD $GH-4PT@QD %HRSQHATSHNM
$G@OSDQ 12 -HMD@Q 3DFQDRRHNM @MC $NQQDK@SHNM
$G@OSDQ 13 ' %HRSQHATSHNM @MC 0MD-8@X "/07"
AFN?LH;N? 1?KO?H=CHA
"DJHE:K9JEHO ,J7J?IJ?9I V@R BNMBDHUDC @MC VQHSSDM SN EHS @ O@QSHBTK@Q SNOHB@K RDPTDMBD, ATS HS B@M AD TRDC EKDWHAKX SN
@BBNLLNC@SD NSGDQ BNTQRD RSQTBSTQDR. 0MD RTBG ONSDMSH@K RSQTBSTQD, VGHBG VHKK EHS QD@RNM@AKX VDKK VHSG SGD SDWSANNJ BNMSDMS,
HR OQNUHCDC. 1KD@RD BNMRHCDQ, GNVDUDQ, SG@S SGD BG@OSDQR VDQD MNS VQHSSDM SN AD BNLOKDSDKX HMCDODMCDMS, @MC SG@S SGD
OQNONRDC @KSDQM@SD RDPTDMBD RGNTKC AD B@QDETKKX BNMRHCDQDC ENQ RSTCDMS OQDO@Q@SHNM @MC SDWST@K BNMRHRSDMBX.
$G@OSDQ 1 4@LOKHMF @MC %@S@
$G@OSDQ 2 %DRBQHOSHUD 4S@SHRSHBR
$G@OSDQ 12 -HMD@Q 3DFQDRRHNM @MC $NQQDK@SHNM
$G@OSDQ 3 1QNA@AHKHSX 5NOHBR
$G@OSDQ 4 %HRBQDSD 3@MCNL 7@QH@AKDR
$G@OSDQ 5 $NMSHMTNTR 3@MCNL 7@QH@AKDR
$G@OSDQ 6 5GD /NQL@K %HRSQHATSHNM
$G@OSDQ 7 5GD $DMSQ@K -HLHS 5GDNQDL
$G@OSDQ 8 $NMEHCDMBD *MSDQU@KR
$G@OSDQ 9 )XONSGDRHR 5DRSHMF VHSG 0MD 4@LOKD
$G@OSDQ 10 )XONSGDRHR 5DRSHMF VHSG 5VN 4@LOKDR
$G@OSDQ 11 5GD $GH-4PT@QD %HRSQHATSHNM
$G@OSDQ 13 ' %HRSQHATSHNM @MC 0MD-8@X "/07"
.?>;AIAC=;F $IOH>;NCIH ;H> $?;NOL?M
"M6BEA:H @QD OK@BDC RSQ@SDFHB@KKX SGQNTFGNTS SGD SDWS SN RGNV RSTCDMSR SGD RSDO-AX-RSDO OQNBDRR NE HMSDQOQDSHMF @MC
RNKUHMF RS@SHRSHB@K OQNAKDLR. 5N JDDO SGD SDWS QDKDU@MS ENQ RSTCDMSR, SGD DW@LOKDR @QD CQ@VM EQNL @ AQN@C RODBSQTL NE
OQ@BSHB@K SNOHBR; SGDRD HMBKTCD DW@LOKDR @ANTS BNKKDFD KHED @MC KD@QMHMF, GD@KSG @MC LDCHBHMD, QDS@HK @MC ATRHMDRR, @MC
RONQSR @MC DMSDQS@HMLDMS.
1GN &I OQ@BSHBD OQNAKDLR HLLDCH@SDKX ENKKNV L@MX DW@LOKDR @MC FHUD RSTCDMSR SGD NOONQSTMHSX SN OQ@BSHBD @R SGDX QD@C
SGD SDWS. 1=:N 6G: JHJ6AAN 76H:9 DC EG68I>86A 6C9 ;6B>A>6G IDE>8H, A>@: I=: "M6BEA:H I=:BH:AK:H.
DAA67DG6I>K: "M:G8>H:H OQNUHCD @M HM-BK@RR RBDM@QHN ENQ RSTCDMSR SN VNQJ SNFDSGDQ SN DWOKNQD OQDRDMSDC BNMBDOSR.
2H>C< I=: 1&-83, 83+, 84, 84+ 6A8JA6IDG RGNVR RSTCDMSR RSDO-AX-RSDO HMRSQTBSHNMR SN HMOTS OQNAKDLR HMSN SGDHQ
B@KBTK@SNQ.
1=: 1:8=CDAD<N &8DC HMCHB@SDR VGDQD SGD TRD NE @ 5* B@KBTK@SNQ NQ BNLOTSDQ RNESV@QD HR QDBNLLDMCDC.
/1$%"$ 5
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-G68I>8:, %DB:LDG@, 6C9 BG>C<>C< &I 1D<:I=:G OQNAKDLR FHUD SGD RSTCDMSR OQNAKDLR @S U@QHNTR CDFQDDR NE CHEEHBTKSX
VGHKD @KRN HMBKTCHMF QD@K-VNQKC RBDM@QHNR SN DMF@FD RSTCDMSR.
1N;NCMNC=M *;<M
5GDRD HMMNU@SHUD @BSHUHSHDR VDQD CDUDKNODC AX #@QA@Q@ *KKNVRJX @MC 4TR@M %D@M HM NQCDQ SN NEEDQ RSTCDMSR SGD DWODQHDMBD NE
CDRHFMHMF, HLOKDLDMSHMF, @MC HMSDQOQDSHMF RS@SHRSHB@K @M@KXRDR. 5GDX @QD CQ@VM EQNL @BST@K DWODQHLDMSR @MC C@S@-F@SGDQHMF
OQNBDRRDR, @MC NEEDQ @ TMHPTD G@MCR-NM @MC BNKK@ANQ@SHUD DWODQHDMBD. 5GD K@AR OQNUHCD @ ENTMC@SHNM ENQ ETQSGDQ KD@QMHMF @MC
BK@RRQNNL HMSDQ@BSHNM SG@S VHKK OQNCTBD @ LD@MHMFETK @OOKHB@SHNM NE RS@SHRSHBR.
4S@SHRSHBR -@AR @OOD@Q @S SGD DMC NE D@BG BG@OSDQ, @MC ADFHM VHSG RSTCDMS KD@QMHMF NTSBNLDR, FDMDQ@K DRSHL@SDR ENQ SHLD
NM S@RJ, @MC @MX FKNA@K HLOKDLDMS@SHNM MNSDR. 4STCDMSR @QD SGDM OQNUHCDC RSDO-AX-RSDO FTHC@MBD, HMBKTCHMF R@LOKD C@S@
S@AKDR @MC B@KBTK@SHNM OQNLOSR. 5GD CDS@HKDC @RRHRS@MBD VHKK GDKO SGD RSTCDMSR RTBBDRRETKKX @OOKX SGD BNMBDOSR HM SGD SDWS @MC
K@X SGD FQNTMCVNQJ ENQ ETSTQD BNKK@ANQ@SHUD NQ HMCHUHCT@K VNQJ.
AH=CFF;LC?M
&CHIGJ8IDGSH 0DAJI>DCH *6CJ6A
4:76HH><C ,CA>C: %DB:LDG@ 0NHI:B
4C>?I *?=NOL?M (BNNJ://=HR.ILA/=IHN?HN/G18746/F;N?MN/?=IFF?=NCIH==IF10522/F;N?MN) CDKHUDQDC AX #@QA@Q@
*KKNVRJX @QD OQNUHCDC ENQ D@BG BG@OSDQ.
A<ION -OL 2?;G
1?HCIL !IHNLC<ONCHA AONBILM
!=N>=N= (HHKSOGU #A JV= "KHHACA
2QO=J #A=J #A JV= "KHHACA
!IHNLC<ONILM
>@QHD=IE@ 2QG=N "=IANKJ 4JERANOEPU
>N=D=I !ECCO !NKS=N@ "KIIQJEPU "KHHACA
@=I /AJJAHH &NAAJO>KNK "KHHACA
HAT=J@AN *KHKRKO
J@NAS 6EAOJAN /AJJOUHR=JE= 2P=PA 4JERANOEPU
JJ %H=JEC=J *=LEKH=JE "KIIQJEPU "KHHACA
!AJF=IEJ -CSQ@EGA )=?GOKJ 2P=PA 4JERANOEPU
!ENCEP MQEHKJEQO 6AOP 5=HHAU "KHHACA
!NU=J !HKQJP *AJPQ?GU 6AOHAU=J "KHHACA
"=NKH .HIOPA=@ #A JV= "KHHACA
"=NKH 6AE@AI=J 2P. /APANO>QNC "KHHACA
6 /1$%"$
3DEO ?KJPAJP EO =R=EH=>HA BKN BNAA =P DPPL://?JT.KNC/?KJPAJP/?KH11562/1.11
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"D=NHAO OD>=?DAN 4LLAN (KS= 4JERANOEPU, "A@=N 1=LE@O
"D=NHAO *HAEJ #A JV= "KHHACA
"DANUH 6=NPI=J 4JERANOEPU KB /NEJ?A $@S=N@ (OH=J@
"EJ@U ,KOO 2GUHEJA "KHHACA
#=JEAH !ENI=FAN -=V=NAPD "KHHACA
#=RE@ !KOSKNPD 'QP?DEJOKJ "KIIQJEPU "KHHACA
#=RE@ %NAJ?D 3E@AS=PAN "KIIQJEPU "KHHACA
#AJJEO 6=HOD ,E@@HA 3AJJAOOAA 2P=PA 4JERANOEPU
#E=JA ,=PDEKO #A JV= "KHHACA
$NJAOP !KJ=P /KNPH=J@ "KIIQJEPU "KHHACA
%N=JG 2JKS #A JV= "KHHACA
&AKNCA !N=PPKJ 4JERANOEPU KB "AJPN=H NG=JO=O
(JJ= &NQODGK #A JV= "KHHACA
)=JE?A 'A?PKN #A JV= "KHHACA
)=REAN 1QA@= #A JV= "KHHACA
)ABBANU 3=Q> ,=EJA ,=NEPEIA ?=@AIU
)EI 'AHINAE?D ,=NEOP "KHHACA
)EI +Q?=O #A JV= "KHHACA
)EJC "D=JC "KHHACA KB 2=EJP ,=NU
)KDJ 3DKI=O "KHHACA KB +=GA "KQJPU
)KDJ 3DKI=O "KHHACA KB +=GA "KQJPU
)KJ=PD=J .=GO ,=?KI> "KIIQJEPU "KHHACA
*=PDU /HQI #A JV= "KHHACA
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+=NNU &NAAJ +=GA 3=DKA "KIIQJEPU "KHHACA
+=QNAH "DE=LLAPP= 4JERANOEPU KB /EPPO>QNCD
+AJKNA #AOEHAPO #A JV= "KHHACA
+EO= ,=NGQO #A JV= "KHHACA
+EO= 1KOAJ>ANC $HKJ 4JERANOEPU
+UJAPPA *AJUKJ "KHHEJ "KQJPU "KIIQJEPU "KHHACA
,=NG ,EHHO "AJPN=H "KHHACA
,=NU )K *=JA #A JV= "KHHACA
,=NU 3AAC=N@AJ 2=J #EACK ,AO= "KHHACA
,=PPDAS $EJOKDJ /NAO?KPP "KHHACA
,AH )=?K>OAJ 2JKS "KHHACA
,E?D=AH &NAAJSE?D "KHHACA KB 2KQPDANJ -AR=@=
,ENE=I ,=OQHHK 24-8 /QN?D=OA
,K &AN=CDPU #A JV= "KHHACA
-U@E= -AHOKJ 2P. /APANO>QNC "KHHACA
/DEHEL ). 5ANNA??DE= 8KNG "KHHACA KB /AJJOUHR=JE=
1K>ANP 'AJ@ANOKJ 2PALDAJ %. QOPEJ 2P=PA 4JERANOEPU
1K>ANP ,?#AREPP &ANI=JJ= "KIIQJEPU "KHHACA
1K>ANP= !HKKI #A JV= "KHHACA
1QLEJ@AN 2AGDKJ #A JV= "KHHACA
2=N= +AJD=NP "DNEOPKLDAN -ASLKNP 4JERANOEPU
2=N=D !KOH=QCD *AJJAO=S 2P=PA 4JERANOEPU
2DAH@KJ +AA 5EPAN>K 4JERANOEPU
8 /1$%"$
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2DANE !KU@ 1KHHEJO "KHHACA
2Q@ELP= 1KU *=JG=GAA "KIIQJEPU "KHHACA
3N=REO 2DKNP 2P. /APANO>QNC "KHHACA
5=HEAN '=Q>AN #A JV= "KHHACA
5H=@EIEN +KCRAJAJGK #A JV= "KHHACA
6AJ@U +ECDPDA=NP +=JA "KIIQJEPU "KHHACA
8RKJJA 2=J@KR=H /EI= "KIIQJEPU "KHHACA
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#EO?H=EIAN: 3DA KNECEJ=H ?=H?QH=PKN EI=CA(O) >U 3AT=O (JOPNQIAJPO, (J?. =NA LNKRE@A@ QJ@AN ""-!8. JU OQ>OAMQAJP
IK@EBE?=PEKJO PK PDA EI=CA(O) ODKQH@ >A JKPA@ >U PDA LANOKJ I=GEJC PDA IK@EBE?=PEKJ. ("NA@EP: $3I=N?KI
3AT=O(JOPNQIAJPO)
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3DEO ?KJPAJP EO =R=EH=>HA BKN BNAA =P DPPL://?JT.KNC/?KJPAJP/?KH11562/1.11
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1 U 1A+.*',% A," "A2A
$CAOL? 1.1 6A AJ?KQJPAN OP=PEOPE?O EJ KQN @=EHU HERAO IKNA KBPAJ PD=J SA LNK>=>HU NA=HEVA =J@ BNKI I=JU @EBBANAJP
OKQN?AO, HEGA PDA JASO IA@E=. (?NA@EP: #=RE@ 2EI)
'HNLI>O=NCIH
!B;JN?L -<D?=NCP?M
#X SGD DMC NE SGHR BG@OSDQ, SGD RSTCDMS RGNTKC AD @AKD SN:
c 3DBNFMHYD @MC CHEEDQDMSH@SD ADSVDDM JDX SDQLR.
c "OOKX U@QHNTR SXODR NE R@LOKHMF LDSGNCR SN C@S@ BNKKDBSHNM.
c $QD@SD @MC HMSDQOQDS EQDPTDMBX S@AKDR.
:NT @QD OQNA@AKX @RJHMF XNTQRDKE SGD PTDRSHNM, "8GDM @MC VGDQD VHKK * TRD RS@SHRSHBR" *E XNT QD@C @MX MDVRO@ODQ, V@SBG
SDKDUHRHNM, NQ TRD SGD *MSDQMDS, XNT VHKK RDD RS@SHRSHB@K HMENQL@SHNM. 5GDQD @QD RS@SHRSHBR @ANTS BQHLD, RONQSR, DCTB@SHNM,
ONKHSHBR, @MC QD@K DRS@SD. 5XOHB@KKX, VGDM XNT QD@C @ MDVRO@ODQ @QSHBKD NQ V@SBG @ SDKDUHRHNM MDVR OQNFQ@L, XNT @QD FHUDM
R@LOKD HMENQL@SHNM. 8HSG SGHR HMENQL@SHNM, XNT L@X L@JD @ CDBHRHNM @ANTS SGD BNQQDBSMDRR NE @ RS@SDLDMS, BK@HL, NQ "E@BS."
4S@SHRSHB@K LDSGNCR B@M GDKO XNT L@JD SGD "ADRS DCTB@SDC FTDRR."
4HMBD XNT VHKK TMCNTASDCKX AD FHUDM RS@SHRSHB@K HMENQL@SHNM @S RNLD ONHMS HM XNTQ KHED, XNT MDDC SN JMNV RNLD
SDBGMHPTDR ENQ @M@KXYHMF SGD HMENQL@SHNM SGNTFGSETKKX. 5GHMJ @ANTS ATXHMF @ GNTRD NQ L@M@FHMF @ ATCFDS. 5GHMJ @ANTS
XNTQ BGNRDM OQNEDRRHNM. 5GD EHDKCR NE DBNMNLHBR, ATRHMDRR, ORXBGNKNFX, DCTB@SHNM, AHNKNFX, K@V, BNLOTSDQ RBHDMBD, ONKHBD
RBHDMBD, @MC D@QKX BGHKCGNNC CDUDKNOLDMS QDPTHQD @S KD@RS NMD BNTQRD HM RS@SHRSHBR.
*MBKTCDC HM SGHR BG@OSDQ @QD SGD A@RHB HCD@R @MC VNQCR NE OQNA@AHKHSX @MC RS@SHRSHBR. :NT VHKK RNNM TMCDQRS@MC SG@S
RS@SHRSHBR @MC OQNA@AHKHSX VNQJ SNFDSGDQ. :NT VHKK @KRN KD@QM GNVC@S@ @QD F@SGDQDC @MC VG@S "FNNC" C@S@ B@M AD CHRSHMFTHRGDC
EQNL "A@C."
1.1 U "?@CHCNCIHM I@ 1N;NCMNC=M, .LI<;<CFCNS, ;H> )?S 2?LGM
5GD RBHDMBD NE HI6I>HI>8H CD@KR VHSG SGD BNKKDBSHNM, @M@KXRHR, HMSDQOQDS@SHNM, @MC OQDRDMS@SHNM NE 96I6. 8D RDD @MC TRD C@S@ HM
NTQ DUDQXC@X KHUDR.
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*M XNTQ BK@RRQNNL, SQX SGHR DWDQBHRD. )@UD BK@RR LDLADQR VQHSD CNVM SGD @UDQ@FD SHLD (HM GNTQR, SN SGD MD@QDRS G@KE-
GNTQ) SGDX RKDDO ODQ MHFGS. :NTQ HMRSQTBSNQ VHKK QDBNQC SGD C@S@. 5GDM BQD@SD @ RHLOKD FQ@OG (B@KKDC @ 9DI EADI) NE SGD
C@S@. " CNS OKNS BNMRHRSR NE @ MTLADQ KHMD @MC CNSR (NQ ONHMSR) ONRHSHNMDC @ANUD SGD MTLADQ KHMD. 'NQ DW@LOKD, BNMRHCDQ
SGD ENKKNVHMF C@S@:
5; 5.5; 6; 6; 6; 6.5; 6.5; 6.5; 6.5; 7; 7; 8; 8; 9
5GD CNS OKNS ENQ SGHR C@S@ VNTKC AD @R ENKKNVR:
$CAOL? 1.2
%NDR XNTQ CNS OKNS KNNJ SGD R@LD @R NQ CHEEDQDMS EQNL SGD DW@LOKD 8GX *E XNT CHC SGD R@LD DW@LOKD HM @M
&MFKHRG BK@RR VHSG SGD R@LD MTLADQ NE RSTCDMSR, CN XNT SGHMJ SGD QDRTKSR VNTKC AD SGD R@LD 8GX NQ VGX MNS
8GDQD CN XNTQ C@S@ @OOD@Q SN BKTRSDQ )NV LHFGS XNT HMSDQOQDS SGD BKTRSDQHMF
5GD PTDRSHNMR @ANUD @RJ XNT SN @M@KXYD @MC HMSDQOQDS XNTQ C@S@. 8HSG SGHR DW@LOKD, XNT G@UD ADFTM XNTQ RSTCX NE
RS@SHRSHBR.
*M SGHR BNTQRD, XNT VHKK KD@QM GNV SN NQF@MHYD @MC RTLL@QHYD C@S@. 0QF@MHYHMF @MC RTLL@QHYHMF C@S@ HR B@KKDC
9:H8G>EI>K: HI6I>HI>8H. 5VN V@XR SN RTLL@QHYD C@S@ @QD AX FQ@OGHMF @MC AX TRHMF MTLADQR (ENQ DW@LOKD, EHMCHMF @M
@UDQ@FD). "ESDQ XNT G@UD RSTCHDC OQNA@AHKHSX @MC OQNA@AHKHSX CHRSQHATSHNMR, XNT VHKK TRD ENQL@K LDSGNCR ENQ CQ@VHMF
BNMBKTRHNMR EQNL "FNNC" C@S@. 5GD ENQL@K LDSGNCR @QD B@KKDC >C;:G:CI>6A HI6I>HI>8H. 4S@SHRSHB@K HMEDQDMBD TRDR OQNA@AHKHSX SN
CDSDQLHMD GNV BNMEHCDMS VD B@M AD SG@S NTQ BNMBKTRHNMR @QD BNQQDBS.
&EEDBSHUD HMSDQOQDS@SHNM NE C@S@ (HMEDQDMBD) HR A@RDC NM FNNC OQNBDCTQDR ENQ OQNCTBHMF C@S@ @MC SGNTFGSETK DW@LHM@SHNM
NE SGD C@S@. :NT VHKK DMBNTMSDQ VG@S VHKK RDDL SN AD SNN L@MX L@SGDL@SHB@K ENQLTK@R ENQ HMSDQOQDSHMF C@S@. 5GD FN@K
NE RS@SHRSHBR HR MNS SN ODQENQL MTLDQNTR B@KBTK@SHNMR TRHMF SGD ENQLTK@R, ATS SN F@HM @M TMCDQRS@MCHMF NE XNTQ C@S@. 5GD
B@KBTK@SHNMR B@M AD CNMD TRHMF @ B@KBTK@SNQ NQ @ BNLOTSDQ. 5GD TMCDQRS@MCHMF LTRS BNLD EQNL XNT. *E XNT B@M SGNQNTFGKX
FQ@RO SGD A@RHBR NE RS@SHRSHBR, XNT B@M AD LNQD BNMEHCDMS HM SGD CDBHRHNMR XNT L@JD HM KHED.
.LI<;<CFCNS
-GD767>A>IN HR @ L@SGDL@SHB@K SNNK TRDC SN RSTCX Q@MCNLMDRR. *S CD@KR VHSG SGD BG@MBD (SGD KHJDKHGNNC) NE @M DUDMS NBBTQQHMF.
'NQ DW@LOKD, HE XNT SNRR @ ;6>G BNHM ENTQ SHLDR, SGD NTSBNLDR L@X MNS AD SVN GD@CR @MC SVN S@HKR. )NVDUDQ, HE XNT SNRR
SGD R@LD BNHM 4,000 SHLDR, SGD NTSBNLDR VHKK AD BKNRD SN G@KE GD@CR @MC G@KE S@HKR. 5GD DWODBSDC SGDNQDSHB@K OQNA@AHKHSX NE
GD@CR HM @MX NMD SNRR HR
1
2
NQ 0.5. &UDM SGNTFG SGD NTSBNLDR NE @ EDV QDODSHSHNMR @QD TMBDQS@HM, SGDQD HR @ QDFTK@Q O@SSDQM
NE NTSBNLDR VGDM SGDQD @QD L@MX QDODSHSHNMR. "ESDQ QD@CHMF @ANTS SGD &MFKHRG RS@SHRSHBH@M ,@QK -:6GHDC VGN SNRRDC @ BNHM
24,000 SHLDR VHSG @ QDRTKS NE 12,012 GD@CR, NMD NE SGD @TSGNQR SNRRDC @ BNHM 2,000 SHLDR. 5GD QDRTKSR VDQD 996 GD@CR. 5GD
EQ@BSHNM
996
2000
HR DPT@K SN 0.498 VGHBG HR UDQX BKNRD SN 0.5, SGD DWODBSDC OQNA@AHKHSX.
5GD SGDNQX NE OQNA@AHKHSX ADF@M VHSG SGD RSTCX NE F@LDR NE BG@MBD RTBG @R ONJDQ. 1QDCHBSHNMR S@JD SGD ENQL NE
OQNA@AHKHSHDR. 5N OQDCHBS SGD KHJDKHGNNC NE @M D@QSGPT@JD, NE Q@HM, NQ VGDSGDQ XNT VHKK FDS @M " HM SGHR BNTQRD, VD TRD
OQNA@AHKHSHDR. %NBSNQR TRD OQNA@AHKHSX SN CDSDQLHMD SGD BG@MBD NE @ U@BBHM@SHNM B@TRHMF SGD CHRD@RD SGD U@BBHM@SHNM HR
RTOONRDC SN OQDUDMS. " RSNBJAQNJDQ TRDR OQNA@AHKHSX SN CDSDQLHMD SGD Q@SD NE QDSTQM NM @ BKHDMS'R HMUDRSLDMSR. :NT LHFGS TRD
OQNA@AHKHSX SN CDBHCD SN ATX @ KNSSDQX SHBJDS NQ MNS. *M XNTQ RSTCX NE RS@SHRSHBR, XNT VHKK TRD SGD ONVDQ NE L@SGDL@SHBR SGQNTFG
OQNA@AHKHSX B@KBTK@SHNMR SN @M@KXYD @MC HMSDQOQDS XNTQ C@S@.
)?S 2?LGM
*M RS@SHRSHBR, VD FDMDQ@KKX V@MS SN RSTCX @ EDEJA6I>DC. :NT B@M SGHMJ NE @ ONOTK@SHNM @R @ BNKKDBSHNM NE ODQRNMR, SGHMFR, NQ
NAIDBSR TMCDQ RSTCX. 5N RSTCX SGD ONOTK@SHNM, VD RDKDBS @ H6BEA:. 5GD HCD@ NE H6BEA>C< HR SN RDKDBS @ ONQSHNM (NQ RTARDS)
12 "'/3$1 1 W 2,/+(-& -# #3
3DEO ?KJPAJP EO =R=EH=>HA BKN BNAA =P DPPL://?JT.KNC/?KJPAJP/?KH11562/1.11
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NE SGD K@QFDQ ONOTK@SHNM @MC RSTCX SG@S ONQSHNM (SGD R@LOKD) SN F@HM HMENQL@SHNM @ANTS SGD ONOTK@SHNM. %@S@ @QD SGD QDRTKS NE
R@LOKHMF EQNL @ ONOTK@SHNM.
#DB@TRD HS S@JDR @ KNS NE SHLD @MC LNMDX SN DW@LHMD @M DMSHQD ONOTK@SHNM, R@LOKHMF HR @ UDQX OQ@BSHB@K SDBGMHPTD. *E XNT
VHRGDC SN BNLOTSD SGD NUDQ@KK FQ@CD ONHMS @UDQ@FD @S XNTQ RBGNNK, HS VNTKC L@JD RDMRD SN RDKDBS @ R@LOKD NE RSTCDMSR VGN
@SSDMC SGD RBGNNK. 5GD C@S@ BNKKDBSDC EQNL SGD R@LOKD VNTKC AD SGD RSTCDMSR' FQ@CD ONHMS @UDQ@FDR. *M OQDRHCDMSH@K DKDBSHNMR,
NOHMHNM ONKK R@LOKDR NE 1,000k2,000 ODNOKD @QD S@JDM. 5GD NOHMHNM ONKK HR RTOONRDC SN QDOQDRDMS SGD UHDVR NE SGD ODNOKD
HM SGD DMSHQD BNTMSQX. .@MTE@BSTQDQR NE B@MMDC B@QANM@SDC CQHMJR S@JD R@LOKDR SN CDSDQLHMD HE @ 16 NTMBD B@M BNMS@HMR 16
NTMBDR NE B@QANM@SDC CQHMJ.
'QNL SGD R@LOKD C@S@, VD B@M B@KBTK@SD @ RS@SHRSHB. " HI6I>HI>8 HR @ MTLADQ SG@S QDOQDRDMSR @ OQNODQSX NE SGD R@LOKD. 'NQ
DW@LOKD, HE VD BNMRHCDQ NMD L@SG BK@RR SN AD @ R@LOKD NE SGD ONOTK@SHNM NE @KK L@SG BK@RRDR, SGDM SGD @UDQ@FD MTLADQ NE
ONHMSR D@QMDC AX RSTCDMSR HM SG@S NMD L@SG BK@RR @S SGD DMC NE SGD SDQL HR @M DW@LOKD NE @ RS@SHRSHB. 5GD RS@SHRSHB HR @M DRSHL@SD
NE @ ONOTK@SHNM O@Q@LDSDQ. " E6G6B:I:G HR @ MTLADQ SG@S HR @ OQNODQSX NE SGD ONOTK@SHNM. 4HMBD VD BNMRHCDQDC @KK L@SG
BK@RRDR SN AD SGD ONOTK@SHNM, SGDM SGD @UDQ@FD MTLADQ NE ONHMSR D@QMDC ODQ RSTCDMS NUDQ @KK SGD L@SG BK@RRDR HR @M DW@LOKD
NE @ O@Q@LDSDQ.
0MD NE SGD L@HM BNMBDQMR HM SGD EHDKC NE RS@SHRSHBR HR GNV @BBTQ@SDKX @ RS@SHRSHB DRSHL@SDR @ O@Q@LDSDQ. 5GD @BBTQ@BX
QD@KKX CDODMCR NM GNV VDKK SGD R@LOKD QDOQDRDMSR SGD ONOTK@SHNM. 5GD R@LOKD LTRS BNMS@HM SGD BG@Q@BSDQHRSHBR NE SGD
ONOTK@SHNM HM NQCDQ SN AD @ G:EG:H:CI6I>K: H6BEA:. 8D @QD HMSDQDRSDC HM ANSG SGD R@LOKD RS@SHRSHB @MC SGD ONOTK@SHNM
O@Q@LDSDQ HM HMEDQDMSH@K RS@SHRSHBR. *M @ K@SDQ BG@OSDQ, VD VHKK TRD SGD R@LOKD RS@SHRSHB SN SDRS SGD U@KHCHSX NE SGD DRS@AKHRGDC
ONOTK@SHNM O@Q@LDSDQ.
" K6G>67A:, MNS@SDC AX B@OHS@K KDSSDQR RTBG @R 1 @MC 2, HR @ BG@Q@BSDQHRSHB NE HMSDQDRS ENQ D@BG ODQRNM NQ SGHMF HM @
ONOTK@SHNM. 7@QH@AKDR L@X AD CJB:G>86A NQ 86I:<DG>86A. +JB:G>86A K6G>67A:H S@JD NM U@KTDR VHSG DPT@K TMHSR RTBG @R
VDHFGS HM ONTMCR @MC SHLD HM GNTQR. 6I:<DG>86A K6G>67A:H OK@BD SGD ODQRNM NQ SGHMF HMSN @ B@SDFNQX. *E VD KDS 1 DPT@K SGD
MTLADQ NE ONHMSR D@QMDC AX NMD L@SG RSTCDMS @S SGD DMC NE @ SDQL, SGDM 1 HR @ MTLDQHB@K U@QH@AKD. *E VD KDS 2 AD @ ODQRNM'R
O@QSX @EEHKH@SHNM, SGDM RNLD DW@LOKDR NE 2 HMBKTCD 3DOTAKHB@M, %DLNBQ@S, @MC *MCDODMCDMS. 2 HR @ B@SDFNQHB@K U@QH@AKD. 8D
BNTKC CN RNLD L@SG VHSG U@KTDR NE 1 (B@KBTK@SD SGD @UDQ@FD MTLADQ NE ONHMSR D@QMDC, ENQ DW@LOKD), ATS HS L@JDR MN RDMRD
SN CN L@SG VHSG U@KTDR NE 2 (B@KBTK@SHMF @M @UDQ@FD O@QSX @EEHKH@SHNM L@JDR MN RDMRD).
!6I6 @QD SGD @BST@K U@KTDR NE SGD U@QH@AKD. 5GDX L@X AD MTLADQR NQ SGDX L@X AD VNQCR. !6IJB HR @ RHMFKD U@KTD.
5VN VNQCR SG@S BNLD TO NESDM HM RS@SHRSHBR @QD B:6C @MC EGDEDGI>DC. *E XNT VDQD SN S@JD SGQDD DW@LR HM XNTQ L@SG
BK@RRDR @MC NAS@HM RBNQDR NE 86, 75, @MC 92, XNT VNTKC B@KBTK@SD XNTQ LD@M RBNQD AX @CCHMF SGD SGQDD DW@L RBNQDR @MC
CHUHCHMF AX SGQDD (XNTQ LD@M RBNQD VNTKC AD 84.3 SN NMD CDBHL@K OK@BD). *E, HM XNTQ L@SG BK@RR, SGDQD @QD 40 RSTCDMSR @MC 22
@QD LDM @MC 18 @QD VNLDM, SGDM SGD OQNONQSHNM NE LDM RSTCDMSR HR
22
40
@MC SGD OQNONQSHNM NE VNLDM RSTCDMSR HR
18
40
. .D@M
@MC OQNONQSHNM @QD CHRBTRRDC HM LNQD CDS@HK HM K@SDQ BG@OSDQR.
,-2#
5GD VNQCR " B:6C" @MC " 6K:G6<:" @QD NESDM TRDC HMSDQBG@MFD@AKX. 5GD RTARSHSTSHNM NE NMD VNQC ENQ SGD NSGDQ HR
BNLLNM OQ@BSHBD. 5GD SDBGMHB@K SDQL HR "@QHSGLDSHB LD@M," @MC "@UDQ@FD" HR SDBGMHB@KKX @ BDMSDQ KNB@SHNM. )NVDUDQ, HM
OQ@BSHBD @LNMF MNM-RS@SHRSHBH@MR, "@UDQ@FD" HR BNLLNMKX @BBDOSDC ENQ "@QHSGLDSHB LD@M."
$T=ILHA 1.1
%DSDQLHMD VG@S SGD JDX SDQLR QDEDQ SN HM SGD ENKKNVHMF RSTCX. 8D V@MS SN JMNV SGD @UDQ@FD (LD@M) @LNTMS
NE LNMDX EHQRS XD@Q BNKKDFD RSTCDMSR RODMC @S "#$ $NKKDFD NM RBGNNK RTOOKHDR SG@S CN MNS HMBKTCD ANNJR. 8D
Q@MCNLKX RTQUDX 100 EHQRS XD@Q RSTCDMSR @S SGD BNKKDFD. 5GQDD NE SGNRD RSTCDMSR RODMS $150, $200, @MC $225,
QDRODBSHUDKX.
1IFONCIH 1.1
5GD EDEJA6I>DC HR @KK EHQRS XD@Q RSTCDMSR @SSDMCHMF "#$ $NKKDFD SGHR SDQL.
5GD H6BEA: BNTKC AD @KK RSTCDMSR DMQNKKDC HM NMD RDBSHNM NE @ ADFHMMHMF RS@SHRSHBR BNTQRD @S "#$ $NKKDFD
(@KSGNTFG SGHR R@LOKD L@X MNS QDOQDRDMS SGD DMSHQD ONOTK@SHNM).
5GD E6G6B:I:G HR SGD @UDQ@FD (LD@M) @LNTMS NE LNMDX RODMS (DWBKTCHMF ANNJR) AX EHQRS XD@Q BNKKDFD
RSTCDMSR @S "#$ $NKKDFD SGHR SDQL.
5GD HI6I>HI>8 HR SGD @UDQ@FD (LD@M) @LNTMS NE LNMDX RODMS (DWBKTCHMF ANNJR) AX EHQRS XD@Q BNKKDFD RSTCDMSR
HM SGD R@LOKD.
5GD K6G>67A: BNTKC AD SGD @LNTMS NE LNMDX RODMS (DWBKTCHMF ANNJR) AX NMD EHQRS XD@Q RSTCDMS. -DS 1 = SGD
@LNTMS NE LNMDX RODMS (DWBKTCHMF ANNJR) AX NMD EHQRS XD@Q RSTCDMS @SSDMCHMF "#$ $NKKDFD.
5GD 96I6 @QD SGD CNKK@Q @LNTMSR RODMS AX SGD EHQRS XD@Q RSTCDMSR. &W@LOKDR NE SGD C@S@ @QD $150, $200, @MC
$225.
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1.1 %DSDQLHMD VG@S SGD JDX SDQLR QDEDQ SN HM SGD ENKKNVHMF RSTCX. 8D V@MS SN JMNV SGD @UDQ@FD (LD@M) @LNTMS NE
LNMDX RODMS NM RBGNNK TMHENQLR D@BG XD@Q AX E@LHKHDR VHSG BGHKCQDM @S ,MNKK "B@CDLX. 8D Q@MCNLKX RTQUDX 100
E@LHKHDR VHSG BGHKCQDM HM SGD RBGNNK. 5GQDD NE SGD E@LHKHDR RODMS $65, $75, @MC $95, QDRODBSHUDKX.
$T=ILHA 1.2
%DSDQLHMD VG@S SGD JDX SDQLR QDEDQ SN HM SGD ENKKNVHMF RSTCX.
" RSTCX V@R BNMCTBSDC @S @ KNB@K BNKKDFD SN @M@KXYD SGD @UDQ@FD BTLTK@SHUD (1"nR NE RSTCDMSR VGN FQ@CT@SDC
K@RS XD@Q. 'HKK HM SGD KDSSDQ NE SGD OGQ@RD SG@S ADRS CDRBQHADR D@BG NE SGD HSDLR ADKNV.
1.????? 1NOTK@SHNM 2.????? 4S@SHRSHB 3.????? 1@Q@LDSDQ 4.????? 4@LOKD 5.????? 7@QH@AKD 6.????? %@S@
=) =HH OPQ@AJPO SDK =PPAJ@A@ PDA ?KHHACA H=OP UA=N
>) PDA ?QIQH=PERA &/ KB KJA OPQ@AJP SDK CN=@Q=PA@ BNKI PDA ?KHHACA H=OP UA=N
?) 3.65, 2.80, 1.50, 3.90
@) = CNKQL KB OPQ@AJPO SDK CN=@Q=PA@ BNKI PDA ?KHHACA H=OP UA=N, N=J@KIHU OAHA?PA@
A) PDA =RAN=CA ?QIQH=PERA &/ KB OPQ@AJPO SDK CN=@Q=PA@ BNKI PDA ?KHHACA H=OP UA=N
B) =HH OPQ@AJPO SDK CN=@Q=PA@ BNKI PDA ?KHHACA H=OP UA=N
C) PDA =RAN=CA ?QIQH=PERA &/ KB OPQ@AJPO EJ PDA OPQ@U SDK CN=@Q=PA@ BNKI PDA ?KHHACA H=OP UA=N
1IFONCIH 1.2
1. B; 2. C; 3. A; 4. @; 5. >; 6. ?
$T=ILHA 1.3
%DSDQLHMD VG@S SGD JDX SDQLR QDEDQ SN HM SGD ENKKNVHMF RSTCX.
"R O@QS NE @ RSTCX CDRHFMDC SN SDRS SGD R@EDSX NE @TSNLNAHKDR, SGD /@SHNM@K 5Q@MRONQS@SHNM 4@EDSX #N@QC
BNKKDBSDC @MC QDUHDVDC C@S@ @ANTS SGD DEEDBSR NE @M @TSNLNAHKD BQ@RG NM SDRS CTLLHDR. )DQD HR SGD BQHSDQHNM SGDX
TRDC:
2LAA@ =P SDE?D "=NO "N=ODA@ +K?=PEKJ KB a@NERAb (E.A. @QIIEAO)
35 IEHAO/DKQN %NKJP 2A=P
2;<F? 1.1
$@QR VHSG CTLLHDR HM SGD EQNMS RD@SR VDQD BQ@RGDC HMSN @ V@KK @S @ RODDC NE 35 LHKDR ODQ GNTQ. 8D V@MS SN
JMNV SGD OQNONQSHNM NE CTLLHDR HM SGD CQHUDQnR RD@S SG@S VNTKC G@UD G@C GD@C HMITQHDR, HE SGDX G@C ADDM @BST@K
CQHUDQR. 8D RS@QS VHSG @ RHLOKD Q@MCNL R@LOKD NE 75 B@QR.
1IFONCIH 1.3
5GD EDEJA6I>DC HR @KK B@QR BNMS@HMHMF CTLLHDR HM SGD EQNMS RD@S.
5GD H6BEA: HR SGD 75 B@QR, RDKDBSDC AX @ RHLOKD Q@MCNL R@LOKD.
5GD E6G6B:I:G HR SGD OQNONQSHNM NE CQHUDQ CTLLHDR (HE SGDX G@C ADDM QD@K ODNOKD) VGN VNTKC G@UD RTEEDQDC
GD@C HMITQHDR HM SGD ONOTK@SHNM.
5GD HI6I>HI>8 HR OQNONQSHNM NE CQHUDQ CTLLHDR (HE SGDX G@C ADDM QD@K ODNOKD) VGN VNTKC G@UD RTEEDQDC GD@C
HMITQHDR HM SGD R@LOKD.
5GD K6G>67A: 1 = SGD MTLADQ NE CQHUDQ CTLLHDR (HE SGDX G@C ADDM QD@K ODNOKD) VGN VNTKC G@UD RTEEDQDC
GD@C HMITQHDR.
5GD 96I6 @QD DHSGDQ: XDR, G@C GD@C HMITQX, NQ MN, CHC MNS.
14 "'/3$1 1 W 2,/+(-& -# #3
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$T=ILHA 1.4
%DSDQLHMD VG@S SGD JDX SDQLR QDEDQ SN HM SGD ENKKNVHMF RSTCX.
"M HMRTQ@MBD BNLO@MX VNTKC KHJD SN CDSDQLHMD SGD OQNONQSHNM NE @KK LDCHB@K CNBSNQR VGN G@UD ADDM
HMUNKUDC HM NMD NQ LNQD L@KOQ@BSHBD K@VRTHSR. 5GD BNLO@MX RDKDBSR 500 CNBSNQR @S Q@MCNL EQNL @ OQNEDRRHNM@K
CHQDBSNQX @MC CDSDQLHMDR SGD MTLADQ HM SGD R@LOKD VGN G@UD ADDM HMUNKUDC HM @ L@KOQ@BSHBD K@VRTHS.
1IFONCIH 1.4
5GD EDEJA6I>DC HR @KK LDCHB@K CNBSNQR KHRSDC HM SGD OQNEDRRHNM@K CHQDBSNQX.
5GD E6G6B:I:G HR SGD OQNONQSHNM NE LDCHB@K CNBSNQR VGN G@UD ADDM HMUNKUDC HM NMD NQ LNQD L@KOQ@BSHBD
RTHSR HM SGD ONOTK@SHNM.
5GD H6BEA: HR SGD 500 CNBSNQR RDKDBSDC @S Q@MCNL EQNL SGD OQNEDRRHNM@K CHQDBSNQX.
5GD HI6I>HI>8 HR SGD OQNONQSHNM NE LDCHB@K CNBSNQR VGN G@UD ADDM HMUNKUDC HM NMD NQ LNQD L@KOQ@BSHBD RTHSR
HM SGD R@LOKD.
5GD K6G>67A: 1 = SGD MTLADQ NE LDCHB@K CNBSNQR VGN G@UD ADDM HMUNKUDC HM NMD NQ LNQD L@KOQ@BSHBD RTHSR.
5GD 96I6 @QD DHSGDQ: XDR, V@R HMUNKUDC HM NMD NQ LNQD L@KOQ@BSHBD K@VRTHSR, NQ MN, V@R MNS.
%N SGD ENKKNVHMF DWDQBHRD BNKK@ANQ@SHUDKX VHSG TO SN ENTQ ODNOKD ODQ FQNTO. 'HMC @ ONOTK@SHNM, @ R@LOKD, SGD O@Q@LDSDQ,
SGD RS@SHRSHB, @ U@QH@AKD, @MC C@S@ ENQ SGD ENKKNVHMF RSTCX: :NT V@MS SN CDSDQLHMD SGD @UDQ@FD (LD@M) MTLADQ NE FK@RRDR
NE LHKJ BNKKDFD RSTCDMSR CQHMJ ODQ C@X. 4TOONRD XDRSDQC@X, HM XNTQ &MFKHRG BK@RR, XNT @RJDC EHUD RSTCDMSR GNV L@MX
FK@RRDR NE LHKJ SGDX CQ@MJ SGD C@X ADENQD. 5GD @MRVDQR VDQD 1, 0, 1, 3, @MC 4 FK@RRDR NE LHKJ.
1.2 U ";N;, 1;GJFCHA, ;H> 4;LC;NCIH CH ";N; ;H> 1;GJFCHA
%@S@ L@X BNLD EQNL @ ONOTK@SHNM NQ EQNL @ R@LOKD. 4L@KK KDSSDQR KHJD x NQ y FDMDQ@KKX @QD TRDC SN QDOQDRDMS C@S@ U@KTDR.
.NRS C@S@ B@M AD OTS HMSN SGD ENKKNVHMF B@SDFNQHDR:
c 2T@KHS@SHUD
c 2T@MSHS@SHUD
.J6A>I6I>K: 96I6 @QD SGD QDRTKS NE B@SDFNQHYHMF NQ CDRBQHAHMF @SSQHATSDR NE @ ONOTK@SHNM. )@HQ BNKNQ, AKNNC SXOD, DSGMHB
FQNTO, SGD B@Q @ ODQRNM CQHUDR, @MC SGD RSQDDS @ ODQRNM KHUDR NM @QD DW@LOKDR NE PT@KHS@SHUD C@S@. 2T@KHS@SHUD C@S@ @QD FDMDQ@KKX
CDRBQHADC AX VNQCR NQ KDSSDQR. 'NQ HMRS@MBD, G@HQ BNKNQ LHFGS AD AK@BJ, C@QJ AQNVM, KHFGS AQNVM, AKNMCD, FQ@X, NQ QDC. #KNNC
SXOD LHFGS AD "#+, 0-, NQ #+. 3DRD@QBGDQR NESDM OQDEDQ SN TRD PT@MSHS@SHUD C@S@ NUDQ PT@KHS@SHUD C@S@ ADB@TRD HS KDMCR HSRDKE
LNQD D@RHKX SN L@SGDL@SHB@K @M@KXRHR. 'NQ DW@LOKD, HS CNDR MNS L@JD RDMRD SN EHMC @M @UDQ@FD G@HQ BNKNQ NQ AKNNC SXOD.
.J6CI>I6I>K: 96I6 @QD @KV@XR MTLADQR. 2T@MSHS@SHUD C@S@ @QD SGD QDRTKS NE 8DJCI>C< NQ B:6HJG>C< @SSQHATSDR NE @
ONOTK@SHNM. "LNTMS NE LNMDX, OTKRD Q@SD, VDHFGS, MTLADQ NE ODNOKD KHUHMF HM XNTQ SNVM, @MC MTLADQ NE RSTCDMSR VGN S@JD
RS@SHRSHBR @QD DW@LOKDR NE PT@MSHS@SHUD C@S@. 2T@MSHS@SHUD C@S@ L@X AD DHSGDQ 9>H8G:I: NQ 8DCI>CJDJH.
"KK C@S@ SG@S @QD SGD QDRTKS NE BNTMSHMF @QD B@KKDC FJ6CI>I6I>K: 9>H8G:I: 96I6. 5GDRD C@S@ S@JD NM NMKX BDQS@HM MTLDQHB@K
U@KTDR. *E XNT BNTMS SGD MTLADQ NE OGNMD B@KKR XNT QDBDHUD ENQ D@BG C@X NE SGD VDDJ, XNT LHFGS FDS U@KTDR RTBG @R YDQN, NMD,
SVN, NQ SGQDD.
"KK C@S@ SG@S @QD SGD QDRTKS NE LD@RTQHMF @QD FJ6CI>I6I>K: 8DCI>CJDJH 96I6 @RRTLHMF SG@S VD B@M LD@RTQD @BBTQ@SDKX.
.D@RTQHMF @MFKDR HM Q@CH@MR LHFGS QDRTKS HM RTBG MTLADQR @R

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A@BJO@BJR VHSG ANNJR HM SGDL SN RBGNNK, SGD MTLADQR NE ANNJR HM SGD A@BJO@BJR @QD CHRBQDSD C@S@ @MC SGD VDHFGSR NE SGD
A@BJO@BJR @QD BNMSHMTNTR C@S@.
$T=ILHA 1.5 #=P= 2=ILHA KB 0Q=JPEP=PERA #EO?NAPA #=P=
5GD C@S@ @QD SGD MTLADQ NE ANNJR RSTCDMSR B@QQX HM SGDHQ A@BJO@BJR. :NT R@LOKD EHUD RSTCDMSR. 5VN RSTCDMSR B@QQX
SGQDD ANNJR, NMD RSTCDMS B@QQHDR ENTQ ANNJR, NMD RSTCDMS B@QQHDR SVN ANNJR, @MC NMD RSTCDMS B@QQHDR NMD ANNJ. 5GD
MTLADQR NE ANNJR (SGQDD, ENTQ, SVN, @MC NMD) @QD SGD PT@MSHS@SHUD CHRBQDSD C@S@.
"'/3$1 1 W 2,/+(-& -# #3 15
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1.5 5GD C@S@ @QD SGD MTLADQ NE L@BGHMDR HM @ FXL. :NT R@LOKD EHUD FXLR. 0MD FXL G@R 12 L@BGHMDR, NMD FXL G@R
15 L@BGHMDR, NMD FXL G@R SDM L@BGHMDR, NMD FXL G@R 22 L@BGHMDR, @MC SGD NSGDQ FXL G@R 20 L@BGHMDR. 8G@S SXOD NE
C@S@ HR SGHR
$T=ILHA 1.6 #=P= 2=ILHA KB 0Q=JPEP=PERA "KJPEJQKQO #=P=
5GD C@S@ @QD SGD VDHFGSR NE A@BJO@BJR VHSG ANNJR HM SGDL. :NT R@LOKD SGD R@LD EHUD RSTCDMSR. 5GD VDHFGSR (HM
ONTMCR) NE SGDHQ A@BJO@BJR @QD 6.2, 7, 6.8, 9.1, 4.3. /NSHBD SG@S A@BJO@BJR B@QQXHMF SGQDD ANNJR B@M G@UD CHEEDQDMS
VDHFGSR. 8DHFGSR @QD PT@MSHS@SHUD BNMSHMTNTR C@S@ ADB@TRD VDHFGSR @QD LD@RTQDC.
1.6 5GD C@S@ @QD SGD @QD@R NE K@VMR HM RPT@QD EDDS. :NT R@LOKD EHUD GNTRDR. 5GD @QD@R NE SGD X@QCR @QD 144 RP. EDDS, 160
RP. EDDS, 190 RP. EDDS, 180 RP. EDDS, @MC 210 RP. EDDS. 8G@S SXOD NE C@S@ HR SGHR
$T=ILHA 1.7
:NT FN SN SGD RTODQL@QJDS @MC OTQBG@RD SGQDD B@MR NE RNTO (19 NTMBDR SNL@SN AHRPTD, 14.1 NTMBDR KDMSHK, @MC 19
NTMBDR *S@KH@M VDCCHMF), SVN O@BJ@FDR NE MTSR (V@KMTSR @MC OD@MTSR), ENTQ CHEEDQDMS JHMCR NE UDFDS@AKD (AQNBBNKH,
B@TKHEKNVDQ, ROHM@BG, @MC B@QQNSR), @MC SVN CDRRDQSR (16 NTMBDR $GDQQX (@QBH@ HBD BQD@L @MC SVN ONTMCR (32
NTMBDR BGNBNK@SD BGHO BNNJHDR).
/@LD C@S@ RDSR SG@S @QD PT@MSHS@SHUD CHRBQDSD, PT@MSHS@SHUD BNMSHMTNTR, @MC PT@KHS@SHUD.
1IFONCIH 1.7
0MD 1NRRHAKD 4NKTSHNM:
c 5GD SGQDD B@MR NE RNTO, SVN O@BJ@FDR NE MTSR, ENTQ JHMCR NE UDFDS@AKDR @MC SVN CDRRDQSR @QD PT@MSHS@SHUD
CHRBQDSD C@S@ ADB@TRD XNT BNTMS SGDL.
c 5GD VDHFGSR NE SGD RNTOR (19 NTMBDR, 14.1 NTMBDR, 19 NTMBDR) @QD PT@MSHS@SHUD BNMSHMTNTR C@S@ ADB@TRD XNT
LD@RTQD VDHFGSR @R OQDBHRDKX @R ONRRHAKD.
c 5XODR NE RNTOR, MTSR, UDFDS@AKDR @MC CDRRDQSR @QD PT@KHS@SHUD C@S@ ADB@TRD SGDX @QD B@SDFNQHB@K.
5QX SN HCDMSHEX @CCHSHNM@K C@S@ RDSR HM SGHR DW@LOKD.
$T=ILHA 1.8
5GD C@S@ @QD SGD BNKNQR NE A@BJO@BJR. "F@HM, XNT R@LOKD SGD R@LD EHUD RSTCDMSR. 0MD RSTCDMS G@R @ QDC A@BJO@BJ,
SVN RSTCDMSR G@UD AK@BJ A@BJO@BJR, NMD RSTCDMS G@R @ FQDDM A@BJO@BJ, @MC NMD RSTCDMS G@R @ FQ@X A@BJO@BJ. 5GD
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1.8 5GD C@S@ @QD SGD BNKNQR NE GNTRDR. :NT R@LOKD EHUD GNTRDR. 5GD BNKNQR NE SGD GNTRDR @QD VGHSD, XDKKNV, VGHSD, QDC,
@MC VGHSD. 8G@S SXOD NE C@S@ HR SGHR
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$T=ILHA 1.9
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C@S@ @QD BNMSHMTNTR NQ CHRBQDSD. )HMS: %@S@ SG@S @QD CHRBQDSD NESDM RS@QS VHSG SGD VNQCR "SGD MTLADQ NE."
=. SGD MTLADQ NE O@HQR NE RGNDR XNT NVM
>. SGD SXOD NE B@Q XNT CQHUD
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A. SGD MTLADQ NE BK@RRDR XNT S@JD ODQ RBGNNK XD@Q.
B. SGD STHSHNM ENQ XNTQ BK@RRDR
C. SGD SXOD NE B@KBTK@SNQ XNT TRD
D. LNUHD Q@SHMFR
E. ONKHSHB@K O@QSX OQDEDQDMBDR
F. VDHFGSR NE RTLN VQDRSKDQR
G. @LNTMS NE LNMDX (HM CNKK@QR) VNM OK@XHMF ONJDQ
H. MTLADQ NE BNQQDBS @MRVDQR NM @ PTHY
I. ODNOKDRn @SSHSTCDR SNV@QC SGD FNUDQMLDMS
J. *2 RBNQDR (5GHR L@X B@TRD RNLD CHRBTRRHNM.)
1IFONCIH 1.9
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C, D, E, =J@ I =NA MQ=HEP=PERA.
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1.9 %DSDQLHMD SGD BNQQDBS C@S@ SXOD (PT@MSHS@SHUD NQ PT@KHS@SHUD) ENQ SGD MTLADQ NE B@QR HM @ O@QJHMF KNS. *MCHB@SD
VGDSGDQ PT@MSHS@SHUD C@S@ @QD BNMSHMTNTR NQ CHRBQDSD.
$T=ILHA 1.10
" RS@SHRSHBR OQNEDRRNQ BNKKDBSR HMENQL@SHNM @ANTS SGD BK@RRHEHB@SHNM NE GDQ RSTCDMSR @R EQDRGLDM, RNOGNLNQDR,
ITMHNQR, NQ RDMHNQR. 5GD C@S@ RGD BNKKDBSR @QD RTLL@QHYDC HM SGD OHD BG@QS $CAOL? 1.2. 8G@S SXOD NE C@S@ CNDR SGHR
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3DEO LEA ?D=NP ODKSO PDA OPQ@AJPO EJ A=?D UA=N, SDE?D EO KO;FCN;NCP? >;N;.
1.10 5GD QDFHRSQ@Q @S 4S@SD 6MHUDQRHSX JDDOR QDBNQCR NE SGD MTLADQ NE BQDCHS GNTQR RSTCDMSR BNLOKDSD D@BG RDLDRSDQ.
5GD C@S@ GD BNKKDBSR @QD RTLL@QHYDC HM SGD GHRSNFQ@L. 5GD BK@RR ANTMC@QHDR @QD 13 SN KDRR SG@M 16, 16 SN KDRR SG@M 19,
19 SN KDRR SG@M 22, @MC 22 SN KDRR SG@M 25.
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8G@S SXOD NE C@S@ CNDR SGHR FQ@OG RGNV
/O;FCN;NCP? ";N; "CM=OMMCIH
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EQDPTDMBHDR). 5GD ODQBDMS BNKTLMR L@JD BNLO@QHMF SGD R@LD B@SDFNQHDR HM SGD BNKKDFDR D@RHDQ. %HROK@XHMF ODQBDMS@FDR @KNMF
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"? AHT; !IFF?A? $IINBCFF !IFF?A?
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*M @ E>: 8=6GI, B@SDFNQHDR NE C@S@ @QD QDOQDRDMSDC AX VDCFDR HM @ BHQBKD @MC @QD OQNONQSHNM@K HM RHYD SN SGD ODQBDMS NE
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*M @ 76G <G6E=, SGD KDMFSG NE SGD A@Q ENQ D@BG B@SDFNQX HR OQNONQSHNM@K SN SGD MTLADQ NQ ODQBDMS NE HMCHUHCT@KR HM D@BG
B@SDFNQX. #@QR L@X AD UDQSHB@K NQ GNQHYNMS@K.
" -6G:ID 8=6GI BNMRHRSR NE A@QR SG@S @QD RNQSDC HMSN NQCDQ AX B@SDFNQX RHYD (K@QFDRS SN RL@KKDRS).
-NNJ @S $CAOL? 1.5 @MC $CAOL? 1.6 @MC CDSDQLHMD VGHBG FQ@OG (OHD NQ A@Q) XNT SGHMJ CHROK@XR SGD BNLO@QHRNMR ADSSDQ.
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*S HR @ FNNC HCD@ SN KNNJ @S @ U@QHDSX NE FQ@OGR SN RDD VGHBG HR SGD LNRS GDKOETK HM CHROK@XHMF SGD C@S@. 8D LHFGS L@JD
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!B;L;=N?LCMNC=/!;N?AILS .?L=?HN
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!B;L;=N?LCMNC=/!;N?AILS .?L=?HN
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$CAOL? 1.8
5GD ENKKNVHMF FQ@OG HR SGD R@LD @R SGD OQDUHNTR FQ@OG ATS SGD o0SGDQ/6MJMNVMp ODQBDMS (9.6%) G@R ADDM HMBKTCDC.
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1.0%). 5GHR HR HLONQS@MS SN JMNV VGDM VD SGHMJ @ANTS VG@S SGD C@S@ @QD SDKKHMF TR.
5GHR O@QSHBTK@Q A@Q FQ@OG HM $CAOL? 1.9 B@M AD CHEEHBTKS SN TMCDQRS@MC UHRT@KKX. 5GD FQ@OG HM $CAOL? 1.10 HR @ 1@QDSN
BG@QS. 5GD 1@QDSN BG@QS G@R SGD A@QR RNQSDC EQNL K@QFDRS SN RL@KKDRS @MC HR D@RHDQ SN QD@C @MC HMSDQOQDS.
$CAOL? 1.9 ;L %L;JB QCNB -NB?L/3HEHIQH !;N?AILS
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TRD U@QHNTR LDSGNCR NE Q@MCNL R@LOKHMF HM @M @SSDLOS SN @BGHDUD SGHR FN@K. 5GHR RDBSHNM VHKK CDRBQHAD @ EDV NE SGD LNRS
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D@RHDRS LDSGNC SN CDRBQHAD HR B@KKDC @ H>BEA: G6C9DB H6BEA:. "MX FQNTO NE D HMCHUHCT@KR HR DPT@KKX KHJDKX SN AD BGNRDM AX
@MX NSGDQ FQNTO NE D HMCHUHCT@KR HE SGD RHLOKD Q@MCNL R@LOKHMF SDBGMHPTD HR TRDC. *M NSGDQ VNQCR, D@BG R@LOKD NE SGD R@LD
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04 BNQQDRONMCR SN $T@QHRLN. #DRHCDR GDQRDKE, -HR@nR FQNTO VHKK BNMRHRS NE .@QBHDQY, $TMHMFG@L, @MC $T@QHRLN.
5N FDMDQ@SD Q@MCNL MTLADQR:
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c 1QDRR &/5&3 ENQ SGD EHQRS Q@MCNL MTLADQ.
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$CAOL? 1.12
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SGD RDBNMC CDO@QSLDMS, @MC CN SGD R@LD ENQ SGD QDL@HMHMF CDO@QSLDMSR. 5GDM TRD RHLOKD Q@MCNL R@LOKHMF SN BGNNRD
OQNONQSHNM@SD MTLADQR EQNL SGD EHQRS CDO@QSLDMS @MC CN SGD R@LD ENQ D@BG NE SGD QDL@HMHMF CDO@QSLDMSR. 5GNRD MTLADQR
OHBJDC EQNL SGD EHQRS CDO@QSLDMS, OHBJDC EQNL SGD RDBNMC CDO@QSLDMS, @MC RN NM QDOQDRDMS SGD LDLADQR VGN L@JD TO SGD
RSQ@SHEHDC R@LOKD.
5N BGNNRD @ 8AJHI:G H6BEA:, CHUHCD SGD ONOTK@SHNM HMSN BKTRSDQR (FQNTOR) @MC SGDM Q@MCNLKX RDKDBS RNLD NE SGD BKTRSDQR.
"KK SGD LDLADQR EQNL SGDRD BKTRSDQR @QD HM SGD BKTRSDQ R@LOKD. 'NQ DW@LOKD, HE XNT Q@MCNLKX R@LOKD ENTQ CDO@QSLDMSR
EQNL XNTQ BNKKDFD ONOTK@SHNM, SGD ENTQ CDO@QSLDMSR L@JD TO SGD BKTRSDQ R@LOKD. %HUHCD XNTQ BNKKDFD E@BTKSX AX CDO@QSLDMS.
5GD CDO@QSLDMSR @QD SGD BKTRSDQR. /TLADQ D@BG CDO@QSLDMS, @MC SGDM BGNNRD ENTQ CHEEDQDMS MTLADQR TRHMF RHLOKD Q@MCNL
R@LOKHMF. "KK LDLADQR NE SGD ENTQ CDO@QSLDMSR VHSG SGNRD MTLADQR @QD SGD BKTRSDQ R@LOKD.
5N BGNNRD @ HNHI:B6I>8 H6BEA:, Q@MCNLKX RDKDBS @ RS@QSHMF ONHMS @MC S@JD DUDQX D
SG
OHDBD NE C@S@ EQNL @ KHRSHMF NE SGD
ONOTK@SHNM. 'NQ DW@LOKD, RTOONRD XNT G@UD SN CN @ OGNMD RTQUDX. :NTQ OGNMD ANNJ BNMS@HMR 20,000 QDRHCDMBD KHRSHMFR. :NT
LTRS BGNNRD 400 M@LDR ENQ SGD R@LOKD. /TLADQ SGD ONOTK@SHNM 1k20,000 @MC SGDM TRD @ RHLOKD Q@MCNL R@LOKD SN OHBJ @
MTLADQ SG@S QDOQDRDMSR SGD EHQRS M@LD HM SGD R@LOKD. 5GDM BGNNRD DUDQX EHESHDSG M@LD SGDQD@ESDQ TMSHK XNT G@UD @ SNS@K NE 400
M@LDR (XNT LHFGS G@UD SN FN A@BJ SN SGD ADFHMMHMF NE XNTQ OGNMD KHRS). 4XRSDL@SHB R@LOKHMF HR EQDPTDMSKX BGNRDM ADB@TRD
HS HR @ RHLOKD LDSGNC.
" SXOD NE R@LOKHMF SG@S HR MNM-Q@MCNLHR BNMUDMHDMBD R@LOKHMF. DCK:C>:C8: H6BEA>C< HMUNKUDR TRHMF QDRTKSR SG@S @QD
QD@CHKX @U@HK@AKD. 'NQ DW@LOKD, @ BNLOTSDQ RNESV@QD RSNQD BNMCTBSR @ L@QJDSHMF RSTCX AX HMSDQUHDVHMF ONSDMSH@K BTRSNLDQR
VGN G@OODM SN AD HM SGD RSNQD AQNVRHMF SGQNTFG SGD @U@HK@AKD RNESV@QD. 5GD QDRTKSR NE BNMUDMHDMBD R@LOKHMF L@X AD UDQX
FNNC HM RNLD B@RDR @MC GHFGKX AH@RDC (E@UNQ BDQS@HM NTSBNLDR) HM NSGDQR.
4@LOKHMF C@S@ RGNTKC AD CNMD UDQX B@QDETKKX. $NKKDBSHMF C@S@ B@QDKDRRKX B@M G@UD CDU@RS@SHMF QDRTKSR. 4TQUDXR L@HKDC
SN GNTRDGNKCR @MC SGDM QDSTQMDC L@X AD UDQX AH@RDC (SGDX L@X E@UNQ @ BDQS@HM FQNTO). *S HR ADSSDQ ENQ SGD ODQRNM BNMCTBSHMF
SGD RTQUDX SN RDKDBS SGD R@LOKD QDRONMCDMSR.
5QTD Q@MCNL R@LOKHMF HR CNMD L>I= G:EA68:B:CI. 5G@S HR, NMBD @ LDLADQ HR OHBJDC, SG@S LDLADQ FNDR A@BJ HMSN
SGD ONOTK@SHNM @MC SGTR L@X AD BGNRDM LNQD SG@M NMBD. )NVDUDQ ENQ OQ@BSHB@K QD@RNMR, HM LNRS ONOTK@SHNMR, RHLOKD
Q@MCNL R@LOKHMF HR CNMD L>I=DJI G:EA68:B:CI. 4TQUDXR @QD SXOHB@KKX CNMD VHSGNTS QDOK@BDLDMS. 5G@S HR, @ LDLADQ NE SGD
ONOTK@SHNM L@X AD BGNRDM NMKX NMBD. .NRS R@LOKDR @QD S@JDM EQNL K@QFD ONOTK@SHNMR @MC SGD R@LOKD SDMCR SN AD RL@KK HM
BNLO@QHRNM SN SGD ONOTK@SHNM. 4HMBD SGHR HR SGD B@RD, R@LOKHMF VHSGNTS QDOK@BDLDMS HR @OOQNWHL@SDKX SGD R@LD @R R@LOKHMF
VHSG QDOK@BDLDMS ADB@TRD SGD BG@MBD NE OHBJHMF SGD R@LD HMCHUHCT@K LNQD SG@M NMBD VHSG QDOK@BDLDMS HR UDQX KNV.
*M @ BNKKDFD ONOTK@SHNM NE 10,000 ODNOKD, RTOONRD XNT V@MS SN OHBJ @ R@LOKD NE 1,000 Q@MCNLKX ENQ @ RTQUDX. #DG 6CN
E6GI>8JA6G H6BEA: D; 1,000, HE XNT @QD R@LOKHMF L>I= G:EA68:B:CI,
c SGD BG@MBD NE OHBJHMF SGD EHQRS ODQRNM HR 1,000 NTS NE 10,000 (0.1000);
c SGD BG@MBD NE OHBJHMF @ CHEEDQDMS RDBNMC ODQRNM ENQ SGHR R@LOKD HR 999 NTS NE 10,000 (0.0999);
c SGD BG@MBD NE OHBJHMF SGD R@LD ODQRNM @F@HM HR 1 NTS NE 10,000 (UDQX KNV).
*E XNT @QD R@LOKHMF L>I=DJI G:EA68:B:CI,
c SGD BG@MBD NE OHBJHMF SGD EHQRS ODQRNM ENQ @MX O@QSHBTK@Q R@LOKD HR 1000 NTS NE 10,000 (0.1000);
c SGD BG@MBD NE OHBJHMF @ CHEEDQDMS RDBNMC ODQRNM HR 999 NTS NE 9,999 (0.0999);
c XNT CN MNS QDOK@BD SGD EHQRS ODQRNM ADENQD OHBJHMF SGD MDWS ODQRNM.
$NLO@QD SGD EQ@BSHNMR 999/10,000 @MC 999/9,999. 'NQ @BBTQ@BX, B@QQX SGD CDBHL@K @MRVDQR SN ENTQ CDBHL@K OK@BDR. 5N
ENTQ CDBHL@K OK@BDR, SGDRD MTLADQR @QD DPTHU@KDMS (0.0999).
4@LOKHMF VHSGNTS QDOK@BDLDMS HMRSD@C NE R@LOKHMF VHSG QDOK@BDLDMS ADBNLDR @ L@SGDL@SHB@K HRRTD NMKX VGDM SGD
ONOTK@SHNM HR RL@KK. 'NQ DW@LOKD, HE SGD ONOTK@SHNM HR 25 ODNOKD, SGD R@LOKD HR SDM, @MC XNT @QD R@LOKHMF L>I= G:EA68:B:CI
;DG 6CN E6GI>8JA6G H6BEA:, SGDM SGD BG@MBD NE OHBJHMF SGD EHQRS ODQRNM HR SDM NTS NE 25, @MC SGD BG@MBD NE OHBJHMF @ CHEEDQDMS
RDBNMC ODQRNM HR MHMD NTS NE 25 (XNT QDOK@BD SGD EHQRS ODQRNM).
*E XNT R@LOKD L>I=DJI G:EA68:B:CI, SGDM SGD BG@MBD NE OHBJHMF SGD EHQRS ODQRNM HR SDM NTS NE 25, @MC SGDM SGD BG@MBD
NE OHBJHMF SGD RDBNMC ODQRNM (VGN HR CHEEDQDMS) HR MHMD NTS NE 24 (XNT CN MNS QDOK@BD SGD EHQRS ODQRNM).
$NLO@QD SGD EQ@BSHNMR 9/25 @MC 9/24. 5N ENTQ CDBHL@K OK@BDR, 9/25 = 0.3600 @MC 9/24 = 0.3750. 5N ENTQ CDBHL@K OK@BDR,
SGDRD MTLADQR @QD MNS DPTHU@KDMS.
8GDM XNT @M@KXYD C@S@, HS HR HLONQS@MS SN AD @V@QD NE H6BEA>C< :GGDGH @MC MNMR@LOKHMF DQQNQR. 5GD @BST@K OQNBDRR
NE R@LOKHMF B@TRDR R@LOKHMF DQQNQR. 'NQ DW@LOKD, SGD R@LOKD L@X MNS AD K@QFD DMNTFG. '@BSNQR MNS QDK@SDC SN SGD R@LOKHMF
OQNBDRR B@TRD CDCH6BEA>C< :GGDGH. " CDEDBSHUD BNTMSHMF CDUHBD B@M B@TRD @ MNMR@LOKHMF DQQNQ.
*M QD@KHSX, @ R@LOKD VHKK MDUDQ AD DW@BSKX QDOQDRDMS@SHUD NE SGD ONOTK@SHNM RN SGDQD VHKK @KV@XR AD RNLD R@LOKHMF DQQNQ.
"R @ QTKD, SGD K@QFDQ SGD R@LOKD, SGD RL@KKDQ SGD R@LOKHMF DQQNQ.
"'/3$1 1 W 2,/+(-& -# #3 25
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*M RS@SHRSHBR, 6 H6BEA>C< 7>6H HR BQD@SDC VGDM @ R@LOKD HR BNKKDBSDC EQNL @ ONOTK@SHNM @MC RNLD LDLADQR NE SGD
ONOTK@SHNM @QD MNS @R KHJDKX SN AD BGNRDM @R NSGDQR (QDLDLADQ, D@BG LDLADQ NE SGD ONOTK@SHNM RGNTKC G@UD @M DPT@KKX KHJDKX
BG@MBD NE ADHMF BGNRDM). 8GDM @ R@LOKHMF AH@R G@OODMR, SGDQD B@M AD HMBNQQDBS BNMBKTRHNMR CQ@VM @ANTS SGD ONOTK@SHNM SG@S
HR ADHMF RSTCHDC.
$T=ILHA 1.11
" RSTCX HR CNMD SN CDSDQLHMD SGD @UDQ@FD STHSHNM SG@S 4@M +NRD 4S@SD TMCDQFQ@CT@SD RSTCDMSR O@X ODQ RDLDRSDQ.
&@BG RSTCDMS HM SGD ENKKNVHMF R@LOKDR HR @RJDC GNV LTBG STHSHNM GD NQ RGD O@HC ENQ SGD E@KK RDLDRSDQ. 8G@S HR SGD
SXOD NE R@LOKHMF HM D@BG B@RD
=. " R@LOKD NE 100 TMCDQFQ@CT@SD 4@M +NRD 4S@SD RSTCDMSR HR S@JDM AX NQF@MHYHMF SGD RSTCDMSRn M@LDR AX
BK@RRHEHB@SHNM (EQDRGL@M, RNOGNLNQD, ITMHNQ, NQ RDMHNQ), @MC SGDM RDKDBSHMF 25 RSTCDMSR EQNL D@BG.
>. " Q@MCNL MTLADQ FDMDQ@SNQ HR TRDC SN RDKDBS @ RSTCDMS EQNL SGD @KOG@ADSHB@K KHRSHMF NE @KK TMCDQFQ@CT@SD
RSTCDMSR HM SGD '@KK RDLDRSDQ. 4S@QSHMF VHSG SG@S RSTCDMS, DUDQX 50SG RSTCDMS HR BGNRDM TMSHK 75 RSTCDMSR @QD
HMBKTCDC HM SGD R@LOKD.
?. " BNLOKDSDKX Q@MCNL LDSGNC HR TRDC SN RDKDBS 75 RSTCDMSR. &@BG TMCDQFQ@CT@SD RSTCDMS HM SGD E@KK RDLDRSDQ
G@R SGD R@LD OQNA@AHKHSX NE ADHMF BGNRDM @S @MX RS@FD NE SGD R@LOKHMF OQNBDRR.
@. 5GD EQDRGL@M, RNOGNLNQD, ITMHNQ, @MC RDMHNQ XD@QR @QD MTLADQDC NMD, SVN, SGQDD, @MC ENTQ, QDRODBSHUDKX.
" Q@MCNL MTLADQ FDMDQ@SNQ HR TRDC SN OHBJ SVN NE SGNRD XD@QR. "KK RSTCDMSR HM SGNRD SVN XD@QR @QD HM SGD
R@LOKD.
A. "M @CLHMHRSQ@SHUD @RRHRS@MS HR @RJDC SN RS@MC HM EQNMS NE SGD KHAQ@QX NMD 8DCMDRC@X @MC SN @RJ SGD EHQRS 100
TMCDQFQ@CT@SD RSTCDMSR GD DMBNTMSDQR VG@S SGDX O@HC ENQ STHSHNM SGD '@KK RDLDRSDQ. 5GNRD 100 RSTCDMSR @QD
SGD R@LOKD.
1IFONCIH 1.11
=. OPN=PEBEA@; >. OUOPAI=PE?; ?. OEILHA N=J@KI; @. ?HQOPAN; A. ?KJRAJEAJ?A
26 "'/3$1 1 W 2,/+(-& -# #3
3DEO ?KJPAJP EO =R=EH=>HA BKN BNAA =P DPPL://?JT.KNC/?KJPAJP/?KH11562/1.11
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1.11
:NT @QD FNHMF SN TRD SGD Q@MCNL MTLADQ FDMDQ@SNQ SN FDMDQ@SD CHEEDQDMS SXODR NE R@LOKDR EQNL SGD C@S@.
5GHR S@AKD CHROK@XR RHW RDSR NE PTHY RBNQDR (D@BG PTHY BNTMSR 10 ONHMSR) ENQ @M DKDLDMS@QX RS@SHRSHBR BK@RR.
#1 #2 #3 #4 #5 #6
5 7 10 9 8 3
10 5 9 8 7 6
9 10 8 6 7 9
9 10 10 9 8 9
7 8 9 5 7 4
9 9 9 10 8 7
7 7 10 9 8 8
8 8 9 10 8 8
9 7 8 7 7 8
8 8 10 9 8 7
2;<F? 1.6
*MRSQTBSHNMR: 6RD SGD 3@MCNL /TLADQ (DMDQ@SNQ SN OHBJ R@LOKDR.
1. $QD@SD @ RSQ@SHEHDC R@LOKD AX BNKTLM. 1HBJ SGQDD PTHY RBNQDR Q@MCNLKX EQNL D@BG BNKTLM.
i /TLADQ D@BG QNV NMD SGQNTFG SDM.
i 0M XNTQ B@KBTK@SNQ, OQDRR .@SG @MC @QQNV NUDQ SN 13#.
i 'NQ BNKTLM 1, 1QDRR 5:Q@MC*MS( @MC DMSDQ 1,10). 1QDRR &/5&3. 3DBNQC SGD MTLADQ. 1QDRR &/5&3 2 LNQD
SHLDR (DUDM SGD QDOD@SR). 3DBNQC SGDRD MTLADQR. 3DBNQC SGD SGQDD PTHY RBNQDR HM BNKTLM NMD SG@S BNQQDRONMC
SN SGDRD SGQDD MTLADQR.
i 3DOD@S ENQ BNKTLMR SVN SGQNTFG RHW.
i 5GDRD 18 PTHY RBNQDR @QD @ RSQ@SHEHDC R@LOKD.
2. $QD@SD @ BKTRSDQ R@LOKD AX OHBJHMF SVN NE SGD BNKTLMR. 6RD SGD BNKTLM MTLADQR: NMD SGQNTFG RHW.
i 1QDRR ."5) @MC @QQNV NUDQ SN 13#.
i 1QDRR 5:Q@MC*MS( @MC DMSDQ 1,6). 1QDRR &/5&3. 3DBNQC SGD MTLADQ. 1QDRR &/5&3 @MC QDBNQC SG@S MTLADQ.
i 5GD SVN MTLADQR @QD ENQ SVN NE SGD BNKTLMR.
i 5GD PTHY RBNQDR (20 NE SGDL) HM SGDRD 2 BNKTLMR @QD SGD BKTRSDQ R@LOKD.
3. $QD@SD @ RHLOKD Q@MCNL R@LOKD NE 15 PTHY RBNQDR.
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i 6RD SGD MTLADQHMF NMD SGQNTFG 60.
i 1QDRR ."5). "QQNV NUDQ SN 13#. 1QDRR 5:Q@MC*MS( @MC DMSDQ 1, 60).
i 1QDRR &/5&3 15 SHLDR @MC QDBNQC SGD MTLADQR.
i 3DBNQC SGD PTHY RBNQDR SG@S BNQQDRONMC SN SGDRD MTLADQR.
i 5GDRD 15 PTHY RBNQDR @QD SGD RXRSDL@SHB R@LOKD.
4. $QD@SD @ RXRSDL@SHB R@LOKD NE 12 PTHY RBNQDR.
i 6RD SGD MTLADQHMF NMD SGQNTFG 60.
i 1QDRR ."5). "QQNV NUDQ SN 13#. 1QDRR 5:Q@MC*MS( @MC DMSDQ 1, 60).
i 1QDRR &/5&3. 3DBNQC SGD MTLADQ @MC SGD EHQRS PTHY RBNQD. 'QNL SG@S MTLADQ, BNTMS SDM PTHY RBNQDR @MC
QDBNQC SG@S PTHY RBNQD. ,DDO BNTMSHMF SDM PTHY RBNQDR @MC QDBNQCHMF SGD PTHY RBNQD TMSHK XNT G@UD @ R@LOKD
NE 12 PTHY RBNQDR. :NT L@X VQ@O @QNTMC (FN A@BJ SN SGD ADFHMMHMF).
$T=ILHA 1.12
%DSDQLHMD SGD SXOD NE R@LOKHMF TRDC (RHLOKD Q@MCNL, RSQ@SHEHDC, RXRSDL@SHB, BKTRSDQ, NQ BNMUDMHDMBD).
=. " RNBBDQ BN@BG RDKDBSR RHW OK@XDQR EQNL @ FQNTO NE ANXR @FDC DHFGS SN SDM, RDUDM OK@XDQR EQNL @ FQNTO NE
ANXR @FDC 11 SN 12, @MC SGQDD OK@XDQR EQNL @ FQNTO NE ANXR @FDC 13 SN 14 SN ENQL @ QDBQD@SHNM@K RNBBDQ SD@L.
>. " ONKKRSDQ HMSDQUHDVR @KK GTL@M QDRNTQBD ODQRNMMDK HM EHUD CHEEDQDMS GHFG SDBG BNLO@MHDR.
?. " GHFG RBGNNK DCTB@SHNM@K QDRD@QBGDQ HMSDQUHDVR 50 GHFG RBGNNK EDL@KD SD@BGDQR @MC 50 GHFG RBGNNK L@KD
SD@BGDQR.
@. " LDCHB@K QDRD@QBGDQ HMSDQUHDVR DUDQX SGHQC B@MBDQ O@SHDMS EQNL @ KHRS NE B@MBDQ O@SHDMSR @S @ KNB@K GNROHS@K.
A. " GHFG RBGNNK BNTMRDKNQ TRDR @ BNLOTSDQ SN FDMDQ@SD 50 Q@MCNL MTLADQR @MC SGDM OHBJR RSTCDMSR VGNRD
M@LDR BNQQDRONMC SN SGD MTLADQR.
B. " RSTCDMS HMSDQUHDVR BK@RRL@SDR HM GHR @KFDAQ@ BK@RR SN CDSDQLHMD GNV L@MX O@HQR NE ID@MR @ RSTCDMS NVMR,
NM SGD @UDQ@FD.
1IFONCIH 1.12
=. OPN=PEBEA@; >. ?HQOPAN; ?. OPN=PEBEA@; @. OUOPAI=PE?; A. OEILHA N=J@KI; B.?KJRAJEAJ?A
1.12 %DSDQLHMD SGD SXOD NE R@LOKHMF TRDC (RHLOKD Q@MCNL, RSQ@SHEHDC, RXRSDL@SHB, BKTRSDQ, NQ BNMUDMHDMBD).
" GHFG RBGNNK OQHMBHO@K ONKKR 50 EQDRGLDM, 50 RNOGNLNQDR, 50 ITMHNQR, @MC 50 RDMHNQR QDF@QCHMF ONKHBX BG@MFDR ENQ
@ESDQ RBGNNK @BSHUHSHDR.
*E VD VDQD SN DW@LHMD SVN R@LOKDR QDOQDRDMSHMF SGD R@LD ONOTK@SHNM, DUDM HE VD TRDC Q@MCNL R@LOKHMF LDSGNCR ENQ
SGD R@LOKDR, SGDX VNTKC MNS AD DW@BSKX SGD R@LD. +TRS @R SGDQD HR U@QH@SHNM HM C@S@, SGDQD HR U@QH@SHNM HM R@LOKDR. "R XNT
ADBNLD @BBTRSNLDC SN R@LOKHMF, SGD U@QH@AHKHSX VHKK ADFHM SN RDDL M@STQ@K.
$T=ILHA 1.13
4TOONRD "#$ $NKKDFD G@R 10,000 O@QS-SHLD RSTCDMSR (SGD ONOTK@SHNM). 8D @QD HMSDQDRSDC HM SGD @UDQ@FD @LNTMS NE
LNMDX @ O@QS-SHLD RSTCDMS RODMCR NM ANNJR HM SGD E@KK SDQL. "RJHMF @KK 10,000 RSTCDMSR HR @M @KLNRS HLONRRHAKD
S@RJ.
4TOONRD VD S@JD SVN CHEEDQDMS R@LOKDR.
'HQRS, VD TRD BNMUDMHDMBD R@LOKHMF @MC RTQUDX SDM RSTCDMSR EQNL @ EHQRS SDQL NQF@MHB BGDLHRSQX BK@RR. .@MX
NE SGDRD RSTCDMSR @QD S@JHMF EHQRS SDQL B@KBTKTR HM @CCHSHNM SN SGD NQF@MHB BGDLHRSQX BK@RR. 5GD @LNTMS NE LNMDX
SGDX RODMC NM ANNJR HR @R ENKKNVR:
$128; $87; $173; $116; $130; $204; $147; $189; $93; $153
5GD RDBNMC R@LOKD HR S@JDM TRHMF @ KHRS NE RDMHNQ BHSHYDMR VGN S@JD 1.&. BK@RRDR @MC S@JHMF DUDQX EHESG RDMHNQ
BHSHYDM NM SGD KHRS, ENQ @ SNS@K NE SDM RDMHNQ BHSHYDMR. 5GDX RODMC:
$50; $40; $36; $15; $50; $100; $40; $53; $22; $22
28 "'/3$1 1 W 2,/+(-& -# #3
3DEO ?KJPAJP EO =R=EH=>HA BKN BNAA =P DPPL://?JT.KNC/?KJPAJP/?KH11562/1.11
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*S HR TMKHJDKX SG@S @MX RSTCDMS HR HM ANSG R@LOKDR.
@. %N XNT SGHMJ SG@S DHSGDQ NE SGDRD R@LOKDR HR QDOQDRDMS@SHUD NE (NQ HR BG@Q@BSDQHRSHB NE) SGD DMSHQD 10,000 O@QS-SHLD
RSTCDMS ONOTK@SHNM
1IFONCIH 1.13
=. -K. 3DA BENOP O=ILHA LNK>=>HU ?KJOEOPO KB O?EAJ?A-KNEAJPA@ OPQ@AJPO. !AOE@AO PDA ?DAIEOPNU ?KQNOA,
OKIA KB PDAI =NA =HOK P=GEJC BENOP-PANI ?=H?QHQO. !KKGO BKN PDAOA ?H=OOAO PAJ@ PK >A ATLAJOERA. ,KOP
KB PDAOA OPQ@AJPO =NA, IKNA PD=J HEGAHU, L=UEJC IKNA PD=J PDA =RAN=CA L=NP-PEIA OPQ@AJP BKN PDAEN >KKGO.
3DA OA?KJ@ O=ILHA EO = CNKQL KB OAJEKN ?EPEVAJO SDK =NA, IKNA PD=J HEGAHU, P=GEJC ?KQNOAO BKN DA=HPD =J@
EJPANAOP. 3DA =IKQJP KB IKJAU PDAU OLAJ@ KJ >KKGO EO LNK>=>HU IQ?D HAOO PD=J PDA =RAN=CA L=NPPEIA
OPQ@AJP. !KPD O=ILHAO =NA >E=OA@. HOK, EJ >KPD ?=OAO, JKP =HH OPQ@AJPO D=RA = ?D=J?A PK >A EJ AEPDAN
O=ILHA.
A. 4HMBD SGDRD R@LOKDR @QD MNS QDOQDRDMS@SHUD NE SGD DMSHQD ONOTK@SHNM, HR HS VHRD SN TRD SGD QDRTKSR SN CDRBQHAD SGD
DMSHQD ONOTK@SHNM
1IFONCIH 1.13
>. -K. %KN PDAOA O=ILHAO, A=?D IAI>AN KB PDA LKLQH=PEKJ @E@ JKP D=RA =J AMQ=HHU HEGAHU ?D=J?A KB
>AEJC ?DKOAJ.
/NV, RTOONRD VD S@JD @ SGHQC R@LOKD. 8D BGNNRD SDM CHEEDQDMS O@QS-SHLD RSTCDMSR EQNL SGD CHRBHOKHMDR NE
BGDLHRSQX, L@SG, &MFKHRG, ORXBGNKNFX, RNBHNKNFX, GHRSNQX, MTQRHMF, OGXRHB@K DCTB@SHNM, @QS, @MC D@QKX BGHKCGNNC
CDUDKNOLDMS. (8D @RRTLD SG@S SGDRD @QD SGD NMKX CHRBHOKHMDR HM VGHBG O@QS-SHLD RSTCDMSR @S "#$ $NKKDFD @QD
DMQNKKDC @MC SG@S @M DPT@K MTLADQ NE O@QS-SHLD RSTCDMSR @QD DMQNKKDC HM D@BG NE SGD CHRBHOKHMDR.) &@BG RSTCDMS HR
BGNRDM TRHMF RHLOKD Q@MCNL R@LOKHMF. 6RHMF @ B@KBTK@SNQ, Q@MCNL MTLADQR @QD FDMDQ@SDC @MC @ RSTCDMS EQNL
@ O@QSHBTK@Q CHRBHOKHMD HR RDKDBSDC HE GD NQ RGD G@R @ BNQQDRONMCHMF MTLADQ. 5GD RSTCDMSR RODMC SGD ENKKNVHMF
@LNTMSR:
$180; $50; $150; $85; $260; $75; $180; $200; $200; $150
B. *R SGD R@LOKD AH@RDC
1IFONCIH 1.13
?. 3DA O=ILHA EO QJ>E=OA@, >QP = H=NCAN O=ILHA SKQH@ >A NA?KIIAJ@A@ PK EJ?NA=OA PDA HEGAHEDKK@ PD=P
PDA O=ILHA SEHH >A ?HKOA PK NALNAOAJP=PERA KB PDA LKLQH=PEKJ. 'KSARAN, BKN = >E=OA@ O=ILHEJC PA?DJEMQA,
ARAJ = H=NCA O=ILHA NQJO PDA NEOG KB JKP >AEJC NALNAOAJP=PERA KB PDA LKLQH=PEKJ.
4STCDMSR NESDM @RJ HE HS HR "FNNC DMNTFG" SN S@JD @ R@LOKD, HMRSD@C NE RTQUDXHMF SGD DMSHQD ONOTK@SHNM. *E SGD
RTQUDX HR CNMD VDKK, SGD @MRVDQ HR XDR.
1.13 " KNB@K Q@CHN RS@SHNM G@R @ E@M A@RD NE 20,000 KHRSDMDQR. 5GD RS@SHNM V@MSR SN JMNV HE HSR @TCHDMBD VNTKC OQDEDQ
LNQD LTRHB NQ LNQD S@KJ RGNVR. "RJHMF @KK 20,000 KHRSDMDQR HR @M @KLNRS HLONRRHAKD S@RJ.
5GD RS@SHNM TRDR BNMUDMHDMBD R@LOKHMF @MC RTQUDXR SGD EHQRS 200 ODNOKD SGDX LDDS @S NMD NE SGD RS@SHNMnR LTRHB BNMBDQS
DUDMSR. 24 ODNOKD R@HC SGDXnC OQDEDQ LNQD S@KJ RGNVR, @MC 176 ODNOKD R@HC SGDXnC OQDEDQ LNQD LTRHB.
%N XNT SGHMJ SG@S SGHR R@LOKD HR QDOQDRDMS@SHUD NE (NQ HR BG@Q@BSDQHRSHB NE) SGD DMSHQD 20,000 KHRSDMDQ ONOTK@SHNM
"R @ BK@RR, CDSDQLHMD VGDSGDQ NQ MNS SGD ENKKNVHMF R@LOKDR @QD QDOQDRDMS@SHUD. *E SGDX @QD MNS, CHRBTRR SGD QD@RNMR.
1. 5N EHMC SGD @UDQ@FD (1" NE @KK RSTCDMSR HM @ TMHUDQRHSX, TRD @KK GNMNQ RSTCDMSR @S SGD TMHUDQRHSX @R SGD R@LOKD.
2. 5N EHMC NTS SGD LNRS ONOTK@Q BDQD@K @LNMF XNTMF ODNOKD TMCDQ SGD @FD NE SDM, RS@MC NTSRHCD @ K@QFD RTODQL@QJDS
ENQ SGQDD GNTQR @MC ROD@J SN DUDQX SVDMSHDSG BGHKC TMCDQ @FD SDM VGN DMSDQR SGD RTODQL@QJDS.
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3. 5N EHMC SGD @UDQ@FD @MMT@K HMBNLD NE @KK @CTKSR HM SGD 6MHSDC 4S@SDR, R@LOKD 6.4. BNMFQDRRLDM. $QD@SD @ BKTRSDQ
R@LOKD AX BNMRHCDQHMF D@BG RS@SD @R @ RSQ@STL (FQNTO). #X TRHMF RHLOKD Q@MCNL R@LOKHMF, RDKDBS RS@SDR SN AD O@QS
NE SGD BKTRSDQ. 5GDM RTQUDX DUDQX 6.4. BNMFQDRRL@M HM SGD BKTRSDQ.
4. 5N CDSDQLHMD SGD OQNONQSHNM NE ODNOKD S@JHMF OTAKHB SQ@MRONQS@SHNM SN VNQJ, RTQUDX 20 ODNOKD HM /DV :NQJ $HSX.
$NMCTBS SGD RTQUDX AX RHSSHMF HM $DMSQ@K 1@QJ NM @ ADMBG @MC HMSDQUHDVHMF DUDQX ODQRNM VGN RHSR MDWS SN XNT.
5. 5N CDSDQLHMD SGD @UDQ@FD BNRS NE @ SVN-C@X RS@X HM @ GNROHS@K HM .@RR@BGTRDSSR, RTQUDX 100 GNROHS@KR @BQNRR SGD
RS@SD TRHMF RHLOKD Q@MCNL R@LOKHMF.
4;LC;NCIH CH ";N;
36G>6I>DC HR OQDRDMS HM @MX RDS NE C@S@. 'NQ DW@LOKD, 16-NTMBD B@MR NE ADUDQ@FD L@X BNMS@HM LNQD NQ KDRR SG@M 16 NTMBDR NE
KHPTHC. *M NMD RSTCX, DHFGS 16 NTMBD B@MR VDQD LD@RTQDC @MC OQNCTBDC SGD ENKKNVHMF @LNTMS (HM NTMBDR) NE ADUDQ@FD:
15.8; 16.1; 15.2; 14.8; 15.8; 15.9; 16.0; 15.5
.D@RTQDLDMSR NE SGD @LNTMS NE ADUDQ@FD HM @ 16-NTMBD B@M L@X U@QX ADB@TRD CHEEDQDMS ODNOKD L@JD SGD LD@RTQDLDMSR
NQ ADB@TRD SGD DW@BS @LNTMS, 16 NTMBDR NE KHPTHC, V@R MNS OTS HMSN SGD B@MR. .@MTE@BSTQDQR QDFTK@QKX QTM SDRSR SN CDSDQLHMD
HE SGD @LNTMS NE ADUDQ@FD HM @ 16-NTMBD B@M E@KKR VHSGHM SGD CDRHQDC Q@MFD.
#D @V@QD SG@S @R XNT S@JD C@S@, XNTQ C@S@ L@X U@QX RNLDVG@S EQNL SGD C@S@ RNLDNMD DKRD HR S@JHMF ENQ SGD R@LD
OTQONRD. 5GHR HR BNLOKDSDKX M@STQ@K. )NVDUDQ, HE SVN NQ LNQD NE XNT @QD S@JHMF SGD R@LD C@S@ @MC FDS UDQX CHEEDQDMS QDRTKSR,
HS HR SHLD ENQ XNT @MC SGD NSGDQR SN QDDU@KT@SD XNTQ C@S@-S@JHMF LDSGNCR @MC XNTQ @BBTQ@BX.
4;LC;NCIH CH 1;GJF?M
*S V@R LDMSHNMDC OQDUHNTRKX SG@S SVN NQ LNQD H6BEA:H EQNL SGD R@LD EDEJA6I>DC, S@JDM Q@MCNLKX, @MC G@UHMF BKNRD SN
SGD R@LD BG@Q@BSDQHRSHBR NE SGD ONOTK@SHNM VHKK KHJDKX AD CHEEDQDMS EQNL D@BG NSGDQ. 4TOONRD %NQDDM @MC +TMF ANSG CDBHCD
SN RSTCX SGD @UDQ@FD @LNTMS NE SHLD RSTCDMSR @S SGDHQ BNKKDFD RKDDO D@BG MHFGS. %NQDDM @MC +TMF D@BG S@JD R@LOKDR NE 500
RSTCDMSR. %NQDDM TRDR RXRSDL@SHB R@LOKHMF @MC +TMF TRDR BKTRSDQ R@LOKHMF. %NQDDM'R R@LOKD VHKK AD CHEEDQDMS EQNL +TMF'R
R@LOKD. &UDM HE %NQDDM @MC +TMF TRDC SGD R@LD R@LOKHMF LDSGNC, HM @KK KHJDKHGNNC SGDHQ R@LOKDR VNTKC AD CHEEDQDMS. /DHSGDQ
VNTKC AD VQNMF, GNVDUDQ.
5GHMJ @ANTS VG@S BNMSQHATSDR SN L@JHMF %NQDDMnR @MC +TMFnR R@LOKDR CHEEDQDMS.
*E %NQDDM @MC +TMF SNNJ K@QFDQ R@LOKDR (H.D. SGD MTLADQ NE C@S@ U@KTDR HR HMBQD@RDC), SGDHQ R@LOKD QDRTKSR (SGD @UDQ@FD
@LNTMS NE SHLD @ RSTCDMS RKDDOR) LHFGS AD BKNRDQ SN SGD @BST@K ONOTK@SHNM @UDQ@FD. #TS RSHKK, SGDHQ R@LOKDR VNTKC AD, HM @KK
KHJDKHGNNC, CHEEDQDMS EQNL D@BG NSGDQ. 5GHR K6G>67>A>IN >C H6BEA:H B@MMNS AD RSQDRRDC DMNTFG.
1CT? I@ ; 1;GJF?
5GD RHYD NE @ R@LOKD (NESDM B@KKDC SGD MTLADQ NE NARDQU@SHNMR) HR HLONQS@MS. 5GD DW@LOKDR XNT G@UD RDDM HM SGHR ANNJ RN E@Q
G@UD ADDM RL@KK. 4@LOKDR NE NMKX @ EDV GTMCQDC NARDQU@SHNMR, NQ DUDM RL@KKDQ, @QD RTEEHBHDMS ENQ L@MX OTQONRDR. *M ONKKHMF,
R@LOKDR SG@S @QD EQNL 1,200 SN 1,500 NARDQU@SHNMR @QD BNMRHCDQDC K@QFD DMNTFG @MC FNNC DMNTFG HE SGD RTQUDX HR Q@MCNL
@MC HR VDKK CNMD. :NT VHKK KD@QM VGX VGDM XNT RSTCX BNMEHCDMBD HMSDQU@KR.
#D @V@QD SG@S L@MX K@QFD R@LOKDR @QD AH@RDC. 'NQ DW@LOKD, B@KK-HM RTQUDXR @QD HMU@QH@AKX AH@RDC, ADB@TRD ODNOKD
BGNNRD SN QDRONMC NQ MNS.
%HUHCD HMSN FQNTOR NE SVN, SGQDD, NQ ENTQ. :NTQ HMRSQTBSNQ VHKK FHUD D@BG FQNTO NMD RHW-RHCDC CHD. 5QX SGHR DWODQHLDMS
SVHBD. 3NKK NMD E@HQ CHD (RHW-RHCDC) 20 SHLDR. 3DBNQC SGD MTLADQ NE NMDR, SVNR, SGQDDR, ENTQR, EHUDR, @MC RHWDR XNT FDS HM
2;<F? 1.7 @MC 2;<F? 1.8 (oEQDPTDMBXp HR SGD MTLADQ NE SHLDR @ O@QSHBTK@Q E@BD NE SGD CHD NBBTQR):
$;=? IH "C? $L?KO?H=S
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$;=? IH "C? $L?KO?H=S
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%HC SGD SVN DWODQHLDMSR G@UD SGD R@LD QDRTKSR 1QNA@AKX MNS. *E XNT CHC SGD DWODQHLDMS @ SGHQC SHLD, CN XNT DWODBS SGD
QDRTKSR SN AD HCDMSHB@K SN SGD EHQRS NQ RDBNMC DWODQHLDMS 8GX NQ VGX MNS
8GHBG DWODQHLDMS G@C SGD BNQQDBS QDRTKSR 5GDX ANSG CHC. 5GD INA NE SGD RS@SHRSHBH@M HR SN RDD SGQNTFG SGD
U@QH@AHKHSX @MC CQ@V @OOQNOQH@SD BNMBKTRHNMR.
!LCNC=;F #P;FO;NCIH
8D MDDC SN DU@KT@SD SGD RS@SHRSHB@K RSTCHDR VD QD@C @ANTS BQHSHB@KKX @MC @M@KXYD SGDL ADENQD @BBDOSHMF SGD QDRTKSR NE SGD
RSTCHDR. $NLLNM OQNAKDLR SN AD @V@QD NE HMBKTCD
c 1QNAKDLR VHSG R@LOKDR: " R@LOKD LTRS AD QDOQDRDMS@SHUD NE SGD ONOTK@SHNM. " R@LOKD SG@S HR MNS QDOQDRDMS@SHUD NE SGD
ONOTK@SHNM HR AH@RDC. #H@RDC R@LOKDR SG@S @QD MNS QDOQDRDMS@SHUD NE SGD ONOTK@SHNM FHUD QDRTKSR SG@S @QD HM@BBTQ@SD @MC
MNS U@KHC.
c 4DKE-RDKDBSDC R@LOKDR: 3DRONMRDR NMKX AX ODNOKD VGN BGNNRD SN QDRONMC, RTBG @R B@KK-HM RTQUDXR, @QD NESDM TMQDKH@AKD.
c 4@LOKD RHYD HRRTDR: 4@LOKDR SG@S @QD SNN RL@KK L@X AD TMQDKH@AKD. -@QFDQ R@LOKDR @QD ADSSDQ, HE ONRRHAKD. *M RNLD
RHST@SHNMR, G@UHMF RL@KK R@LOKDR HR TM@UNHC@AKD @MC B@M RSHKK AD TRDC SN CQ@V BNMBKTRHNMR. &W@LOKDR: BQ@RG SDRSHMF B@QR
NQ LDCHB@K SDRSHMF ENQ Q@QD BNMCHSHNMR
c 6MCTD HMEKTDMBD: BNKKDBSHMF C@S@ NQ @RJHMF PTDRSHNMR HM @ V@X SG@S HMEKTDMBDR SGD QDRONMRD
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c /NM-QDRONMRD NQ QDETR@K NE RTAIDBS SN O@QSHBHO@SD: 5GD BNKKDBSDC QDRONMRDR L@X MN KNMFDQ AD QDOQDRDMS@SHUD NE SGD
ONOTK@SHNM. 0ESDM, ODNOKD VHSG RSQNMF ONRHSHUD NQ MDF@SHUD NOHMHNMR L@X @MRVDQ RTQUDXR, VGHBG B@M @EEDBS SGD QDRTKSR.
c $@TR@KHSX: " QDK@SHNMRGHO ADSVDDM SVN U@QH@AKDR CNDR MNS LD@M SG@S NMD B@TRDR SGD NSGDQ SN NBBTQ. 5GDX L@X AD QDK@SDC
(BNQQDK@SDC) ADB@TRD NE SGDHQ QDK@SHNMRGHO SGQNTFG @ CHEEDQDMS U@QH@AKD.
c 4DKE-ETMCDC NQ RDKE-HMSDQDRS RSTCHDR: " RSTCX ODQENQLDC AX @ ODQRNM NQ NQF@MHY@SHNM HM NQCDQ SN RTOONQS SGDHQ BK@HL. *R
SGD RSTCX HLO@QSH@K 3D@C SGD RSTCX B@QDETKKX SN DU@KT@SD SGD VNQJ. %N MNS @TSNL@SHB@KKX @RRTLD SG@S SGD RSTCX HR FNNC,
ATS CN MNS @TSNL@SHB@KKX @RRTLD SGD RSTCX HR A@C DHSGDQ. &U@KT@SD HS NM HSR LDQHSR @MC SGD VNQJ CNMD.
c .HRKD@CHMF TRD NE C@S@: HLOQNODQKX CHROK@XDC FQ@OGR, HMBNLOKDSD C@S@, NQ K@BJ NE BNMSDWS
c $NMENTMCHMF: 8GDM SGD DEEDBSR NE LTKSHOKD E@BSNQR NM @ QDRONMRD B@MMNS AD RDO@Q@SDC. $NMENTMCHMF L@JDR HS CHEEHBTKS
NQ HLONRRHAKD SN CQ@V U@KHC BNMBKTRHNMR @ANTS SGD DEEDBS NE D@BG E@BSNQ.
1.3 U $L?KO?H=S, $L?KO?H=S 2;<F?M, ;H> *?P?FM I@
+?;MOL?G?HN
0MBD XNT G@UD @ RDS NE C@S@, XNT VHKK MDDC SN NQF@MHYD HS RN SG@S XNT B@M @M@KXYD GNV EQDPTDMSKX D@BG C@STL NBBTQR HM SGD
RDS. )NVDUDQ, VGDM B@KBTK@SHMF SGD EQDPTDMBX, XNT L@X MDDC SN QNTMC XNTQ @MRVDQR RN SG@S SGDX @QD @R OQDBHRD @R ONRRHAKD.
AHMQ?LM ;H> 0IOH>CHA -@@
" RHLOKD V@X SN QNTMC NEE @MRVDQR HR SN B@QQX XNTQ EHM@K @MRVDQ NMD LNQD CDBHL@K OK@BD SG@M V@R OQDRDMS HM SGD NQHFHM@K
C@S@. 3NTMC NEE NMKX SGD EHM@K @MRVDQ. %N MNS QNTMC NEE @MX HMSDQLDCH@SD QDRTKSR, HE ONRRHAKD. *E HS ADBNLDR MDBDRR@QX SN QNTMC
NEE HMSDQLDCH@SD QDRTKSR, B@QQX SGDL SN @S KD@RS SVHBD @R L@MX CDBHL@K OK@BDR @R SGD EHM@K @MRVDQ. 'NQ DW@LOKD, SGD @UDQ@FD
NE SGD SGQDD PTHY RBNQDR ENTQ, RHW, @MC MHMD HR 6.3, QNTMCDC NEE SN SGD MD@QDRS SDMSG, ADB@TRD SGD C@S@ @QD VGNKD MTLADQR. .NRS
@MRVDQR VHKK AD QNTMCDC NEE HM SGHR L@MMDQ.
*S HR MNS MDBDRR@QX SN QDCTBD LNRS EQ@BSHNMR HM SGHR BNTQRD. &RODBH@KKX HM .LI<;<CFCNS 2IJC=M (BNNJ://=HR.ILA/
=IHN?HN/G46882/1.5/#G10026) , SGD BG@OSDQ NM OQNA@AHKHSX, HS HR LNQD GDKOETK SN KD@UD @M @MRVDQ @R @M TMQDCTBDC
EQ@BSHNM.
*?P?FM I@ +?;MOL?G?HN
5GD V@X @ RDS NE C@S@ HR LD@RTQDC HR B@KKDC HSR A:K:A D; B:6HJG:B:CI. $NQQDBS RS@SHRSHB@K OQNBDCTQDR CDODMC NM @ QDRD@QBGDQ
ADHMF E@LHKH@Q VHSG KDUDKR NE LD@RTQDLDMS. /NS DUDQX RS@SHRSHB@K NODQ@SHNM B@M AD TRDC VHSG DUDQX RDS NE C@S@. %@S@ B@M AD
BK@RRHEHDC HMSN ENTQ KDUDKR NE LD@RTQDLDMS. 5GDX @QD (EQNL KNVDRS SN GHFGDRS KDUDK):
c +DB>C6A H86A: A:K:A
c ,G9>C6A H86A: A:K:A
c &CI:GK6A H86A: A:K:A
c /6I>D H86A: A:K:A
%@S@ SG@S HR LD@RTQDC TRHMF @ CDB>C6A H86A: HR FJ6A>I6I>K:. $@SDFNQHDR, BNKNQR, M@LDR, K@ADKR @MC E@UNQHSD ENNCR @KNMF
VHSG XDR NQ MN QDRONMRDR @QD DW@LOKDR NE MNLHM@K KDUDK C@S@. /NLHM@K RB@KD C@S@ @QD MNS NQCDQDC. 'NQ DW@LOKD, SQXHMF
SN BK@RRHEX ODNOKD @BBNQCHMF SN SGDHQ E@UNQHSD ENNC CNDR MNS L@JD @MX RDMRD. 1TSSHMF OHYY@ EHQRS @MC RTRGH RDBNMC HR MNS
LD@MHMFETK.
4L@QSOGNMD BNLO@MHDR @QD @MNSGDQ DW@LOKD NE MNLHM@K RB@KD C@S@. 4NLD DW@LOKDR @QD 4NMX, .NSNQNK@, /NJH@,
4@LRTMF @MC "OOKD. 5GHR HR ITRS @ KHRS @MC SGDQD HR MN @FQDDC TONM NQCDQ. 4NLD ODNOKD L@X E@UNQ "OOKD ATS SG@S HR @ L@SSDQ
NE NOHMHNM. /NLHM@K RB@KD C@S@ B@MMNS AD TRDC HM B@KBTK@SHNMR.
%@S@ SG@S HR LD@RTQDC TRHMF @M DG9>C6A H86A: HR RHLHK@Q SN MNLHM@K RB@KD C@S@ ATS SGDQD HR @ AHF CHEEDQDMBD. 5GD NQCHM@K
RB@KD C@S@ B@M AD NQCDQDC. "M DW@LOKD NE NQCHM@K RB@KD C@S@ HR @ KHRS NE SGD SNO EHUD M@SHNM@K O@QJR HM SGD 6MHSDC 4S@SDR. 5GD
SNO EHUD M@SHNM@K O@QJR HM SGD 6MHSDC 4S@SDR B@M AD Q@MJDC EQNL NMD SN EHUD ATS VD B@MMNS LD@RTQD CHEEDQDMBDR ADSVDDM SGD
C@S@.
"MNSGDQ DW@LOKD NE TRHMF SGD NQCHM@K RB@KD HR @ BQTHRD RTQUDX VGDQD SGD QDRONMRDR SN PTDRSHNMR @ANTS SGD BQTHRD @QD
oDWBDKKDMS,p oFNNC,p oR@SHRE@BSNQX,p @MC oTMR@SHRE@BSNQX.p 5GDRD QDRONMRDR @QD NQCDQDC EQNL SGD LNRS CDRHQDC QDRONMRD SN SGD
KD@RS CDRHQDC. #TS SGD CHEEDQDMBDR ADSVDDM SVN OHDBDR NE C@S@ B@MMNS AD LD@RTQDC. -HJD SGD MNLHM@K RB@KD C@S@, NQCHM@K RB@KD
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%@S@ SG@S HR LD@RTQDC TRHMF SGD >CI:GK6A H86A: HR RHLHK@Q SN NQCHM@K KDUDK C@S@ ADB@TRD HS G@R @ CDEHMHSD NQCDQHMF ATS SGDQD
HR @ CHEEDQDMBD ADSVDDM C@S@. 5GD CHEEDQDMBDR ADSVDDM HMSDQU@K RB@KD C@S@ B@M AD LD@RTQDC SGNTFG SGD C@S@ CNDR MNS G@UD @
RS@QSHMF ONHMS.
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GNS @R 20` $ (MNQ HR 80` ' ENTQ SHLDR @R GNS @R 20` '). 5GDQD HR MN LD@MHMF SN SGD Q@SHN NE 80 SN 20 (NQ ENTQ SN NMD).
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%@S@ SG@S HR LD@RTQDC TRHMF SGD G6I>D H86A: S@JDR B@QD NE SGD Q@SHN OQNAKDL @MC FHUDR XNT SGD LNRS HMENQL@SHNM. 3@SHN
RB@KD C@S@ HR KHJD HMSDQU@K RB@KD C@S@, ATS HS G@R @ 0 ONHMS @MC Q@SHNR B@M AD B@KBTK@SDC. 'NQ DW@LOKD, ENTQ LTKSHOKD BGNHBD
RS@SHRSHBR EHM@K DW@L RBNQDR @QD 80, 68, 20 @MC 92 (NTS NE @ ONRRHAKD 100 ONHMSR). 5GD DW@LR @QD L@BGHMD-FQ@CDC.
5GD C@S@ B@M AD OTS HM NQCDQ EQNL KNVDRS SN GHFGDRS: 20, 68, 80, 92.
5GD CHEEDQDMBDR ADSVDDM SGD C@S@ G@UD LD@MHMF. 5GD RBNQD 92 HR LNQD SG@M SGD RBNQD 68 AX 24 ONHMSR. 3@SHNR B@M AD
B@KBTK@SDC. 5GD RL@KKDRS RBNQD HR 0. 4N 80 HR ENTQ SHLDR 20. 5GD RBNQD NE 80 HR ENTQ SHLDR ADSSDQ SG@M SGD RBNQD NE 20.
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4; 7; 5; 2; 3; 5; 6; 5; 4; 4; 3; 5; 2; 5; 3.
2;<F? 1.9 KHRSR SGD CHEEDQDMS C@S@ U@KTDR HM @RBDMCHMF NQCDQ @MC SGDHQ EQDPTDMBHDR.
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QDOQDRDMSR SGD SNS@K MTLADQ NE RSTCDMSR HMBKTCDC HM SGD R@LOKD.
" G:A6I>K: ;G:FJ:C8N HR SGD Q@SHN (EQ@BSHNM NQ OQNONQSHNM) NE SGD MTLADQ NE SHLDR @ U@KTD NE SGD C@S@ NBBTQR HM SGD RDS NE
@KK NTSBNLDR SN SGD SNS@K MTLADQ NE NTSBNLDR. 5N EHMC SGD QDK@SHUD EQDPTDMBHDR, CHUHCD D@BG EQDPTDMBX AX SGD SNS@K MTLADQ NE
RSTCDMSR HM SGD R@LOKDkHM SGHR B@RD, 20. 3DK@SHUD EQDPTDMBHDR B@M AD VQHSSDM @R EQ@BSHNMR, ODQBDMSR, NQ CDBHL@KR.
"A2A 4A*3# $0#/3#,!7 0#*A2'4# $0#/3#,!7
2 3
3
20
KN 0.15
3 5
5
20
KN 0.25
4 3
3
20
KN 0.15
5 6
6
20
KN 0.30
2;<F? 1.10 $L?KO?H=S 2;<F? I@ 1NO>?HN 5ILE &IOLM QCNB
0?F;NCP? $L?KO?H=C?M
"'/3$1 1 W 2,/+(-& -# #3 33
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"A2A 4A*3# $0#/3#,!7 0#*A2'4# $0#/3#,!7
6 2
2
20
KN 0.10
7 1
1
20
KN 0.05
2;<F? 1.10 $L?KO?H=S 2;<F? I@ 1NO>?HN 5ILE &IOLM QCNB
0?F;NCP? $L?KO?H=C?M
5GD RTL NE SGD U@KTDR HM SGD QDK@SHUD EQDPTDMBX BNKTLM NE 2;<F? 1.10 HR
20
20
, NQ 1.
JBJA6I>K: G:A6I>K: ;G:FJ:C8N HR SGD @BBTLTK@SHNM NE SGD OQDUHNTR QDK@SHUD EQDPTDMBHDR. 5N EHMC SGD BTLTK@SHUD
QDK@SHUD EQDPTDMBHDR, @CC @KK SGD OQDUHNTR QDK@SHUD EQDPTDMBHDR SN SGD QDK@SHUD EQDPTDMBX ENQ SGD BTQQDMS QNV, @R RGNVM HM
2;<F? 1.11.
"A2A 4A*3# $0#/3#,!7
0#*A2'4#
$0#/3#,!7
!3+3*A2'4# 0#*A2'4#
$0#/3#,!7
2 3
3
20
KN 0.15
0.15
3 5
5
20
KN 0.25
0.15 + 0.25 = 0.40
4 3
3
20
KN 0.15
0.40 + 0.15 = 0.55
5 6
6
20
KN 0.30
0.55 + 0.30 = 0.85
6 2
2
20
KN 0.10
0.85 + 0.10 = 0.95
7 1
1
20
KN 0.05
0.95 + 0.05 = 1.00
2;<F? 1.11 $L?KO?H=S 2;<F? I@ 1NO>?HN 5ILE &IOLM QCNB 0?F;NCP? ;H>
!OGOF;NCP? 0?F;NCP? $L?KO?H=C?M
5GD K@RS DMSQX NE SGD BTLTK@SHUD QDK@SHUD EQDPTDMBX BNKTLM HR NMD, HMCHB@SHMF SG@S NMD GTMCQDC ODQBDMS NE SGD C@S@ G@R
ADDM @BBTLTK@SDC.
,-2#
#DB@TRD NE QNTMCHMF, SGD QDK@SHUD EQDPTDMBX BNKTLM L@X MNS @KV@XR RTL SN NMD, @MC SGD K@RS DMSQX HM SGD BTLTK@SHUD
QDK@SHUD EQDPTDMBX BNKTLM L@X MNS AD NMD. )NVDUDQ, SGDX D@BG RGNTKC AD BKNRD SN NMD.
2;<F? 1.12 QDOQDRDMSR SGD GDHFGSR, HM HMBGDR, NE @ R@LOKD NE 100 L@KD RDLHOQNEDRRHNM@K RNBBDQ OK@XDQR.
34 "'/3$1 1 W 2,/+(-& -# #3
3DEO ?KJPAJP EO =R=EH=>HA BKN BNAA =P DPPL://?JT.KNC/?KJPAJP/?KH11562/1.11
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&#'%&21
(',!&#1)
$0#/3#,!7
0#*A2'4#
$0#/3#,!7
!3+3*A2'4#
0#*A2'4#
$0#/3#,!7
59.95_61.95 5
5
100
= 0.05
0.05
61.95_63.95 3
3
100
= 0.03
0.05 + 0.03 = 0.08
63.95_65.95 15
15
100
= 0.15
0.08 + 0.15 = 0.23
65.95_67.95 40
40
100
= 0.40
0.23 + 0.40 = 0.63
67.95_69.95 17
17
100
= 0.17
0.63 + 0.17 = 0.80
69.95_71.95 12
12
100
= 0.12
0.80 + 0.12 = 0.92
71.95_73.95 7
7
100
= 0.07
0.92 + 0.07 = 0.99
73.95_75.95 1
1
100
= 0.01
0.99 + 0.01 = 1.00
2IN;F = 100 2IN;F = 1.00
2;<F? 1.12 $L?KO?H=S 2;<F? I@ 1I==?L .F;S?L &?CABN
5GD C@S@ HM SGHR S@AKD G@UD ADDM <GDJE:9 HMSN SGD ENKKNVHMF HMSDQU@KR:
c 59.95 SN 61.95 HMBGDR
c 61.95 SN 63.95 HMBGDR
c 63.95 SN 65.95 HMBGDR
c 65.95 SN 67.95 HMBGDR
c 67.95 SN 69.95 HMBGDR
c 69.95 SN 71.95 HMBGDR
c 71.95 SN 73.95 HMBGDR
c 73.95 SN 75.95 HMBGDR
,-2#
5GHR DW@LOKD HR TRDC @F@HM HM SGD "?M=LCJNCP? 1N;NCMNC=M (BNNJ://=HR.ILA/=IHN?HN/=IF10002/F;N?MN/#G46925)
BG@OSDQ, VGDQD SGD LDSGNC TRDC SN BNLOTSD SGD HMSDQU@KR VHKK AD DWOK@HMDC.
"'/3$1 1 W 2,/+(-& -# #3 35
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*M SGHR R@LOKD, SGDQD @QD ;>K: OK@XDQR VGNRD GDHFGSR E@KK VHSGHM SGD HMSDQU@K 59.95k61.95 HMBGDR, I=G:: OK@XDQR VGNRD
GDHFGSR E@KK VHSGHM SGD HMSDQU@K 61.95k63.95 HMBGDR, 15 OK@XDQR VGNRD GDHFGSR E@KK VHSGHM SGD HMSDQU@K 63.95k65.95 HMBGDR,
40 OK@XDQR VGNRD GDHFGSR E@KK VHSGHM SGD HMSDQU@K 65.95k67.95 HMBGDR, 17 OK@XDQR VGNRD GDHFGSR E@KK VHSGHM SGD HMSDQU@K
67.95k69.95 HMBGDR, 12 OK@XDQR VGNRD GDHFGSR E@KK VHSGHM SGD HMSDQU@K 69.95k71.95, H:K:C OK@XDQR VGNRD GDHFGS E@KKR VHSGHM
SGD HMSDQU@K 71.95k73.95, @MC DC: OK@XDQ VGNRD GDHFGSR E@KK VHSGHM SGD HMSDQU@K 73.95k75.95. "KK GDHFGSR E@KK ADSVDDM SGD
DMCONHMSR NE @M HMSDQU@K @MC MNS @S SGD DMCONHMSR.
$T=ILHA 1.14
'QNL 2;<F? 1.12, EHMC SGD ODQBDMS@FD NE GDHFGSR SG@S @QD KDRR SG@M 65.95 HMBGDR.
1IFONCIH 1.14
(B UKQ HKKG =P PDA BENOP, OA?KJ@, =J@ PDEN@ NKSO, PDA DAECDPO =NA =HH HAOO PD=J 65.95 EJ?DAO. 3DANA =NA 5
+ 3 + 15 = 23 LH=UANO SDKOA DAECDPO =NA HAOO PD=J 65.95 EJ?DAO. 3DA LAN?AJP=CA KB DAECDPO HAOO PD=J
65.95 EJ?DAO EO PDAJ
23
100
KN 23%. 3DEO LAN?AJP=CA EO PDA ?QIQH=PERA NAH=PERA BNAMQAJ?U AJPNU EJ PDA
PDEN@ NKS.
36 "'/3$1 1 W 2,/+(-& -# #3
3DEO ?KJPAJP EO =R=EH=>HA BKN BNAA =P DPPL://?JT.KNC/?KJPAJP/?KH11562/1.11
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1.14 2;<F? 1.13 RGNVR SGD @LNTMS, HM HMBGDR, NE @MMT@K Q@HME@KK HM @ R@LOKD NE SNVMR.
0;CH@;FF ('H=B?M) $L?KO?H=S 0?F;NCP? $L?KO?H=S !OGOF;NCP? 0?F;NCP? $L?KO?H=S
2.95_4.97 6
6
50
= 0.12
0.12
4.97_6.99 7
7
50
= 0.14
0.12 + 0.14 = 0.26
6.99_9.01 15
15
50
= 0.30
0.26 + 0.30 = 0.56
9.01_11.03 8
8
50
= 0.16
0.56 + 0.16 = 0.72
11.03_13.05 9
9
50
= 0.18
0.72 + 0.18 = 0.90
13.05_15.07 5
5
50
= 0.10
0.90 + 0.10 = 1.00
3KP=H = 50 3KP=H = 1.00
2;<F? 1.13
'QNL 2;<F? 1.13, EHMC SGD ODQBDMS@FD NE Q@HME@KK SG@S HR KDRR SG@M 9.01 HMBGDR.
$T=ILHA 1.15
'QNL 2;<F? 1.12, EHMC SGD ODQBDMS@FD NE GDHFGSR SG@S E@KK ADSVDDM 61.95 @MC 65.95 HMBGDR.
1IFONCIH 1.15
@@ PDA NAH=PERA BNAMQAJ?EAO EJ PDA OA?KJ@ =J@ PDEN@ NKSO: 0.03 + 0.15 = 0.18 KN 18%.
1.15 'QNL 2;<F? 1.13, EHMC SGD ODQBDMS@FD NE Q@HME@KK SG@S HR ADSVDDM 6.99 @MC 13.05 HMBGDR.
$T=ILHA 1.16
6RD SGD GDHFGSR NE SGD 100 L@KD RDLHOQNEDRRHNM@K RNBBDQ OK@XDQR HM 2;<F? 1.12. 'HKK HM SGD AK@MJR @MC BGDBJ XNTQ
@MRVDQR.
=. 5GD ODQBDMS@FD NE GDHFGSR SG@S @QD EQNL 67.95 SN 71.95 HMBGDR HR: ????.
"'/3$1 1 W 2,/+(-& -# #3 37
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>. 5GD ODQBDMS@FD NE GDHFGSR SG@S @QD EQNL 67.95 SN 73.95 HMBGDR HR: ????.
?. 5GD ODQBDMS@FD NE GDHFGSR SG@S @QD LNQD SG@M 65.95 HMBGDR HR: ????.
@. 5GD MTLADQ NE OK@XDQR HM SGD R@LOKD VGN @QD ADSVDDM 61.95 @MC 71.95 HMBGDR S@KK HR: ????.
A. 8G@S JHMC NE C@S@ @QD SGD GDHFGSR
B. %DRBQHAD GNV XNT BNTKC F@SGDQ SGHR C@S@ (SGD GDHFGSR) RN SG@S SGD C@S@ @QD BG@Q@BSDQHRSHB NE @KK L@KD
RDLHOQNEDRRHNM@K RNBBDQ OK@XDQR.
3DLDLADQ, XNT 8DJCI ;G:FJ:C8>:H. 5N EHMC SGD QDK@SHUD EQDPTDMBX, CHUHCD SGD EQDPTDMBX AX SGD SNS@K MTLADQ
NE C@S@ U@KTDR. 5N EHMC SGD BTLTK@SHUD QDK@SHUD EQDPTDMBX, @CC @KK NE SGD OQDUHNTR QDK@SHUD EQDPTDMBHDR SN SGD QDK@SHUD
EQDPTDMBX ENQ SGD BTQQDMS QNV.
1IFONCIH 1.16
=. 29%
>. 36%
?. 77%
@. 87
A. PT@MSHS@SHUD BNMSHMTNTR
B. FDS QNRSDQR EQNL D@BG SD@L @MC BGNNRD @ RHLOKD Q@MCNL R@LOKD EQNL D@BG
1.16 'QNL 2;<F? 1.13, EHMC SGD MTLADQ NE SNVMR SG@S G@UD Q@HME@KK ADSVDDM 2.95 @MC 9.01 HMBGDR.
*M XNTQ BK@RR, G@UD RNLDNMD BNMCTBS @ RTQUDX NE SGD MTLADQ NE RHAKHMFR (AQNSGDQR @MC RHRSDQR) D@BG RSTCDMS G@R. $QD@SD
@ EQDPTDMBX S@AKD. "CC SN HS @ QDK@SHUD EQDPTDMBX BNKTLM @MC @ BTLTK@SHUD QDK@SHUD EQDPTDMBX BNKTLM. "MRVDQ SGD
ENKKNVHMF PTDRSHNMR:
1. 8G@S ODQBDMS@FD NE SGD RSTCDMSR HM XNTQ BK@RR G@R MN RHAKHMFR
2. 8G@S ODQBDMS@FD NE SGD RSTCDMSR G@R EQNL NMD SN SGQDD RHAKHMFR
3. 8G@S ODQBDMS@FD NE SGD RSTCDMSR G@R EDVDQ SG@M SGQDD RHAKHMFR
$T=ILHA 1.17
/HMDSDDM ODNOKD VDQD @RJDC GNV L@MX LHKDR, SN SGD MD@QDRS LHKD, SGDX BNLLTSD SN VNQJ D@BG C@X. 5GD C@S@ @QD
@R ENKKNVR: 2; 5; 7; 3; 2; 10; 18; 15; 20; 7; 10; 18; 5; 12; 13; 12; 4; 5; 10. 2;<F? 1.14 V@R OQNCTBDC:
"A2A $0#/3#,!7
0#*A2'4#
$0#/3#,!7
!3+3*A2'4#
0#*A2'4#
$0#/3#,!7
3 3
3
19
0.1579
4 1
1
19
0.2105
2;<F? 1.14 $L?KO?H=S I@ !IGGONCHA "CMN;H=?M
38 "'/3$1 1 W 2,/+(-& -# #3
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"A2A $0#/3#,!7
0#*A2'4#
$0#/3#,!7
!3+3*A2'4#
0#*A2'4#
$0#/3#,!7
5 3
3
19
0.1579
7 2
2
19
0.2632
10 3
4
19
0.4737
12 2
2
19
0.7895
13 1
1
19
0.8421
15 1
1
19
0.8948
18 1
1
19
0.9474
20 1
1
19
1.0000
2;<F? 1.14 $L?KO?H=S I@ !IGGONCHA "CMN;H=?M
=. *R SGD S@AKD BNQQDBS *E HS HR MNS BNQQDBS, VG@S HR VQNMF
>. 5QTD NQ '@KRD: 5GQDD ODQBDMS NE SGD ODNOKD RTQUDXDC BNLLTSD SGQDD LHKDR. *E SGD RS@SDLDMS HR MNS BNQQDBS,
VG@S RGNTKC HS AD *E SGD S@AKD HR HMBNQQDBS, L@JD SGD BNQQDBSHNMR.
?. 8G@S EQ@BSHNM NE SGD ODNOKD RTQUDXDC BNLLTSD EHUD NQ RDUDM LHKDR
@. 8G@S EQ@BSHNM NE SGD ODNOKD RTQUDXDC BNLLTSD 12 LHKDR NQ LNQD -DRR SG@M 12 LHKDR #DSVDDM EHUD @MC 13
LHKDR (MNS HMBKTCHMF EHUD @MC 13 LHKDR)
1IFONCIH 1.17
=. /N. 5GD EQDPTDMBX BNKTLM RTLR SN 18, MNS 19. /NS @KK BTLTK@SHUD QDK@SHUD EQDPTDMBHDR @QD BNQQDBS.
>. '@KRD. 5GD EQDPTDMBX ENQ SGQDD LHKDR RGNTKC AD NMD; ENQ SVN LHKDR (KDES NTS), SVN. 5GD BTLTK@SHUD QDK@SHUD
EQDPTDMBX BNKTLM RGNTKC QD@C: 0.1052, 0.1579, 0.2105, 0.3684, 0.4737, 0.6316, 0.7368, 0.7895, 0.8421,
0.9474, 1.0000.
?.
5
19
@.
7
19
,
12
19
,
7
19
"'/3$1 1 W 2,/+(-& -# #3 39
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1.17 2;<F? 1.13 QDOQDRDMSR SGD @LNTMS, HM HMBGDR, NE @MMT@K Q@HME@KK HM @ R@LOKD NE SNVMR. 8G@S EQ@BSHNM NE SNVMR
RTQUDXDC FDS ADSVDDM 11.03 @MC 13.05 HMBGDR NE Q@HME@KK D@BG XD@Q
$T=ILHA 1.18
2;<F? 1.15 BNMS@HMR SGD SNS@K MTLADQ NE CD@SGR VNQKCVHCD @R @ QDRTKS NE D@QSGPT@JDR ENQ SGD ODQHNC EQNL 2000 SN
2012.
7?;L 2IN;F ,OG<?L I@ "?;NBM
2000 231
2001 21,357
2002 11,685
2003 33,819
2004 228,802
2005 88,003
2006 6,605
2007 712
2008 88,011
2009 1,790
2010 320,120
2011 21,953
2012 768
3KP=H 823,356
2;<F? 1.15
"MRVDQ SGD ENKKNVHMF PTDRSHNMR.
=. 8G@S HR SGD EQDPTDMBX NE CD@SGR LD@RTQDC EQNL 2006 SGQNTFG 2009
>. 8G@S ODQBDMS@FD NE CD@SGR NBBTQQDC @ESDQ 2009
?. 8G@S HR SGD QDK@SHUD EQDPTDMBX NE CD@SGR SG@S NBBTQQDC HM 2003 NQ D@QKHDQ
40 "'/3$1 1 W 2,/+(-& -# #3
3DEO ?KJPAJP EO =R=EH=>HA BKN BNAA =P DPPL://?JT.KNC/?KJPAJP/?KH11562/1.11
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@. 8G@S HR SGD ODQBDMS@FD NE CD@SGR SG@S NBBTQQDC HM 2004
A. 8G@S JHMC NE C@S@ @QD SGD MTLADQR NE CD@SGR
B. 5GD 3HBGSDQ RB@KD HR TRDC SN PT@MSHEX SGD DMDQFX OQNCTBDC AX @M D@QSGPT@JD. &W@LOKDR NE 3HBGSDQ RB@KD
MTLADQR @QD 2.3, 4.0, 6.1, @MC 7.0. 8G@S JHMC NE C@S@ @QD SGDRD MTLADQR
1IFONCIH 1.18
=. 97,118 (11.8%)
>. 41.6%
?. 67,092/823,356 NQ 0.081 NQ 8.1 %
@. 27.8%
A. 2T@MSHS@SHUD CHRBQDSD
B. 2T@MSHS@SHUD BNMSHMTNTR
1.18 2;<F? 1.16 BNMS@HMR SGD SNS@K MTLADQ NE E@S@K LNSNQ UDGHBKD SQ@EEHB BQ@RGDR HM SGD 6MHSDC 4S@SDR ENQ SGD ODQHNC
EQNL 1994 SN 2011.
7?;L 2IN;F ,OG<?L I@ !L;MB?M 7?;L 2IN;F ,OG<?L I@ !L;MB?M
1994 36,254 2004 38,444
1995 37,241 2005 39,252
1996 37,494 2006 38,648
1997 37,324 2007 37,435
1998 37,107 2008 34,172
1999 37,140 2009 30,862
2000 37,526 2010 30,296
2001 37,862 2011 29,757
2002 38,491 3KP=H 653,782
2003 38,477
2;<F? 1.16
"MRVDQ SGD ENKKNVHMF PTDRSHNMR.
=. 8G@S HR SGD EQDPTDMBX NE CD@SGR LD@RTQDC EQNL 2000 SGQNTFG 2004
>. 8G@S ODQBDMS@FD NE CD@SGR NBBTQQDC @ESDQ 2006
?. 8G@S HR SGD QDK@SHUD EQDPTDMBX NE CD@SGR SG@S NBBTQQDC HM 2000 NQ ADENQD
@. 8G@S HR SGD ODQBDMS@FD NE CD@SGR SG@S NBBTQQDC HM 2011
A. 8G@S HR SGD BTLTK@SHUD QDK@SHUD EQDPTDMBX ENQ 2006 &WOK@HM VG@S SGHR MTLADQ SDKKR XNT @ANTS SGD C@S@.
"'/3$1 1 W 2,/+(-& -# #3 41
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1.4 U #RJ?LCG?HN;F "?MCAH ;H> #NBC=M
%NDR @ROHQHM QDCTBD SGD QHRJ NE GD@QS @SS@BJR *R NMD AQ@MC NE EDQSHKHYDQ LNQD DEEDBSHUD @S FQNVHMF QNRDR SG@M @MNSGDQ
*R E@SHFTD @R C@MFDQNTR SN @ CQHUDQ @R SGD HMEKTDMBD NE @KBNGNK 2TDRSHNMR KHJD SGDRD @QD @MRVDQDC TRHMF Q@MCNLHYDC
DWODQHLDMSR. *M SGHR LNCTKD, XNT VHKK KD@QM HLONQS@MS @RODBSR NE DWODQHLDMS@K CDRHFM. 1QNODQ RSTCX CDRHFM DMRTQDR SGD
OQNCTBSHNM NE QDKH@AKD, @BBTQ@SD C@S@.
5GD OTQONRD NE @M DWODQHLDMS HR SN HMUDRSHF@SD SGD QDK@SHNMRGHO ADSVDDM SVN U@QH@AKDR. 8GDM NMD U@QH@AKD B@TRDR
BG@MFD HM @MNSGDQ, VD B@KK SGD EHQRS U@QH@AKD SGD :MEA6C6IDGN K6G>67A:. 5GD @EEDBSDC U@QH@AKD HR B@KKDC SGD G:HEDCH: K6G>67A:.
*M @ Q@MCNLHYDC DWODQHLDMS, SGD QDRD@QBGDQ L@MHOTK@SDR U@KTDR NE SGD DWOK@M@SNQX U@QH@AKD @MC LD@RTQDR SGD QDRTKSHMF
BG@MFDR HM SGD QDRONMRD U@QH@AKD. 5GD CHEEDQDMS U@KTDR NE SGD DWOK@M@SNQX U@QH@AKD @QD B@KKDC IG:6IB:CIH. "M :ME:G>B:CI6A
JC>I HR @ RHMFKD NAIDBS NQ HMCHUHCT@K SN AD LD@RTQDC.
:NT V@MS SN HMUDRSHF@SD SGD DEEDBSHUDMDRR NE UHS@LHM & HM OQDUDMSHMF CHRD@RD. :NT QDBQTHS @ FQNTO NE RTAIDBSR @MC @RJ
SGDL HE SGDX QDFTK@QKX S@JD UHS@LHM &. :NT MNSHBD SG@S SGD RTAIDBSR VGN S@JD UHS@LHM & DWGHAHS ADSSDQ GD@KSG NM @UDQ@FD SG@M
SGNRD VGN CN MNS. %NDR SGHR OQNUD SG@S UHS@LHM & HR DEEDBSHUD HM CHRD@RD OQDUDMSHNM *S CNDR MNS. 5GDQD @QD L@MX CHEEDQDMBDR
ADSVDDM SGD SVN FQNTOR BNLO@QDC HM @CCHSHNM SN UHS@LHM & BNMRTLOSHNM. 1DNOKD VGN S@JD UHS@LHM & QDFTK@QKX NESDM S@JD
NSGDQ RSDOR SN HLOQNUD SGDHQ GD@KSG: DWDQBHRD, CHDS, NSGDQ UHS@LHM RTOOKDLDMSR, BGNNRHMF MNS SN RLNJD. "MX NMD NE SGDRD
E@BSNQR BNTKC AD HMEKTDMBHMF GD@KSG. "R CDRBQHADC, SGHR RSTCX CNDR MNS OQNUD SG@S UHS@LHM & HR SGD JDX SN CHRD@RD OQDUDMSHNM.
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>. /N NMD RDDLR SN AD GNLD @S ENTQ GNTRDR NM GDQ QNTSD. 4GD CNDR MNS QDBNQC SGD @CCQDRRDR @MC CNDR MNS QDSTQM
@S @ K@SDQ SHLD SN SQX SN EHMC QDRHCDMSR @S GNLD.
?. 4GD RJHOR ENTQ GNTRDR NM GDQ QNTSD ADB@TRD RGD HR QTMMHMF K@SD ENQ @M @OONHMSLDMS. 8GDM RGD FDSR GNLD, RGD
EHKKR HM SGD ENQLR AX RDKDBSHMF Q@MCNL @MRVDQR EQNL NSGDQ QDRHCDMSR HM SGD MDHFGANQGNNC.
1IFONCIH 1.22
=. #X RDKDBSHMF @ BNMUDMHDMS R@LOKD, SGD QDRD@QBGDQ HR HMSDMSHNM@KKX RDKDBSHMF @ R@LOKD SG@S BNTKC AD AH@RDC.
$K@HLHMF SG@S SGHR R@LOKD QDOQDRDMSR SGD BNLLTMHSX HR LHRKD@CHMF. 5GD QDRD@QBGDQ MDDCR SN RDKDBS @QD@R HM
SGD BNLLTMHSX @S Q@MCNL.
>. *MSDMSHNM@KKX NLHSSHMF QDKDU@MS C@S@ VHKK BQD@SD AH@R HM SGD R@LOKD. 4TOONRD SGD QDRD@QBGDQ HR F@SGDQHMF
HMENQL@SHNM @ANTS INAR @MC BGHKC B@QD. #X HFMNQHMF ODNOKD VGN @QD MNS GNLD, RGD L@X AD LHRRHMF C@S@ EQNL
VNQJHMF E@LHKHDR SG@S @QD QDKDU@MS SN GDQ RSTCX. 4GD MDDCR SN L@JD DUDQX DEENQS SN HMSDQUHDV @KK LDLADQR NE
SGD S@QFDS R@LOKD.
?. *S HR MDUDQ @BBDOS@AKD SN E@JD C@S@. &UDM SGNTFG SGD QDRONMRDR RGD TRDR @QD oQD@Kp QDRONMRDR OQNUHCDC AX
NSGDQ O@QSHBHO@MSR, SGD CTOKHB@SHNM HR EQ@TCTKDMS @MC B@M BQD@SD AH@R HM SGD C@S@. 4GD MDDCR SN VNQJ CHKHFDMSKX
SN HMSDQUHDV DUDQXNMD NM GDQ QNTSD.
1.22 %DRBQHAD SGD TMDSGHB@K ADG@UHNQ, HE @MX, HM D@BG DW@LOKD @MC CDRBQHAD GNV HS BNTKC HLO@BS SGD QDKH@AHKHSX NE SGD
QDRTKSHMF C@S@. &WOK@HM GNV SGD OQNAKDL RGNTKC AD BNQQDBSDC.
" RSTCX HR BNLLHRRHNMDC SN CDSDQLHMD SGD E@UNQHSD AQ@MC NE EQTHS ITHBD @LNMF SDDMR HM $@KHENQMH@.
=. 5GD RTQUDX HR BNLLHRRHNMDC AX SGD RDKKDQ NE @ ONOTK@Q AQ@MC NE @OOKD ITHBD.
>. 5GDQD @QD NMKX SVN SXODR NE ITHBD HMBKTCDC HM SGD RSTCX: @OOKD ITHBD @MC BQ@MADQQX ITHBD.
?. 3DRD@QBGDQR @KKNV O@QSHBHO@MSR SN RDD SGD AQ@MC NE ITHBD @R R@LOKDR @QD ONTQDC ENQ @ S@RSD SDRS.
@. 5VDMSX-EHUD ODQBDMS NE O@QSHBHO@MSR OQDEDQ #Q@MC 9, 33% OQDEDQ #Q@MC : @MC 42% G@UD MN OQDEDQDMBD ADSVDDM
SGD SVN AQ@MCR. #Q@MC 9 QDEDQDMBDR SGD RSTCX HM @ BNLLDQBH@K R@XHMF o.NRS SDDMR KHJD #Q@MC 9 @R LTBG @R NQ
LNQD SG@M #Q@MC :.p
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1.1 ";N; !IFF?=NCIH
$K@RR 5HLD:
/@LDR:
1NO>?HN *?;LHCHA -ON=IG?M
c 5GD RSTCDMS VHKK CDLNMRSQ@SD SGD RXRSDL@SHB R@LOKHMF SDBGMHPTD.
c 5GD RSTCDMS VHKK BNMRSQTBS QDK@SHUD EQDPTDMBX S@AKDR.
c 5GD RSTCDMS VHKK HMSDQOQDS QDRTKSR @MC SGDHQ CHEEDQDMBDR EQNL CHEEDQDMS C@S@ FQNTOHMFR.
+IPC? 1OLP?S
"RJ EHUD BK@RRL@SDR EQNL @ CHEEDQDMS BK@RR GNV L@MX LNUHDR SGDX R@V @S SGD SGD@SDQ K@RS LNMSG. %N MNS HMBKTCD
QDMSDC LNUHDR.
1. 3DBNQC SGD C@S@.
2. *M BK@RR, Q@MCNLKX OHBJ NMD ODQRNM. 0M SGD BK@RR KHRS, L@QJ SG@S ODQRNMnR M@LD. .NUD CNVM ENTQ M@LDR NM SGD
BK@RR KHRS. .@QJ SG@S ODQRNMnR M@LD. $NMSHMTD CNHMF SGHR TMSHK XNT G@UD L@QJDC 12 M@LDR. :NT L@X MDDC SN FN
A@BJ SN SGD RS@QS NE SGD KHRS. 'NQ D@BG L@QJDC M@LD QDBNQC SGD EHUD C@S@ U@KTDR. :NT MNV G@UD @ SNS@K NE 60 C@S@
U@KTDR.
3. 'NQ D@BG M@LD L@QJDC, QDBNQC SGD C@S@.
<<<<<< <<<<<< <<<<<< <<<<<< <<<<<< <<<<<< <<<<<< <<<<<<
<<<<<< <<<<<< <<<<<< <<<<<< <<<<<< <<<<<< <<<<<< <<<<<<
<<<<<< <<<<<< <<<<<< <<<<<< <<<<<< <<<<<< <<<<<< <<<<<<
<<<<<< <<<<<< <<<<<< <<<<<< <<<<<< <<<<<< <<<<<< <<<<<<
<<<<<< <<<<<< <<<<<< <<<<<< <<<<<< <<<<<< <<<<<< <<<<<<
<<<<<< <<<<<< <<<<<< <<<<<< <<<<<< <<<<<< <<<<<< <<<<<<
<<<<<< <<<<<< <<<<<< <<<<<< <<<<<< <<<<<< <<<<<< <<<<<<
2;<F? 1.17
-L>?L NB? ";N;
$NLOKDSD SGD SVN QDK@SHUD EQDPTDMBX S@AKDR ADKNV TRHMF XNTQ BK@RR C@S@.
,OG<?L I@ +IPC?M $L?KO?H=S 0?F;NCP? $L?KO?H=S !OGOF;NCP? 0?F;NCP? $L?KO?H=S
0
1
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2
3
4
5
6
7+
2;<F? 1.18 $L?KO?H=S I@ ,OG<?L I@ +IPC?M 4C?Q?>
,OG<?L I@ +IPC?M $L?KO?H=S 0?F;NCP? $L?KO?H=S !OGOF;NCP? 0?F;NCP? $L?KO?H=S
0_1
2_3
4_5
6_7+
2;<F? 1.19 $L?KO?H=S I@ ,OG<?L I@ +IPC?M 4C?Q?>
1. 6RHMF SGD S@AKDR, EHMC SGD ODQBDMS NE C@S@ SG@S HR @S LNRS SVN. 8GHBG S@AKD CHC XNT TRD @MC VGX
2. 6RHMF SGD S@AKDR, EHMC SGD ODQBDMS NE C@S@ SG@S HR @S LNRS SGQDD. 8GHBG S@AKD CHC XNT TRD @MC VGX
3. 6RHMF SGD S@AKDR, EHMC SGD ODQBDMS NE C@S@ SG@S HR LNQD SG@M SVN. 8GHBG S@AKD CHC XNT TRD @MC VGX
4. 6RHMF SGD S@AKDR, EHMC SGD ODQBDMS NE C@S@ SG@S HR LNQD SG@M SGQDD. 8GHBG S@AKD CHC XNT TRD @MC VGX
"CM=OMMCIH /O?MNCIHM
1. *R NMD NE SGD S@AKDR oLNQD BNQQDBSp SG@M SGD NSGDQ 8GX NQ VGX MNS
2. *M FDMDQ@K, GNV BNTKC XNT FQNTO SGD C@S@ CHEEDQDMSKX "QD SGDQD @MX @CU@MS@FDR SN DHSGDQ V@X NE FQNTOHMF SGD
C@S@
3. 8GX CHC XNT RVHSBG ADSVDDM S@AKDR, HE XNT CHC, VGDM @MRVDQHMF SGD PTDRSHNM @ANUD
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1.2 1;GJFCHA #RJ?LCG?HN
$K@RR 5HLD:
/@LDR:
1NO>?HN *?;LHCHA -ON=IG?M
c 5GD RSTCDMS VHKK CDLNMRSQ@SD SGD RHLOKD Q@MCNL, RXRSDL@SHB, RSQ@SHEHDC, @MC BKTRSDQ R@LOKHMF SDBGMHPTDR.
c 5GD RSTCDMS VHKK DWOK@HM SGD CDS@HKR NE D@BG OQNBDCTQD TRDC.
*M SGHR K@A, XNT VHKK AD @RJDC SN OHBJ RDUDQ@K Q@MCNLR@LOKDR NE QDRS@TQ@MSR. *M D@BG B@RD, CDRBQHAD XNTQ OQNBDCTQD
AQHDEKX, HMBKTCHMF GNV XNT LHFGS G@UD TRDC SGD Q@MCNL MTLADQ FDMDQ@SNQ, @MC SGDM KHRS SGD QDRS@TQ@MSR HM SGD R@LOKD
XNT NAS@HMDC.
,-2#
5GD ENKKNVHMF RDBSHNM BNMS@HMR QDRS@TQ@MSR RSQ@SHEHDC AX BHSX HMSN BNKTLMR @MC FQNTODC GNQHYNMS@KKX AX DMSQDD BNRS
(BKTRSDQR).
0?MN;OL;HNM 1NL;NC@C?> <S !CNS ;H> #HNL?? !IMN
#HNL??
!IMN
3H>?L $10 $10 NI OH>?L $15
$15 NI OH>?L
$20
-P?L $20
2=J )KOA
$H >QAHK 3=M,
/=OP= ,E=, $II=`O
$TLNAOO, !=I>KK
'QP
$ILANKN`O &Q=N@,
"NAAGOE@A (JJ
CAJ@=,
&ANR=EO,
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!H=GA`O,
$QHELE=,
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,=JOEKJ,
&ANI=JE=
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2AJKN 3=?K, .HERA
&=N@AJ, 3=TE`O
,EJC`O, /.. )KA`O,
2PE?GJAU`O
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2A=BKK@,
/KKHOE@A &NEHH,
%EOD ,=NGAP
2QJ@=J?A
,EJA,
,=@@=HAJ=`O,
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+KO &=PKO
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$RANAOP, 2SAAP
/A=`O, J@AHA
3=MQANE=
+EJ@OAU`O, 6EHHKS
2PNAAP
3KHH 'KQOA
"D=NPAN
'KQOA, +=
,=EOKJ #Q
"=BA
,KQJP=EJ
5EAS
,=D=N=F=, -AS
,=`O, 3D=E-1EBE?,
&=N@AJ %NAOD
I>AN (J@E=J, +=
%EAOP=, %EAOP= @AH ,=N,
#=SEP
QOPEJ`O,
2DER=`O,
,=VAD
+A /APEP !EOPNK
"QLANPEJK
'K>AAO, 'QJC %Q,
2=IN=P, /=J@=
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!KI>=U .RAJ,
*=PDI=J@Q 6AOP
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'AHEKO
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#HNL??
!IMN
3H>?L $10 $10 NI OH>?L $15
$15 NI OH>?L
$20
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2QJJUR=HA
"DAGEF=>=>E, 3=F
(J@E=, %QHH 3DNKPPHA,
3E= )Q=J=, +AIKJ
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"=IANKKJ, %=V,
NQ>=`O
+EKJ &
"KIL=OO,
3DA /=H=?A,
!A=Q 2AFKQN
2=JP=
"H=N=
1=JCKHE, NI=@EHHK
6EHHU`O, 3D=E /ALLAN,
/=O=J@
NPDQN`O, *=PEA`O "=BA,
/A@NK`O, += &=HHANE=
!ENG`O, 3NQU=
2QODE, 5=HHAU
/H=V=
+=GAOE@A,
,=NE=JE`O
2;<F? 1.20 0?MN;OL;HNM 3M?> CH 1;GJF?
A 1CGJF? 0;H>IG 1;GJF?
1HBJ @ H>BEA: G6C9DB H6BEA: NE 15 QDRS@TQ@MSR.
1. %DRBQHAD XNTQ OQNBDCTQD.
2. $NLOKDSD SGD S@AKD VHSG XNTQ R@LOKD.
1. <<<<<<<<<< 6. <<<<<<<<<< 11. <<<<<<<<<<
2. <<<<<<<<<< 7. <<<<<<<<<< 12. <<<<<<<<<<
3. <<<<<<<<<< 8. <<<<<<<<<< 13. <<<<<<<<<<
4. <<<<<<<<<< 9. <<<<<<<<<< 14. <<<<<<<<<<
5. <<<<<<<<<< 10. <<<<<<<<<< 15. <<<<<<<<<<
2;<F? 1.21
A 1SMN?G;NC= 1;GJF?
1HBJ @ HNHI:B6I>8 H6BEA: NE 15 QDRS@TQ@MSR.
1. %DRBQHAD XNTQ OQNBDCTQD.
2. $NLOKDSD SGD S@AKD VHSG XNTQ R@LOKD.
1. <<<<<<<<<< 6. <<<<<<<<<< 11. <<<<<<<<<<
2. <<<<<<<<<< 7. <<<<<<<<<< 12. <<<<<<<<<<
3. <<<<<<<<<< 8. <<<<<<<<<< 13. <<<<<<<<<<
2;<F? 1.22
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5. <<<<<<<<<< 10. <<<<<<<<<< 15. <<<<<<<<<<
2;<F? 1.22
A 1NL;NC@C?> 1;GJF?
1HBJ @ HIG6I>;>:9 H6BEA:, AX BHSX, NE 20 QDRS@TQ@MSR. 6RD 25% NE SGD QDRS@TQ@MSR EQNL D@BG RSQ@STL. 3NTMC SN SGD
MD@QDRS VGNKD MTLADQ.
1. %DRBQHAD XNTQ OQNBDCTQD.
2. $NLOKDSD SGD S@AKD VHSG XNTQ R@LOKD.
1. <<<<<<<<<< 6. <<<<<<<<<< 11. <<<<<<<<<< 16. <<<<<<<<<<
2. <<<<<<<<<< 7. <<<<<<<<<< 12. <<<<<<<<<< 17. <<<<<<<<<<
3. <<<<<<<<<< 8. <<<<<<<<<< 13. <<<<<<<<<< 18. <<<<<<<<<<
4. <<<<<<<<<< 9. <<<<<<<<<< 14. <<<<<<<<<< 19. <<<<<<<<<<
5. <<<<<<<<<< 10. <<<<<<<<<< 15. <<<<<<<<<< 20. <<<<<<<<<<
2;<F? 1.23
A 1NL;NC@C?> 1;GJF?
1HBJ @ HIG6I>;>:9 H6BEA:, AX DMSQDD BNRS, NE 21 QDRS@TQ@MSR. 6RD 25% NE SGD QDRS@TQ@MSR EQNL D@BG RSQ@STL. 3NTMC
SN SGD MD@QDRS VGNKD MTLADQ.
1. %DRBQHAD XNTQ OQNBDCTQD.
2. $NLOKDSD SGD S@AKD VHSG XNTQ R@LOKD.
1. <<<<<<<<<< 6. <<<<<<<<<< 11. <<<<<<<<<< 16. <<<<<<<<<<
2. <<<<<<<<<< 7. <<<<<<<<<< 12. <<<<<<<<<< 17. <<<<<<<<<<
3. <<<<<<<<<< 8. <<<<<<<<<< 13. <<<<<<<<<< 18. <<<<<<<<<<
4. <<<<<<<<<< 9. <<<<<<<<<< 14. <<<<<<<<<< 19. <<<<<<<<<<
5. <<<<<<<<<< 10. <<<<<<<<<< 15. <<<<<<<<<< 20. <<<<<<<<<<
21. <<<<<<<<<<
50 "'/3$1 1 W 2,/+(-& -# #3
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1HBJ @ 8AJHI:G H6BEA: NE QDRS@TQ@MSR EQNL SVN BHSHDR. 5GD MTLADQ NE QDRS@TQ@MSR VHKK U@QX.
1. %DRBQHAD XNTQ OQNBDCTQD.
2. $NLOKDSD SGD S@AKD VHSG XNTQ R@LOKD.
1. <<<<<<<< 6. <<<<<<<< 11. <<<<<<<< 16. <<<<<<<< 21. <<<<<<<<
2. <<<<<<<< 7. <<<<<<<< 12. <<<<<<<< 17. <<<<<<<< 22. <<<<<<<<
3. <<<<<<<< 8. <<<<<<<< 13. <<<<<<<< 18. <<<<<<<< 23. <<<<<<<<
4. <<<<<<<< 9. <<<<<<<< 14. <<<<<<<< 19. <<<<<<<< 24. <<<<<<<<
5. <<<<<<<< 10. <<<<<<<< 15. <<<<<<<< 20. <<<<<<<< 25. <<<<<<<<
2;<F? 1.25
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AP?L;A?
FCH>CHA
!;N?AILC=;F 4;LC;<F?
!FOMN?L 1;GJFCHA
!IHNCHOIOM 0;H>IG 4;LC;<F?
!IHNLIF %LIOJ
!IHP?HC?H=? 1;GJFCHA
!OGOF;NCP? 0?F;NCP? $L?KO?H=S
";N;
"CM=L?N? 0;H>IG 4;LC;<F?
"IO<F?-<FCH>CHA
#RJ?LCG?HN;F 3HCN
#RJF;H;NILS 4;LC;<F?
$L?KO?H=S
'H@ILG?> !IHM?HN
'HMNCNONCIH;F 0?PC?Q I;L>
*OLECHA 4;LC;<F?
,IHM;GJFCHA #LLIL
,OG?LC=;F 4;LC;<F?
.;L;G?N?L
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.LI<;<CFCNS
.LIJILNCIH
)#7 2#0+1
@KRN B@KKDC LD@M; @ MTLADQ SG@S CDRBQHADR SGD BDMSQ@K SDMCDMBX NE SGD C@S@
MNS SDKKHMF O@QSHBHO@MSR VGHBG SQD@SLDMS @ RTAIDBS HR QDBDHUHMF
U@QH@AKDR SG@S S@JD NM U@KTDR SG@S @QD M@LDR NQ K@ADKR
@ LDSGNC ENQ RDKDBSHMF @ Q@MCNL R@LOKD @MC CHUHCHMF SGD ONOTK@SHNM HMSN FQNTOR (BKTRSDQR); TRD
RHLOKD Q@MCNLR@LOKHMF SN RDKDBS @ RDS NE BKTRSDQR. &UDQX HMCHUHCT@K HM SGD BGNRDM BKTRSDQR HR HMBKTCDC HM SGD R@LOKD.
@ Q@MCNL U@QH@AKD (37) VGNRD NTSBNLDR @QD LD@RTQDC; SGD GDHFGS NE SQDDR HM SGD
ENQDRS HR @ BNMSHMTNTR 37.
@ FQNTO HM @ Q@MCNLHYDC DWODQHLDMS SG@S QDBDHUDR @M HM@BSHUD SQD@SLDMS ATS HR NSGDQVHRD L@M@FDC
DW@BSKX @R SGD NSGDQ FQNTOR
@ MNMQ@MCNL LDSGNC NE RDKDBSHMF @ R@LOKD; SGHR LDSGNC RDKDBSR HMCHUHCT@KR SG@S @QD D@RHKX
@BBDRRHAKD @MC L@X QDRTKS HM AH@RDC C@S@.
5GD SDQL @OOKHDR SN @M NQCDQDC RDS NE NARDQU@SHNMR EQNL RL@KKDRS SN K@QFDRS. 5GD
BTLTK@SHUD QDK@SHUD EQDPTDMBX HR SGD RTL NE SGD QDK@SHUD EQDPTDMBHDR ENQ @KK U@KTDR SG@S @QD KDRR SG@M NQ DPT@K SN SGD
FHUDM U@KTD.
@ RDS NE NARDQU@SHNMR (@ RDS NE ONRRHAKD NTSBNLDR); LNRS C@S@ B@M AD OTS HMSN SVN FQNTOR: FJ6A>I6I>K: (@M @SSQHATSD
VGNRD U@KTD HR HMCHB@SDC AX @ K@ADK) NQ FJ6CI>I6I>K: (@M @SSQHATSD VGNRD U@KTD HR HMCHB@SDC AX @ MTLADQ).
2T@MSHS@SHUD C@S@ B@M AD RDO@Q@SDC HMSN SVN RTAFQNTOR: 9>H8G:I: @MC 8DCI>CJDJH. %@S@ HR CHRBQDSD HE HS HR SGD QDRTKS NE
BNTMSHMF (RTBG @R SGD MTLADQ NE RSTCDMSR NE @ FHUDM DSGMHB FQNTO HM @ BK@RR NQ SGD MTLADQ NE ANNJR NM @ RGDKE). %@S@
HR BNMSHMTNTR HE HS HR SGD QDRTKS NE LD@RTQHMF (RTBG @R CHRS@MBD SQ@UDKDC NQ VDHFGS NE KTFF@FD)
@ Q@MCNL U@QH@AKD (37) VGNRD NTSBNLDR @QD BNTMSDC
SGD @BS NE AKHMCHMF ANSG SGD RTAIDBSR NE @M DWODQHLDMS @MC SGD QDRD@QBGDQR VGN VNQJ VHSG SGD RTAIDBSR
@MX HMCHUHCT@K NQ NAIDBS SN AD LD@RTQDC
SGD HMCDODMCDMS U@QH@AKD HM @M DWODQHLDMS; SGD U@KTD BNMSQNKKDC AX QDRD@QBGDQR
SGD MTLADQ NE SHLDR @ U@KTD NE SGD C@S@ NBBTQR
"MX GTL@M RTAIDBS HM @ QDRD@QBG RSTCX LTRS AD BNFMHY@MS NE @MX QHRJR NQ BNRSR @RRNBH@SDC VHSG SGD
RSTCX. 5GD RTAIDBS G@R SGD QHFGS SN JMNV SGD M@STQD NE SGD SQD@SLDMSR HMBKTCDC HM SGD RSTCX, SGDHQ ONSDMSH@K QHRJR, @MC
SGDHQ ONSDMSH@K ADMDEHSR. $NMRDMS LTRS AD FHUDM EQDDKX AX @M HMENQLDC, EHS O@QSHBHO@MS.
@ BNLLHSSDD S@RJDC VHSG NUDQRHFGS NE QDRD@QBG OQNFQ@LR SG@S HMUNKUD GTL@M RTAIDBSR
@ U@QH@AKD SG@S G@R @M DEEDBS NM @ RSTCX DUDM SGNTFG HS HR MDHSGDQ @M DWOK@M@SNQX U@QH@AKD MNQ @
QDRONMRD U@QH@AKD
@M HRRTD SG@S @EEDBSR SGD QDKH@AHKHSX NE R@LOKHMF C@S@ NSGDQ SG@M M@STQ@K U@QH@SHNM; HS HMBKTCDR @
U@QHDSX NE GTL@M DQQNQR HMBKTCHMF ONNQ RSTCX CDRHFM, AH@RDC R@LOKHMF LDSGNCR, HM@BBTQ@SD HMENQL@SHNM OQNUHCDC AX
RSTCX O@QSHBHO@MSR, C@S@ DMSQX DQQNQR, @MC ONNQ @M@KXRHR.
U@QH@AKDR SG@S S@JD NM U@KTDR SG@S @QD HMCHB@SDC AX MTLADQR
@ MTLADQ SG@S HR TRDC SN QDOQDRDMS @ ONOTK@SHNM BG@Q@BSDQHRSHB @MC SG@S FDMDQ@KKX B@MMNS AD CDSDQLHMDC D@RHKX
@M HM@BSHUD SQD@SLDMS SG@S G@R MN QD@K DEEDBS NM SGD DWOK@M@SNQX U@QH@AKD
@KK HMCHUHCT@KR, NAIDBSR, NQ LD@RTQDLDMSR VGNRD OQNODQSHDR @QD ADHMF RSTCHDC
@ MTLADQ ADSVDDM YDQN @MC NMD, HMBKTRHUD, SG@S FHUDR SGD KHJDKHGNNC SG@S @ RODBHEHB DUDMS VHKK NBBTQ
SGD MTLADQ NE RTBBDRRDR CHUHCDC AX SGD SNS@K MTLADQ HM SGD R@LOKD
52 "'/3$1 1 W 2,/+(-& -# #3
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/O;FCN;NCP? ";N;
/O;HNCN;NCP? ";N;
0;H>IG AMMCAHG?HN
0;H>IG 1;GJFCHA
0?F;NCP? $L?KO?H=S
0?JL?M?HN;NCP? 1;GJF?
0?MJIHM? 4;LC;<F?
1;GJF?
1;GJFCHA C;M
1;GJFCHA #LLIL
1;GJFCHA QCNB 0?JF;=?G?HN
1;GJFCHA QCNBION 0?JF;=?G?HN
1CGJF? 0;H>IG 1;GJFCHA
1N;NCMNC=
1NL;NC@C?> 1;GJFCHA
1SMN?G;NC= 1;GJFCHA
2L?;NG?HNM
4;LC;<F?
4DD !6I6.
4DD !6I6.
SGD @BS NE NQF@MHYHMF DWODQHLDMS@K TMHSR HMSN SQD@SLDMS FQNTOR TRHMF Q@MCNL LDSGNCR
@ LDSGNC NE RDKDBSHMF @ R@LOKD SG@S FHUDR DUDQX LDLADQ NE SGD ONOTK@SHNM @M DPT@K BG@MBD NE
ADHMF RDKDBSDC.
SGD Q@SHN NE SGD MTLADQ NE SHLDR @ U@KTD NE SGD C@S@ NBBTQR HM SGD RDS NE @KK NTSBNLDR SN SGD MTLADQ
NE @KK NTSBNLDR SN SGD SNS@K MTLADQ NE NTSBNLDR
@ RTARDS NE SGD ONOTK@SHNM SG@S G@R SGD R@LD BG@Q@BSDQHRSHBR @R SGD ONOTK@SHNM
SGD CDODMCDMS U@QH@AKD HM @M DWODQHLDMS; SGD U@KTD SG@S HR LD@RTQDC ENQ BG@MFD @S SGD DMC NE @M
DWODQHLDMS
@ RTARDS NE SGD ONOTK@SHNM RSTCHDC
MNS @KK LDLADQR NE SGD ONOTK@SHNM @QD DPT@KKX KHJDKX SN AD RDKDBSDC
SGD M@STQ@K U@QH@SHNM SG@S QDRTKSR EQNLRDKDBSHMF @ R@LOKD SN QDOQDRDMS @ K@QFDQ ONOTK@SHNM; SGHR U@QH@SHNM
CDBQD@RDR @R SGD R@LOKD RHYD HMBQD@RDR, RN RDKDBSHMF K@QFDQ R@LOKDR QDCTBDR R@LOKHMF DQQNQ.
0MBD @ LDLADQ NE SGD ONOTK@SHNM HR RDKDBSDC ENQ HMBKTRHNM HM @ R@LOKD, SG@S LDLADQ HR
QDSTQMDC SN SGD ONOTK@SHNM ENQ SGD RDKDBSHNM NE SGD MDWS HMCHUHCT@K.
" LDLADQ NE SGD ONOTK@SHNM L@X AD BGNRDM ENQ HMBKTRHNM HM @ R@LOKD NMKX NMBD. *E
BGNRDM, SGD LDLADQ HR MNS QDSTQMDC SN SGD ONOTK@SHNM ADENQD SGD MDWS RDKDBSHNM.
@ RSQ@HFGSENQV@QC LDSGNC ENQ RDKDBSHMF @ Q@MCNL R@LOKD; FHUD D@BG LDLADQ NE SGD
ONOTK@SHNM @ MTLADQ. 6RD @ Q@MCNL MTLADQ FDMDQ@SNQ SN RDKDBS @ RDS NE K@ADKR. 5GDRD Q@MCNLKX RDKDBSDC K@ADKR
HCDMSHEX SGD LDLADQR NE XNTQ R@LOKD.
@ MTLDQHB@K BG@Q@BSDQHRSHB NE SGD R@LOKD; @ RS@SHRSHB DRSHL@SDR SGD BNQQDRONMCHMF ONOTK@SHNM O@Q@LDSDQ.
@ LDSGNC ENQ RDKDBSHMF @ Q@MCNL R@LOKD TRDC SN DMRTQD SG@S RTAFQNTOR NE SGD ONOTK@SHNM @QD
QDOQDRDMSDC @CDPT@SDKX; CHUHCD SGD ONOTK@SHNM HMSN FQNTOR (RSQ@S@). 6RD RHLOKD Q@MCNL R@LOKHMF SN HCDMSHEX @
OQNONQSHNM@SD MTLADQ NE HMCHUHCT@KR EQNL D@BG RSQ@STL.
@ LDSGNC ENQ RDKDBSHMF @ Q@MCNL R@LOKD; KHRS SGD LDLADQR NE SGD ONOTK@SHNM. 6RD RHLOKD
Q@MCNL R@LOKHMF SN RDKDBS @ RS@QSHMF ONHMS HM SGD ONOTK@SHNM. -DS J = (MTLADQ NE HMCHUHCT@KR HM SGD
ONOTK@SHNM)/(MTLADQ NE HMCHUHCT@KR MDDCDC HM SGD R@LOKD). $GNNRD DUDQX JSG HMCHUHCT@K HM SGD KHRS RS@QSHMF VHSG SGD
NMD SG@S V@R Q@MCNLKX RDKDBSDC. *E MDBDRR@QX, QDSTQM SN SGD ADFHMMHMF NE SGD ONOTK@SHNM KHRS SN BNLOKDSD XNTQ R@LOKD.
CHEEDQDMS U@KTDR NQ BNLONMDMSR NE SGD DWOK@M@SNQX U@QH@AKD @OOKHDC HM @M DWODQHLDMS
@ BG@Q@BSDQHRSHB NE HMSDQDRS ENQ D@BG ODQRNM NQ NAIDBS HM @ ONOTK@SHNM
!&A.2#0 0#4'#5
1.1 "?@CHCNCIHM I@ 1N;NCMNC=M, .LI<;<CFCNS, ;H> )?S 2?LGM
5GD L@SGDL@SHB@K SGDNQX NE RS@SHRSHBR HR D@RHDQ SN KD@QM VGDM XNT JMNV SGD K@MFT@FD. 5GHR LNCTKD OQDRDMSR HLONQS@MS SDQLR
SG@S VHKK AD TRDC SGQNTFGNTS SGD SDWS.
1.2 ";N;, 1;GJFCHA, ;H> 4;LC;NCIH CH ";N; ;H> 1;GJFCHA
%@S@ @QD HMCHUHCT@K HSDLR NE HMENQL@SHNM SG@S BNLD EQNL @ ONOTK@SHNM NQ R@LOKD. %@S@ L@X AD BK@RRHEHDC @R PT@KHS@SHUD,
PT@MSHS@SHUD BNMSHMTNTR, NQ PT@MSHS@SHUD CHRBQDSD.
#DB@TRD HS HR MNS OQ@BSHB@K SN LD@RTQD SGD DMSHQD ONOTK@SHNM HM @ RSTCX, QDRD@QBGDQR TRD R@LOKDR SN QDOQDRDMS SGD
ONOTK@SHNM. " Q@MCNL R@LOKD HR @ QDOQDRDMS@SHUD FQNTO EQNL SGD ONOTK@SHNM BGNRDM AX TRHMF @ LDSGNC SG@S FHUDR D@BG
HMCHUHCT@K HM SGD ONOTK@SHNM @M DPT@K BG@MBD NE ADHMF HMBKTCDC HM SGD R@LOKD. 3@MCNL R@LOKHMF LDSGNCR HMBKTCD RHLOKD
Q@MCNL R@LOKHMF, RSQ@SHEHDC R@LOKHMF, BKTRSDQ R@LOKHMF, @MC RXRSDL@SHB R@LOKHMF. $NMUDMHDMBD R@LOKHMF HR @ MNMQ@MCNL
LDSGNC NE BGNNRHMF @ R@LOKD SG@S NESDM OQNCTBDR AH@RDC C@S@.
"'/3$1 1 W 2,/+(-& -# #3 53
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4@LOKDR SG@S BNMS@HM CHEEDQDMS HMCHUHCT@KR QDRTKS HM CHEEDQDMS C@S@. 5GHR HR SQTD DUDM VGDM SGD R@LOKDR @QD VDKK-BGNRDM
@MC QDOQDRDMS@SHUD NE SGD ONOTK@SHNM. 8GDM OQNODQKX RDKDBSDC, K@QFDQ R@LOKDR LNCDK SGD ONOTK@SHNM LNQD BKNRDKX SG@M
RL@KKDQ R@LOKDR. 5GDQD @QD L@MX CHEEDQDMS ONSDMSH@K OQNAKDLR SG@S B@M @EEDBS SGD QDKH@AHKHSX NE @ R@LOKD. 4S@SHRSHB@K C@S@ MDDCR
SN AD BQHSHB@KKX @M@KXYDC, MNS RHLOKX @BBDOSDC.
1.3 $L?KO?H=S, $L?KO?H=S 2;<F?M, ;H> *?P?FM I@ +?;MOL?G?HN
4NLD B@KBTK@SHNMR FDMDQ@SD MTLADQR SG@S @QD @QSHEHBH@KKX OQDBHRD. *S HR MNS MDBDRR@QX SN QDONQS @ U@KTD SN DHFGS CDBHL@K OK@BDR
VGDM SGD LD@RTQDR SG@S FDMDQ@SDC SG@S U@KTD VDQD NMKX @BBTQ@SD SN SGD MD@QDRS SDMSG. 3NTMC NEE XNTQ EHM@K @MRVDQ SN NMD
LNQD CDBHL@K OK@BD SG@M V@R OQDRDMS HM SGD NQHFHM@K C@S@. 5GHR LD@MR SG@S HE XNT G@UD C@S@ LD@RTQDC SN SGD MD@QDRS SDMSG NE
@ TMHS, QDONQS SGD EHM@K RS@SHRSHB SN SGD MD@QDRS GTMCQDCSG.
*M @CCHSHNM SN QNTMCHMF XNTQ @MRVDQR, XNT B@M LD@RTQD XNTQ C@S@ TRHMF SGD ENKKNVHMF ENTQ KDUDKR NE LD@RTQDLDMS.
c +DB>C6A H86A: A:K:A: C@S@ SG@S B@MMNS AD NQCDQDC MNQ B@M HS AD TRDC HM B@KBTK@SHNMR
c ,G9>C6A H86A: A:K:A: C@S@ SG@S B@M AD NQCDQDC; SGD CHEEDQDMBDR B@MMNS AD LD@RTQDC
c &CI:GK6A H86A: A:K:A: C@S@ VHSG @ CDEHMHSD NQCDQHMF ATS MN RS@QSHMF ONHMS; SGD CHEEDQDMBDR B@M AD LD@RTQDC, ATS SGDQD HR
MN RTBG SGHMF @R @ Q@SHN.
c /6I>D H86A: A:K:A: C@S@ VHSG @ RS@QSHMF ONHMS SG@S B@M AD NQCDQDC; SGD CHEEDQDMBDR G@UD LD@MHMF @MC Q@SHNR B@M AD
B@KBTK@SDC.
8GDM NQF@MHYHMF C@S@, HS HR HLONQS@MS SN JMNV GNV L@MX SHLDR @ U@KTD @OOD@QR. )NV L@MX RS@SHRSHBR RSTCDMSR RSTCX
EHUD GNTQR NQ LNQD ENQ @M DW@L 8G@S ODQBDMS NE E@LHKHDR NM NTQ AKNBJ NVM SVN ODSR 'QDPTDMBX, QDK@SHUD EQDPTDMBX, @MC
BTLTK@SHUD QDK@SHUD EQDPTDMBX @QD LD@RTQDR SG@S @MRVDQ PTDRSHNMR KHJD SGDRD.
1.4 #RJ?LCG?HN;F "?MCAH ;H> #NBC=M
" ONNQKX CDRHFMDC RSTCX VHKK MNS OQNCTBD QDKH@AKD C@S@. 5GDQD @QD BDQS@HM JDX BNLONMDMSR SG@S LTRS AD HMBKTCDC HM DUDQX
DWODQHLDMS. 5N DKHLHM@SD KTQJHMF U@QH@AKDR, RTAIDBSR LTRS AD @RRHFMDC Q@MCNLKX SN CHEEDQDMS SQD@SLDMS FQNTOR. 0MD NE SGD
FQNTOR LTRS @BS @R @ BNMSQNK FQNTO, CDLNMRSQ@SHMF VG@S G@OODMR VGDM SGD @BSHUD SQD@SLDMS HR MNS @OOKHDC. 1@QSHBHO@MSR HM
SGD BNMSQNK FQNTO QDBDHUD @ OK@BDAN SQD@SLDMS SG@S KNNJR DW@BSKX KHJD SGD @BSHUD SQD@SLDMSR ATS B@MMNS HMEKTDMBD SGD QDRONMRD
U@QH@AKD. 5N OQDRDQUD SGD HMSDFQHSX NE SGD OK@BDAN, ANSG QDRD@QBGDQR @MC RTAIDBSR L@X AD AKHMCDC. 8GDM @ RSTCX HR CDRHFMDC
OQNODQKX, SGD NMKX CHEEDQDMBD ADSVDDM SQD@SLDMS FQNTOR HR SGD NMD HLONRDC AX SGD QDRD@QBGDQ. 5GDQDENQD, VGDM FQNTOR
QDRONMC CHEEDQDMSKX SN CHEEDQDMS SQD@SLDMSR, SGD CHEEDQDMBD LTRS AD CTD SN SGD HMEKTDMBD NE SGD DWOK@M@SNQX U@QH@AKD.
o"M DSGHBR OQNAKDL @QHRDR VGDM XNT @QD BNMRHCDQHMF @M @BSHNM SG@S ADMDEHSR XNT NQ RNLD B@TRD XNT RTOONQS, GTQSR
NQ QDCTBDR ADMDEHSR SN NSGDQR, @MC UHNK@SDR RNLD QTKD.p
<4=
&SGHB@K UHNK@SHNMR HM RS@SHRSHBR @QD MNS @KV@XR D@RX SN RONS.
1QNEDRRHNM@K @RRNBH@SHNMR @MC EDCDQ@K @FDMBHDR ONRS FTHCDKHMDR ENQ OQNODQ BNMCTBS. *S HR HLONQS@MS SG@S XNT KD@QM A@RHB
RS@SHRSHB@K OQNBDCTQDR RN SG@S XNT B@M QDBNFMHYD OQNODQ C@S@ @M@KXRHR.
.0A!2'!#
1.1 "?@CHCNCIHM I@ 1N;NCMNC=M, .LI<;<CFCNS, ;H> )?S 2?LGM
.I; J>; <EBBEM?D= ?D<EHC7J?ED JE 7DIM;H J>; D;NJ <?L; ;N;H9?I;I. 4STCHDR @QD NESDM CNMD AX OG@QL@BDTSHB@K BNLO@MHDR SN
CDSDQLHMD SGD DEEDBSHUDMDRR NE @ SQD@SLDMS OQNFQ@L. 4TOONRD SG@S @ MDV "*%4 @MSHANCX CQTF HR BTQQDMSKX TMCDQ RSTCX. *S HR
FHUDM SN O@SHDMSR NMBD SGD "*%4 RXLOSNLR G@UD QDUD@KDC SGDLRDKUDR. 0E HMSDQDRS HR SGD @UDQ@FD(LD@M) KDMFSG NE SHLD HM
LNMSGR O@SHDMSR KHUD NMBD SGDX RS@QS SGD SQD@SLDMS. 5VN QDRD@QBGDQR D@BG ENKKNV @ CHEEDQDMS RDS NE 40 O@SHDMSR VHSG "*%4 EQNL
SGD RS@QS NE SQD@SLDMS TMSHK SGDHQ CD@SGR. 5GD ENKKNVHMF C@S@ (HM LNMSGR) @QD BNKKDBSDC.
3; 4; 11; 15; 16; 17; 22; 44; 37; 16; 14; 24; 25; 15; 26; 27; 33; 29; 35; 44; 13; 21; 22; 10; 12; 8; 40; 32; 26; 27; 31; 34;
29; 17; 8; 24; 18; 47; 33; 34
3; 14; 11; 5; 16; 17; 28; 41; 31; 18; 14; 14; 26; 25; 21; 22; 31; 2; 35; 44; 23; 21; 21; 16; 12; 18; 41; 22; 16; 25; 33; 34;
29; 13; 18; 24; 23; 42; 33; 29
%DSDQLHMD VG@S SGD JDX SDQLR QDEDQ SN HM SGD DW@LOKD ENQ 3DRD@QBGDQ ".
1. ONOTK@SHNM
2. R@LOKD
3. O@Q@LDSDQ
4. RS@SHRSHB
4. "MCQDV (DKL@M, o0ODM %@S@ @MC 0ODM .DSGNCR,p &SGHBR @MC 4S@SHRSHBR, GSSO://VVV.RS@S.BNKTLAH@.DCT/]FDKL@M/QDRD@QBG/
OTAKHRGDC/$G@MBD&SGHBR1.OCE (@BBDRRDC .@X 1, 2013).
54 "'/3$1 1 W 2,/+(-& -# #3
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5. U@QH@AKD
1.2 ";N;, 1;GJFCHA, ;H> 4;LC;NCIH CH ";N; ;H> 1;GJFCHA
6. o/TLADQ NE SHLDR ODQ VDDJp HR VG@S SXOD NE C@S@
@. PT@KHS@SHUD; A. PT@MSHS@SHUD CHRBQDSD; B. PT@MSHS@SHUD BNMSHMTNTR
.I; J>; <EBBEM?D= ?D<EHC7J?ED JE 7DIM;H J>; D;NJ <EKH ;N;H9?I;I:
" RSTCX V@R CNMD SN CDSDQLHMD SGD @FD, MTLADQ NE SHLDR ODQ VDDJ, @MC SGD CTQ@SHNM (@LNTMS NE SHLD) NE QDRHCDMSR TRHMF
@ KNB@K O@QJ HM 4@M "MSNMHN, 5DW@R. 5GD EHQRS GNTRD HM SGD MDHFGANQGNNC @QNTMC SGD O@QJ V@R RDKDBSDC Q@MCNLKX, @MC SGDM
SGD QDRHCDMS NE DUDQX DHFGSG GNTRD HM SGD MDHFGANQGNNC @QNTMC SGD O@QJ V@R HMSDQUHDVDC.
7. 5GD R@LOKHMF LDSGNC V@R
@. RHLOKD Q@MCNL; A. RXRSDL@SHB; B. RSQ@SHEHDC; C. BKTRSDQ
8. o%TQ@SHNM (@LNTMS NE SHLD)p HR VG@S SXOD NE C@S@
@. PT@KHS@SHUD; A. PT@MSHS@SHUD CHRBQDSD; B. PT@MSHS@SHUD BNMSHMTNTR
9. 5GD BNKNQR NE SGD GNTRDR @QNTMC SGD O@QJ @QD VG@S JHMC NE C@S@
@. PT@KHS@SHUD; A. PT@MSHS@SHUD CHRBQDSD; B. PT@MSHS@SHUD BNMSHMTNTR
10. 5GD ONOTK@SHNM HR ??????????????????????
11. 2;<F? 1.26 BNMS@HMR SGD SNS@K MTLADQ NE CD@SGR VNQKCVHCD @R @ QDRTKS NE D@QSGPT@JDR EQNL 2000 SN 2012.
7?;L 2IN;F ,OG<?L I@ "?;NBM
2000 231
2001 21,357
2002 11,685
2003 33,819
2004 228,802
2005 88,003
2006 6,605
2007 712
2008 88,011
2009 1,790
2010 320,120
2011 21,953
2012 768
2;<F? 1.26
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7?;L 2IN;F ,OG<?L I@ "?;NBM
2IN;F 823,856
2;<F? 1.26
6RD 2;<F? 1.26 SN @MRVDQ SGD ENKKNVHMF PTDRSHNMR.
=. 8G@S HR SGD OQNONQSHNM NE CD@SGR ADSVDDM 2007 @MC 2012
>. 8G@S ODQBDMS NE CD@SGR NBBTQQDC ADENQD 2001
?. 8G@S HR SGD ODQBDMS NE CD@SGR SG@S NBBTQQDC HM 2003 NQ @ESDQ 2010
@. 8G@S HR SGD EQ@BSHNM NE CD@SGR SG@S G@OODMDC ADENQD 2012
A. 8G@S JHMC NE C@S@ HR SGD MTLADQ NE CD@SGR
B. &@QSGPT@JDR @QD PT@MSHEHDC @BBNQCHMF SN SGD @LNTMS NE DMDQFX SGDX OQNCTBD (DW@LOKDR @QD 2.1, 5.0, 6.7). 8G@S
SXOD NE C@S@ HR SG@S
C. 8G@S BNMSQHATSDC SN SGD K@QFD MTLADQ NE CD@SGR HM 2010 *M 2004 &WOK@HM.
FEH J>; <EBBEM?D= <EKH ;N;H9?I;I, :;J;HC?D; J>; JOF; E< I7CFB?D= KI;: (I?CFB; H7D:EC, IJH7J?<?;:, IOIJ;C7J?9, 9BKIJ;H, EH
9EDL;D?;D9;).
12. " FQNTO NE SDRS RTAIDBSR HR CHUHCDC HMSN SVDKUD FQNTOR; SGDM ENTQ NE SGD FQNTOR @QD BGNRDM @S Q@MCNL.
13. " L@QJDS QDRD@QBGDQ ONKKR DUDQX SDMSG ODQRNM VGN V@KJR HMSN @ RSNQD.
14. 5GD EHQRS 50 ODNOKD VGN V@KJ HMSN @ RONQSHMF DUDMS @QD ONKKDC NM SGDHQ SDKDUHRHNM OQDEDQDMBDR.
15. " BNLOTSDQ FDMDQ@SDR 100 Q@MCNL MTLADQR, @MC 100 ODNOKD VGNRD M@LDR BNQQDRONMC VHSG SGD MTLADQR NM SGD KHRS @QD
BGNRDM.
.I; J>; <EBBEM?D= ?D<EHC7J?ED JE 7DIM;H J>; D;NJ I;L;D ;N;H9?I;I: 4STCHDR @QD NESDM CNMD AX OG@QL@BDTSHB@K BNLO@MHDR SN
CDSDQLHMD SGD DEEDBSHUDMDRR NE @ SQD@SLDMS OQNFQ@L. 4TOONRD SG@S @ MDV "*%4 @MSHANCX CQTF HR BTQQDMSKX TMCDQ RSTCX. *S HR
FHUDM SN O@SHDMSR NMBD SGD "*%4 RXLOSNLR G@UD QDUD@KDC SGDLRDKUDR. 0E HMSDQDRS HR SGD @UDQ@FD(LD@M) KDMFSG NE SHLD HM
LNMSGR O@SHDMSR KHUD NMBD RS@QSHMF SGD SQD@SLDMS. 5VN QDRD@QBGDQR D@BG ENKKNV @ CHEEDQDMS RDS NE 40 "*%4 O@SHDMSR EQNL SGD
RS@QS NE SQD@SLDMS TMSHK SGDHQ CD@SGR. 5GD ENKKNVHMF C@S@ (HM LNMSGR) @QD BNKKDBSDC.
/:H:6G8=:G A: 3; 4; 11; 15; 16; 17; 22; 44; 37; 16; 14; 24; 25; 15; 26; 27; 33; 29; 35; 44; 13; 21; 22; 10; 12; 8; 40; 32;
26; 27; 31; 34; 29; 17; 8; 24; 18; 47; 33; 34
/:H:6G8=:G B: 3; 14; 11; 5; 16; 17; 28; 41; 31; 18; 14; 14; 26; 25; 21; 22; 31; 2; 35; 44; 23; 21; 21; 16; 12; 18; 41; 22;
16; 25; 33; 34; 29; 13; 18; 24; 23; 42; 33; 29
16. $NLOKDSD SGD S@AKDR TRHMF SGD C@S@ OQNUHCDC:
1OLPCP;F *?HANB (CH
GIHNBM)
$L?KO?H=S
0?F;NCP?
$L?KO?H=S
!OGOF;NCP? 0?F;NCP?
$L?KO?H=S
0.5_6.5
6.5_12.5
12.5_18.5
18.5_24.5
24.5_30.5
30.5_36.5
2;<F? 1.27 0?M?;L=B?L A
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1OLPCP;F *?HANB (CH
GIHNBM)
$L?KO?H=S
0?F;NCP?
$L?KO?H=S
!OGOF;NCP? 0?F;NCP?
$L?KO?H=S
36.5_42.5
42.5_48.5
2;<F? 1.27 0?M?;L=B?L A
1OLPCP;F *?HANB (CH
GIHNBM)
$L?KO?H=S
0?F;NCP?
$L?KO?H=S
!OGOF;NCP? 0?F;NCP?
$L?KO?H=S
0.5_6.5
6.5_12.5
12.5_18.5
18.5_24.5
24.5_30.5
30.5_36.5
2;<F? 1.28 0?M?;L=B?L
17. %DSDQLHMD VG@S SGD JDX SDQL C@S@ QDEDQR SN HM SGD @ANUD DW@LOKD ENQ 3DRD@QBGDQ ".
18. -HRS SVN QD@RNMR VGX SGD C@S@ L@X CHEEDQ.
19. $@M XNT SDKK HE NMD QDRD@QBGDQ HR BNQQDBS @MC SGD NSGDQ NMD HR HMBNQQDBS 8GX
20. 8NTKC XNT DWODBS SGD C@S@ SN AD HCDMSHB@K 8GX NQ VGX MNS
21. )NV LHFGS SGD QDRD@QBGDQR F@SGDQ Q@MCNL C@S@
22. 4TOONRD SG@S SGD EHQRS QDRD@QBGDQ BNMCTBSDC GHR RTQUDX AX Q@MCNLKX BGNNRHMF NMD RS@SD HM SGD M@SHNM @MC SGDM Q@MCNLKX
OHBJHMF 40 O@SHDMSR EQNL SG@S RS@SD. 8G@S R@LOKHMF LDSGNC VNTKC SG@S QDRD@QBGDQ G@UD TRDC
23. 4TOONRD SG@S SGD RDBNMC QDRD@QBGDQ BNMCTBSDC GHR RTQUDX AX BGNNRHMF 40 O@SHDMSR GD JMDV. 8G@S R@LOKHMF LDSGNC
VNTKC SG@S QDRD@QBGDQ G@UD TRDC 8G@S BNMBDQMR VNTKC XNT G@UD @ANTS SGHR C@S@ RDS, A@RDC TONM SGD C@S@ BNKKDBSHNM LDSGNC
.I; J>; <EBBEM?D= :7J7 JE 7DIM;H J>; D;NJ <?L; ;N;H9?I;I: 5VN QDRD@QBGDQR @QD F@SGDQHMF C@S@ NM GNTQR NE UHCDN F@LDR
OK@XDC AX RBGNNK-@FDC BGHKCQDM @MC XNTMF @CTKSR. 5GDX D@BG Q@MCNLKX R@LOKD CHEEDQDMS FQNTOR NE 150 RSTCDMSR EQNL SGD
R@LD RBGNNK. 5GDX BNKKDBS SGD ENKKNVHMF C@S@.
&IOLM .F;S?> J?L 5??E $L?KO?H=S 0?F;NCP? $L?KO?H=S !OGOF;NCP? 0?F;NCP? $L?KO?H=S
0_2 26 0.17 0.17
2_4 30 0.20 0.37
4_6 49 0.33 0.70
2;<F? 1.29 0?M?;L=B?L A
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&IOLM .F;S?> J?L 5??E $L?KO?H=S 0?F;NCP? $L?KO?H=S !OGOF;NCP? 0?F;NCP? $L?KO?H=S
6_8 25 0.17 0.87
8_10 12 0.08 0.95
10_12 8 0.05 1
2;<F? 1.29 0?M?;L=B?L A
&IOLM .F;S?> J?L 5??E $L?KO?H=S 0?F;NCP? $L?KO?H=S !OGOF;NCP? 0?F;NCP? $L?KO?H=S
0_2 48 0.32 0.32
2_4 51 0.34 0.66
4_6 24 0.16 0.82
6_8 12 0.08 0.90
8_10 11 0.07 0.97
10_12 4 0.03 1
2;<F? 1.30 0?M?;L=B?L
24. (HUD @ QD@RNM VGX SGD C@S@ L@X CHEEDQ.
25. 8NTKC SGD R@LOKD RHYD AD K@QFD DMNTFG HE SGD ONOTK@SHNM HR SGD RSTCDMSR HM SGD RBGNNK
26. 8NTKC SGD R@LOKD RHYD AD K@QFD DMNTFG HE SGD ONOTK@SHNM HR RBGNNK-@FDC BGHKCQDM @MC XNTMF @CTKSR HM SGD 6MHSDC 4S@SDR
27. 3DRD@QBGDQ " BNMBKTCDR SG@S LNRS RSTCDMSR OK@X UHCDN F@LDR ADSVDDM ENTQ @MC RHW GNTQR D@BG VDDJ. 3DRD@QBGDQ #
BNMBKTCDR SG@S LNRS RSTCDMSR OK@X UHCDN F@LDR ADSVDDM SVN @MC ENTQ GNTQR D@BG VDDJ. 8GN HR BNQQDBS
28. "R O@QS NE @ V@X SN QDV@QC RSTCDMSR ENQ O@QSHBHO@SHMF HM SGD RTQUDX, SGD QDRD@QBGDQR F@UD D@BG RSTCDMS @ FHES B@QC SN @
UHCDN F@LD RSNQD. 8NTKC SGHR @EEDBS SGD C@S@ HE RSTCDMSR JMDV @ANTS SGD @V@QC ADENQD SGD RSTCX
.I; J>; <EBBEM?D= :7J7 JE 7DIM;H J>; D;NJ <?L; ;N;H9?I;I: " O@HQ NE RSTCHDR V@R ODQENQLDC SN LD@RTQD SGD DEEDBSHUDMDRR
NE @ MDV RNESV@QD OQNFQ@L CDRHFMDC SN GDKO RSQNJD O@SHDMSR QDF@HM SGDHQ OQNAKDL-RNKUHMF RJHKKR. 1@SHDMSR VDQD @RJDC SN TRD
SGD RNESV@QD OQNFQ@L SVHBD @ C@X, NMBD HM SGD LNQMHMF @MC NMBD HM SGD DUDMHMF. 5GD RSTCHDR NARDQUDC 200 RSQNJD O@SHDMSR
QDBNUDQHMF NUDQ @ ODQHNC NE RDUDQ@K VDDJR. 5GD EHQRS RSTCX BNKKDBSDC SGD C@S@ HM 2;<F? 1.31. 5GD RDBNMC RSTCX BNKKDBSDC SGD
C@S@ HM 2;<F? 1.32.
%LIOJ 1BIQ?> CGJLIP?G?HN ,I CGJLIP?G?HN "?N?LCIL;NCIH
4OA@ LNKCN=I 142 43 15
#E@ JKP QOA LNKCN=I 72 110 18
2;<F? 1.31
58 "'/3$1 1 W 2,/+(-& -# #3
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%LIOJ 1BIQ?> CGJLIP?G?HN ,I CGJLIP?G?HN "?N?LCIL;NCIH
4OA@ LNKCN=I 105 74 19
#E@ JKP QOA LNKCN=I 89 99 12
2;<F? 1.32
29. (HUDM VG@S XNT JMNV, VGHBG RSTCX HR BNQQDBS
30. 5GD EHQRS RSTCX V@R ODQENQLDC AX SGD BNLO@MX SG@S CDRHFMDC SGD RNESV@QD OQNFQ@L. 5GD RDBNMC RSTCX V@R ODQENQLDC
AX SGD "LDQHB@M .DCHB@K "RRNBH@SHNM. 8GHBG RSTCX HR LNQD QDKH@AKD
31. #NSG FQNTOR SG@S ODQENQLDC SGD RSTCX BNMBKTCDC SG@S SGD RNESV@QD VNQJR. *R SGHR @BBTQ@SD
32. 5GD BNLO@MX S@JDR SGD SVN RSTCHDR @R OQNNE SG@S SGDHQ RNESV@QD B@TRDR LDMS@K HLOQNUDLDMS HM RSQNJD O@SHDMSR. *R SGHR @
E@HQ RS@SDLDMS
33. 1@SHDMSR VGN TRDC SGD RNESV@QD VDQD @KRN @ O@QS NE @M DWDQBHRD OQNFQ@L VGDQD@R O@SHDMSR VGN CHC MNS TRD SGD RNESV@QD
VDQD MNS. %NDR SGHR BG@MFD SGD U@KHCHSX NE SGD BNMBKTRHNMR EQNL #R?L=CM? 1.31
34. *R @ R@LOKD RHYD NE 1,000 @ QDKH@AKD LD@RTQD ENQ @ ONOTK@SHNM NE 5,000
35. *R @ R@LOKD NE 500 UNKTMSDDQR @ QDKH@AKD LD@RTQD ENQ @ ONOTK@SHNM NE 2,500
36. " PTDRSHNM NM @ RTQUDX QD@CR: "%N XNT OQDEDQ SGD CDKHBHNTR S@RSD NE #Q@MC 9 NQ SGD S@RSD NE #Q@MC :" *R SGHR @ E@HQ
PTDRSHNM
37. *R @ R@LOKD RHYD NE SVN QDOQDRDMS@SHUD NE @ ONOTK@SHNM NE EHUD
38. *R HS ONRRHAKD ENQ SVN DWODQHLDMSR SN AD VDKK QTM VHSG RHLHK@Q R@LOKD RHYDR SN FDS CHEEDQDMS C@S@
1.3 $L?KO?H=S, $L?KO?H=S 2;<F?M, ;H> *?P?FM I@ +?;MOL?G?HN
39. 8G@S SXOD NE LD@RTQD RB@KD HR ADHMF TRDC /NLHM@K, NQCHM@K, HMSDQU@K NQ Q@SHN.
=. )HFG RBGNNK RNBBDQ OK@XDQR BK@RRHEHDC AX SGDHQ @SGKDSHB @AHKHSX: 4TODQHNQ, "UDQ@FD, "ANUD @UDQ@FD
>. #@JHMF SDLODQ@STQDR ENQ U@QHNTR L@HM CHRGDR: 350, 400, 325, 250, 300
?. 5GD BNKNQR NE BQ@XNMR HM @ 24-BQ@XNM ANW
@. 4NBH@K RDBTQHSX MTLADQR
A. *MBNLDR LD@RTQDC HM CNKK@QR
B. " R@SHRE@BSHNM RTQUDX NE @ RNBH@K VDARHSD AX MTLADQ: 1 = UDQX R@SHREHDC, 2 = RNLDVG@S R@SHREHDC, 3 = MNS R@SHREHDC
C. 1NKHSHB@K NTSKNNJ: DWSQDLD KDES, KDES-NE-BDMSDQ, QHFGS-NE-BDMSDQ, DWSQDLD QHFGS
D. 5HLD NE C@X NM @M @M@KNF V@SBG
E. 5GD CHRS@MBD HM LHKDR SN SGD BKNRDRS FQNBDQX RSNQD
F. 5GD C@SDR 1066, 1492, 1644, 1947, @MC 1944
G. 5GD GDHFGSR NE 21k65 XD@Q-NKC VNLDM
H. $NLLNM KDSSDQ FQ@CDR: ", #, $, %, @MC '
1.4 #RJ?LCG?HN;F "?MCAH ;H> #NBC=M
40. %DRHFM @M DWODQHLDMS. *CDMSHEX SGD DWOK@M@SNQX @MC QDRONMRD U@QH@AKDR. %DRBQHAD SGD ONOTK@SHNM ADHMF RSTCHDC @MC
SGD DWODQHLDMS@K TMHSR. &WOK@HM SGD SQD@SLDMSR SG@S VHKK AD TRDC @MC GNV SGDX VHKK AD @RRHFMDC SN SGD DWODQHLDMS@K TMHSR.
%DRBQHAD GNV AKHMCHMF @MC OK@BDANR L@X AD TRDC SN BNTMSDQ SGD ONVDQ NE RTFFDRSHNM.
41. %HRBTRR ONSDMSH@K UHNK@SHNMR NE SGD QTKD QDPTHQHMF HMENQLDC BNMRDMS.
=. *ML@SDR HM @ BNQQDBSHNM@K E@BHKHSX @QD NEEDQDC FNNC ADG@UHNQ BQDCHS HM QDSTQM ENQ O@QSHBHO@SHNM HM @ RSTCX.
>. " QDRD@QBG RSTCX HR CDRHFMDC SN HMUDRSHF@SD @ MDV BGHKCQDMnR @KKDQFX LDCHB@SHNM.
?. 1@QSHBHO@MSR HM @ RSTCX @QD SNKC SG@S SGD MDV LDCHB@SHNM ADHMF SDRSDC HR GHFGKX OQNLHRHMF, ATS SGDX @QD MNS SNKC SG@S
NMKX @ RL@KK ONQSHNM NE O@QSHBHO@MSR VHKK QDBDHUD SGD MDV LDCHB@SHNM. 0SGDQR VHKK QDBDHUD OK@BDAN SQD@SLDMSR @MC
SQ@CHSHNM@K SQD@SLDMSR.
&-+#5-0)
1.1 "?@CHCNCIHM I@ 1N;NCMNC=M, .LI<;<CFCNS, ;H> )?S 2?LGM
FEH ;79> E< J>; <EBBEM?D= ;?=>J ;N;H9?I;I, ?:;DJ?<O: 7. J>; FEFKB7J?ED, 8. J>; I7CFB;, 9. J>; F7H7C;J;H, :. J>; IJ7J?IJ?9, ;. J>;
L7H?78B;, 7D: <. J>; :7J7. ?L; ;N7CFB;I M>;H; 7FFHEFH?7J;.
"'/3$1 1 W 2,/+(-& -# #3 59
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42. " EHSMDRR BDMSDQ HR HMSDQDRSDC HM SGD LD@M @LNTMS NE SHLD @ BKHDMS DWDQBHRDR HM SGD BDMSDQ D@BG VDDJ.
43. 4JH QDRNQSR @QD HMSDQDRSDC HM SGD LD@M @FD SG@S BGHKCQDM S@JD SGDHQ EHQRS RJH @MC RMNVAN@QC KDRRNMR. 5GDX MDDC SGHR
HMENQL@SHNM SN OK@M SGDHQ RJH BK@RRDR NOSHL@KKX.
44. " B@QCHNKNFHRS HR HMSDQDRSDC HM SGD LD@M QDBNUDQX ODQHNC NE GDQ O@SHDMSR VGN G@UD G@C GD@QS @SS@BJR.
45. *MRTQ@MBD BNLO@MHDR @QD HMSDQDRSDC HM SGD LD@M GD@KSG BNRSR D@BG XD@Q NE SGDHQ BKHDMSR, RN SG@S SGDX B@M CDSDQLHMD SGD
BNRSR NE GD@KSG HMRTQ@MBD.
46. " ONKHSHBH@M HR HMSDQDRSDC HM SGD OQNONQSHNM NE UNSDQR HM GHR CHRSQHBS VGN SGHMJ GD HR CNHMF @ FNNC INA.
47. " L@QQH@FD BNTMRDKNQ HR HMSDQDRSDC HM SGD OQNONQSHNM NE BKHDMSR RGD BNTMRDKR VGN RS@X L@QQHDC.
48. 1NKHSHB@K ONKKRSDQR L@X AD HMSDQDRSDC HM SGD OQNONQSHNM NE ODNOKD VGN VHKK UNSD ENQ @ O@QSHBTK@Q B@TRD.
49. " L@QJDSHMF BNLO@MX HR HMSDQDRSDC HM SGD OQNONQSHNM NE ODNOKD VGN VHKK ATX @ O@QSHBTK@Q OQNCTBS.
.I; J>; <EBBEM?D= ?D<EHC7J?ED JE 7DIM;H J>; D;NJ J>H;; ;N;H9?I;I: " -@JD 5@GND $NLLTMHSX $NKKDFD HMRSQTBSNQ HR HMSDQDRSDC
HM SGD LD@M MTLADQ NE C@XR -@JD 5@GND $NLLTMHSX $NKKDFD L@SG RSTCDMSR @QD @ARDMS EQNL BK@RR CTQHMF @ PT@QSDQ.
50. 8G@S HR SGD ONOTK@SHNM RGD HR HMSDQDRSDC HM
=. @KK -@JD 5@GND $NLLTMHSX $NKKDFD RSTCDMSR
>. @KK -@JD 5@GND $NLLTMHSX $NKKDFD &MFKHRG RSTCDMSR
?. @KK -@JD 5@GND $NLLTMHSX $NKKDFD RSTCDMSR HM GDQ BK@RRDR
@. @KK -@JD 5@GND $NLLTMHSX $NKKDFD L@SG RSTCDMSR
51. $NMRHCDQ SGD ENKKNVHMF:
X = CJB7:G D; 96NH 6 )6@: 16=D: DBBJC>IN DAA:<: B6I= HIJ9:CI >H 67H:CI
*M SGHR B@RD, 1 HR @M DW@LOKD NE @:
=. U@QH@AKD.
>. ONOTK@SHNM.
?. RS@SHRSHB.
@. C@S@.
52. 5GD HMRSQTBSNQnR R@LOKD OQNCTBDR @ LD@M MTLADQ NE C@XR @ARDMS NE 3.5 C@XR. 5GHR U@KTD HR @M DW@LOKD NE @:
=. O@Q@LDSDQ.
>. C@S@.
?. RS@SHRSHB.
@. U@QH@AKD.
1.2 ";N;, 1;GJFCHA, ;H> 4;LC;NCIH CH ";N; ;H> 1;GJFCHA
FEH J>; <EBBEM?D= ;N;H9?I;I, ?:;DJ?<O J>; JOF; E< :7J7 J>7J MEKB: 8; KI;: JE :;I9H?8; 7 H;IFEDI; (GK7DJ?J7J?L; :?I9H;J;,
GK7DJ?J7J?L; 9ECDJ?DKEKI, EH GK7B?J7J?L;), 7D: =?L; 7D ;N7CFB; E< J>; :7J7.
53. MTLADQ NE SHBJDSR RNKC SN @ BNMBDQS
54. ODQBDMS NE ANCX E@S
55. E@UNQHSD A@RDA@KK SD@L
56. SHLD HM KHMD SN ATX FQNBDQHDR
57. MTLADQ NE RSTCDMSR DMQNKKDC @S &UDQFQDDM 7@KKDX $NKKDFD
58. LNRS-V@SBGDC SDKDUHRHNM RGNV
59. AQ@MC NE SNNSGO@RSD
60. CHRS@MBD SN SGD BKNRDRS LNUHD SGD@SQD
61. @FD NE DWDBTSHUDR HM 'NQSTMD 500 BNLO@MHDR
62. MTLADQ NE BNLODSHMF BNLOTSDQ ROQD@CRGDDS RNESV@QD O@BJ@FDR
.I; J>; <EBBEM?D= ?D<EHC7J?ED JE 7DIM;H J>; D;NJ JME ;N;H9?I;I: " RSTCX V@R CNMD SN CDSDQLHMD SGD @FD, MTLADQ NE SHLDR
ODQ VDDJ, @MC SGD CTQ@SHNM (@LNTMS NE SHLD) NE QDRHCDMS TRD NE @ KNB@K O@QJ HM 4@M +NRD. 5GD EHQRS GNTRD HM SGD MDHFGANQGNNC
@QNTMC SGD O@QJ V@R RDKDBSDC Q@MCNLKX @MC SGDM DUDQX 8SG GNTRD HM SGD MDHFGANQGNNC @QNTMC SGD O@QJ V@R HMSDQUHDVDC.
63. o/TLADQ NE SHLDR ODQ VDDJp HR VG@S SXOD NE C@S@
=. PT@KHS@SHUD
>. PT@MSHS@SHUD CHRBQDSD
?. PT@MSHS@SHUD BNMSHMTNTR
64. o%TQ@SHNM (@LNTMS NE SHLD)p HR VG@S SXOD NE C@S@
60 "'/3$1 1 W 2,/+(-& -# #3
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=. PT@KHS@SHUD
>. PT@MSHS@SHUD CHRBQDSD
?. PT@MSHS@SHUD BNMSHMTNTR
65. "HQKHMD BNLO@MHDR @QD HMSDQDRSDC HM SGD BNMRHRSDMBX NE SGD MTLADQ NE A@AHDR NM D@BG EKHFGS, RN SG@S SGDX G@UD @CDPT@SD
R@EDSX DPTHOLDMS. 4TOONRD @M @HQKHMD BNMCTBSR @ RTQUDX. 0UDQ 5G@MJRFHUHMF VDDJDMC, HS RTQUDXR RHW EKHFGSR EQNL #NRSNM SN
4@KS -@JD $HSX SN CDSDQLHMD SGD MTLADQ NE A@AHDR NM SGD EKHFGSR. *S CDSDQLHMDR SGD @LNTMS NE R@EDSX DPTHOLDMS MDDCDC AX
SGD QDRTKS NE SG@S RSTCX.
=. 6RHMF BNLOKDSD RDMSDMBDR, KHRS SGQDD SGHMFR VQNMF VHSG SGD V@X SGD RTQUDX V@R BNMCTBSDC.
>. 6RHMF BNLOKDSD RDMSDMBDR, KHRS SGQDD V@XR SG@S XNT VNTKC HLOQNUD SGD RTQUDX HE HS VDQD SN AD QDOD@SDC.
66. 4TOONRD XNT V@MS SN CDSDQLHMD SGD LD@M MTLADQ NE RSTCDMSR ODQ RS@SHRSHBR BK@RR HM XNTQ RS@SD. %DRBQHAD @ ONRRHAKD
R@LOKHMF LDSGNC HM SGQDD SN EHUD BNLOKDSD RDMSDMBDR. .@JD SGD CDRBQHOSHNM CDS@HKDC.
67. 4TOONRD XNT V@MS SN CDSDQLHMD SGD LD@M MTLADQ NE B@MR NE RNC@ CQTMJ D@BG LNMSG AX RSTCDMSR HM SGDHQ SVDMSHDR @S XNTQ
RBGNNK. %DRBQHAD @ ONRRHAKD R@LOKHMF LDSGNC HM SGQDD SN EHUD BNLOKDSD RDMSDMBDR. .@JD SGD CDRBQHOSHNM CDS@HKDC.
68. -HRS RNLD OQ@BSHB@K CHEEHBTKSHDR HMUNKUDC HM FDSSHMF @BBTQ@SD QDRTKSR EQNL @ SDKDOGNMD RTQUDX.
69. -HRS RNLD OQ@BSHB@K CHEEHBTKSHDR HMUNKUDC HM FDSSHMF @BBTQ@SD QDRTKSR EQNL @ L@HKDC RTQUDX.
70. 8HSG XNTQ BK@RRL@SDR, AQ@HMRSNQL RNLD V@XR XNT BNTKC NUDQBNLD SGDRD OQNAKDLR HE XNT MDDCDC SN BNMCTBS @ OGNMD NQ
L@HK RTQUDX.
71. 5GD HMRSQTBSNQ S@JDR GDQ R@LOKD AX F@SGDQHMF C@S@ NM EHUD Q@MCNLKX RDKDBSDC RSTCDMSR EQNLD@BG -@JD 5@GND $NLLTMHSX
$NKKDFD L@SG BK@RR. 5GD SXOD NE R@LOKHMF RGD TRDC HR
=. BKTRSDQ R@LOKHMF
>. RSQ@SHEHDC R@LOKHMF
?. RHLOKD Q@MCNL R@LOKHMF
@. BNMUDMHDMBD R@LOKHMF
72. " RSTCX V@R CNMD SN CDSDQLHMD SGD @FD, MTLADQ NE SHLDR ODQ VDDJ, @MC SGD CTQ@SHNM (@LNTMS NE SHLD) NE QDRHCDMSR TRHMF
@ NE @ KNB@K O@QJ HM 4@M +NRD. 5GD EHQRS GNTRD HM SGD MDHFGANQGNNC @QNTMC SGD O@QJ V@R RDKDBSDC Q@MCNLKX @MC SGDM DUDQX
DHFGSG GNTRD HM SGD MDHFGANQGNNC @QNTMC SGD O@QJ V@R HMSDQUHDVDC. 5GD R@LOKHMF LDSGNC V@R:
=. RHLOKD Q@MCNL
>. RXRSDL@SHB
?. RSQ@SHEHDC
@. BKTRSDQ
73. /@LD SGD R@LOKHMF LDSGNC TRDC HM D@BG NE SGD ENKKNVHMF RHST@SHNMR:
=. " VNL@M HM SGD @HQONQS HR G@MCHMF NTS PTDRSHNMM@HQDR SN SQ@UDKDQR @RJHMF SGDL SN DU@KT@SD SGD @HQONQSnR RDQUHBD.
4GD CNDR MNS @RJ SQ@UDKDQR VGN @QD GTQQXHMF SGQNTFG SGD @HQONQS VHSG SGDHQ G@MCR ETKK NE KTFF@FD, ATS HMRSD@C @RJR
@KK SQ@UDKDQR VGN @QD RHSSHMF MD@Q F@SDR @MC MNS S@JHMF M@OR VGHKD SGDX V@HS.
>. " SD@BGDQ V@MSR SN JMNV HE GDQ RSTCDMSR @QD CNHMF GNLDVNQJ, RN RGD Q@MCNLKX RDKDBSR QNVR SVN @MC EHUD @MC SGDM
B@KKR NM @KK RSTCDMSR HM QNV SVN @MC @KK RSTCDMSR HM QNV EHUD SN OQDRDMS SGD RNKTSHNMR SN GNLDVNQJ OQNAKDLR SN SGD
BK@RR.
?. 5GD L@QJDSHMF L@M@FDQ ENQ @M DKDBSQNMHBR BG@HM RSNQD V@MSR HMENQL@SHNM @ANTS SGD @FDR NE HSR BTRSNLDQR. 0UDQ
SGD MDWS SVN VDDJR, @S D@BG RSNQD KNB@SHNM, 100 Q@MCNLKX RDKDBSDC BTRSNLDQR @QD FHUDM PTDRSHNMM@HQDR SN EHKK NTS
@RJHMF ENQ HMENQL@SHNM @ANTS @FD, @R VDKK @R @ANTS NSGDQ U@QH@AKDR NE HMSDQDRS.
@. 5GD KHAQ@QH@M @S @ OTAKHB KHAQ@QX V@MSR SN CDSDQLHMD VG@S OQNONQSHNM NE SGD KHAQ@QX TRDQR @QD BGHKCQDM. 5GD KHAQ@QH@M
G@R @ S@KKX RGDDS NM VGHBG RGD L@QJR VGDSGDQ ANNJR @QD BGDBJDC NTS AX @M @CTKS NQ @ BGHKC. 4GD QDBNQCR SGHR C@S@
ENQ DUDQX ENTQSG O@SQNM VGN BGDBJR NTS ANNJR.
A. " ONKHSHB@K O@QSX V@MSR SN JMNV SGD QD@BSHNM NE UNSDQR SN @ CDA@SD ADSVDDM SGD B@MCHC@SDR. 5GD C@X @ESDQ SGD CDA@SD,
SGD O@QSXnR ONKKHMF RS@EE B@KKR 1,200 Q@MCNLKX RDKDBSDC OGNMD MTLADQR. *E @ QDFHRSDQDC UNSDQ @MRVDQR SGD OGNMD NQ
HR @U@HK@AKD SN BNLD SN SGD OGNMD, SG@S QDFHRSDQDC UNSDQ HR @RJDC VGNL GD NQ RGD HMSDMCR SN UNSD ENQ @MC VGDSGDQ
SGD CDA@SD BG@MFDC GHR NQ GDQ NOHMHNM NE SGD B@MCHC@SDR.
74. " oQ@MCNL RTQUDXp V@R BNMCTBSDC NE 3,274 ODNOKD NE SGD oLHBQNOQNBDRRNQ FDMDQ@SHNMp (ODNOKD ANQM RHMBD 1971, SGD
XD@Q SGD LHBQNOQNBDRRNQ V@R HMUDMSDC). *S V@R QDONQSDC SG@S 48%NE SGNRD HMCHUHCT@KR RTQUDXDC RS@SDC SG@S HE SGDX G@C $2,000
SN RODMC, SGDX VNTKC TRD HS ENQ BNLOTSDQ DPTHOLDMS. "KRN, 66% NE SGNRD RTQUDXDC BNMRHCDQDC SGDLRDKUDR QDK@SHUDKX R@UUX
BNLOTSDQ TRDQR.
=. %N XNT BNMRHCDQ SGD R@LOKD RHYD K@QFD DMNTFG ENQ @ RSTCX NE SGHR SXOD 8GX NQ VGX MNS
>. #@RDC NM XNTQ oFTS EDDKHMF,p CN XNT ADKHDUD SGD ODQBDMSR @BBTQ@SDKX QDEKDBS SGD 6.4. ONOTK@SHNM ENQ SGNRD
HMCHUHCT@KR ANQM RHMBD 1971 *E MNS, CN XNT SGHMJ SGD ODQBDMSR NE SGD ONOTK@SHNM @QD @BST@KKX GHFGDQ NQ KNVDQ SG@M
SGD R@LOKD RS@SHRSHBR 8GX
"CCHSHNM@K HMENQL@SHNM: 5GD RTQUDX, QDONQSDC AX *MSDK $NQONQ@SHNM, V@R EHKKDC NTS AX HMCHUHCT@KR VGN UHRHSDC SGD -NR "MFDKDR
$NMUDMSHNM $DMSDQ SN RDD SGD 4LHSGRNMH@M *MRSHSTQD'R QN@C RGNV B@KKDC o"LDQHB@nR 4LHSGRNMH@M.p
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=P PDA ARAJP? 6DU KN SDU JKP?
@. 6EPD PDA =@@EPEKJ=H EJBKNI=PEKJ, ?KIIAJP KJ DKS =??QN=PAHU UKQ PDEJG PDA O=ILHA OP=PEOPE?O NABHA?P PDA
LKLQH=PEKJ L=N=IAPANO.
75. 5GD (@KKTO-)D@KSGV@XR 8DKK-#DHMF *MCDW HR @ RTQUDX SG@S ENKKNVR SQDMCR NE 6.4. QDRHCDMSR NM @ QDFTK@Q A@RHR. 5GDQD
@QD RHW @QD@R NE GD@KSG @MC VDKKMDRR BNUDQDC HM SGD RTQUDX: -HED &U@KT@SHNM, &LNSHNM@K )D@KSG, 1GXRHB@K )D@KSG, )D@KSGX
#DG@UHNQ, 8NQJ &MUHQNMLDMS, @MC #@RHB "BBDRR. 4NLD NE SGD PTDRSHNMR TRDC SN LD@RTQD SGD *MCDW @QD KHRSDC ADKNV.
*CDMSHEX SGD SXOD NE C@S@ NAS@HMDC EQNL D@BG PTDRSHNM TRDC HM SGHR RTQUDX: PT@KHS@SHUD, PT@MSHS@SHUD CHRBQDSD, NQ PT@MSHS@SHUD
BNMSHMTNTR.
=. %N XNT G@UD @MX GD@KSG OQNAKDLR SG@S OQDUDMS XNT EQNLCNHMF @MX NE SGD SGHMFR ODNOKD XNTQ @FD B@M MNQL@KKX CN
>. %TQHMF SGD O@RS 30 C@XR, ENQ @ANTS GNV L@MX C@XR CHC ONNQ GD@KSG JDDO XNT EQNL CNHMF XNTQ TRT@K @BSHUHSHDR
?. *M SGD K@RS RDUDM C@XR, NM GNV L@MX C@XR CHC XNT DWDQBHRD ENQ 30 LHMTSDR NQ LNQD
@. %N XNT G@UD GD@KSG HMRTQ@MBD BNUDQ@FD
76. *M @CU@MBD NE SGD 1936 1QDRHCDMSH@K &KDBSHNM, @ L@F@YHMD SHSKDC -HSDQ@QX %HFDRS QDKD@RDC SGD QDRTKSR NE @M NOHMHNM
ONKK OQDCHBSHMF SG@S SGD QDOTAKHB@M B@MCHC@SD "KE -@MCNM VNTKC VHM AX @ K@QFD L@QFHM. 5GD L@F@YHMD RDMS ONRS B@QCR
SN @OOQNWHL@SDKX 10,000,000 OQNRODBSHUD UNSDQR. 5GDRD OQNRODBSHUD UNSDQR VDQD RDKDBSDC EQNL SGD RTARBQHOSHNM KHRS NE SGD
L@F@YHMD, EQNL @TSNLNAHKD QDFHRSQ@SHNM KHRSR, EQNL OGNMD KHRSR, @MC EQNL BKTA LDLADQRGHO KHRSR. "OOQNWHL@SDKX 2,300,000
ODNOKD QDSTQMDC SGD ONRSB@QCR.
=. 5GHMJ @ANTS SGD RS@SD NE SGD 6MHSDC 4S@SDR HM 1936. &WOK@HM VGX @ R@LOKD BGNRDM EQNLL@F@YHMD RTARBQHOSHNM KHRSR,
@TSNLNAHKD QDFHRSQ@SHNM KHRSR, OGNMD ANNJR, @MC BKTA LDLADQRGHO KHRSR V@R MNS QDOQDRDMS@SHUD NE SGD ONOTK@SHNM NE
SGD 6MHSDC 4S@SDR @S SG@S SHLD.
>. 8G@S DEEDBS CNDR SGD KNV QDRONMRD Q@SD G@UD NM SGD QDKH@AHKHSX NE SGD R@LOKD
?. "QD SGDRD OQNAKDLR DW@LOKDR NE R@LOKHMF DQQNQ NQ MNMR@LOKHMF DQQNQ
@. %TQHMF SGD R@LD XD@Q, (DNQFD (@KKTO BNMCTBSDC GHR NVM ONKK NE 30,000 OQNRODBSHUD UNSDQR. )HR QDRD@QBGDQR TRDC
@ LDSGNC SGDX B@KKDC "PTNS@ R@LOKHMF" SN NAS@HM RTQUDX @MRVDQR EQNL RODBHEHB RTARDSR NE SGD ONOTK@SHNM. 2TNS@
R@LOKHMF HR @M DW@LOKD NE VGHBG R@LOKHMF LDSGNC CDRBQHADC HM SGHR LNCTKD
77. $QHLD-QDK@SDC @MC CDLNFQ@OGHB RS@SHRSHBR ENQ 47 64 RS@SDR HM 1960 VDQD BNKKDBSDC EQNL FNUDQMLDMS @FDMBHDR, HMBKTCHMF
SGD '#*'R .D?<EHC CH?C; +;FEHJ. 0MD @M@KXRHR NE SGHR C@S@ ENTMC @ RSQNMF BNMMDBSHNM ADSVDDM DCTB@SHNM @MC BQHLD
HMCHB@SHMF SG@S GHFGDQ KDUDKR NE DCTB@SHNM HM @ BNLLTMHSX BNQQDRONMC SN GHFGDQ BQHLD Q@SDR.
8GHBG NE SGD ONSDMSH@K OQNAKDLR VHSG R@LOKDR CHRBTRRDC HM 1?=NCIH 1.2 BNTKC DWOK@HM SGHR BNMMDBSHNM
78. :NT1NKKR HR @ VDARHSD SG@S @KKNVR @MXNMD SN BQD@SD @MC QDRONMC SN ONKKR. 0MD PTDRSHNM ONRSDC "OQHK 15 @RJR:
o%N XNT EDDK G@OOX O@XHMF XNTQ S@WDR VGDM LDLADQR NE SGD 0A@L@ @CLHMHRSQ@SHNM @QD @KKNVDC SN HFMNQD SGDHQ S@W
KH@AHKHSHDRp
<5=
"R NE "OQHK 25, 11 ODNOKD QDRONMCDC SN SGHR PTDRSHNM. &@BG O@QSHBHO@MS @MRVDQDC o/0!p
8GHBG NE SGD ONSDMSH@K OQNAKDLR VHSG R@LOKDR CHRBTRRDC HM SGHR LNCTKD BNTKC DWOK@HM SGHR BNMMDBSHNM
79. " RBGNK@QKX @QSHBKD @ANTS QDRONMRD Q@SDR ADFHMR VHSG SGD ENKKNVHMF PTNSD:
o%DBKHMHMF BNMS@BS @MC BNNODQ@SHNM Q@SDR HM Q@MCNL CHFHS CH@K (3%%) M@SHNM@K SDKDOGNMD RTQUDXR Q@HRD RDQHNTR BNMBDQMR
@ANTS SGD U@KHCHSX NE DRSHL@SDR CQ@VM EQNL RTBG QDRD@QBG.p
<6=
5GD 1DV 3DRD@QBG $DMSDQ ENQ 1DNOKD @MC SGD 1QDRR @CLHSR:
o5GD ODQBDMS@FD NE ODNOKD VD HMSDQUHDV k NTS NE @KK VD SQX SN HMSDQUHDV k G@R ADDM CDBKHMHMF NUDQ SGD O@RS CDB@CD NQ
LNQD.p
<7=
=. 8G@S @QD RNLD QD@RNMR ENQ SGD CDBKHMD HM QDRONMRD Q@SD NUDQ SGD O@RS CDB@CD
>. &WOK@HM VGX QDRD@QBGDQR @QD BNMBDQMDC VHSG SGD HLO@BS NE SGD CDBKHMHMF QDRONMRD Q@SD NM OTAKHB NOHMHNM ONKKR.
1.3 $L?KO?H=S, $L?KO?H=S 2;<F?M, ;H> *?P?FM I@ +?;MOL?G?HN
80. 'HESX O@QS-SHLD RSTCDMSR VDQD @RJDC GNV L@MX BNTQRDR SGDX VDQD S@JHMF SGHR SDQL. 5GD (HMBNLOKDSD) QDRTKSR @QD RGNVM
ADKNV:
5. K@RSA@KCD@FKD. 2013. 0M 5@W %@X, )NTRD SN $@KK ENQ 'HQHMF 'DCDQ@K 8NQJDQR 8GN 0VD #@BJ 5@WDR. 0OHMHNM ONKK ONRSDC
NMKHMD @S: GSSO://VVV.XNTONKKR.BNL/CDS@HKR.@ROWHC=12328 (@BBDRRDC .@X 1, 2013).
6. 4BNSS ,DDSDQ DS @K., o(@TFHMF SGD *LO@BS NE (QNVHMF /NMQDRONMRD NM &RSHL@SDR EQNL @ /@SHNM@K 3%% 5DKDOGNMD 4TQUDX,p
1TAKHB 0OHMHNM 2T@QSDQKX 70 MN. 5 (2006), DPPL://LKM.KTBKN@FKQNJ=HO.KNC/?KJPAJP/70/5/759.BQHH
(DPPL://LKM.KTBKN@FKQNJ=HO.KNC/?KJPAJP/70/5/759.BQHH) (@BBDRRDC .@X 1, 2013).
7. 'QDPTDMSKX "RJDC 2TDRSHNMR, 1DV 3DRD@QBG $DMSDQ ENQ SGD 1DNOKD & SGD 1QDRR, GSSO://VVV.ODNOKD-OQDRR.NQF/LDSGNCNKNFX/
EQDPTDMSKX-@RJDC-PTDRSHNMR/#CNMS-XNT-G@UD-SQNTAKD-FDSSHMF-ODNOKD-SN-@MRVDQ-XNTQ-ONKKR (@BBDRRDC .@X 1, 2013).
62 "'/3$1 1 W 2,/+(-& -# #3
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# I@ !IOLM?M $L?KO?H=S 0?F;NCP? $L?KO?H=S !OGOF;NCP? 0?F;NCP? $L?KO?H=S
1 30 0.6
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3
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>. 8G@S ODQBDMS NE RSTCDMSR S@JD DW@BSKX SVN BNTQRDR
?. 8G@S ODQBDMS NE RSTCDMSR S@JD NMD NQ SVN BNTQRDR
81. 4HWSX @CTKSR VHSG FTL CHRD@RD VDQD @RJDC SGD MTLADQ NE SHLDR ODQ VDDJ SGDX TRDC SN EKNRR ADENQD SGDHQ CH@FMNRHR. 5GD
(HMBNLOKDSD) QDRTKSR @QD RGNVM HM 2;<F? 1.34.
# $FIMMCHA J?L 5??E $L?KO?H=S 0?F;NCP? $L?KO?H=S !OGOF;NCP? 0?F;NCP? $L?K.
0 27 0.4500
1 18
3 0.9333
6 3 0.0500
7 1 0.0167
2;<F? 1.34 $FIMMCHA $L?KO?H=S @IL A>OFNM QCNB %OG "CM?;M?
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>. 8G@S ODQBDMS NE @CTKSR EKNRRDC RHW SHLDR ODQ VDDJ
?. 8G@S ODQBDMS EKNRRDC @S LNRS SGQDD SHLDR ODQ VDDJ
82. /HMDSDDM HLLHFQ@MSR SN SGD 6.4 VDQD @RJDC GNV L@MX XD@QR, SN SGD MD@QDRS XD@Q, SGDX G@UD KHUDC HM SGD 6.4. 5GD C@S@
@QD @R ENKKNVR: 2; 5; 7; 2; 2; 10; 20; 15; 0; 7; 0; 20; 5; 12; 15; 12; 4; 5; 10.
2;<F? 1.35 V@R OQNCTBDC.
";N; $L?KO?H=S 0?F;NCP? $L?KO?H=S !OGOF;NCP? 0?F;NCP? $L?KO?H=S
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2
19
0.1053
2 3
3
19
0.2632
2;<F? 1.35 $L?KO?H=S I@ 'GGCAL;HN 1OLP?S 0?MJIHM?M
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3
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0.6842
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0.8421
20 1
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1.0000
2;<F? 1.35 $L?KO?H=S I@ 'GGCAL;HN 1OLP?S 0?MJIHM?M
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>. &WOK@HM VG@S HR VQNMF VHSG SGHR RS@SDLDMS: o47 ODQBDMS NE SGD ODNOKD RTQUDXDC G@UD KHUDC HM SGD 6.4. ENQ 5 XD@QR.p
?. 'HW SGD RS@SDLDMS HM 7 SN L@JD HS BNQQDBS.
@. 8G@S EQ@BSHNM NE SGD ODNOKD RTQUDXDC G@UD KHUDC HM SGD 6.4. EHUD NQ RDUDM XD@QR
A. 8G@S EQ@BSHNM NE SGD ODNOKD RTQUDXDC G@UD KHUDC HM SGD 6.4. @S LNRS 12 XD@QR
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83. )NV LTBG SHLD CNDR HS S@JD SN SQ@UDK SN VNQJ 2;<F? 1.36 RGNVR SGD LD@M BNLLTSD SHLD AX RS@SD ENQ VNQJDQR @S KD@RS
16 XD@QR NKC VGN @QD MNS VNQJHMF @S GNLD. 'HMC SGD LD@M SQ@UDK SHLD, @MC QNTMC NEE SGD @MRVDQ OQNODQKX.
24.0 24.3 25.9 18.9 27.5 17.9 21.8 20.9 16.7 27.3
18.2 24.7 20.0 22.6 23.9 18.0 31.4 22.3 24.0 25.5
24.7 24.6 28.1 24.9 22.6 23.6 23.4 25.7 24.8 25.5
21.2 25.7 23.1 23.0 23.9 26.0 16.3 23.1 21.4 21.5
27.0 27.0 18.6 31.7 23.3 30.1 22.9 23.3 21.7 18.6
2;<F? 1.36
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@S KD@RS @ XD@Q, G@UD @ RSNBJ OQHBD NE @S KD@RS $5 ODQ RG@QD, @MC G@UD QDONQSDC @MMT@K QDUDMTD ADSVDDM $5 LHKKHNM @MC $1
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AA? $L?KO?H=S 0?F;NCP? $L?KO?H=S !OGOF;NCP? 0?F;NCP? $L?KO?H=S
40_44 3
45_49 11
50_54 13
55_59 16
60_64 10
65_69 6
70_74 1
2;<F? 1.37
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>. 8G@S ODQBDMS@FD NE $&0R @QD 65 XD@QR NQ NKCDQ
?. 8G@S HR SGD QDK@SHUD EQDPTDMBX NE @FDR TMCDQ 50
@. 8G@S HR SGD BTLTK@SHUD QDK@SHUD EQDPTDMBX ENQ $&0R XNTMFDQ SG@M 55
A. 8GHBG FQ@OG RGNVR SGD QDK@SHUD EQDPTDMBX @MC VGHBG RGNVR SGD BTLTK@SHUD QDK@SHUD EQDPTDMBX
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RODDC FDMDQ@SDC AX SGD RSNQL.
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1 109 0.3993 0.3993
2 72 0.2637 0.6630
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2IN;F = 273
2;<F? 1.38 $L?KO?H=S I@ &OLLC=;H? "CL?=N &CNM
85. 8G@S HR SGD QDK@SHUD EQDPTDMBX NE CHQDBS GHSR SG@S VDQD B@SDFNQX 4 GTQQHB@MDR
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88. "M @CUDQSHRDLDMS ENQ "BLD *MUDRSLDMSR CHROK@XR SGD SVN FQ@OGR HM $CAOL? 1.14 SN RGNV SGD U@KTD NE "BLDnR OQNCTBS
HM BNLO@QHRNM VHSG SGD 0SGDQ (TXnR OQNCTBS. %DRBQHAD SGD ONSDMSH@KKX LHRKD@CHMF UHRT@K DEEDBS NE SGDRD BNLO@QHRNM FQ@OGR.
)NV B@M SGHR AD BNQQDBSDC
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" BNKKDFD MDVRO@ODQ QDONQSDQ HR HMUDRSHF@SHMF SDWSANNJ @U@HK@AHKHSX @S NMKHMD QDS@HKDQR. )D CDBHCDR SN HMUDRSHF@SD NMD SDWSANNJ
ENQ D@BG NE SGD ENKKNVHMF RDUDM RTAIDBSR: B@KBTKTR, AHNKNFX, BGDLHRSQX, OGXRHBR, RS@SHRSHBR, FDNKNFX, @MC FDMDQ@K DMFHMDDQHMF.
)D BNMRTKSR SDWSANNJ HMCTRSQX R@KDR C@S@ @MC RDKDBSR SGD LNRS ONOTK@Q M@SHNM@KKX TRDC SDWSANNJ HM D@BG NE SGDRD RTAIDBSR.
)D UHRHSR VDARHSDR ENQ @ Q@MCNL R@LOKD NE L@INQ NMKHMD SDWSANNJ RDKKDQR @MC KNNJR TO D@BG NE SGDRD RDUDM SDWSANNJR SN RDD
HE SGDX @QD @U@HK@AKD HM RSNBJ ENQ PTHBJ CDKHUDQX SGQNTFG SGDRD QDS@HKDQR. #@RDC NM GHR HMUDRSHF@SHNM, GD VQHSDR @M @QSHBKD HM
VGHBG GD CQ@VR BNMBKTRHNMR @ANTS SGD NUDQ@KK @U@HK@AHKHSX NE @KK BNKKDFD SDWSANNJR SGQNTFG NMKHMD SDWSANNJ QDS@HKDQR.
8QHSD @M @M@KXRHR NE GHR RSTCX SG@S @CCQDRRDR SGD ENKKNVHMF HRRTDR: *R GHR R@LOKD QDOQDRDMS@SHUD NE SGD ONOTK@SHNM NE @KK
BNKKDFD SDWSANNJR &WOK@HM VGX NQ VGX MNS. %DRBQHAD RNLD ONRRHAKD RNTQBDR NE AH@R HM SGHR RSTCX, @MC GNV HS LHFGS @EEDBS
SGD QDRTKSR NE SGD RSTCX. (HUD RNLD RTFFDRSHNMR @ANTS VG@S BNTKC AD CNMD SN HLOQNUD SGD RSTCX.
0#$#0#,!#1
1.1 "?@CHCNCIHM I@ 1N;NCMNC=M, .LI<;<CFCNS, ;H> )?S 2?LGM
5GD %@S@ @MC 4SNQX -HAQ@QX, GSSO://KHA.RS@S.BLT.DCT/%"4-/4SNQHDR/$Q@RG5DRS%TLLHDR.GSLK (@BBDRRDC .@X 1, 2013).
1.2 ";N;, 1;GJFCHA, ;H> 4;LC;NCIH CH ";N; ;H> 1;GJFCHA
(@KKTO-)D@KSGV@XR 8DKK-#DHMF *MCDW. GSSO://VVV.VDKK-ADHMFHMCDW.BNL/CDE@TKS.@RO (@BBDRRDC .@X 1, 2013).
(@KKTO-)D@KSGV@XR 8DKK-#DHMF *MCDW. GSSO://VVV.VDKK-ADHMFHMCDW.BNL/LDSGNCNKNFX.@RO (@BBDRRDC .@X 1, 2013).
(@KKTO-)D@KSGV@XR 8DKK-#DHMF *MCDW. GSSO://VVV.F@KKTO.BNL/ONKK/146822/F@KKTO-GD@KSGV@XR-HMCDW-PTDRSHNMR.@ROW
(@BBDRRDC .@X 1, 2013).
%@S@ EQNL GSSO://VVV.ANNJNENCCR.BNL/3DK@SHNMRGHOR-4NBHDSX/"QSHBKDR/"0374-)NV-(DNQFD-(@KKTO-1HBJDC-SGD-1QDRHCDMS
%NLHMHB -TRHMBGH, on1QDRHCDMSn -@MCNM @MC SGD 1936 %?J;H7HO D?=;IJ 1NKK: 8DQD "TSNLNAHKD @MC 5DKDOGNMD 0VMDQR SN
#K@LDp 4NBH@K 4BHDMBD )HRSNQX 36, MN. 1: 23-54 (2012), GSSO://RRG.CTJDINTQM@KR.NQF/BNMSDMS/36/1/23.@ARSQ@BS (@BBDRRDC .@X
1, 2013).
o5GD -HSDQ@QX %HFDRS 1NKK,p 7HQST@K -@ANQ@SNQHDR HM 1QNA@AHKHSX @MC 4S@SHRSHBR GSSO://VVV.L@SG.T@G.DCT/RS@S/C@S@/
-HSDQ@QX%HFDRS.GSLK (@BBDRRDC .@X 1, 2013).
o(@KKTO 1QDRHCDMSH@K &KDBSHNM 5QH@K-)D@S 5QDMCR, 1936k2008,p (@KKTO 1NKHSHBR GSSO://VVV.F@KKTO.BNL/ONKK/110548/F@KKTO-
OQDRHCDMSH@K-DKDBSHNM-SQH@KGD@S-SQDMCR-19362004.@ROW#4 (@BBDRRDC .@X 1, 2013).
5GD %@S@ @MC 4SNQX -HAQ@QX, GSSO://KHA.RS@S.BLT.DCT/%"4-/%@S@EHKDR/64$QHLD.GSLK (@BBDRRDC .@X 1, 2013).
-#$$ %HRS@MBD -D@QMHMF (%-) OQNFQ@L C@S@ HM 2010-2011, GSSO://CD.KABB.DCT/QDONQSR/2010-11/ETSTQD/GHFGKHFGSR.GSLK#ENBTR
(@BBDRRDC .@X 1, 2013).
%@S@ EQNL 4@M +NRD .DQBTQX /DVR
1.3 $L?KO?H=S, $L?KO?H=S 2;<F?M, ;H> *?P?FM I@ +?;MOL?G?HN
o4S@SD & $NTMSX 2THBJ'@BSR,p 6.4. $DMRTR #TQD@T. GSSO://PTHBJE@BSR.BDMRTR.FNU/PEC/CNVMKN@C?C@S@.GSLK (@BBDRRDC .@X 1,
2013).
o4S@SD & $NTMSX 2THBJ'@BSR: 2THBJ, D@RX @BBDRR SN E@BSR @ANTS ODNOKD, ATRHMDRR, @MC FDNFQ@OGX,p 6.4. $DMRTR #TQD@T.
GSSO://PTHBJE@BSR.BDMRTR.FNU/PEC/HMCDW.GSLK (@BBDRRDC .@X 1, 2013).
o5@AKD 5: %HQDBS GHSR AX L@HMK@MC 6MHSDC 4S@SDR )TQQHB@MDR (1851-2004),p /@SHNM@K )TQQHB@MD $DMSDQ,
GSSO://VVV.MGB.MN@@.FNU/FHER/S@AKD5.FHE (@BBDRRDC .@X 1, 2013).
o-DUDKR NE .D@RTQDLDMS,p GSSO://HMEHMHSX.BNR.DCT/E@BTKSX/VNNCATQX/RS@SR/STSNQH@K/%@S@?-DUDKR.GSL (@BBDRRDC .@X 1, 2013).
$NTQSMDX 5@XKNQ, o-DUDKR NE .D@RTQDLDMS,p @ANTS.BNL, GSSO://RS@SHRSHBR.@ANTS.BNL/NC/)DKO@MC5TSNQH@KR/@/-DUDKR-0E-
.D@RTQDLDMS.GSL (@BBDRRDC .@X 1, 2013).
%@UHC -@MD. o-DUDKR NE .D@RTQDLDMS,p $NMMDWHNMR, GSSO://BMW.NQF/BNMSDMS/L10809/K@SDRS/ (@BBDRRDC .@X 1, 2013).
1.4 #RJ?LCG?HN;F "?MCAH ;H> #NBC=M
o7HS@LHM & @MC )D@KSG,p /TSQHSHNM 4NTQBD, )@QU@QC 4BGNNK NE 1TAKHB )D@KSG, GSSO://VVV.GROG.G@QU@QC.DCT/MTSQHSHNMRNTQBD/
UHS@LHM-D/ (@BBDRRDC .@X 1, 2013).
4S@M 3DDMSR. o%NMnS 6MCDQDRSHL@SD SGD 1NVDQ NE 4TFFDRSHNM,p @SGKDSDHMLD.BNL, GSSO://VVV.@SGKDSDHMLD.BNL/
"QSHBKD7HDV.@ROWHC=1053 (@BBDRRDC .@X 1, 2013).
"MJHS@ .DGS@. o%@HKX %NRD NE "ROHQHMF )DKOR 3DCTBD )D@QS "SS@BJR: 4STCX,p *MSDQM@SHNM@K #TRHMDRR 5HLDR, +TKX 21, 2011.
"KRN @U@HK@AKD NMKHMD @S GSSO://VVV.HASHLDR.BNL/C@HKX-CNRD-@ROHQHM-GDKOR-QDCTBD-GD@QS-@SS@BJR-RSTCX-300443 (@BBDRRDC
.@X 1, 2013).
5GD %@S@ @MC 4SNQX -HAQ@QX, GSSO://KHA.RS@S.BLT.DCT/%"4-/4SNQHDR/4BDMSR@MC-D@QMHMF.GSLK (@BBDRRDC .@X 1, 2013).
..-. +@BRJNM DS @K., o$NFMHSHUD $NLONMDMSR NE 4HLTK@SDC %QHUHMF 1DQENQL@MBD: 4KDDO -NRR DEEDBS @MC 1QDCHBSNQR,p "BBHCDMS
"M@KXRHR @MC 1QDUDMSHNM +NTQM@K, +@M MN. 50 (2013), GSSO://VVV.MBAH.MKL.MHG.FNU/OTALDC/22721550 (@BBDRRDC .@X 1,
2013).
o&@QSGPT@JD *MENQL@SHNM AX :D@Q,p 6.4. (DNKNFHB@K 4TQUDX. GSSO://D@QSGPT@JD.TRFR.FNU/D@QSGPT@JDR/DP@QBGHUDR/XD@Q/
(@BBDRRDC .@X 1, 2013).
o'@S@KHSX "M@KXRHR 3DONQS 4XRSDLR ('"34) &MBXBKNODCH@,p /@SHNM@K )HFGV@X 5Q@EEHB @MC 4@EDSX "CLHMHRSQ@SHNM.
GSSO://VVV-E@QR.MGSR@.CNS.FNU/.@HM/HMCDW.@ROW (@BBDRRDC .@X 1, 2013).
68 "'/3$1 1 W 2,/+(-& -# #3
3DEO ?KJPAJP EO =R=EH=>HA BKN BNAA =P DPPL://?JT.KNC/?KJPAJP/?KH11562/1.11
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%@S@ EQNL VVV.ATRHMDRRVDDJ.BNL (@BBDRRDC .@X 1, 2013).
%@S@ EQNL VVV.ENQADR.BNL (@BBDRRDC .@X 1, 2013).
o"LDQHB@nR #DRS 4L@KK $NLO@MHDR,p GSSO://VVV.ENQADR.BNL/ADRS-RL@KK-BNLO@MHDR/KHRS/ (@BBDRRDC .@X 1, 2013).
6.4. %DO@QSLDMS NE )D@KSG @MC )TL@M 4DQUHBDR, $NCD NE 'DCDQ@K 3DFTK@SHNMR 5HSKD 45 1TAKHB 8DKE@QD %DO@QSLDMS NE )D@KSG
@MC )TL@M 4DQUHBDR 1@QS 46 1QNSDBSHNM NE )TL@M 4TAIDBSR QDUHRDC +@MT@QX 15, 2009. 4DBSHNM 46.111:$QHSDQH@ ENQ *3#
"OOQNU@K NE 3DRD@QBG.
o"OQHK 2013 "HQ 5Q@UDK $NMRTLDQ 3DONQS,p 6.4. %DO@QSLDMS NE 5Q@MRONQS@SHNM, "OQHK 11 (2013), GSSO://VVV.CNS.FNU/
@HQBNMRTLDQ/@OQHK-2013-@HQ-SQ@UDK-BNMRTLDQ-QDONQS (@BBDRRDC .@X 1, 2013).
-NQH "KCDM, o4S@SHRSHBR B@M AD .HRKD@CHMF,p DBNMNBK@RR.BNL, GSSO://VVV.DBNMNBK@RR.BNL/LHRKD@CHMFRS@SR.GSLK (@BBDRRDC
.@X 1, 2013).
.@QH@ CD KNR ". .DCHM@, o&SGHBR HM 4S@SHRSHBR,p #@RDC NM o#THKCHMF @M &SGHBR .NCTKD ENQ #TRHMDRR, 4BHDMBD, @MC &MFHMDDQHMF
4STCDMSRp AX +NRD ". $QTY-$QTY @MC 8HKKH@L 'QDX, $NMMDWHNMR, GSSO://BMW.NQF/BNMSDMS/L15555/K@SDRS/ (@BBDRRDC .@X 1,
2013).
1-*32'-,1
1 "*%4 O@SHDMSR.
3 5GD @UDQ@FD KDMFSG NE SHLD (HM LNMSGR) "*%4 O@SHDMSR KHUD @ESDQ SQD@SLDMS.
5 1 = SGD KDMFSG NE SHLD (HM LNMSGR) "*%4 O@SHDMSR KHUD @ESDQ SQD@SLDMS
7 A
9 @
11
@. 0.5242
A. 0.03%
B. 6.86%
C.
823,088
823,856
D. PT@MSHS@SHUD CHRBQDSD
E. PT@MSHS@SHUD BNMSHMTNTR
F. *M ANSG XD@QR, TMCDQV@SDQ D@QSGPT@JDR OQNCTBDC L@RRHUD SRTM@LHR.
13 RXRSDL@SHB
15 RHLOKD Q@MCNL
17 U@KTDR ENQ 1, RTBG @R 3, 4, 11, @MC RN NM
19 /N, VD CN MNS G@UD DMNTFG HMENQL@SHNM SN L@JD RTBG @ BK@HL.
21 5@JD @ RHLOKD Q@MCNL R@LOKD EQNL D@BG FQNTO. 0MD V@X HR AX @RRHFMHMF @ MTLADQ SN D@BG O@SHDMS @MC TRHMF @ Q@MCNL
MTLADQ FDMDQ@SNQ SN Q@MCNLKX RDKDBS O@SHDMSR.
23 5GHR VNTKC AD BNMUDMHDMBD R@LOKHMF @MC HR MNS Q@MCNL.
25 :DR, SGD R@LOKD RHYD NE 150 VNTKC AD K@QFD DMNTFG SN QDEKDBS @ ONOTK@SHNM NE NMD RBGNNK.
27 &UDM SGNTFG SGD RODBHEHB C@S@ RTOONQS D@BG QDRD@QBGDQnR BNMBKTRHNMR, SGD CHEEDQDMS QDRTKSR RTFFDRS SG@S LNQD C@S@ MDDC SN
AD BNKKDBSDC ADENQD SGD QDRD@QBGDQR B@M QD@BG @ BNMBKTRHNM.
29 5GDQD HR MNS DMNTFG HMENQL@SHNM FHUDM SN ITCFD HE DHSGDQ NMD HR BNQQDBS NQ HMBNQQDBS.
31 5GD RNESV@QD OQNFQ@L RDDLR SN VNQJ ADB@TRD SGD RDBNMC RSTCX RGNVR SG@S LNQD O@SHDMSR HLOQNUD VGHKD TRHMF SGD
RNESV@QD SG@M MNS. &UDM SGNTFG SGD CHEEDQDMBD HR MNS @R K@QFD @R SG@S HM SGD EHQRS RSTCX, SGD QDRTKSR EQNL SGD RDBNMC RSTCX @QD
KHJDKX LNQD QDKH@AKD @MC RSHKK RGNV HLOQNUDLDMS.
33 :DR, ADB@TRD VD B@MMNS SDKK HE SGD HLOQNUDLDMS V@R CTD SN SGD RNESV@QD NQ SGD DWDQBHRD; SGD C@S@ HR BNMENTMCDC, @MC @
QDKH@AKD BNMBKTRHNM B@MMNS AD CQ@VM. /DV RSTCHDR RGNTKC AD ODQENQLDC.
"'/3$1 1 W 2,/+(-& -# #3 69
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35 /N, DUDM SGNTFG SGD R@LOKD HR K@QFD DMNTFG, SGD E@BS SG@S SGD R@LOKD BNMRHRSR NE UNKTMSDDQR L@JDR HS @ RDKE-RDKDBSDC
R@LOKD, VGHBG HR MNS QDKH@AKD.
37 /N, DUDM SGNTFG SGD R@LOKD HR @ K@QFD ONQSHNM NE SGD ONOTK@SHNM, SVN QDRONMRDR @QD MNS DMNTFG SN ITRSHEX @MX BNMBKTRHNMR.
#DB@TRD SGD ONOTK@SHNM HR RN RL@KK, HS VNTKC AD ADSSDQ SN HMBKTCD DUDQXNMD HM SGD ONOTK@SHNM SN FDS SGD LNRS @BBTQ@SD C@S@.
39
@. NQCHM@K
A. HMSDQU@K
B. MNLHM@K
C. MNLHM@K
D. Q@SHN
E. NQCHM@K
F. MNLHM@K
G. HMSDQU@K
H. Q@SHN
I. HMSDQU@K
J. Q@SHN
K. NQCHM@K
41
@. *ML@SDR L@X MNS EDDK BNLENQS@AKD QDETRHMF O@QSHBHO@SHNM, NQ L@X EDDK NAKHF@SDC SN S@JD @CU@MS@FD NE SGD OQNLHRDC
ADMDEHSR. 5GDX L@X MNS EDDK SQTKX EQDD SN QDETRD O@QSHBHO@SHNM.
A. 1@QDMSR B@M OQNUHCD BNMRDMS NM ADG@KE NE SGDHQ BGHKCQDM, ATS BGHKCQDM @QD MNS BNLODSDMS SN OQNUHCD BNMRDMS ENQ
SGDLRDKUDR.
B. "KK QHRJR @MC ADMDEHSR LTRS AD BKD@QKX NTSKHMDC. 4STCX O@QSHBHO@MSR LTRS AD HMENQLDC NE QDKDU@MS @RODBSR NE SGD RSTCX HM
NQCDQ SN FHUD @OOQNOQH@SD BNMRDMS.
43
@. @KK BGHKCQDM VGN S@JD RJH NQ RMNVAN@QC KDRRNMR
A. @ FQNTO NE SGDRD BGHKCQDM
B. SGD ONOTK@SHNM LD@M @FD NE BGHKCQDM VGN S@JD SGDHQ EHQRS RMNVAN@QC KDRRNM
C. SGD R@LOKD LD@M @FD NE BGHKCQDM VGN S@JD SGDHQ EHQRS RMNVAN@QC KDRRNM
D. 1 = SGD @FD NE NMD BGHKC VGN S@JDR GHR NQ GDQ EHQRS RJH NQ RMNVAN@QC KDRRNM
E. U@KTDR ENQ 1, RTBG @R 3, 7, @MC RN NM
45
@. SGD BKHDMSR NE SGD HMRTQ@MBD BNLO@MHDR
A. @ FQNTO NE SGD BKHDMSR
B. SGD LD@M GD@KSG BNRSR NE SGD BKHDMSR
C. SGD LD@M GD@KSG BNRSR NE SGD R@LOKD
D. 1 = SGD GD@KSG BNRSR NE NMD BKHDMS
E. U@KTDR ENQ 1, RTBG @R 34, 9, 82, @MC RN NM
47
@. @KK SGD BKHDMSR NE SGHR BNTMRDKNQ
A. @ FQNTO NE BKHDMSR NE SGHR L@QQH@FD BNTMRDKNQ
B. SGD OQNONQSHNM NE @KK GDQ BKHDMSR VGN RS@X L@QQHDC
C. SGD OQNONQSHNM NE SGD R@LOKD NE SGD BNTMRDKNQnR BKHDMSR VGN RS@X L@QQHDC
D. 1 = SGD MTLADQ NE BNTOKDR VGN RS@X L@QQHDC
E. XDR, MN
49
@. @KK ODNOKD (L@XAD HM @ BDQS@HM FDNFQ@OGHB @QD@, RTBG @R SGD 6MHSDC 4S@SDR)
A. @ FQNTO NE SGD ODNOKD
B. SGD OQNONQSHNM NE @KK ODNOKD VGN VHKK ATX SGD OQNCTBS
C. SGD OQNONQSHNM NE SGD R@LOKD VGN VHKK ATX SGD OQNCTBS
D. 1 = SGD MTLADQ NE ODNOKD VGN VHKK ATX HS
E. ATX, MNS ATX
51 @
70 "'/3$1 1 W 2,/+(-& -# #3
3DEO ?KJPAJP EO =R=EH=>HA BKN BNAA =P DPPL://?JT.KNC/?KJPAJP/?KH11562/1.11
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53 PT@MSHS@SHUD CHRBQDSD, 150
55 PT@KHS@SHUD, 0@JK@MC "nR
57 PT@MSHS@SHUD CHRBQDSD, 11,234 RSTCDMSR
59 PT@KHS@SHUD, $QDRS
61 PT@MSHS@SHUD BNMSHMTNTR, 47.3 XD@QR
63 A
65
@. 5GD RTQUDX V@R BNMCTBSDC TRHMF RHW RHLHK@Q EKHFGSR.
5GD RTQUDX VNTKC MNS AD @ SQTD QDOQDRDMS@SHNM NE SGD DMSHQD ONOTK@SHNM NE @HQ SQ@UDKDQR.
$NMCTBSHMF SGD RTQUDX NM @ GNKHC@X VDDJDMC VHKK MNS OQNCTBD QDOQDRDMS@SHUD QDRTKSR.
A. $NMCTBS SGD RTQUDX CTQHMF CHEEDQDMS SHLDR NE SGD XD@Q.
$NMCTBS SGD RTQUDX TRHMF EKHFGSR SN @MC EQNL U@QHNTR KNB@SHNMR.
$NMCTBS SGD RTQUDX NM CHEEDQDMS C@XR NE SGD VDDJ.
67 "MRVDQR VHKK U@QX. 4@LOKD "MRVDQ: :NT BNTKC TRD @ RXRSDL@SHB R@LOKHMF LDSGNC. 4SNO SGD SDMSG ODQRNM @R SGDX KD@UD
NMD NE SGD ATHKCHMFR NM B@LOTR @S 9:50 HM SGD LNQMHMF. 5GDM RSNO SGD SDMSG ODQRNM @R SGDX KD@UD @ CHEEDQDMS ATHKCHMF NM
B@LOTR @S 1:50 HM SGD @ESDQMNNM.
69 "MRVDQR VHKK U@QX. 4@LOKD "MRVDQ: .@MX ODNOKD VHKK MNS QDRONMC SN L@HK RTQUDXR. *E SGDX CN QDRONMC SN SGD RTQUDXR,
XNT B@MnS AD RTQD VGN HR QDRONMCHMF. *M @CCHSHNM, L@HKHMF KHRSR B@M AD HMBNLOKDSD.
71 A
73 BNMUDMHDMBD; BKTRSDQ; RSQ@SHEHDC ; RXRSDL@SHB; RHLOKD Q@MCNL
75
@. PT@KHS@SHUD
A. PT@MSHS@SHUD CHRBQDSD
B. PT@MSHS@SHUD CHRBQDSD
C. PT@KHS@SHUD
77 $@TR@KHSX: 5GD E@BS SG@S SVN U@QH@AKDR @QD QDK@SDC CNDR MNS FT@Q@MSDD SG@S NMD U@QH@AKD HR HMEKTDMBHMF SGD NSGDQ. 8D
B@MMNS @RRTLD SG@S BQHLD Q@SD HLO@BSR DCTB@SHNM KDUDK NQ SG@S DCTB@SHNM KDUDK HLO@BSR BQHLD Q@SD. $NMENTMCHMF: 5GDQD @QD
L@MX E@BSNQR SG@S CDEHMD @ BNLLTMHSX NSGDQ SG@M DCTB@SHNM KDUDK @MC BQHLD Q@SD. $NLLTMHSHDR VHSG GHFG BQHLD Q@SDR @MC
GHFG DCTB@SHNM KDUDKR L@X G@UD NSGDQ KTQJHMF U@QH@AKDR SG@S CHRSHMFTHRG SGDL EQNL BNLLTMHSHDR VHSG KNVDQ BQHLD Q@SDR
@MC KNVDQ DCTB@SHNM KDUDKR. #DB@TRD VD B@MMNS HRNK@SD SGDRD U@QH@AKDR NE HMSDQDRS, VD B@MMNS CQ@V U@KHC BNMBKTRHNMR @ANTS
SGD BNMMDBSHNM ADSVDDM DCTB@SHNM @MC BQHLD. 1NRRHAKD KTQJHMF U@QH@AKDR HMBKTCD ONKHBD DWODMCHSTQDR, TMDLOKNXLDMS KDUDKR,
QDFHNM, @UDQ@FD @FD, @MC RHYD.
79
@. 1NRRHAKD QD@RNMR: HMBQD@RDC TRD NE B@KKDQ HC, CDBQD@RDC TRD NE K@MCKHMDR, HMBQD@RDC TRD NE OQHU@SD MTLADQR, UNHBD L@HK,
OQHU@BX L@M@FDQR, GDBSHB M@STQD NE ODQRNM@K RBGDCTKDR, CDBQD@RDC VHKKHMFMDRR SN AD HMSDQUHDVDC
A. 8GDM @ K@QFD MTLADQ NE ODNOKD QDETRD SN O@QSHBHO@SD, SGDM SGD R@LOKD L@X MNS G@UD SGD R@LD BG@Q@BSDQHRSHBR NE SGD
ONOTK@SHNM. 1DQG@OR SGD L@INQHSX NE ODNOKD VHKKHMF SN O@QSHBHO@SD @QD CNHMF RN ADB@TRD SGDX EDDK RSQNMFKX @ANTS SGD
RTAIDBS NE SGD RTQUDX.
81
@.
# #ADHH>C< E:G 4::@ #G:FJ:C8N /:A6I>K: #G:FJ:C8N JBJA6I>K: /:A6I>K: #G:FJ:C8N
0 27 0.4500 0.4500
167A: 1.40
"'/3$1 1 W 2,/+(-& -# #3 71
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# #ADHH>C< E:G 4::@ #G:FJ:C8N /:A6I>K: #G:FJ:C8N JBJA6I>K: /:A6I>K: #G:FJ:C8N
1 18 0.3000 0.7500
3 11 0.1833 0.9333
6 3 0.0500 0.9833
7 1 0.0167 1
167A: 1.40
A. 5.00%
B. 93.33%
83 5GD RTL NE SGD SQ@UDK SHLDR HR 1,173.1. %HUHCD SGD RTL AX 50 SN B@KBTK@SD SGD LD@M U@KTD: 23.462. #DB@TRD D@BG RS@SDnR
SQ@UDK SHLD V@R LD@RTQDC SN SGD MD@QDRS SDMSG, QNTMC SGHR B@KBTK@SHNM SN SGD MD@QDRS GTMCQDCSG: 23.46.
85 A
87 &WOK@M@SNQX U@QH@AKD: @LNTMS NE RKDDO
3DRONMRD U@QH@AKD: ODQENQL@MBD LD@RTQDC HM @RRHFMDC S@RJR
5QD@SLDMSR: MNQL@K RKDDO @MC 27 GNTQR NE SNS@K RKDDO CDOQHU@SHNM
&WODQHLDMS@K 6MHSR: 19 OQNEDRRHNM@K CQHUDQR
-TQJHMF U@QH@AKDR: MNMD k @KK CQHUDQR O@QSHBHO@SDC HM ANSG SQD@SLDMSR
3@MCNL @RRHFMLDMS: SQD@SLDMSR VDQD @RRHFMDC HM Q@MCNL NQCDQ; SGHR DKHLHM@SDC SGD DEEDBS NE @MX oKD@QMHMFp SG@S L@X S@JD
OK@BD CTQHMF SGD EHQRS DWODQHLDMS@K RDRRHNM
$NMSQNK/1K@BDAN: BNLOKDSHMF SGD DWODQHLDMS@K RDRRHNM TMCDQ MNQL@K RKDDO BNMCHSHNMR
#KHMCHMF: QDRD@QBGDQR DU@KT@SHMF RTAIDBSRn ODQENQL@MBD LTRS MNS JMNV VGHBG SQD@SLDMS HR ADHMF @OOKHDC @S SGD SHLD
89 :NT B@MMNS @RRTLD SG@S SGD MTLADQR NE BNLOK@HMSR QDEKDBS SGD PT@KHSX NE SGD @HQKHMDR. 5GD @HQKHMDR RGNVM VHSG SGD
FQD@SDRS MTLADQ NE BNLOK@HMSR @QD SGD NMDR VHSG SGD LNRS O@RRDMFDQR. :NT LTRS BNMRHCDQ SGD @OOQNOQH@SDMDRR NE LDSGNCR ENQ
OQDRDMSHMF C@S@; HM SGHR B@RD CHROK@XHMF SNS@KR HR LHRKD@CHMF.
91 "MRVDQR VHKK U@QX. 4@LOKD @MRVDQ: 5GD R@LOKD HR MNS 5GD R@LOKD HR MNS QDOQDRDMS@SHUD NE SGD ONOTK@SHNM NE @KK BNKKDFD
SDWSANNJR. 5VN QD@RNMR VGX HS HR MNS QDOQDRDMS@SHUD @QD SG@S GD NMKX R@LOKDC RDUDM RTAIDBSR @MC GD NMKX HMUDRSHF@SDC NMD
SDWSANNJ HM D@BG RTAIDBS. 5GDQD @QD RDUDQ@K ONRRHAKD RNTQBDR NE AH@R HM SGD RSTCX. 5GD RDUDM RTAIDBSR SG@S GD HMUDRSHF@SDC @QD
@KK HM L@SGDL@SHBR @MC SGD RBHDMBDR; SGDQD @QD L@MX RTAIDBSR HM SGD GTL@MHSHDR, RNBH@K RBHDMBDR, @MC NSGDQ RTAIDBS @QD@R, (ENQ
DW@LOKD: KHSDQ@STQD, @QS, GHRSNQX, ORXBGNKNFX, RNBHNKNFX, ATRHMDRR) SG@S GD CHC MNS HMUDRSHF@SD @S @KK. *S L@X AD SG@S CHEEDQDMS
RTAIDBS @QD@R DWGHAHS CHEEDQDMS O@SSDQMR NE SDWSANNJ @U@HK@AHKHSX, ATS GHR R@LOKD VNTKC MNS CDSDBS RTBG QDRTKSR. )D @KRN KNNJDC
NMKX @S SGD LNRS ONOTK@Q SDWSANNJ HM D@BG NE SGD RTAIDBSR GD HMUDRSHF@SDC. 5GD @U@HK@AHKHSX NE SGD LNRS ONOTK@Q SDWSANNJR
L@X CHEEDQ EQNL SGD @U@HK@AHKHSX NE NSGDQ SDWSANNJR HM NMD NE SVN V@XR:
q SGD LNRS ONOTK@Q SDWSANNJR L@X AD LNQD QD@CHKX @U@HK@AKD NMKHMD, ADB@TRD LNQD MDV BNOHDR @QD OQHMSDC, @MC LNQD
RSTCDMSR M@SHNMVHCD @QD RDKKHMF A@BJ SGDHQ TRDC BNOHDR 03
q SGD LNRS ONOTK@Q SDWSANNJR L@X AD G@QCDQ SN EHMC @U@HK@AKD NMKHMD, ADB@TRD LNQD RSTCDMS CDL@MC DWG@TRSR SGD RTOOKX
LNQD PTHBJKX.
*M QD@KHSX, L@MX BNKKDFD RSTCDMSR CN MNS TRD SGD LNRS ONOTK@Q SDWSANNJ HM SGDHQ RTAIDBS, @MC SGHR RSTCX FHUDR MN TRDETK
HMENQL@SHNM @ANTS SGD RHST@SHNM ENQ SGNRD KDRR ONOTK@Q SDWSANNJR. )D BNTKC HLOQNUD SGHR RSTCX AX:
q DWO@MCHMF SGD RDKDBSHNM NE RTAIDBSR GD HMUDRSHF@SDR RN SG@S HS HR LNQD QDOQDRDMS@SHUD NE @KK RTAIDBSR RSTCHDC AX BNKKDFD
RSTCDMSR, @MC
q DWO@MCHMF SGD RDKDBSHNM NE SDWSANNJR GD HMUDRSHF@SDR VHSGHM D@BG RTAIDBS SN HMBKTCD @ LHWDC QDOQDRDMS@SHNM NE ANSG SGD
LNRS ONOTK@Q @MC KDRR ONOTK@Q SDWSANNJR.
72 "'/3$1 1 W 2,/+(-& -# #3
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2 U "#1!0'.2'4#
12A2'12'!1
$CAOL? 2.1 6DAJ UKQ D=RA H=NCA =IKQJPO KB @=P=, UKQ SEHH JAA@ PK KNC=JEVA EP EJ = S=U PD=P I=GAO OAJOA. 3DAOA
>=HHKPO BNKI =J AHA?PEKJ =NA NKHHA@ PKCAPDAN SEPD OEIEH=N >=HHKPO PK GAAL PDAI KNC=JEVA@. (?NA@EP: 6EHHE=I &NAAOKJ)
'HNLI>O=NCIH
!B;JN?L -<D?=NCP?M
#X SGD DMC NE SGHR BG@OSDQ, SGD RSTCDMS RGNTKC AD @AKD SN:
c %HROK@X C@S@ FQ@OGHB@KKX @MC HMSDQOQDS FQ@OGR: RSDLOKNSR, GHRSNFQ@LR, @MC ANW OKNSR.
c 3DBNFMHYD, CDRBQHAD, @MC B@KBTK@SD SGD LD@RTQDR NE KNB@SHNM NE C@S@: PT@QSHKDR @MC ODQBDMSHKDR.
c 3DBNFMHYD, CDRBQHAD, @MC B@KBTK@SD SGD LD@RTQDR NE SGD BDMSDQ NE C@S@: LD@M, LDCH@M, @MC LNCD.
c 3DBNFMHYD, CDRBQHAD, @MC B@KBTK@SD SGD LD@RTQDR NE SGD ROQD@C NE C@S@: U@QH@MBD, RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNM, @MC
Q@MFD.
0MBD XNT G@UD BNKKDBSDC C@S@, VG@S VHKK XNT CN VHSG HS %@S@ B@M AD CDRBQHADC @MC OQDRDMSDC HM L@MX CHEEDQDMS ENQL@SR. 'NQ
DW@LOKD, RTOONRD XNT @QD HMSDQDRSDC HM ATXHMF @ GNTRD HM @ O@QSHBTK@Q @QD@. :NT L@X G@UD MN BKTD @ANTS SGD GNTRD OQHBDR, RN
XNT LHFGS @RJ XNTQ QD@K DRS@SD @FDMS SN FHUD XNT @ R@LOKD C@S@ RDS NE OQHBDR. -NNJHMF @S @KK SGD OQHBDR HM SGD R@LOKD NESDM HR
NUDQVGDKLHMF. " ADSSDQ V@X LHFGS AD SN KNNJ @S SGD LDCH@M OQHBD @MC SGD U@QH@SHNM NE OQHBDR. 5GD LDCH@M @MC U@QH@SHNM @QD
ITRS SVN V@XR SG@S XNT VHKK KD@QM SN CDRBQHAD C@S@. :NTQ @FDMS LHFGS @KRN OQNUHCD XNT VHSG @ FQ@OG NE SGD C@S@.
"'/3$1 2 W #$2"1(/3(5$ 233(23("2 73
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*M SGHR BG@OSDQ, XNT VHKK RSTCX MTLDQHB@K @MC FQ@OGHB@K V@XR SN CDRBQHAD @MC CHROK@X XNTQ C@S@. 5GHR @QD@ NE RS@SHRSHBR
HR B@KKDC "!:H8G>EI>K: 0I6I>HI>8H." :NT VHKK KD@QM GNV SN B@KBTK@SD, @MC DUDM LNQD HLONQS@MSKX, GNV SN HMSDQOQDS SGDRD
LD@RTQDLDMSR @MC FQ@OGR.
" RS@SHRSHB@K FQ@OG HR @ SNNK SG@S GDKOR XNT KD@QM @ANTS SGD RG@OD NQ CHRSQHATSHNM NE @ R@LOKD NQ @ ONOTK@SHNM. " FQ@OG B@M
AD @ LNQD DEEDBSHUD V@X NE OQDRDMSHMF C@S@ SG@M @ L@RR NE MTLADQR ADB@TRD VD B@M RDD VGDQD C@S@ BKTRSDQR @MC VGDQD SGDQD
@QD NMKX @ EDV C@S@ U@KTDR. /DVRO@ODQR @MC SGD *MSDQMDS TRD FQ@OGR SN RGNV SQDMCR @MC SN DM@AKD QD@CDQR SN BNLO@QD E@BSR
@MC EHFTQDR PTHBJKX. 4S@SHRSHBH@MR NESDM FQ@OG C@S@ EHQRS SN FDS @ OHBSTQD NE SGD C@S@. 5GDM, LNQD ENQL@K SNNKR L@X AD @OOKHDC.
4NLD NE SGD SXODR NE FQ@OGR SG@S @QD TRDC SN RTLL@QHYD @MC NQF@MHYD C@S@ @QD SGD CNS OKNS, SGD A@Q BG@QS, SGD GHRSNFQ@L,
SGD RSDL-@MC-KD@E OKNS, SGD EQDPTDMBX ONKXFNM (@ SXOD NE AQNJDM KHMD FQ@OG), SGD OHD BG@QS, @MC SGD ANW OKNS. *M SGHR BG@OSDQ,
VD VHKK AQHDEKX KNNJ @S RSDL-@MC-KD@E OKNSR, KHMD FQ@OGR, @MC A@Q FQ@OGR, @R VDKK @R EQDPTDMBX ONKXFNMR, @MC SHLD RDQHDR
FQ@OGR. 0TQ DLOG@RHR VHKK AD NM GHRSNFQ@LR @MC ANW OKNSR.
,-2#
5GHR ANNJ BNMS@HMR HMRSQTBSHNMR ENQ BNMRSQTBSHMF @ GHRSNFQ@L @MC @ ANW OKNS ENQ SGD 5*-83+ @MC 5*-84 B@KBTK@SNQR.
:NT B@M EHMC @CCHSHNM@K HMRSQTBSHNMR ENQ TRHMF SGDRD B@KBTK@SNQR NM SGD 2?R;M 'HMNLOG?HNM (2') Q?<MCN?
(BNNJ://?>O=;NCIH.NC.=IG/?>O=;NCIHJILN;F/MCN?M/31/M?=NCIH&IG?/MOJJILN.BNGF) .
2.1 U +?;MOL?M I@ NB? 1JL?;> I@ NB? ";N;
"M HLONQS@MS BG@Q@BSDQHRSHB NE @MX RDS NE C@S@ HR SGD U@QH@SHNM HM SGD C@S@. *M RNLD C@S@ RDSR, SGD C@S@ U@KTDR @QD BNMBDMSQ@SDC
BKNRDKX MD@Q SGD LD@M; HM NSGDQ C@S@ RDSR, SGD C@S@ U@KTDR @QD LNQD VHCDKX ROQD@C NTS EQNL SGD LD@M. 5GD LNRS BNLLNM
LD@RTQD NE U@QH@SHNM, NQ ROQD@C, HR SGD RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNM. 5GD HI6C96G9 9:K>6I>DC HR @ MTLADQ SG@S LD@RTQDR GNV E@Q C@S@
U@KTDR @QD EQNL SGDHQ LD@M.
2B? MN;H>;L> >?PC;NCIH
c OQNUHCDR @ MTLDQHB@K LD@RTQD NE SGD NUDQ@KK @LNTMS NE U@QH@SHNM HM @ C@S@ RDS, @MC
c B@M AD TRDC SN CDSDQLHMD VGDSGDQ @ O@QSHBTK@Q C@S@ U@KTD HR BKNRD SN NQ E@Q EQNL SGD LD@M.
2B? MN;H>;L> >?PC;NCIH JLIPC>?M ; G?;MOL? I@ NB? IP?L;FF P;LC;NCIH CH ; >;N; M?N
5GD RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNM HR @KV@XR ONRHSHUD NQ YDQN. 5GD RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNM HR RL@KK VGDM SGD C@S@ @QD @KK BNMBDMSQ@SDC BKNRD
SN SGD LD@M, DWGHAHSHMF KHSSKD U@QH@SHNM NQ ROQD@C. 5GD RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNM HR K@QFDQ VGDM SGD C@S@ U@KTDR @QD LNQD ROQD@C NTS
EQNL SGD LD@M, DWGHAHSHMF LNQD U@QH@SHNM.
4TOONRD SG@S VD @QD RSTCXHMF SGD @LNTMS NE SHLD BTRSNLDQR V@HS HM KHMD @S SGD BGDBJNTS @S RTODQL@QJDS A @MC
RTODQL@QJDS B. SGD @UDQ@FD V@HS SHLD @S ANSG RTODQL@QJDSR HR EHUD LHMTSDR. "S RTODQL@QJDS A, SGD RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNM ENQ SGD
V@HS SHLD HR SVN LHMTSDR; @S RTODQL@QJDS B SGD RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNM ENQ SGD V@HS SHLD HR ENTQ LHMTSDR.
#DB@TRD RTODQL@QJDS B G@R @ GHFGDQ RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNM, VD JMNV SG@S SGDQD HR LNQD U@QH@SHNM HM SGD V@HS SHLDR @S
RTODQL@QJDS B. 0UDQ@KK, V@HS SHLDR @S RTODQL@QJDS B @QD LNQD ROQD@C NTS EQNL SGD @UDQ@FD; V@HS SHLDR @S RTODQL@QJDS A @QD
LNQD BNMBDMSQ@SDC MD@Q SGD @UDQ@FD.
2B? MN;H>;L> >?PC;NCIH =;H <? OM?> NI >?N?LGCH? QB?NB?L ; >;N; P;FO? CM =FIM? NI IL @;L @LIG NB?
G?;H.
4TOONRD SG@S 3NR@ @MC #HMG ANSG RGNO @S RTODQL@QJDS A. 3NR@ V@HSR @S SGD BGDBJNTS BNTMSDQ ENQ RDUDM LHMTSDR @MC #HMG
V@HSR ENQ NMD LHMTSD. "S RTODQL@QJDS A, SGD LD@M V@HSHMF SHLD HR EHUD LHMTSDR @MC SGD RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNM HR SVN LHMTSDR.
5GD RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNM B@M AD TRDC SN CDSDQLHMD VGDSGDQ @ C@S@ U@KTD HR BKNRD SN NQ E@Q EQNL SGD LD@M.
/DH6 L6>IH ;DG H:K:C B>CJI:H:
c 4DUDM HR SVN LHMTSDR KNMFDQ SG@M SGD @UDQ@FD NE EHUD; SVN LHMTSDR HR DPT@K SN NMD RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNM.
c 3NR@'R V@HS SHLD NE RDUDM LHMTSDR HR ILD B>CJI:H ADC<:G I=6C I=: 6K:G6<: NE EHUD LHMTSDR.
c 3NR@'R V@HS SHLD NE RDUDM LHMTSDR HR DC: HI6C96G9 9:K>6I>DC 67DK: I=: 6K:G6<: NE EHUD LHMTSDR.
B>C= L6>IH ;DG DC: B>CJI:.
c 0MD HR ENTQ LHMTSDR KDRR SG@M SGD @UDQ@FD NE EHUD; ENTQ LHMTSDR HR DPT@K SN SVN RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNMR.
c #HMG'R V@HS SHLD NE NMD LHMTSD HR ;DJG B>CJI:H A:HH I=6C I=: 6K:G6<: NE EHUD LHMTSDR.
c #HMG'R V@HS SHLD NE NMD LHMTSD HR ILD HI6C96G9 9:K>6I>DCH 7:ADL I=: 6K:G6<: NE EHUD LHMTSDR.
c " C@S@ U@KTD SG@S HR SVN RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNMR EQNL SGD @UDQ@FD HR ITRS NM SGD ANQCDQKHMD ENQ VG@S L@MX RS@SHRSHBH@MR
VNTKC BNMRHCDQ SN AD E@Q EQNL SGD @UDQ@FD. $NMRHCDQHMF C@S@ SN AD E@Q EQNL SGD LD@M HE HS HR LNQD SG@M SVN RS@MC@QC
CDUH@SHNMR @V@X HR LNQD NE @M @OOQNWHL@SD "QTKD NE SGTLA" SG@M @ QHFHC QTKD. *M FDMDQ@K, SGD RG@OD NE SGD CHRSQHATSHNM
NE SGD C@S@ @EEDBSR GNV LTBG NE SGD C@S@ HR ETQSGDQ @V@X SG@M SVN RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNMR. (:NT VHKK KD@QM LNQD @ANTS SGHR
HM K@SDQ BG@OSDQR.)
5GD MTLADQ KHMD L@X GDKO XNT TMCDQRS@MC RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNM. *E VD VDQD SN OTS EHUD @MC RDUDM NM @ MTLADQ KHMD, RDUDM
HR SN SGD QHFGS NE EHUD. 8D R@X, SGDM, SG@S RDUDM HR DC: RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNM SN SGD G><=I NE EHUD ADB@TRD 5 + (1)(2) = 7.
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*E NMD VDQD @KRN O@QS NE SGD C@S@ RDS, SGDM NMD HR ILD RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNMR SN SGD A:;I NE EHUD ADB@TRD 5 + (k2)(2) = 1.
$CAOL? 2.2
c *M FDMDQ@K, @ K6AJ: = B:6C + (#D;01!"3)(HI6C96G9 9:K>6I>DC)
c VGDQD #NE45%&7R = SGD MTLADQ NE RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNMR
c #NE45%&7 CNDR MNS MDDC SN AD @M HMSDFDQ
c 0MD HR ILD HI6C96G9 9:K>6I>DCH A:HH I=6C I=: B:6C NE EHUD ADB@TRD: 1 = 5 + (k2)(2).
5GD DPT@SHNM K6AJ: = B:6C + (#D;01!"3H)(HI6C96G9 9:K>6I>DC) B@M AD DWOQDRRDC ENQ @ R@LOKD @MC ENQ @ ONOTK@SHNM.
c H6BEA:: x = x

+ ( # of STDEV)(s)
c -DEJA6I>DC: x = + ( # of STDEV)()
5GD KNVDQ B@RD KDSSDQ I QDOQDRDMSR SGD R@LOKD RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNM @MC SGD (QDDJ KDSSDQ \ (RHFL@, KNVDQ B@RD) QDOQDRDMSR
SGD ONOTK@SHNM RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNM.
5GD RXLANK x

HR SGD R@LOKD LD@M @MC SGD (QDDJ RXLANK HR SGD ONOTK@SHNM LD@M.
!;F=OF;NCHA NB? 1N;H>;L> "?PC;NCIH
*E N HR @ MTLADQ, SGDM SGD CHEEDQDMBD "N k LD@M" HR B@KKDC HSR 9:K>6I>DC. *M @ C@S@ RDS, SGDQD @QD @R L@MX CDUH@SHNMR @R SGDQD
@QD HSDLR HM SGD C@S@ RDS. 5GD CDUH@SHNMR @QD TRDC SN B@KBTK@SD SGD RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNM. *E SGD MTLADQR ADKNMF SN @ ONOTK@SHNM,
HM RXLANKR @ CDUH@SHNM HR N k Z. 'NQ R@LOKD C@S@, HM RXLANKR @ CDUH@SHNM HR N k x

.
5GD OQNBDCTQD SN B@KBTK@SD SGD RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNM CDODMCR NM VGDSGDQ SGD MTLADQR @QD SGD DMSHQD ONOTK@SHNM NQ @QD C@S@
EQNL @ R@LOKD. 5GD B@KBTK@SHNMR @QD RHLHK@Q, ATS MNS HCDMSHB@K. 5GDQDENQD SGD RXLANK TRDC SN QDOQDRDMS SGD RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNM
CDODMCR NM VGDSGDQ HS HR B@KBTK@SDC EQNL @ ONOTK@SHNM NQ @ R@LOKD. 5GD KNVDQ B@RD KDSSDQ R QDOQDRDMSR SGD R@LOKD RS@MC@QC
CDUH@SHNM @MC SGD (QDDJ KDSSDQ \ (RHFL@, KNVDQ B@RD) QDOQDRDMSR SGD ONOTK@SHNM RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNM. *E SGD R@LOKD G@R SGD R@LD
BG@Q@BSDQHRSHBR @R SGD ONOTK@SHNM, SGDM R RGNTKC AD @ FNNC DRSHL@SD NE \.
5N B@KBTK@SD SGD RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNM, VD MDDC SN B@KBTK@SD SGD U@QH@MBD EHQRS. 5GD K6G>6C8: HR SGD 6K:G6<: D; I=: HFJ6G:H
D; I=: 9:K>6I>DCH (SGD N k x

U@KTDR ENQ @ R@LOKD, NQ SGD N k Z U@KTDR ENQ @ ONOTK@SHNM). 5GD RXLANK \


2
QDOQDRDMSR SGD
ONOTK@SHNM U@QH@MBD; SGD ONOTK@SHNM RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNM \ HR SGD RPT@QD QNNS NE SGD ONOTK@SHNM U@QH@MBD. 5GD RXLANK I
2
QDOQDRDMSR SGD R@LOKD U@QH@MBD; SGD R@LOKD RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNM I HR SGD RPT@QD QNNS NE SGD R@LOKD U@QH@MBD. :NT B@M SGHMJ NE
SGD RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNM @R @ RODBH@K @UDQ@FD NE SGD CDUH@SHNMR.
*E SGD MTLADQR BNLD EQNL @ BDMRTR NE SGD DMSHQD EDEJA6I>DC @MC MNS @ R@LOKD, VGDM VD B@KBTK@SD SGD @UDQ@FD NE SGD
RPT@QDC CDUH@SHNMR SN EHMC SGD U@QH@MBD, VD CHUHCD AX ', SGD MTLADQ NE HSDLR HM SGD ONOTK@SHNM. *E SGD C@S@ @QD EQNL@ H6BEA:
Q@SGDQ SG@M @ ONOTK@SHNM, VGDM VD B@KBTK@SD SGD @UDQ@FD NE SGD RPT@QDC CDUH@SHNMR, VD CHUHCD AX n R 1, NMD KDRR SG@M SGD
MTLADQ NE HSDLR HM SGD R@LOKD.
$ILGOF;M @IL NB? 1;GJF? 1N;H>;L> "?PC;NCIH
c s =
(x x

)
2
n 1
NQ s =
f (x x

)
2
n 1
c 'NQ SGD R@LOKD RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNM, SGD CDMNLHM@SNQ HR n - 1, SG@S HR SGD R@LOKD RHYD .*/64 1.
$ILGOF;M @IL NB? .IJOF;NCIH 1N;H>;L> "?PC;NCIH
c

=
(x )
2
N
NQ

=
f (x )
2
N
c 'NQ SGD ONOTK@SHNM RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNM, SGD CDMNLHM@SNQ HR ', SGD MTLADQ NE HSDLR HM SGD ONOTK@SHNM.
*M SGDRD ENQLTK@R, < QDOQDRDMSR SGD EQDPTDMBX VHSG VGHBG @ U@KTD @OOD@QR. 'NQ DW@LOKD, HE @ U@KTD @OOD@QR NMBD, < HR NMD. *E @
U@KTD @OOD@QR SGQDD SHLDR HM SGD C@S@ RDS NQ ONOTK@SHNM, < HR SGQDD.
1;GJFCHA 4;LC;<CFCNS I@ ; 1N;NCMNC=
5GD RS@SHRSHB NE @ R@LOKHMF CHRSQHATSHNM V@R CHRBTRRDC HM "?M=LCJNCP? 1N;NCMNC=M: +?;MOLCHA NB? !?HN?L I@ NB? ";N;.
)NV LTBG SGD RS@SHRSHB U@QHDR EQNL NMD R@LOKD SN @MNSGDQ HR JMNVM @R SGD H6BEA>C< K6G>67>A>IN D; 6 HI6I>HI>8. :NT SXOHB@KKX
LD@RTQD SGD R@LOKHMF U@QH@AHKHSX NE @ RS@SHRSHB AX HSR RS@MC@QC DQQNQ. 5GD HI6C96G9 :GGDG D; I=: B:6C HR @M DW@LOKD NE @
RS@MC@QC DQQNQ. *S HR @ RODBH@K RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNM @MC HR JMNVM @R SGD RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNM NE SGD R@LOKHMF CHRSQHATSHNM NE SGD
LD@M. :NT VHKK BNUDQ SGD RS@MC@QC DQQNQ NE SGD LD@M HM SGD BG@OSDQ 2B? !?HNL;F *CGCN 2B?IL?G(MNS MNV). 5GD MNS@SHNM
ENQ SGD RS@MC@QC DQQNQ NE SGD LD@M HR

n
VGDQD \ HR SGD RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNM NE SGD ONOTK@SHNM @MC M HR SGD RHYD NE SGD R@LOKD.
"'/3$1 2 W #$2"1(/3(5$ 233(23("2 75
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,-2#
&C EG68I>8:, 20" A A)2)A1,/ ,/ ,*-21"/ 0,#14A/" 1, A)2)A1" 1%" 01A+!A/!
!"3&A1&,+. &; NDJ 6G: JH>C< 6 1&-83, 83+, 84+ 86A8JA6IDG, NDJ C::9 ID H:A:8I I=: 6EEGDEG>6I: HI6C96G9
9:K>6I>DC 0
&
DG $
&
;GDB I=: HJBB6GN HI6I>HI>8H. 8D VHKK BNMBDMSQ@SD NM TRHMF @MC HMSDQOQDSHMF SGD HMENQL@SHNM SG@S SGD
RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNM FHUDR TR. )NVDUDQ XNT RGNTKC RSTCX SGD ENKKNVHMF RSDO-AX-RSDO DW@LOKD SN GDKO XNT TMCDQRS@MC GNV
SGD RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNM LD@RTQDR U@QH@SHNM EQNL SGD LD@M. (5GD B@KBTK@SNQ HMRSQTBSHNMR @OOD@Q @S SGD DMC NE SGHR
DW@LOKD.)
$T=ILHA 2.1
*M @ EHESG FQ@CD BK@RR, SGD SD@BGDQ V@R HMSDQDRSDC HM SGD @UDQ@FD @FD @MC SGD R@LOKD RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNM NE SGD @FDR NE
GDQ RSTCDMSR. 5GD ENKKNVHMF C@S@ @QD SGD @FDR ENQ @ 4".1-& NE D = 20 EHESG FQ@CD RSTCDMSR. 5GD @FDR @QD QNTMCDC
SN SGD MD@QDRS G@KE XD@Q:
9; 9.5; 9.5; 10; 10; 10; 10; 10.5; 10.5; 10.5; 10.5; 11; 11; 11; 11; 11; 11; 11.5; 11.5; 11.5
x

=
9 + 9.5(2) + 10(4) + 10.5(4) + 11(6) + 11.5(3)
20
= 10.525
5GD @UDQ@FD @FD HR 10.53 XD@QR, QNTMCDC SN SVN OK@BDR.
5GD U@QH@MBD L@X AD B@KBTK@SDC AX TRHMF @ S@AKD. 5GDM SGD RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNM HR B@KBTK@SDC AX S@JHMF SGD
RPT@QD QNNS NE SGD U@QH@MBD. 8D VHKK DWOK@HM SGD O@QSR NE SGD S@AKD @ESDQ B@KBTK@SHMF I.
";N; $L?K. "?PC;NCIHM
D)8-%6-215
2
($L?K.)(D)8-%6-215
2
)
/ ! (/ _ x

) (/ _ x

)
2
(!)(/ _ x

)
2
9 1 9 _ 10.525 = _1.525
(_1.525)
2
=
2.325625
1 Z 2.325625 =
2.325625
9.5 2 9.5 _ 10.525 = _1.025
(_1.025)
2
=
1.050625
2 Z 1.050625 =
2.101250
10 4 10 _ 10.525 = _0.525
(_0.525)
2
=
0.275625
4 Z 0.275625 = 1.1025
10.5 4
10.5 _ 10.525 =
_0.025
(_0.025)
2
=
0.000625
4 Z 0.000625 = 0.0025
11 6 11 _ 10.525 = 0.475
(0.475)
2
= 0.225625
6 Z 0.225625 = 1.35375
11.5 3 11.5 _ 10.525 = 0.975
(0.975)
2
= 0.950625
3 Z 0.950625 =
2.851875
3DA PKP=H EO 9.7375
2;<F? 2.1
5GD R@LOKD U@QH@MBD, I
2
, HR DPT@K SN SGD RTL NE SGD K@RS BNKTLM (9.7375) CHUHCDC AX SGD SNS@K MTLADQ NE C@S@
U@KTDR LHMTR NMD (20 k 1):
s
2
=
9.7375
20 1
= 0.5125
5GD H6BEA: HI6C96G9 9:K>6I>DC I HR DPT@K SN SGD RPT@QD QNNS NE SGD R@LOKD U@QH@MBD:
76 "'/3$1 2 W #$2"1(/3(5$ 233(23("2
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s = 0.5125 = 0.0715891, VGHBG HR QNTMCDC SN SVN CDBHL@K OK@BDR, I = 0.72.
1NE>86AAN, NDJ 9D I=: 86A8JA6I>DC ;DG I=: HI6C96G9 9:K>6I>DC DC NDJG 86A8JA6IDG DG 8DBEJI:G. 5GD
HMSDQLDCH@SD QDRTKSR @QD MNS QNTMCDC. 5GHR HR CNMD ENQ @BBTQ@BX.
c 'NQ SGD ENKKNVHMF OQNAKDLR, QDB@KK SG@S K6AJ: = B:6C + (#D;01!"3H)(HI6C96G9 9:K>6I>DC). 7DQHEX SGD
LD@M @MC RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNM NQ @ B@KBTK@SNQ NQ BNLOTSDQ.
c 'NQ @ R@LOKD: N = x

+ (#NE45%&7R)(I)
c 'NQ @ ONOTK@SHNM: N = Z + (#NE45%&7R)(\)
c 'NQ SGHR DW@LOKD, TRD N = x

+ (#NE45%&7R)(I) ADB@TRD SGD C@S@ HR EQNL @ R@LOKD


=. 7DQHEX SGD LD@M @MC RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNM NM XNTQ B@KBTK@SNQ NQ BNLOTSDQ.
>. 'HMC SGD U@KTD SG@S HR NMD RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNM @ANUD SGD LD@M. 'HMC ( x

+ 1R).
?. 'HMC SGD U@KTD SG@S HR SVN RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNMR ADKNV SGD LD@M. 'HMC ( x

k 2R).
@. 'HMC SGD U@KTDR SG@S @QD 1.5 RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNMR ;GDB(ADKNV @MC @ANUD) SGD LD@M.
1IFONCIH 2.1
=. i $KD@Q KHRSR -1 @MC -2. 1QDRR 45"5 4:$KQ-HRS. &MSDQ 2MC 1 ENQ -1, SGD BNLL@ (,), @MC 2MC 2 ENQ -2.
i &MSDQ C@S@ HMSN SGD KHRS DCHSNQ. 1QDRR 45"5 1:&%*5. *E MDBDRR@QX, BKD@Q SGD KHRSR AX @QQNVHMF TO HMSN
SGD M@LD. 1QDRR $-&"3 @MC @QQNV CNVM.
i 1TS SGD C@S@ U@KTDR (9, 9.5, 10, 10.5, 11, 11.5) HMSN KHRS -1 @MC SGD EQDPTDMBHDR (1, 2, 4, 4, 6, 3) HMSN
KHRS -2. 6RD SGD @QQNV JDXR SN LNUD @QNTMC.
i 1QDRR 45"5 @MC @QQNV SN $"-$. 1QDRR 1:1-7@Q4S@SR @MC DMSDQ -1 (2MC 1), -2 (2MC 2). %N MNS
ENQFDS SGD BNLL@. 1QDRR &/5&3.
i x

= 10.525
i 6RD 4W ADB@TRD SGHR HR R@LOKD C@S@ (MNS @ ONOTK@SHNM): 4W=0.715891
>. ( x

+ 1R) = 10.53 + (1)(0.72) = 11.25


?. ( x

k 2I) = 10.53 k (2)(0.72) = 9.09


@. i ( x

k 1.5I) = 10.53 k (1.5)(0.72) = 9.45


i ( x

+ 1.5I) = 10.53 + (1.5)(0.72) = 11.61


2.1 0M @ A@RDA@KK SD@L, SGD @FDR NE D@BG NE SGD OK@XDQR @QD @R ENKKNVR:
21; 21; 22; 23; 24; 24; 25; 25; 28; 29; 29; 31; 32; 33; 33; 34; 35; 36; 36; 36; 36; 38; 38; 38; 40
6RD XNTQ B@KBTK@SNQ NQ BNLOTSDQ SN EHMC SGD LD@M @MC RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNM. 5GDM EHMC SGD U@KTD SG@S HR SVN RS@MC@QC
CDUH@SHNMR @ANUD SGD LD@M.
#RJF;H;NCIH I@ NB? MN;H>;L> >?PC;NCIH =;F=OF;NCIH MBIQH CH NB? N;<F?
5GD CDUH@SHNMR RGNV GNV ROQD@C NTS SGD C@S@ @QD @ANTS SGD LD@M. 5GD C@S@ U@KTD 11.5 HR E@QSGDQ EQNL SGD LD@M SG@M HR SGD
C@S@ U@KTD 11 VGHBG HR HMCHB@SDC AX SGD CDUH@SHNMR 0.97 @MC 0.47. " ONRHSHUD CDUH@SHNM NBBTQR VGDM SGD C@S@ U@KTD HR FQD@SDQ
SG@M SGD LD@M, VGDQD@R @ MDF@SHUD CDUH@SHNM NBBTQR VGDM SGD C@S@ U@KTD HR KDRR SG@M SGD LD@M. 5GD CDUH@SHNM HR k1.525 ENQ
SGD C@S@ U@KTD MHMD. &; NDJ 699 I=: 9:K>6I>DCH, I=: HJB >H 6AL6NH O:GD. ('NQ #R;GJF? 2.1, SGDQD @QD D = 20 CDUH@SHNMR.)
4N XNT B@MMNS RHLOKX @CC SGD CDUH@SHNMR SN FDS SGD ROQD@C NE SGD C@S@. #X RPT@QHMF SGD CDUH@SHNMR, XNT L@JD SGDL ONRHSHUD
MTLADQR, @MC SGD RTL VHKK @KRN AD ONRHSHUD. 5GD U@QH@MBD, SGDM, HR SGD @UDQ@FD RPT@QDC CDUH@SHNM.
5GD U@QH@MBD HR @ RPT@QDC LD@RTQD @MC CNDR MNS G@UD SGD R@LD TMHSR @R SGD C@S@. 5@JHMF SGD RPT@QD QNNS RNKUDR SGD
OQNAKDL. 5GD RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNM LD@RTQDR SGD ROQD@C HM SGD R@LD TMHSR @R SGD C@S@.
/NSHBD SG@S HMRSD@C NE CHUHCHMF AX D = 20, SGD B@KBTK@SHNM CHUHCDC AX D k 1 = 20 k 1 = 19 ADB@TRD SGD C@S@ HR @ R@LOKD.
'NQ SGD H6BEA: U@QH@MBD, VD CHUHCD AX SGD R@LOKD RHYD LHMTR NMD (D k 1). 8GX MNS CHUHCD AX D 5GD @MRVDQ G@R SN CN
"'/3$1 2 W #$2"1(/3(5$ 233(23("2 77
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VHSG SGD ONOTK@SHNM U@QH@MBD. 1=: H6BEA: K6G>6C8: >H 6C :HI>B6I: D; I=: EDEJA6I>DC K6G>6C8:. #@RDC NM SGD SGDNQDSHB@K
L@SGDL@SHBR SG@S KHDR ADGHMC SGDRD B@KBTK@SHNMR, CHUHCHMF AX (D k 1) FHUDR @ ADSSDQ DRSHL@SD NE SGD ONOTK@SHNM U@QH@MBD.
,-2#
:NTQ BNMBDMSQ@SHNM RGNTKC AD NM VG@S SGD RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNM SDKKR TR @ANTS SGD C@S@. 5GD RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNM HR @
MTLADQ VGHBG LD@RTQDR GNV E@Q SGD C@S@ @QD ROQD@C EQNL SGD LD@M. -DS @ B@KBTK@SNQ NQ BNLOTSDQ CN SGD
@QHSGLDSHB.
5GD RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNM, I NQ \, HR DHSGDQ YDQN NQ K@QFDQ SG@M YDQN. 8GDM SGD RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNM HR YDQN, SGDQD HR MN ROQD@C;
SG@S HR, SGD @KK SGD C@S@ U@KTDR @QD DPT@K SN D@BG NSGDQ. 5GD RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNM HR RL@KK VGDM SGD C@S@ @QD @KK BNMBDMSQ@SDC
BKNRD SN SGD LD@M, @MC HR K@QFDQ VGDM SGD C@S@ U@KTDR RGNV LNQD U@QH@SHNM EQNL SGD LD@M. 8GDM SGD RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNM HR @
KNS K@QFDQ SG@M YDQN, SGD C@S@ U@KTDR @QD UDQX ROQD@C NTS @ANTS SGD LD@M; NTSKHDQR B@M L@JD I NQ \ UDQX K@QFD.
5GD RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNM, VGDM EHQRS OQDRDMSDC, B@M RDDL TMBKD@Q. #X FQ@OGHMF XNTQ C@S@, XNT B@M FDS @ ADSSDQ "EDDK"
ENQ SGD CDUH@SHNMR @MC SGD RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNM. :NT VHKK EHMC SG@S HM RXLLDSQHB@K CHRSQHATSHNMR, SGD RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNM B@M AD
UDQX GDKOETK ATS HM RJDVDC CHRSQHATSHNMR, SGD RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNM L@X MNS AD LTBG GDKO. 5GD QD@RNM HR SG@S SGD SVN RHCDR NE
@ RJDVDC CHRSQHATSHNM G@UD CHEEDQDMS ROQD@CR. *M @ RJDVDC CHRSQHATSHNM, HS HR ADSSDQ SN KNNJ @S SGD EHQRS PT@QSHKD, SGD LDCH@M,
SGD SGHQC PT@QSHKD, SGD RL@KKDRS U@KTD, @MC SGD K@QFDRS U@KTD. #DB@TRD MTLADQR B@M AD BNMETRHMF, 6AL6NH <G6E= NDJG 96I6.
%HROK@X XNTQ C@S@ HM @ GHRSNFQ@L NQ @ ANW OKNS.
$T=ILHA 2.2
6RD SGD ENKKNVHMF C@S@ (EHQRS DW@L RBNQDR) EQNL 4TR@M %D@M'R ROQHMF OQD-B@KBTKTR BK@RR:
33; 42; 49; 49; 53; 55; 55; 61; 63; 67; 68; 68; 69; 69; 72; 73; 74; 78; 80; 83; 88; 88; 88; 90; 92; 94; 94; 94; 94;
96; 100
=. $QD@SD @ BG@QS BNMS@HMHMF SGD C@S@, EQDPTDMBHDR, QDK@SHUD EQDPTDMBHDR, @MC BTLTK@SHUD QDK@SHUD EQDPTDMBHDR SN
SGQDD CDBHL@K OK@BDR.
>. $@KBTK@SD SGD ENKKNVHMF SN NMD CDBHL@K OK@BD TRHMF @ 5*-83+ NQ 5*-84 B@KBTK@SNQ:
E. 5GD R@LOKD LD@M
EE. 5GD R@LOKD RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNM
EEE. 5GD LDCH@M
ER. 5GD EHQRS PT@QSHKD
R. 5GD SGHQC PT@QSHKD
RE. "*+
?. $NMRSQTBS @ ANW OKNS @MC @ GHRSNFQ@L NM SGD R@LD RDS NE @WDR. .@JD BNLLDMSR @ANTS SGD ANW OKNS, SGD
GHRSNFQ@L, @MC SGD BG@QS.
1IFONCIH 2.2
=.
";N; $L?KO?H=S 0?F;NCP? $L?KO?H=S !OGOF;NCP? 0?F;NCP? $L?KO?H=S
33 1 0.032 0.032
42 1 0.032 0.064
49 2 0.065 0.129
53 1 0.032 0.161
55 2 0.065 0.226
2;<F? 2.2
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";N; $L?KO?H=S 0?F;NCP? $L?KO?H=S !OGOF;NCP? 0?F;NCP? $L?KO?H=S
61 1 0.032 0.258
63 1 0.032 0.29
67 1 0.032 0.322
68 2 0.065 0.387
69 2 0.065 0.452
72 1 0.032 0.484
73 1 0.032 0.516
74 1 0.032 0.548
78 1 0.032 0.580
80 1 0.032 0.612
83 1 0.032 0.644
88 3 0.097 0.741
90 1 0.032 0.773
92 1 0.032 0.805
94 4 0.129 0.934
96 1 0.032 0.966
100 1 0.032 0.998 (6DU EOJ'P PDEO R=HQA 1?)
2;<F? 2.2
>. E. 5GD R@LOKD LD@M = 73.5
EE. 5GD R@LOKD RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNM = 17.9
EEE. 5GD LDCH@M = 73
ER. 5GD EHQRS PT@QSHKD = 61
R. 5GD SGHQC PT@QSHKD = 90
RE. "*+ = 90 k 61 = 29
"'/3$1 2 W #$2"1(/3(5$ 233(23("2 79
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?. 5GD N-@WHR FNDR EQNL32.5 SN 100.5; O-@WHR FNDR EQNLk2.4 SN 15 ENQ SGD GHRSNFQ@L. 5GD MTLADQ NE HMSDQU@KR HR
EHUD, RN SGD VHCSG NE @M HMSDQU@K HR (100.5 k 32.5) CHUHCDC AX EHUD, HR DPT@K SN 13.6. &MCONHMSR NE SGD HMSDQU@KR
@QD @R ENKKNVR: SGD RS@QSHMF ONHMS HR 32.5, 32.5 + 13.6 = 46.1, 46.1 + 13.6 = 59.7, 59.7 + 13.6 = 73.3, 73.3 +
13.6 = 86.9, 86.9 + 13.6 = 100.5 = SGD DMCHMF U@KTD; /N C@S@ U@KTDR E@KK NM @M HMSDQU@K ANTMC@QX.
$CAOL? 2.3
5GD KNMF KDES VGHRJDQ HM SGD ANW OKNS HR QDEKDBSDC HM SGD KDES RHCD NE SGD GHRSNFQ@L. 5GD ROQD@C NE SGD DW@L RBNQDR
HM SGD KNVDQ 50% HR FQD@SDQ (73 k 33 = 40) SG@M SGD ROQD@C HM SGD TOODQ 50% (100 k 73 = 27). 5GD GHRSNFQ@L,
ANW OKNS, @MC BG@QS @KK QDEKDBS SGHR. 5GDQD @QD @ RTARS@MSH@K MTLADQ NE " @MC # FQ@CDR (80R, 90R, @MC 100). 5GD
GHRSNFQ@L BKD@QKX RGNVR SGHR. 5GD ANW OKNS RGNVR TR SG@S SGD LHCCKD 50% NE SGD DW@L RBNQDR ("*+ = 29) @QD %R,
$R, @MC #R. 5GD ANW OKNS @KRN RGNVR TR SG@S SGD KNVDQ 25% NE SGD DW@L RBNQDR @QD %R @MC 'R.
2.2 5GD ENKKNVHMF C@S@ RGNV SGD CHEEDQDMS SXODR NE ODS ENNC RSNQDR HM SGD @QD@ B@QQX.
6; 6; 6; 6; 7; 7; 7; 7; 7; 8; 9; 9; 9; 9; 10; 10; 10; 10; 10; 11; 11; 11; 11; 12; 12; 12; 12; 12; 12;
$@KBTK@SD SGD R@LOKD LD@M @MC SGD R@LOKD RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNM SN NMD CDBHL@K OK@BD TRHMF @ 5*-83+ NQ 5*-84 B@KBTK@SNQ.
1N;H>;L> >?PC;NCIH I@ %LIOJ?> $L?KO?H=S 2;<F?M
3DB@KK SG@S ENQ FQNTODC C@S@ VD CN MNS JMNV HMCHUHCT@K C@S@ U@KTDR, RN VD B@MMNS CDRBQHAD SGD SXOHB@K U@KTD NE SGD C@S@ VHSG
OQDBHRHNM. *M NSGDQ VNQCR, VD B@MMNS EHMC SGD DW@BS LD@M, LDCH@M, NQ LNCD. 8D B@M, GNVDUDQ, CDSDQLHMD SGD ADRS DRSHL@SD NE
SGD LD@RTQDR NE BDMSDQ AX EHMCHMF SGD LD@M NE SGD FQNTODC C@S@ VHSG SGD ENQLTK@: Mean of Frequency Table =
f m
f
VGDQD f = HMSDQU@K EQDPTDMBHDR @MC C = HMSDQU@K LHCONHMSR.
VGDQD f = HMSDQU@K EQDPTDMBHDR @MC C = HMSDQU@K LHCONHMSR.
80 "'/3$1 2 W #$2"1(/3(5$ 233(23("2
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+TRS @R VD BNTKC MNS EHMC SGD DW@BS LD@M, MDHSGDQ B@M VD EHMC SGD DW@BS RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNM. 3DLDLADQ SG@S RS@MC@QC
CDUH@SHNM CDRBQHADR MTLDQHB@KKX SGD DWODBSDC CDUH@SHNM @ C@S@ U@KTD G@R EQNL SGD LD@M. *M RHLOKD &MFKHRG, SGD RS@MC@QC
CDUH@SHNM @KKNVR TR SN BNLO@QD GNV oTMTRT@Kp HMCHUHCT@K C@S@ HR BNLO@QDC SN SGD LD@M.
$T=ILHA 2.3
'HMC SGD RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNM ENQ SGD C@S@ HM 2;<F? 2.3.
!F;MM $L?KO?H=S, * +C>JICHN, 0
0
2
x
V 2
*0
2
1N;H>;L> "?PC;NCIH
0_2 1 1 1 7.58 1 3.5
3_5 6 4 16 7.58 96 3.5
6_8 10 7 49 7.58 490 3.5
9_11 7 10 100 7.58 700 3.5
12_14 0 13 169 7.58 0 3.5
15_17 2 16 256 7.58 512 3.5
2;<F? 2.3
'NQ SGHR C@S@ RDS, VD G@UD SGD LD@M, x

= 7.58 @MC SGD RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNM, I


N
= 3.5. 5GHR LD@MR SG@S @
Q@MCNLKX RDKDBSDC C@S@ U@KTD VNTKC AD DWODBSDC SN AD 3.5 TMHSR EQNL SGD LD@M. *E VD KNNJ @S SGD EHQRS BK@RR, VD
RDD SG@S SGD BK@RR LHCONHMS HR DPT@K SN NMD. 5GHR HR @KLNRS SVN ETKK RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNMR EQNL SGD LD@M RHMBD 7.58 k
3.5 k 3.5 = 0.58. 8GHKD SGD ENQLTK@ ENQ B@KBTK@SHMF SGD RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNM HR MNS BNLOKHB@SDC, s
x
=
f (m x

)
2
n 1
VGDQD I
N
= R@LOKD RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNM, x

= R@LOKD LD@M, SGD B@KBTK@SHNMR @QD SDCHNTR. *S HR TRT@KKX ADRS SN TRD


SDBGMNKNFX VGDM ODQENQLHMF SGD B@KBTK@SHNMR.
"'/3$1 2 W #$2"1(/3(5$ 233(23("2 81
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2.3 'HMC SGD RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNM ENQ SGD C@S@ EQNL SGD OQDUHNTR DW@LOKD
!F;MM $L?KO?H=S, *
0_2 1
3_5 6
6_8 10
9_11 7
12_14 0
15_17 2
2;<F? 2.4
'HQRS, OQDRR SGD 01A1 JDX @MC RDKDBS 1:"9>I
$CAOL? 2.4
*MOTS SGD LHCONHMS U@KTDR HMSN )1 @MC SGD EQDPTDMBHDR HMSN )2
$CAOL? 2.5
4DKDBS 01A1, A), @MC 1: 1-36G 0I6IH
82 "'/3$1 2 W #$2"1(/3(5$ 233(23("2
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$CAOL? 2.6
4DKDBS 2
C9
SGDM 1 SGDM , 2
C9
SGDM 2 "CI:G
$CAOL? 2.7
:NT VHKK RDD CHROK@XDC ANSG @ ONOTK@SHNM RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNM, \
N
, @MC SGD R@LOKD RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNM, I
N
.
!IGJ;LCHA 4;FO?M @LIG "C@@?L?HN ";N; 1?NM
5GD RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNM HR TRDETK VGDM BNLO@QHMF C@S@ U@KTDR SG@S BNLD EQNL CHEEDQDMS C@S@ RDSR. *E SGD C@S@ RDSR G@UD
CHEEDQDMS LD@MR @MC RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNMR, SGDM BNLO@QHMF SGD C@S@ U@KTDR CHQDBSKX B@M AD LHRKD@CHMF.
c 'NQ D@BG C@S@ U@KTD, B@KBTK@SD GNV L@MX RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNMR @V@X EQNL HSR LD@M SGD U@KTD HR.
c 6RD SGD ENQLTK@: U@KTD = LD@M + (#NE45%&7R)(RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNM); RNKUD ENQ #NE45%&7R.
c # of STDEVs =
value mean
standard deviation
c $NLO@QD SGD QDRTKSR NE SGHR B@KBTK@SHNM.
#NE45%&7R HR NESDM B@KKDC @ "P-RBNQD"; VD B@M TRD SGD RXLANK P. *M RXLANKR, SGD ENQLTK@R ADBNLD:
"'/3$1 2 W #$2"1(/3(5$ 233(23("2 83
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2=ILHA x = x

+ 1+ z =
x x

s
/KLQH=PEKJ
x = + 16 z =
x

2;<F? 2.5
$T=ILHA 2.4
5VN RSTCDMSR, +NGM @MC "KH, EQNL CHEEDQDMS GHFG RBGNNKR, V@MSDC SN EHMC NTS VGN G@C SGD GHFGDRS (1". VGDM
BNLO@QDC SN GHR RBGNNK. 8GHBG RSTCDMS G@C SGD GHFGDRS (1". VGDM BNLO@QDC SN GHR RBGNNK
1NO>?HN %.A 1=BIIF +?;H %.A 1=BIIF 1N;H>;L> "?PC;NCIH
)KDJ 2.85 3.0 0.7
HE 77 80 10
2;<F? 2.6
1IFONCIH 2.4
'NQ D@BG RSTCDMS, CDSDQLHMD GNV L@MX RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNMR (#NE45%&7R) GHR (1" HR @V@X EQNL SGD @UDQ@FD, ENQ
GHR RBGNNK. 1@X B@QDETK @SSDMSHNM SN RHFMR VGDM BNLO@QHMF @MC HMSDQOQDSHMF SGD @MRVDQ.
# of STDEVs =
value mean
standard deviation
z =
x +

'NQ +NGM, z = # of STDEVs =


2.85 3.0
0.7
= 0.21
'NQ "KH, z = # of STDEVs =
77 80
10
= 0.3
+NGM G@R SGD ADSSDQ (1" VGDM BNLO@QDC SN GHR RBGNNK ADB@TRD GHR (1" HR 0.21 RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNMR 7:ADL
GHR RBGNNK'R LD@M VGHKD "KH'R (1" HR 0.3 RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNMR 7:ADL GHR RBGNNK'R LD@M.
+NGM'R P-RBNQD NE k0.21 HR GHFGDQ SG@M "KH'R P-RBNQD NE k0.3. 'NQ (1", GHFGDQ U@KTDR @QD ADSSDQ, RN VD BNMBKTCD
SG@S +NGM G@R SGD ADSSDQ (1" VGDM BNLO@QDC SN GHR RBGNNK.
2.4 5VN RVHLLDQR, "MFHD @MC #DSG, EQNL CHEEDQDMS SD@LR, V@MSDC SN EHMC NTS VGN G@C SGD E@RSDRS SHLD ENQ SGD 50
LDSDQ EQDDRSXKD VGDM BNLO@QDC SN GDQ SD@L. 8GHBG RVHLLDQ G@C SGD E@RSDRS SHLD VGDM BNLO@QDC SN GDQ SD@L
1QCGG?L 2CG? (M?=IH>M) 2?;G +?;H 2CG? 2?;G 1N;H>;L> "?PC;NCIH
JCEA 26.2 27.2 0.8
!APD 27.3 30.1 1.4
2;<F? 2.7
84 "'/3$1 2 W #$2"1(/3(5$ 233(23("2
3DEO ?KJPAJP EO =R=EH=>HA BKN BNAA =P DPPL://?JT.KNC/?KJPAJP/?KH11562/1.11
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5GD ENKKNVHMF KHRSR FHUD @ EDV E@BSR SG@S OQNUHCD @ KHSSKD LNQD HMRHFGS HMSN VG@S SGD RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNM SDKKR TR @ANTS SGD
CHRSQHATSHNM NE SGD C@S@.
%KN -8 @=P= OAP, JK I=PPAN SD=P PDA @EOPNE>QPEKJ KB PDA @=P= EO:
c "S KD@RS 75% NE SGD C@S@ HR VHSGHM SVN RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNMR NE SGD LD@M.
c "S KD@RS 89% NE SGD C@S@ HR VHSGHM SGQDD RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNMR NE SGD LD@M.
c "S KD@RS 95% NE SGD C@S@ HR VHSGHM 4.5 RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNMR NE SGD LD@M.
c 5GHR HR JMNVM @R $GDAXRGDU'R 3TKD.
%KN @=P= D=REJC = @EOPNE>QPEKJ PD=P EO !$++-2'/$# =J@ 28,,$31(":
c "OOQNWHL@SDKX 68% NE SGD C@S@ HR VHSGHM NMD RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNM NE SGD LD@M.
c "OOQNWHL@SDKX 95% NE SGD C@S@ HR VHSGHM SVN RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNMR NE SGD LD@M.
c .NQD SG@M 99% NE SGD C@S@ HR VHSGHM SGQDD RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNMR NE SGD LD@M.
c 5GHR HR JMNVM @R SGD &LOHQHB@K 3TKD.
c *S HR HLONQS@MS SN MNSD SG@S SGHR QTKD NMKX @OOKHDR VGDM SGD RG@OD NE SGD CHRSQHATSHNM NE SGD C@S@ HR LNTMC-RG@ODC @MC
RXLLDSQHB. 8D VHKK KD@QM LNQD @ANTS SGHR VGDM RSTCXHMF SGD "/NQL@K" NQ "(@TRRH@M" OQNA@AHKHSX CHRSQHATSHNM HM K@SDQ
BG@OSDQR.
"'/3$1 2 W #$2"1(/3(5$ 233(23("2 85
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2.1 "?M=LCJNCP? 1N;NCMNC=M
$K@RR 5HLD:
/@LDR:
1NO>?HN *?;LHCHA -ON=IG?M
c 5GD RSTCDMS VHKK BNMRSQTBS @ GHRSNFQ@L @MC @ ANW OKNS.
c 5GD RSTCDMS VHKK B@KBTK@SD TMHU@QH@SD RS@SHRSHBR.
c 5GD RSTCDMS VHKK DW@LHMD SGD FQ@OGR SN HMSDQOQDS VG@S SGD C@S@ HLOKHDR.
!IFF?=N NB? ";N;
3DBNQC SGD MTLADQ NE O@HQR NE RGNDR XNT NVM.
1. 3@MCNLKX RTQUDX 30 BK@RRL@SDR @ANTS SGD MTLADQ NE O@HQR NE RGNDR SGDX NVM. 3DBNQC SGDHQ U@KTDR.
<<<<< <<<<< <<<<< <<<<< <<<<<
<<<<< <<<<< <<<<< <<<<< <<<<<
<<<<< <<<<< <<<<< <<<<< <<<<<
<<<<< <<<<< <<<<< <<<<< <<<<<
<<<<< <<<<< <<<<< <<<<< <<<<<
<<<<< <<<<< <<<<< <<<<< <<<<<
2;<F? 2.8 1OLP?S 0?MOFNM
2. $NMRSQTBS @ GHRSNFQ@L. .@JD EHUD SN RHW HMSDQU@KR. 4JDSBG SGD FQ@OG TRHMF @ QTKDQ @MC ODMBHK @MC RB@KD SGD @WDR.
$CAOL? 2.8
3. $@KBTK@SD SGD ENKKNVHMF U@KTDR.
=. x

= ?????
>. I = ?????
4. "QD SGD C@S@ CHRBQDSD NQ BNMSHMTNTR )NV CN XNT JMNV
86 "'/3$1 2 W #$2"1(/3(5$ 233(23("2
3DEO ?KJPAJP EO =R=EH=>HA BKN BNAA =P DPPL://?JT.KNC/?KJPAJP/?KH11562/1.11
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5. *M BNLOKDSD RDMSDMBDR, CDRBQHAD SGD RG@OD NE SGD GHRSNFQ@L.
6. "QD SGDQD @MX ONSDMSH@K NTSKHDQR -HRS SGD U@KTD(R) SG@S BNTKC AD NTSKHDQR. 6RD @ ENQLTK@ SN BGDBJ SGD DMC U@KTDR SN
CDSDQLHMD HE SGDX @QD ONSDMSH@K NTSKHDQR.
AH;FST? NB? ";N;
1. %DSDQLHMD SGD ENKKNVHMF U@KTDR.
=. .HM = ?????
>. & = ?????
?. .@W = ?????
@. *
1
= ?????
A. *
3
= ?????
B. "*+ = ?????
2. $NMRSQTBS @ ANW OKNS NE C@S@
3. 8G@S CNDR SGD RG@OD NE SGD ANW OKNS HLOKX @ANTS SGD BNMBDMSQ@SHNM NE C@S@ 6RD BNLOKDSD RDMSDMBDR.
4. 6RHMF SGD ANW OKNS, GNV B@M XNT CDSDQLHMD HE SGDQD @QD ONSDMSH@K NTSKHDQR
5. )NV CNDR SGD RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNM GDKO XNT SN CDSDQLHMD BNMBDMSQ@SHNM NE SGD C@S@ @MC VGDSGDQ NQ MNS SGDQD @QD
ONSDMSH@K NTSKHDQR
6. 8G@S CNDR SGD "*+ QDOQDRDMS HM SGHR OQNAKDL
7. 4GNV XNTQ VNQJ SN EHMC SGD U@KTD SG@S HR 1.5 RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNMR:
=. @ANUD SGD LD@M.
>. ADKNV SGD LD@M.
2.2 U 1N?G-;H>-*?;@ %L;JBM (1N?GJFINM), *CH? %L;JBM, ;H>
;L %L;JBM
0MD RHLOKD FQ@OG, SGD HI:B-6C9-A:6; <G6E= NQ HI:BEADI, BNLDR EQNL SGD EHDKC NE DWOKNQ@SNQX C@S@ @M@KXRHR. *S HR @ FNNC
BGNHBD VGDM SGD C@S@ RDSR @QD RL@KK. 5N BQD@SD SGD OKNS, CHUHCD D@BG NARDQU@SHNM NE C@S@ HMSN @ RSDL @MC @ KD@E. 5GD KD@E
BNMRHRSR NE @ ;>C6A H><C>;>86CI 9><>I. 'NQ DW@LOKD, 23 G@R RSDLSVN @MC KD@E SGQDD. 5GD MTLADQ 432 G@R RSDL43 @MC KD@E SVN.
-HJDVHRD, SGD MTLADQ 5,432 G@R RSDL 543 @MC KD@E SVN. 5GD CDBHL@K 9.3 G@R RSDL MHMD @MC KD@E SGQDD. 8QHSD SGD RSDLR HM @
UDQSHB@K KHMD EQNL RL@KKDRS SN K@QFDRS. %Q@V @ UDQSHB@K KHMD SN SGD QHFGS NE SGD RSDLR. 5GDM VQHSD SGD KD@UDR HM HMBQD@RHMF NQCDQ
MDWS SN SGDHQ BNQQDRONMCHMF RSDL.
$T=ILHA 2.5
'NQ 4TR@M %D@M'R ROQHMF OQD-B@KBTKTR BK@RR, RBNQDR ENQ SGD EHQRS DW@L VDQD @R ENKKNVR (RL@KKDRS SN K@QFDRS):
33; 42; 49; 49; 53; 55; 55; 61; 63; 67; 68; 68; 69; 69; 72; 73; 74; 78; 80; 83; 88; 88; 88; 90; 92; 94; 94; 94; 94;
96; 100
1N?G *?;@
3 3
4 2 9 9
5 3 5 5
6 1 3 7 8 8 9 9
7 2 3 4 8
2;<F? 2.9 1N?G-;H>-*?;@
%L;JB
"'/3$1 2 W #$2"1(/3(5$ 233(23("2 87
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1N?G *?;@
8 0 3 8 8 8
9 0 2 4 4 4 4 6
10 0
2;<F? 2.9 1N?G-;H>-*?;@
%L;JB
5GD RSDLOKNS RGNVR SG@S LNRS RBNQDR EDKK HM SGD 60R, 70R, 80R, @MC 90R. &HFGS NTS NE SGD 31 RBNQDR NQ
@OOQNWHL@SDKX 26%

8
31

VDQD HM SGD 90R NQ 100, @ E@HQKX GHFG MTLADQ NE "R.


2.5 'NQ SGD 1@QJ $HSX A@RJDSA@KK SD@L, RBNQDR ENQ SGD K@RS 30 F@LDR VDQD @R ENKKNVR (RL@KKDRS SN K@QFDRS):
32; 32; 33; 34; 38; 40; 42; 42; 43; 44; 46; 47; 47; 48; 48; 48; 49; 50; 50; 51; 52; 52; 52; 53; 54; 56; 57; 57; 60; 61
$NMRSQTBS @ RSDL OKNS ENQ SGD C@S@.
88 "'/3$1 2 W #$2"1(/3(5$ 233(23("2
3DEO ?KJPAJP EO =R=EH=>HA BKN BNAA =P DPPL://?JT.KNC/?KJPAJP/?KH11562/1.11
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5GD RSDLOKNS HR @ PTHBJ V@X SN FQ@OG C@S@ @MC FHUDR @M DW@BS OHBSTQD NE SGD C@S@. :NT V@MS SN KNNJ ENQ @M NUDQ@KK O@SSDQM
@MC @MX NTSKHDQR. "M DJIA>:G HR @M NARDQU@SHNM NE C@S@ SG@S CNDR MNS EHS SGD QDRS NE SGD C@S@. *S HR RNLDSHLDR B@KKDC @M :MIG:B:
K6AJ:. 8GDM XNT FQ@OG @M NTSKHDQ, HS VHKK @OOD@Q MNS SN EHS SGD O@SSDQM NE SGD FQ@OG. 4NLD NTSKHDQR @QD CTD SN LHRS@JDR (ENQ
DW@LOKD, VQHSHMF CNVM 50 HMRSD@C NE 500) VGHKD NSGDQR L@X HMCHB@SD SG@S RNLDSGHMF TMTRT@K HR G@OODMHMF. *S S@JDR RNLD
A@BJFQNTMC HMENQL@SHNM SN DWOK@HM NTSKHDQR, RN VD VHKK BNUDQ SGDL HM LNQD CDS@HK K@SDQ.
$T=ILHA 2.6
5GD C@S@ @QD SGD CHRS@MBDR (HM JHKNLDSDQR) EQNL @ GNLD SN KNB@K RTODQL@QJDSR. $QD@SD @ RSDLOKNS TRHMF SGD C@S@:
1.1; 1.5; 2.3; 2.5; 2.7; 3.2; 3.3; 3.3; 3.5; 3.8; 4.0; 4.2; 4.5; 4.5; 4.7; 4.8; 5.5; 5.6; 6.5; 6.7; 12.3
%N SGD C@S@ RDDL SN G@UD @MX BNMBDMSQ@SHNM NE U@KTDR
%N SGD C@S@ RDDL SN G@UD @MX BNMBDMSQ@SHNM NE U@KTDR
&',2
5GD KD@UDR @QD SN SGD QHFGS NE SGD CDBHL@K.
1IFONCIH 2.6
5GD U@KTD 12.3 L@X AD @M NTSKHDQ. 7@KTDR @OOD@Q SN BNMBDMSQ@SD @S SGQDD @MC ENTQ JHKNLDSDQR.
1N?G *?;@
1 1 5
2 3 5 7
3 2 3 3 5 8
4 0 2 5 5 7 8
5 5 6
6 5 7
7
8
9
10
11
12 3
2;<F? 2.10
"'/3$1 2 W #$2"1(/3(5$ 233(23("2 89
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2.6 5GD ENKKNVHMF C@S@ RGNV SGD CHRS@MBDR (HM LHKDR) EQNL SGD GNLDR NE NEE-B@LOTR RS@SHRSHBR RSTCDMSR SN SGD BNKKDFD.
$QD@SD @ RSDL OKNS TRHMF SGD C@S@ @MC HCDMSHEX @MX NTSKHDQR:
0.5; 0.7; 1.1; 1.2; 1.2; 1.3; 1.3; 1.5; 1.5; 1.7; 1.7; 1.8; 1.9; 2.0; 2.2; 2.5; 2.6; 2.8; 2.8; 2.8; 3.5; 3.8; 4.4; 4.8; 4.9; 5.2;
5.5; 5.7; 5.8; 8.0
$T=ILHA 2.7
" H>9:-7N-H>9: HI:B-6C9-A:6; EADI @KKNVR @ BNLO@QHRNM NE SGD SVN C@S@ RDSR HM SVN BNKTLMR. *M @ RHCD-AX-RHCD
RSDL-@MC-KD@E OKNS, SVN RDSR NE KD@UDR RG@QD SGD R@LD RSDL. 5GD KD@UDR @QD SN SGD KDES @MC SGD QHFGS NE SGD RSDLR.
2;<F? 2.10 @MC 2;<F? 2.11 RGNV SGD @FDR NE OQDRHCDMSR @S SGDHQ HM@TFTQ@SHNM @MC @S SGDHQ CD@SG. $NMRSQTBS @ RHCD-
AX-RHCD RSDL-@MC-KD@E OKNS TRHMF SGHR C@S@.
.L?MC>?HN AA? .L?MC>?HN AA? .L?MC>?HN AA?
6=ODEJCPKJ 57 +EJ?KHJ 52 'KKRAN 54
). @=IO 61 . )KDJOKJ 56 %. 1KKOARAHP 51
)ABBANOKJ 57 &N=JP 46 3NQI=J 60
,=@EOKJ 57 '=UAO 54 $EOAJDKSAN 62
,KJNKA 58 &=NBEAH@ 49 *AJJA@U 43
). 0. @=IO 57 NPDQN 51 +. )KDJOKJ 55
)=?GOKJ 61 "HARAH=J@ 47 -ETKJ 56
5=J !QNAJ 54 !. '=NNEOKJ 55 %KN@ 61
6. '. '=NNEOKJ 68 "HARAH=J@ 55 "=NPAN 52
3UHAN 51 ,?*EJHAU 54 1A=C=J 69
/KHG 49 3. 1KKOARAHP 42 &.'.6. !QOD 64
3=UHKN 64 3=BP 51 "HEJPKJ 47
%EHHIKNA 50 6EHOKJ 56 &. 6. !QOD 54
/EAN?A 48 '=N@EJC 55 .>=I= 47
2;<F? 2.11 .L?MC>?HNC;F AA?M ;N 'H;OAOL;NCIH
90 "'/3$1 2 W #$2"1(/3(5$ 233(23("2
3DEO ?KJPAJP EO =R=EH=>HA BKN BNAA =P DPPL://?JT.KNC/?KJPAJP/?KH11562/1.11
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.L?MC>?HN AA? .L?MC>?HN AA? .L?MC>?HN AA?
!Q?D=J=J 65 "KKHE@CA 51
2;<F? 2.11 .L?MC>?HNC;F AA?M ;N 'H;OAOL;NCIH
.L?MC>?HN AA? .L?MC>?HN AA? .L?MC>?HN AA?
6=ODEJCPKJ 67 +EJ?KHJ 56 'KKRAN 90
). @=IO 90 . )KDJOKJ 66 %. 1KKOARAHP 63
)ABBANOKJ 83 &N=JP 63 3NQI=J 88
,=@EOKJ 85 '=UAO 70 $EOAJDKSAN 78
,KJNKA 73 &=NBEAH@ 49 *AJJA@U 46
). 0. @=IO 80 NPDQN 56 +. )KDJOKJ 64
)=?GOKJ 78 "HARAH=J@ 71 -ETKJ 81
5=J !QNAJ 79 !. '=NNEOKJ 67 %KN@ 93
6. '. '=NNEOKJ 68 "HARAH=J@ 71 1A=C=J 93
3UHAN 71 ,?*EJHAU 58
/KHG 53 3. 1KKOARAHP 60
3=UHKN 65 3=BP 72
%EHHIKNA 74 6EHOKJ 67
/EAN?A 64 '=N@EJC 57
!Q?D=J=J 77 "KKHE@CA 60
2;<F? 2.12 .L?MC>?HNC;F AA? ;N "?;NB
"'/3$1 2 W #$2"1(/3(5$ 233(23("2 91
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1IFONCIH 2.7
AA?M ;N 'H;OAOL;NCIH AA?M ;N "?;NB
9 9 8 7 7 7 6 3 2 4 6 9
8 7 7 7 7 6 6 6 5 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 2 1 1 1 1 1 0 5 3 6 6 7 7 8
9 5 4 4 2 1 1 1 0 6 0 0 3 3 4 4 5 6 7 7 7 8
7 0 0 1 1 1 4 7 8 8 9
8 0 1 3 5 8
9 0 0 3 3
2;<F? 2.13
2.7 5GD S@AKD RGNVR SGD MTLADQ NE VHMR @MC KNRRDR SGD "SK@MS@ )@VJR G@UD G@C HM 42 RD@RNMR. $QD@SD @ RHCD-AX-RHCD
RSDL-@MC-KD@E OKNS NE SGDRD VHMR @MC KNRRDR.
*IMM?M 5CHM 7?;L *IMM?M 5CHM 7?;L
34 48 1968_1969 41 41 1989_1990
34 48 1969_1970 39 43 1990_1991
46 36 1970_1971 44 38 1991_1992
46 36 1971_1972 39 43 1992_1993
36 46 1972_1973 25 57 1993_1994
47 35 1973_1974 40 42 1994_1995
51 31 1974_1975 36 46 1995_1996
53 29 1975_1976 26 56 1996_1997
2;<F? 2.14
92 "'/3$1 2 W #$2"1(/3(5$ 233(23("2
3DEO ?KJPAJP EO =R=EH=>HA BKN BNAA =P DPPL://?JT.KNC/?KJPAJP/?KH11562/1.11
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*IMM?M 5CHM 7?;L *IMM?M 5CHM 7?;L
51 31 1976_1977 32 50 1997_1998
41 41 1977_1978 19 31 1998_1999
36 46 1978_1979 54 28 1999_2000
32 50 1979_1980 57 25 2000_2001
51 31 1980_1981 49 33 2001_2002
40 42 1981_1982 47 35 2002_2003
39 43 1982_1983 54 28 2003_2004
42 40 1983_1984 69 13 2004_2005
48 34 1984_1985 56 26 2005_2006
32 50 1985_1986 52 30 2006_2007
25 57 1986_1987 45 37 2007_2008
32 50 1987_1988 35 47 2008_2009
30 52 1988_1989 29 53 2009_2010
2;<F? 2.14
"MNSGDQ SXOD NE FQ@OG SG@S HR TRDETK ENQ RODBHEHB C@S@ U@KTDR HR @ A>C: <G6E=. *M SGD O@QSHBTK@Q KHMD FQ@OG RGNVM HM
#R;GJF? 2.8, SGD &-6M>H (GNQHYNMS@K @WHR) BNMRHRSR NE 96I6 K6AJ:H @MC SGD '-6M>H (UDQSHB@K @WHR) BNMRHRSR NE ;G:FJ:C8N
ED>CIH. 5GD EQDPTDMBX ONHMSR @QD BNMMDBSDC TRHMF KHMD RDFLDMSR.
$T=ILHA 2.8
*M @ RTQUDX, 40 LNSGDQR VDQD @RJDC GNVL@MX SHLDR ODQ VDDJ @ SDDM@FDQ LTRS AD QDLHMCDC SN CN GHR NQ GDQ BGNQDR.
5GD QDRTKSR @QD RGNVM HM 2;<F? 2.15 @MC HM $CAOL? 2.9.
,OG<?L I@ NCG?M N??H;A?L CM L?GCH>?> $L?KO?H=S
0 2
2;<F? 2.15
"'/3$1 2 W #$2"1(/3(5$ 233(23("2 93
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,OG<?L I@ NCG?M N??H;A?L CM L?GCH>?> $L?KO?H=S
1 5
2 8
3 14
4 7
5 4
2;<F? 2.15
$CAOL? 2.9
2.8 *M @ RTQUDX, 40 ODNOKD VDQD @RJDC GNV L@MX SHLDR ODQ XD@Q SGDX G@C SGDHQ B@Q HM SGD RGNO ENQ QDO@HQR. 5GD QDRTKSR
@QD RGNVM HM 2;<F? 2.16. $NMRSQTBS @ KHMD FQ@OG.
,OG<?L I@ NCG?M CH MBIJ $L?KO?H=S
0 7
1 10
2 14
2;<F? 2.16
94 "'/3$1 2 W #$2"1(/3(5$ 233(23("2
3DEO ?KJPAJP EO =R=EH=>HA BKN BNAA =P DPPL://?JT.KNC/?KJPAJP/?KH11562/1.11
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,OG<?L I@ NCG?M CH MBIJ $L?KO?H=S
3 9
2;<F? 2.16
B6G <G6E=H BNMRHRS NE A@QR SG@S @QD RDO@Q@SDC EQNL D@BG NSGDQ. 5GD A@QR B@M AD QDBS@MFKDR NQ SGDX B@M AD QDBS@MFTK@Q
ANWDR (TRDC HM SGQDD-CHLDMRHNM@K OKNSR), @MC SGDX B@M AD UDQSHB@K NQ GNQHYNMS@K. 5GD 76G <G6E= RGNVM HM #R;GJF? 2.9 G@R
@FD FQNTOR QDOQDRDMSDC NM SGD &-6M>H @MC OQNONQSHNMR NM SGD '-6M>H.
$T=ILHA 2.9
#X SGD DMC NE 2011, '@BDANNJ G@C NUDQ 146 LHKKHNM TRDQR HM SGD 6MHSDC 4S@SDR. 2;<F? 2.16 RGNVR SGQDD @FD
FQNTOR, SGD MTLADQ NE TRDQR HM D@BG @FD FQNTO, @MC SGD OQNONQSHNM (%) NE TRDQR HM D@BG @FD FQNTO. $NMRSQTBS @ A@Q
FQ@OG TRHMF SGHR C@S@.
AA? ALIOJM ,OG<?L I@ $;=?<IIE OM?LM .LIJILNCIH (%) I@ $;=?<IIE OM?LM
13_25 65,082,280 45%
26_44 53,300,200 36%
45_64 27,885,100 19%
2;<F? 2.17
1IFONCIH 2.9
$CAOL? 2.10
"'/3$1 2 W #$2"1(/3(5$ 233(23("2 95
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2.9 5GD ONOTK@SHNM HM 1@QJ $HSX HR L@CD TO NE BGHKCQDM, VNQJHMF-@FD @CTKSR, @MC QDSHQDDR. 2;<F? 2.18 RGNVR SGD SGQDD
@FD FQNTOR, SGD MTLADQ NE ODNOKD HM SGD SNVM EQNLD@BG @FD FQNTO, @MC SGD OQNONQSHNM (%) NE ODNOKD HM D@BG @FD FQNTO.
$NMRSQTBS @ A@Q FQ@OG RGNVHMF SGD OQNONQSHNMR.
AA? ALIOJM ,OG<?L I@ J?IJF? .LIJILNCIH I@ JIJOF;NCIH
"DEH@NAJ 67,059 19%
6KNGEJC-=CA =@QHPO 152,198 43%
1APENAAO 131,662 38%
2;<F? 2.18
96 "'/3$1 2 W #$2"1(/3(5$ 233(23("2
3DEO ?KJPAJP EO =R=EH=>HA BKN BNAA =P DPPL://?JT.KNC/?KJPAJP/?KH11562/1.11
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$T=ILHA 2.10
5GD BNKTLMR HM 2;<F? 2.18 BNMS@HM: SGD Q@BD NQ DSGMHBHSX NE RSTCDMSR HM 6.4. 1TAKHB 4BGNNKR ENQ SGD BK@RR NE
2011, ODQBDMS@FDR ENQ SGD "CU@MBDC 1K@BDLDMS DW@LHMD ONOTK@SHNM ENQ SG@S BK@RR, @MC ODQBDMS@FDR ENQ SGD NUDQ@KK
RSTCDMS ONOTK@SHNM. $QD@SD @ A@Q FQ@OG VHSG SGD RSTCDMS Q@BD NQ DSGMHBHSX (PT@KHS@SHUD C@S@) NM SGD N-@WHR, @MC SGD
"CU@MBDC 1K@BDLDMS DW@LHMDD ONOTK@SHNM ODQBDMS@FDR NM SGD O-@WHR.
0;=?/#NBHC=CNS
A. #R;GCH??
.IJOF;NCIH
-P?L;FF 1NO>?HN
.IJOF;NCIH
1 = OE=J, OE=J IANE?=J KN /=?EBE?
(OH=J@AN
10.3% 5.7%
2 = !H=?G KN BNE?=J IANE?=J 9.0% 14.7%
3 = 'EOL=JE? KN +=PEJK 17.0% 17.6%
4 = IANE?=J (J@E=J KN H=OG= -=PERA 0.6% 1.1%
5 = 6DEPA 57.1% 59.2%
6 = -KP NALKNPA@/KPDAN 6.0% 1.7%
2;<F? 2.19
1IFONCIH 2.10
$CAOL? 2.11
"'/3$1 2 W #$2"1(/3(5$ 233(23("2 97
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2.10 1@QJ BHSX HR AQNJDM CNVM HMSN RHW UNSHMF CHRSQHBSR. 5GD S@AKD RGNVR ODQBDMS NE SGD SNS@K QDFHRSDQDC UNSDQ ONOTK@SHNM
SG@S KHUDR HM D@BG CHRSQHBS @R VDKK @R SGD ODQBDMS SNS@K NE SGD DMSHQD ONOTK@SHNM SG@S KHUDR HM D@BG CHRSQHBS. $NMRSQTBS @ A@Q
FQ@OG SG@S RGNVR SGD QDFHRSDQDC UNSDQ ONOTK@SHNM AX CHRSQHBS.
"CMNLC=N 0?ACMN?L?> PIN?L JIJOF;NCIH -P?L;FF =CNS JIJOF;NCIH
1 15.5% 19.4%
2 12.2% 15.6%
3 9.8% 9.0%
4 17.4% 18.5%
5 22.8% 20.7%
6 22.3% 16.8%
2;<F? 2.20
2.3 U &CMNIAL;GM, $L?KO?H=S .IFSAIHM, ;H> 2CG? 1?LC?M
%L;JBM
'NQ LNRS NE SGD VNQJ XNT CN HM SGHR ANNJ, XNT VHKK TRD @ GHRSNFQ@L SN CHROK@X SGD C@S@. 0MD @CU@MS@FD NE @ GHRSNFQ@L HR SG@S
HS B@M QD@CHKX CHROK@X K@QFD C@S@ RDSR. " QTKD NE SGTLA HR SN TRD @ GHRSNFQ@L VGDM SGD C@S@ RDS BNMRHRSR NE 100 U@KTDR NQ LNQD.
" =>HID<G6B BNMRHRSR NE BNMSHFTNTR (@CINHMHMF) ANWDR. *S G@R ANSG @ GNQHYNMS@K @WHR @MC @ UDQSHB@K @WHR. 5GD GNQHYNMS@K
@WHR HR K@ADKDC VHSG VG@S SGD C@S@ QDOQDRDMSR (ENQ HMRS@MBD, CHRS@MBD EQNL XNTQ GNLD SN RBGNNK). 5GD UDQSHB@K @WHR HR K@ADKDC
DHSGDQ ;G:FJ:C8N NQ G:A6I>K: ;G:FJ:C8N (NQ ODQBDMS EQDPTDMBX NQ OQNA@AHKHSX). 5GD FQ@OG VHKK G@UD SGD R@LD RG@OD VHSG
DHSGDQ K@ADK. 5GD GHRSNFQ@L (KHJD SGD RSDLOKNS) B@M FHUD XNT SGD RG@OD NE SGD C@S@, SGD BDMSDQ, @MC SGD ROQD@C NE SGD C@S@.
5GD QDK@SHUD EQDPTDMBX HR DPT@K SN SGD EQDPTDMBX ENQ @M NARDQUDC U@KTD NE SGD C@S@ CHUHCDC AX SGD SNS@K MTLADQ NE C@S@
U@KTDR HM SGD R@LOKD.(3DLDLADQ, EQDPTDMBX HR CDEHMDC @R SGD MTLADQ NE SHLDR @M @MRVDQ NBBTQR.) *E:
c < = EQDPTDMBX
c D = SNS@K MTLADQ NE C@S@ U@KTDR (NQ SGD RTL NE SGD HMCHUHCT@K EQDPTDMBHDR), @MC
c +F = QDK@SHUD EQDPTDMBX,
SGDM:
RF =
f
n
'NQ DW@LOKD, HE SGQDD RSTCDMSR HM .Q. "G@A'R &MFKHRG BK@RR NE 40 RSTCDMSR QDBDHUDC EQNL 90% SN 100%, SGDM, < = 3, D =
40, @MC +F =
f
n
=
3
40
= 0.075. 7.5% NE SGD RSTCDMSR QDBDHUDC 90k100%. 90k100% @QD PT@MSHS@SHUD LD@RTQDR.
1D 8DCHIGJ8I 6 =>HID<G6B, EHQRS CDBHCD GNV L@MX 76GH NQ >CI:GK6AH, @KRN B@KKDC BK@RRDR, QDOQDRDMS SGD C@S@. .@MX
GHRSNFQ@LR BNMRHRS NE EHUD SN 15 A@QR NQ BK@RRDR ENQ BK@QHSX. 5GD MTLADQ NE A@QR MDDCR SN AD BGNRDM. $GNNRD @ RS@QSHMF ONHMS
ENQ SGD EHQRS HMSDQU@K SN AD KDRR SG@M SGD RL@KKDRS C@S@ U@KTD. " 8DCK:C>:CI HI6GI>C< ED>CI HR @ KNVDQ U@KTD B@QQHDC NTS SN NMD
LNQD CDBHL@K OK@BD SG@M SGD U@KTD VHSG SGD LNRS CDBHL@K OK@BDR. 'NQ DW@LOKD, HE SGD U@KTD VHSG SGD LNRS CDBHL@K OK@BDR HR
6.1 @MC SGHR HR SGD RL@KKDRS U@KTD, @ BNMUDMHDMS RS@QSHMF ONHMS HR 6.05 (6.1 k 0.05 = 6.05). 8D R@X SG@S 6.05 G@R LNQD OQDBHRHNM.
*E SGD U@KTD VHSG SGD LNRS CDBHL@K OK@BDR HR 2.23 @MC SGD KNVDRS U@KTD HR 1.5, @ BNMUDMHDMS RS@QSHMF ONHMS HR 1.495 (1.5 k 0.005
= 1.495). *E SGD U@KTD VHSG SGD LNRS CDBHL@K OK@BDR HR 3.234 @MC SGD KNVDRS U@KTD HR 1.0, @ BNMUDMHDMS RS@QSHMF ONHMS HR 0.9995
(1.0 k 0.0005 = 0.9995). *E @KK SGD C@S@ G@OODM SN AD HMSDFDQR @MC SGD RL@KKDRS U@KTD HR SVN, SGDM @ BNMUDMHDMS RS@QSHMF ONHMS
HR 1.5 (2 k 0.5 = 1.5). "KRN, VGDM SGD RS@QSHMF ONHMS @MC NSGDQ ANTMC@QHDR @QD B@QQHDC SN NMD @CCHSHNM@K CDBHL@K OK@BD, MN C@S@
98 "'/3$1 2 W #$2"1(/3(5$ 233(23("2
3DEO ?KJPAJP EO =R=EH=>HA BKN BNAA =P DPPL://?JT.KNC/?KJPAJP/?KH11562/1.11
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U@KTD VHKK E@KK NM @ ANTMC@QX. 5GD MDWS SVN DW@LOKDR FN HMSN CDS@HK @ANTS GNV SN BNMRSQTBS @ GHRSNFQ@L TRHMF BNMSHMTNTR
C@S@ @MC GNV SN BQD@SD @ GHRSNFQ@L TRHMF CHRBQDSD C@S@.
$T=ILHA 2.11
5GD ENKKNVHMF C@S@ @QD SGD GDHFGSR (HM HMBGDR SN SGD MD@QDRS G@KE HMBG) NE 100 L@KD RDLHOQNEDRRHNM@K RNBBDQ OK@XDQR.
5GD GDHFGSR @QD 8DCI>CJDJH C@S@, RHMBD GDHFGS HR LD@RTQDC.
60; 60.5; 61; 61; 61.5
63.5; 63.5; 63.5
64; 64; 64; 64; 64; 64; 64; 64.5; 64.5; 64.5; 64.5; 64.5; 64.5; 64.5; 64.5
66; 66; 66; 66; 66; 66; 66; 66; 66; 66; 66.5; 66.5; 66.5; 66.5; 66.5; 66.5; 66.5; 66.5; 66.5; 66.5; 66.5; 67; 67; 67;
67; 67; 67; 67; 67; 67; 67; 67; 67; 67.5; 67.5; 67.5; 67.5; 67.5; 67.5; 67.5
68; 68; 69; 69; 69; 69; 69; 69; 69; 69; 69; 69; 69.5; 69.5; 69.5; 69.5; 69.5
70; 70; 70; 70; 70; 70; 70.5; 70.5; 70.5; 71; 71; 71
72; 72; 72; 72.5; 72.5; 73; 73.5
74
5GD RL@KKDRS C@S@ U@KTD HR 60. 4HMBD SGD C@S@ VHSG SGD LNRS CDBHL@K OK@BDR G@R NMD CDBHL@K (ENQ HMRS@MBD,
61.5), VD V@MS NTQ RS@QSHMF ONHMS SN G@UD SVN CDBHL@K OK@BDR. 4HMBD SGD MTLADQR 0.5, 0.05, 0.005, DSB. @QD
BNMUDMHDMS MTLADQR, TRD 0.05 @MC RTASQ@BS HS EQNL 60, SGD RL@KKDRS U@KTD, ENQ SGD BNMUDMHDMS RS@QSHMF ONHMS.
60 k 0.05 = 59.95 VGHBG HR LNQD OQDBHRD SG@M, R@X, 61.5 AX NMD CDBHL@K OK@BD. 5GD RS@QSHMF ONHMS HR, SGDM,
59.95.
5GD K@QFDRS U@KTD HR 74, RN 74 + 0.05 = 74.05 HR SGD DMCHMF U@KTD.
/DWS, B@KBTK@SD SGD VHCSG NE D@BG A@Q NQ BK@RR HMSDQU@K. 5N B@KBTK@SD SGHR VHCSG, RTASQ@BS SGD RS@QSHMF ONHMS EQNL
SGD DMCHMF U@KTD @MC CHUHCD AX SGD MTLADQ NE A@QR (XNT LTRS BGNNRD SGD MTLADQ NE A@QR XNT CDRHQD). 4TOONRD XNT
BGNNRD DHFGS A@QR.
74.05 59.95
8
= 1.76
,-2#
8D VHKK QNTMC TO SN SVN @MC L@JD D@BG A@Q NQ BK@RR HMSDQU@K SVN TMHSR VHCD. 3NTMCHMF TO SN SVN HR NMD V@X
SN OQDUDMS @ U@KTD EQNL E@KKHMF NM @ ANTMC@QX. 3NTMCHMF SN SGD MDWS MTLADQ HR NESDM MDBDRR@QX DUDM HE HS
FNDR @F@HMRS SGD RS@MC@QC QTKDR NE QNTMCHMF. 'NQ SGHR DW@LOKD, TRHMF 1.76 @R SGD VHCSG VNTKC @KRN VNQJ. "
FTHCDKHMD SG@S HR ENKKNVDC AX RNLD ENQ SGD VHCSG NE @ A@Q NQ BK@RR HMSDQU@K HR SN S@JD SGD RPT@QD QNNS NE SGD C@S@
@MC SGDM QNTMC SN SGD MD@QDRS VGNKD MTLADQ, HE MDBDRR@QX. 'NQ DW@LOKD, HE SGDQD @QD 150 U@KTDR NE C@S@, S@JD
SGD RPT@QD QNNS NE 150 @MC QNTMC SN 12 A@QR NQ HMSDQU@KR.
5GD ANTMC@QHDR @QD:
c 59.95
c 59.95 + 2 = 61.95
c 61.95 + 2 = 63.95
c 63.95 + 2 = 65.95
c 65.95 + 2 = 67.95
c 67.95 + 2 = 69.95
c 69.95 + 2 = 71.95
c 71.95 + 2 = 73.95
c 73.95 + 2 = 75.95
5GD GDHFGSR 60 SGQNTFG 61.5 HMBGDR @QD HM SGD HMSDQU@K 59.95k61.95. 5GD GDHFGSR SG@S @QD 63.5 @QD HM SGD
HMSDQU@K 61.95k63.95. 5GD GDHFGSR SG@S @QD 64 SGQNTFG 64.5 @QD HM SGD HMSDQU@K 63.95k65.95. 5GD GDHFGSR 66 SGQNTFG
67.5 @QD HM SGD HMSDQU@K 65.95k67.95. 5GD GDHFGSR 68 SGQNTFG 69.5 @QD HM SGD HMSDQU@K 67.95k69.95. 5GD GDHFGSR
70 SGQNTFG 71 @QD HM SGD HMSDQU@K 69.95k71.95. 5GD GDHFGSR 72 SGQNTFG 73.5 @QD HM SGD HMSDQU@K 71.95k73.95. 5GD
GDHFGS 74 HR HM SGD HMSDQU@K 73.95k75.95.
"'/3$1 2 W #$2"1(/3(5$ 233(23("2 99
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5GD ENKKNVHMF GHRSNFQ@L CHROK@XR SGD GDHFGSR NM SGD N-@WHR @MC QDK@SHUD EQDPTDMBX NM SGD O-@WHR.
$CAOL? 2.12
2.11 5GD ENKKNVHMF C@S@ @QD SGD RGND RHYDR NE 50 L@KD RSTCDMSR. 5GD RHYDR @QD BNMSHMTNTR C@S@ RHMBD RGND RHYD HR
LD@RTQDC. $NMRSQTBS @ GHRSNFQ@L @MC B@KBTK@SD SGD VHCSG NE D@BG A@Q NQ BK@RR HMSDQU@K. 4TOONRD XNT BGNNRD RHW A@QR.
9; 9; 9.5; 9.5; 10; 10; 10; 10; 10; 10; 10.5; 10.5; 10.5; 10.5; 10.5; 10.5; 10.5; 10.5
11; 11; 11; 11; 11; 11; 11; 11; 11; 11; 11; 11; 11; 11.5; 11.5; 11.5; 11.5; 11.5; 11.5; 11.5
12; 12; 12; 12; 12; 12; 12; 12.5; 12.5; 12.5; 12.5; 14
$T=ILHA 2.12
5GD ENKKNVHMF C@S@ @QD SGD MTLADQ NE ANNJR ANTFGS AX 50 O@QS-SHLD BNKKDFD RSTCDMSR @S "#$ $NKKDFD. 5GD MTLADQ
NE ANNJR HR 9>H8G:I: 96I6, RHMBD ANNJR @QD BNTMSDC.
1; 1; 1; 1; 1; 1; 1; 1; 1; 1; 1
2; 2; 2; 2; 2; 2; 2; 2; 2; 2
3; 3; 3; 3; 3; 3; 3; 3; 3; 3; 3; 3; 3; 3; 3; 3
4; 4; 4; 4; 4; 4
5; 5; 5; 5; 5
6; 6
&KDUDM RSTCDMSR ATX NMD ANNJ. 5DM RSTCDMSR ATX SVN ANNJR. 4HWSDDM RSTCDMSR ATX SGQDD ANNJR. 4HW RSTCDMSR
ATX ENTQ ANNJR. 'HUD RSTCDMSR ATX EHUD ANNJR. 5VN RSTCDMSR ATX RHW ANNJR.
#DB@TRD SGD C@S@ @QD HMSDFDQR, RTASQ@BS 0.5 EQNL 1, SGD RL@KKDRS C@S@ U@KTD @MC @CC 0.5 SN 6, SGD K@QFDRS C@S@
U@KTD. 5GDM SGD RS@QSHMF ONHMS HR 0.5 @MC SGD DMCHMF U@KTD HR 6.5.
/DWS, B@KBTK@SD SGD VHCSG NE D@BG A@Q NQ BK@RR HMSDQU@K. *E SGD C@S@ @QD CHRBQDSD @MC SGDQD @QD MNS SNN L@MX CHEEDQDMS
U@KTDR, @ VHCSG SG@S OK@BDR SGD C@S@ U@KTDR HM SGD LHCCKD NE SGD A@Q NQ BK@RR HMSDQU@K HR SGD LNRS BNMUDMHDMS. 4HMBD
SGD C@S@ BNMRHRS NE SGD MTLADQR 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, @MC SGD RS@QSHMF ONHMS HR 0.5, @ VHCSG NE NMD OK@BDR SGD 1 HM SGD
LHCCKD NE SGD HMSDQU@K EQNL 0.5 SN 1.5, SGD 2 HM SGD LHCCKD NE SGD HMSDQU@K EQNL 1.5 SN 2.5, SGD 3 HM SGD LHCCKD NE SGD
HMSDQU@K EQNL 2.5 SN 3.5, SGD 4 HM SGD LHCCKD NE SGD HMSDQU@K EQNL ??????? SN ???????, SGD 5 HM SGD LHCCKD NE SGD
HMSDQU@K EQNL ??????? SN ???????, @MC SGD ??????? HM SGD LHCCKD NE SGD HMSDQU@K EQNL ??????? SN ??????? .
1IFONCIH 2.12
c 3.5 SN 4.5
c 4.5 SN 5.5
c 6
c 5.5 SN 6.5
100 "'/3$1 2 W #$2"1(/3(5$ 233(23("2
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$@KBTK@SD SGD MTLADQ NE A@QR @R ENKKNVR:
6.5 0.5
number of bars
= 1
VGDQD 1 HR SGD VHCSG NE @ A@Q. 5GDQDENQD, A@QR = 6.
5GD ENKKNVHMF GHRSNFQ@L CHROK@XR SGD MTLADQ NE ANNJR NM SGD N-@WHR @MC SGD EQDPTDMBX NM SGD O-@WHR.
$CAOL? 2.13
(N SN SGD AJJ?H>CR (BNNJ://=HR.ILA/=IHN?HN/G47149/F;N?MN/) . 5GDQD @QD B@KBTK@SNQ HMRSQTBSHNMR ENQ DMSDQHMF C@S@
@MC ENQ BQD@SHMF @ BTRSNLHYDC GHRSNFQ@L. $QD@SD SGD GHRSNFQ@L ENQ #R;GJF? 2.12.
c 1QDRR :=. 1QDRR $-&"3 SN CDKDSD @MX DPT@SHNMR.
c 1QDRR 45"5 1:&%*5. *E -1 G@R C@S@ HM HS, @QQNV TO HMSN SGD M@LD -1, OQDRR $-&"3 @MC SGDM @QQNV CNVM. *E
MDBDRR@QX, CN SGD R@LD ENQ -2.
c *MSN -1, DMSDQ 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6.
c *MSN -2, DMSDQ 11, 10, 16, 6, 5, 2.
c 1QDRR 8*/%08. 4DS 9LHM = .5, 9RBK = (6.5 k .5)/6, :LHM = k1, :L@W = 20, :RBK = 1, 9QDR = 1.
c 1QDRR 2
MC
:=. 4S@QS AX OQDRRHMF 4:1KNSRNEE &/5&3.
c 1QDRR 2
MC
:=. 1QDRR 1:1KNS1. 1QDRR &/5&3. "QQNV CNVM SN 5:1&. "QQNV SN SGD 3
QC
OHBSTQD (GHRSNFQ@L). 1QDRR
&/5&3.
c "QQNV CNVM SN 9KHRS: &MSDQ -1 (2
MC
1). "QQNV CNVM SN 'QDP. &MSDQ -2 (2
MC
2).
c 1QDRR (3"1).
c 6RD SGD 53"$& JDX @MC SGD @QQNV JDXR SN DW@LHMD SGD GHRSNFQ@L.
"'/3$1 2 W #$2"1(/3(5$ 233(23("2 101
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2.12 5GD ENKKNVHMF C@S@ @QD SGD MTLADQ NE RONQSR OK@XDC AX 50 RSTCDMS @SGKDSDR. 5GD MTLADQ NE RONQSR HR CHRBQDSD C@S@
RHMBD RONQSR @QD BNTMSDC.
1; 1; 1; 1; 1; 1; 1; 1; 1; 1; 1; 1; 1; 1; 1; 1; 1; 1; 1; 1
2; 2; 2; 2; 2; 2; 2; 2; 2; 2; 2; 2; 2; 2; 2; 2; 2; 2; 2; 2; 2; 2
3; 3; 3; 3; 3; 3; 3; 3
20 RSTCDMS @SGKDSDR OK@X NMD RONQS. 22 RSTCDMS @SGKDSDR OK@X SVN RONQSR. &HFGS RSTCDMS @SGKDSDR OK@X SGQDD RONQSR.
F?BB ?D J>; 8B7DAI <EH J>; <EBBEM?D= I;DJ;D9;. 4HMBD SGD C@S@ BNMRHRS NE SGD MTLADQR 1, 2, 3, @MC SGD RS@QSHMF ONHMS
HR 0.5, @ VHCSG NE NMD OK@BDR SGD 1 HM SGD LHCCKD NE SGD HMSDQU@K 0.5 SN ?????, SGD 2 HM SGD LHCCKD NE SGD HMSDQU@K EQNL
????? SN ?????, @MC SGD 3 HM SGD LHCCKD NE SGD HMSDQU@K EQNL ????? SN ?????.
102 "'/3$1 2 W #$2"1(/3(5$ 233(23("2
3DEO ?KJPAJP EO =R=EH=>HA BKN BNAA =P DPPL://?JT.KNC/?KJPAJP/?KH11562/1.11
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$T=ILHA 2.13
6RHMF SGHR C@S@ RDS, BNMRSQTBS @ GHRSNFQ@L.
,OG<?L I@ &IOLM +S !F;MMG;N?M 1J?HN .F;SCHA 4C>?I %;G?M IH 5??E?H>M
9.95 10 2.25 16.75 0
19.5 22.5 7.5 15 12.75
5.5 11 10 20.75 17.5
23 21.9 24 23.75 18
20 15 22.9 18.8 20.5
2;<F? 2.21
1IFONCIH 2.13
$CAOL? 2.14
4NLD U@KTDR HM SGHR C@S@ RDS E@KK NM ANTMC@QHDR ENQ SGD BK@RR HMSDQU@KR. " U@KTD HR BNTMSDC HM @ BK@RR HMSDQU@K HE HS
E@KKR NM SGD KDES ANTMC@QX, ATS MNS HE HS E@KKR NM SGD QHFGS ANTMC@QX. %HEEDQDMS QDRD@QBGDQR L@X RDS TO GHRSNFQ@LR ENQ
SGD R@LD C@S@ HM CHEEDQDMS V@XR. 5GDQD HR LNQD SG@M NMD BNQQDBS V@X SN RDS TO @ GHRSNFQ@L.
"'/3$1 2 W #$2"1(/3(5$ 233(23("2 103
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2.13 5GD ENKKNVHMF C@S@ QDOQDRDMS SGD MTLADQ NE DLOKNXDDR @S U@QHNTR QDRS@TQ@MSR HM /DV :NQJ $HSX. 6RHMF SGHR C@S@,
BQD@SD @ GHRSNFQ@L.
22; 35; 15; 26; 40; 28; 18; 20; 25; 34; 39; 42; 24; 22; 19; 27; 22; 34; 40; 20; 38; @MC 28
6RD 10k19 @R SGD EHQRS HMSDQU@K.
$NTMS SGD LNMDX (AHKKR @MC BG@MFD) HM XNTQ ONBJDS NQ OTQRD. :NTQ HMRSQTBSNQ VHKK QDBNQC SGD @LNTMSR. "R @ BK@RR,
BNMRSQTBS @ GHRSNFQ@L CHROK@XHMF SGD C@S@. %HRBTRR GNV L@MX HMSDQU@KR XNT SGHMJ HR @OOQNOQH@SD. :NT L@X V@MS SN
DWODQHLDMS VHSG SGD MTLADQ NE HMSDQU@KR.
$L?KO?H=S .IFSAIHM
'QDPTDMBX ONKXFNMR @QD @M@KNFNTR SN KHMD FQ@OGR, @MC ITRS @R KHMD FQ@OGR L@JD BNMSHMTNTR C@S@ UHRT@KKX D@RX SN HMSDQOQDS, RN
SNN CN EQDPTDMBX ONKXFNMR.
104 "'/3$1 2 W #$2"1(/3(5$ 233(23("2
3DEO ?KJPAJP EO =R=EH=>HA BKN BNAA =P DPPL://?JT.KNC/?KJPAJP/?KH11562/1.11
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5N BNMRSQTBS @ EQDPTDMBX ONKXFNM, EHQRS DW@LHMD SGD C@S@ @MC CDBHCD NM SGD MTLADQ NE HMSDQU@KR, NQ BK@RR HMSDQU@KR, SN
TRD NM SGD N-@WHR @MC O-@WHR. "ESDQ BGNNRHMF SGD @OOQNOQH@SD Q@MFDR, ADFHM OKNSSHMF SGD C@S@ ONHMSR. "ESDQ @KK SGD ONHMSR @QD
OKNSSDC, CQ@V KHMD RDFLDMSR SN BNMMDBS SGDL.
$T=ILHA 2.14
" EQDPTDMBX ONKXFNM V@R BNMRSQTBSDC EQNL SGD EQDPTDMBX S@AKD ADKNV.
$L?KO?H=S "CMNLC<ONCIH @IL !;F=OFOM $CH;F 2?MN 1=IL?M
*IQ?L IOH> 3JJ?L IOH> $L?KO?H=S !OGOF;NCP? $L?KO?H=S
49.5 59.5 5 5
59.5 69.5 10 15
69.5 79.5 30 45
79.5 89.5 40 85
89.5 99.5 15 100
2;<F? 2.22
$CAOL? 2.15
5GD EHQRS K@ADK NM SGD N-@WHR HR 44.5. 5GHR QDOQDRDMSR @M HMSDQU@K DWSDMCHMF EQNL 39.5 SN 49.5. 4HMBD SGD KNVDRS
SDRS RBNQD HR 54.5, SGHR HMSDQU@K HR TRDC NMKX SN @KKNV SGD FQ@OG SN SNTBG SGD N-@WHR. 5GD ONHMS K@ADKDC 54.5 QDOQDRDMSR
SGD MDWS HMSDQU@K, NQ SGD EHQRS oQD@Kp HMSDQU@K EQNL SGD S@AKD, @MC BNMS@HMR EHUD RBNQDR. 5GHR QD@RNMHMF HR ENKKNVDC
ENQ D@BG NE SGD QDL@HMHMF HMSDQU@KR VHSG SGD ONHMS 104.5 QDOQDRDMSHMF SGD HMSDQU@K EQNL 99.5 SN 109.5. "F@HM, SGHR
HMSDQU@K BNMS@HMR MN C@S@ @MC HR NMKX TRDC RN SG@S SGD FQ@OG VHKK SNTBG SGD N-@WHR. -NNJHMF @S SGD FQ@OG, VD R@X
SG@S SGHR CHRSQHATSHNM HR RJDVDC ADB@TRD NMD RHCD NE SGD FQ@OG CNDR MNS LHQQNQ SGD NSGDQ RHCD.
"'/3$1 2 W #$2"1(/3(5$ 233(23("2 105
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2.14 $NMRSQTBS @ EQDPTDMBX ONKXFNM NE 6.4. 1QDRHCDMSRn @FDR @S HM@TFTQ@SHNM RGNVM HM 2;<F? 2.23.
AA? ;N 'H;OAOL;NCIH $L?KO?H=S
41.5_46.5 4
46.5_51.5 11
51.5_56.5 14
56.5_61.5 9
61.5_66.5 4
66.5_71.5 2
2;<F? 2.23
106 "'/3$1 2 W #$2"1(/3(5$ 233(23("2
3DEO ?KJPAJP EO =R=EH=>HA BKN BNAA =P DPPL://?JT.KNC/?KJPAJP/?KH11562/1.11
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'QDPTDMBX ONKXFNMR @QD TRDETK ENQ BNLO@QHMF CHRSQHATSHNMR. 5GHR HR @BGHDUDC AX NUDQK@XHMF SGD EQDPTDMBX ONKXFNMR
CQ@VM ENQ CHEEDQDMS C@S@ RDSR.
$T=ILHA 2.15
8D VHKK BNMRSQTBS @M NUDQK@X EQDPTDMBX ONKXFNM BNLO@QHMF SGD RBNQDR EQNL #R;GJF? 2.14 VHSG SGD RSTCDMSRn
EHM@K MTLDQHB FQ@CD.
$L?KO?H=S "CMNLC<ONCIH @IL !;F=OFOM $CH;F 2?MN 1=IL?M
*IQ?L IOH> 3JJ?L IOH> $L?KO?H=S !OGOF;NCP? $L?KO?H=S
49.5 59.5 5 5
59.5 69.5 10 15
69.5 79.5 30 45
79.5 89.5 40 85
89.5 99.5 15 100
2;<F? 2.24
$L?KO?H=S "CMNLC<ONCIH @IL !;F=OFOM $CH;F %L;>?M
*IQ?L IOH> 3JJ?L IOH> $L?KO?H=S !OGOF;NCP? $L?KO?H=S
49.5 59.5 10 10
59.5 69.5 10 20
69.5 79.5 30 50
79.5 89.5 45 95
89.5 99.5 5 100
2;<F? 2.25
"'/3$1 2 W #$2"1(/3(5$ 233(23("2 107
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4TOONRD SG@S VD V@MS SN RSTCX SGD SDLODQ@STQD Q@MFD NE @ QDFHNM ENQ @M DMSHQD LNMSG. &UDQX C@X @S MNNM VD MNSD SGD
SDLODQ@STQD @MC VQHSD SGHR CNVM HM @ KNF. "U@QHDSX NE RS@SHRSHB@K RSTCHDR BNTKC AD CNMD VHSG SGHR C@S@. 8D BNTKC EHMC SGD LD@M
NQ SGD LDCH@M SDLODQ@STQD ENQ SGD LNMSG. 8D BNTKC BNMRSQTBS @ GHRSNFQ@L CHROK@XHMF SGD MTLADQ NE C@XR SG@S SDLODQ@STQDR
QD@BG @ BDQS@HM Q@MFD NE U@KTDR. )NVDUDQ, @KK NE SGDRD LDSGNCR HFMNQD @ ONQSHNM NE SGD C@S@ SG@S VD G@UD BNKKDBSDC.
0MD ED@STQD NE SGD C@S@ SG@S VD L@X V@MS SN BNMRHCDQ HR SG@S NE SHLD. 4HMBD D@BG C@SD HR O@HQDC VHSG SGD SDLODQ@STQD
QD@CHMF ENQ SGD C@X, VD CNMmS G@UD SN SGHMJ NE SGD C@S@ @R ADHMF Q@MCNL. 8D B@M HMRSD@C TRD SGD SHLDR FHUDM SN HLONRD @
BGQNMNKNFHB@K NQCDQ NM SGD C@S@. " FQ@OG SG@S QDBNFMHYDR SGHR NQCDQHMF @MC CHROK@XR SGD BG@MFHMF SDLODQ@STQD @R SGD LNMSG
OQNFQDRRDR HR B@KKDC @ SHLD RDQHDR FQ@OG.
!IHMNLO=NCHA ; 2CG? 1?LC?M %L;JB
5N BNMRSQTBS @ SHLD RDQHDR FQ@OG, VD LTRS KNNJ @S ANSG OHDBDR NE NTQ E6>G:9 96I6 H:I. 8D RS@QS VHSG @ RS@MC@QC $@QSDRH@M
BNNQCHM@SD RXRSDL. 5GD GNQHYNMS@K @WHR HR TRDC SN OKNS SGD C@SD NQ SHLD HMBQDLDMSR, @MC SGD UDQSHB@K @WHR HR TRDC SN OKNS SGD
U@KTDR NE SGD U@QH@AKD SG@S VD @QD LD@RTQHMF. #X CNHMF SGHR, VD L@JD D@BG ONHMS NM SGD FQ@OG BNQQDRONMC SN @ C@SD @MC @
LD@RTQDC PT@MSHSX. 5GD ONHMSR NM SGD FQ@OG @QD SXOHB@KKX BNMMDBSDC AX RSQ@HFGS KHMDR HM SGD NQCDQ HM VGHBG SGDX NBBTQ.
$T=ILHA 2.16
5GD ENKKNVHMF C@S@ RGNVR SGD "MMT@K $NMRTLDQ 1QHBD *MCDW, D@BG LNMSG, ENQ SDM XD@QR. $NMRSQTBS @ SHLD RDQHDR
FQ@OG ENQ SGD "MMT@K $NMRTLDQ 1QHBD *MCDW C@S@ NMKX.
7?;L (;H $?< +;L AJL +;S (OH (OF
2003 181.7 183.1 184.2 183.8 183.5 183.7 183.9
2004 185.2 186.2 187.4 188.0 189.1 189.7 189.4
2005 190.7 191.8 193.3 194.6 194.4 194.5 195.4
2006 198.3 198.7 199.8 201.5 202.5 202.9 203.5
2007 202.416 203.499 205.352 206.686 207.949 208.352 208.299
2;<F? 2.26
108 "'/3$1 2 W #$2"1(/3(5$ 233(23("2
3DEO ?KJPAJP EO =R=EH=>HA BKN BNAA =P DPPL://?JT.KNC/?KJPAJP/?KH11562/1.11
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7?;L (;H $?< +;L AJL +;S (OH (OF
2008 211.080 211.693 213.528 214.823 216.632 218.815 219.964
2009 211.143 212.193 212.709 213.240 213.856 215.693 215.351
2010 216.687 216.741 217.631 218.009 218.178 217.965 218.011
2011 220.223 221.309 223.467 224.906 225.964 225.722 225.922
2012 226.665 227.663 229.392 230.085 229.815 229.478 229.104
2;<F? 2.26
7?;L AOA 1?J -=N ,IP "?= AHHO;F
2003 184.6 185.2 185.0 184.5 184.3 184.0
2004 189.5 189.9 190.9 191.0 190.3 188.9
2005 196.4 198.8 199.2 197.6 196.8 195.3
2006 203.9 202.9 201.8 201.5 201.8 201.6
2007 207.917 208.490 208.936 210.177 210.036 207.342
2008 219.086 218.783 216.573 212.425 210.228 215.303
2009 215.834 215.969 216.177 216.330 215.949 214.537
2010 218.312 218.439 218.711 218.803 219.179 218.056
2011 226.545 226.889 226.421 226.230 225.672 224.939
2012 230.379 231.407 231.317 230.221 229.601 229.594
2;<F? 2.27
"'/3$1 2 W #$2"1(/3(5$ 233(23("2 109
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1IFONCIH 2.16
$CAOL? 2.16
2.16 5GD ENKKNVHMF S@AKD HR @ ONQSHNM NE @ C@S@ RDS EQNL VVV.VNQKCA@MJ.NQF. 6RD SGD S@AKD SN BNMRSQTBS @ SHLD RDQHDR
FQ@OG ENQ $0
2
DLHRRHNMR ENQ SGD 6MHSDC 4S@SDR.
!-2 #GCMMCIHM
3EL;CH? 3HCN?> )CHA>IG 3HCN?> 1N;N?M
2003 352,259 540,640 5,681,664
2004 343,121 540,409 5,790,761
2005 339,029 541,990 5,826,394
2006 327,797 542,045 5,737,615
2007 328,357 528,631 5,828,697
2008 323,657 522,247 5,656,839
2009 272,176 474,579 5,299,563
2;<F? 2.28
3M?M I@ ; 2CG? 1?LC?M %L;JB
5HLD RDQHDR FQ@OGR @QD HLONQS@MS SNNKR HM U@QHNTR @OOKHB@SHNMR NE RS@SHRSHBR. 8GDM QDBNQCHMF U@KTDR NE SGD R@LD U@QH@AKD NUDQ
@M DWSDMCDC ODQHNC NE SHLD, RNLDSHLDR HS HR CHEEHBTKS SN CHRBDQM @MX SQDMC NQ O@SSDQM. )NVDUDQ, NMBD SGD R@LD C@S@ ONHMSR @QD
CHROK@XDC FQ@OGHB@KKX, RNLD ED@STQDR ITLO NTS. 5HLD RDQHDR FQ@OGR L@JD SQDMCR D@RX SN RONS.
110 "'/3$1 2 W #$2"1(/3(5$ 233(23("2
3DEO ?KJPAJP EO =R=EH=>HA BKN BNAA =P DPPL://?JT.KNC/?KJPAJP/?KH11562/1.11
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2.4 U IR .FINM
BDM EADIH (@KRN B@KKDC 7DM-6C9-L=>H@:G EADIH NQ 7DM-6C9-L=>H@:G EADIH) FHUD @ FNNC FQ@OGHB@K HL@FD NE SGD BNMBDMSQ@SHNM
NE SGD C@S@. 5GDX @KRN RGNV GNV E@Q SGD DWSQDLD U@KTDR @QD EQNL LNRS NE SGD C@S@. " ANW OKNS HR BNMRSQTBSDC EQNL EHUD
U@KTDR: SGD LHMHLTL U@KTD, SGD EHQRS PT@QSHKD, SGD LDCH@M, SGD SGHQC PT@QSHKD, @MC SGD L@WHLTL U@KTD. 8D TRD SGDRD U@KTDR SN
BNLO@QD GNV BKNRD NSGDQ C@S@ U@KTDR @QD SN SGDL.
5N BNMRSQTBS @ ANW OKNS, TRD @ GNQHYNMS@K NQ UDQSHB@K MTLADQ KHMD @MC @ QDBS@MFTK@Q ANW. 5GD RL@KKDRS @MC K@QFDRS C@S@
U@KTDR K@ADK SGD DMCONHMSR NE SGD @WHR. 5GD EHQRS PT@QSHKD L@QJR NMD DMC NE SGD ANW @MC SGD SGHQC PT@QSHKD L@QJR SGD NSGDQ DMC
NE SGD ANW. "OOQNWHL@SDKX I=: B>99A: 50 E:G8:CI D; I=: 96I6 ;6AA >CH>9: I=: 7DM. 5GD "VGHRJDQR" DWSDMC EQNL SGD DMCR NE
SGD ANW SN SGD RL@KKDRS @MC K@QFDRS C@S@ U@KTDR. 5GD LDCH@M NQ RDBNMC PT@QSHKD B@M AD ADSVDDM SGD EHQRS @MC SGHQC PT@QSHKDR,
NQ HS B@M AD NMD, NQ SGD NSGDQ, NQ ANSG. 5GD ANW OKNS FHUDR @ FNNC, PTHBJ OHBSTQD NE SGD C@S@.
,-2#
:NT L@X DMBNTMSDQ ANW-@MC-VGHRJDQ OKNSR SG@S G@UD CNSR L@QJHMF NTSKHDQ U@KTDR. *M SGNRD B@RDR, SGD VGHRJDQR @QD MNS
DWSDMCHMF SN SGD LHMHLTL @MC L@WHLTL U@KTDR.
$NMRHCDQ, @F@HM, SGHR C@S@RDS.
1; 1; 2; 2; 4; 6; 6.8; 7.2; 8; 8.3; 9; 10; 10; 11.5
5GD EHQRS PT@QSHKD HR SVN, SGD LDCH@M HR RDUDM, @MC SGD SGHQC PT@QSHKD HR MHMD. 5GD RL@KKDRS U@KTD HR NMD, @MC SGD K@QFDRS
U@KTD HR 11.5. 5GD ENKKNVHMF HL@FD RGNVR SGD BNMRSQTBSDC ANW OKNS.
,-2#
4DD SGD B@KBTK@SNQ HMRSQTBSHNMR HM SGD @OODMCHW NQ NM SGD 2' Q?< MCN? (BNNJ://?>O=;NCIH.NC.=IG/?>O=;NCIHJILN;F/
MCN?M/31/M?=NCIH&IG?/MOJJILN.BNGF)
$CAOL? 2.17
5GD SVN VGHRJDQR DWSDMC EQNL SGD EHQRS PT@QSHKD SN SGD RL@KKDRS U@KTD @MC EQNL SGD SGHQC PT@QSHKD SN SGD K@QFDRS U@KTD.
5GD LDCH@M HR RGNVM VHSG @ C@RGDC KHMD.
,-2#
*S HR HLONQS@MS SN RS@QS @ ANW OKNS VHSG @ H86A:9 CJB7:G A>C:. 0SGDQVHRD SGD ANW OKNS L@X MNS AD TRDETK.
$T=ILHA 2.17
5GD ENKKNVHMF C@S@ @QD SGD GDHFGSR NE 40 RSTCDMSR HM @ RS@SHRSHBR BK@RR.
59; 60; 61; 62; 62; 63; 63; 64; 64; 64; 65; 65; 65; 65; 65; 65; 65; 65; 65; 66; 66; 67; 67; 68; 68; 69; 70; 70;
70; 70; 70; 71; 71; 72; 72; 73; 74; 74; 75; 77
"'/3$1 2 W #$2"1(/3(5$ 233(23("2 111
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$NMRSQTBS @ ANW OKNS VHSG SGD ENKKNVHMF OQNODQSHDR; SGD B@KBTK@SNQ HMSQTBSHNMR ENQ SGD LHMHLTL@MC L@WHLTL
U@KTDR @R VDKK @R SGD PT@QSHKDR ENKKNV SGD DW@LOKD.
c .HMHLTL U@KTD = 59
c .@WHLTL U@KTD = 77
c *1: 'HQRS PT@QSHKD = 64.5
c *2: 4DBNMC PT@QSHKD NQ LDCH@M= 66
c *3: 5GHQC PT@QSHKD = 70
$CAOL? 2.18
=. &@BG PT@QSDQ G@R @OOQNWHL@SDKX 25% NE SGD C@S@.
>. 5GD ROQD@CR NE SGD ENTQ PT@QSDQR @QD 64.5 k 59 = 5.5 (EHQRS PT@QSDQ), 66 k 64.5 = 1.5 (RDBNMC PT@QSDQ), 70 k 66
= 4 (SGHQC PT@QSDQ), @MC 77 k 70 = 7 (ENTQSG PT@QSDQ). 4N, SGD RDBNMC PT@QSDQ G@R SGD RL@KKDRS ROQD@C @MC SGD
ENTQSG PT@QSDQ G@R SGD K@QFDRS ROQD@C.
?. 3@MFD = L@WHLTL U@KTD k SGD LHMHLTL U@KTD = 77 k 59 = 18
@. *MSDQPT@QSHKD 3@MFD: "*+ = *3 k *1 = 70 k 64.5 = 5.5.
A. 5GD HMSDQU@K 59k65 G@R LNQD SG@M 25% NE SGD C@S@ RN HS G@R LNQD C@S@ HM HS SG@M SGD HMSDQU@K 66 SGQNTFG 70
VGHBG G@R 25% NE SGD C@S@.
B. 5GD LHCCKD 50% (LHCCKD G@KE) NE SGD C@S@ G@R @ Q@MFD NE 5.5 HMBGDR.
5N EHMC SGD LHMHLTL, L@WHLTL, @MC PT@QSHKDR:
&MSDQ C@S@ HMSN SGD KHRS DCHSNQ (1QDR 45"5 1:&%*5). *E XNT MDDC SN BKD@Q SGD KHRS, @QQNV TO SN SGD M@LD -1, OQDRR $-&"3,
@MC SGDM @QQNV CNVM.
1TS SGD C@S@ U@KTDR HMSN SGD KHRS -1.
1QDRR 45"5 @MC @QQNV SN $"-$. 1QDRR 1:1-7@Q4S@SR. &MSDQ -1.
1QDRR &/5&3.
6RD SGD CNVM @MC TO @QQNV JDXR SN RBQNKK.
4L@KKDRS U@KTD = 59.
-@QFDRS U@KTD = 77.
*
1
: 'HQRS PT@QSHKD = 64.5.
*
2
: 4DBNMC PT@QSHKD NQ LDCH@M = 66.
*
3
: 5GHQC PT@QSHKD = 70.
5N BNMRSQTBS SGD ANW OKNS:
1QDRR 4:1KNSRNEE. 1QDRR &/5&3.
"QQNV CNVM @MC SGDM TRD SGD QHFGS @QQNV JDX SN FN SN SGD EHESG OHBSTQD, VGHBG HR SGD ANW OKNS. 1QDRR &/5&3.
"QQNV CNVM SN 9KHRS: 1QDRR 2MC 1 ENQ -1
"QQNV CNVM SN 'QDP: 1QDRR "-1)". 1QDRR 1.
1QDRR ;NNL. 1QDRR 9: ;NNL4S@S.
1QDRR 53"$&, @MC TRD SGD @QQNV JDXR SN DW@LHMD SGD ANW OKNS.
2.17 5GD ENKKNVHMF C@S@ @QD SGD MTLADQ NE O@FDR HM 40 ANNJR NM @ RGDKE. $NMRSQTBS @ ANW OKNS TRHMF @ FQ@OGHMF
B@KBTK@SNQ, @MC RS@SD SGD HMSDQPT@QSHKD Q@MFD.
136; 140; 178; 190; 205; 215; 217; 218; 232; 234; 240; 255; 270; 275; 290; 301; 303; 315; 317; 318; 326; 333; 343;
349; 360; 369; 377; 388; 391; 392; 398; 400; 402; 405; 408; 422; 429; 450; 475; 512
112 "'/3$1 2 W #$2"1(/3(5$ 233(23("2
3DEO ?KJPAJP EO =R=EH=>HA BKN BNAA =P DPPL://?JT.KNC/?KJPAJP/?KH11562/1.11
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'NQ RNLD RDSR NE C@S@, RNLD NE SGD K@QFDRS U@KTD, RL@KKDRS U@KTD, EHQRS PT@QSHKD, LDCH@M, @MC SGHQC PT@QSHKD L@X AD SGD
R@LD. 'NQ HMRS@MBD, XNT LHFGS G@UD @ C@S@ RDS HM VGHBG SGD LDCH@M @MC SGD SGHQC PT@QSHKD @QD SGD R@LD. *M SGHR B@RD, SGD
CH@FQ@L VNTKC MNS G@UD @ CNSSDC KHMD HMRHCD SGD ANW CHROK@XHMF SGD LDCH@M. 5GD QHFGS RHCD NE SGD ANW VNTKC CHROK@X ANSG
SGD SGHQC PT@QSHKD @MC SGD LDCH@M. 'NQ DW@LOKD, HE SGD RL@KKDRS U@KTD @MC SGD EHQRS PT@QSHKD VDQD ANSG NMD, SGD LDCH@M @MC SGD
SGHQC PT@QSHKD VDQD ANSG EHUD, @MC SGD K@QFDRS U@KTD V@R RDUDM, SGD ANW OKNS VNTKC KNNJ KHJD:
$CAOL? 2.19
*M SGHR B@RD, @S KD@RS 25% NE SGD U@KTDR @QD DPT@K SN NMD. 5VDMSX-EHUD ODQBDMS NE SGD U@KTDR @QD ADSVDDM NMD @MC EHUD,
HMBKTRHUD. "S KD@RS 25% NE SGD U@KTDR @QD DPT@K SN EHUD. 5GD SNO 25% NE SGD U@KTDR E@KK ADSVDDM EHUD @MC RDUDM, HMBKTRHUD.
$T=ILHA 2.18
5DRS RBNQDR ENQ @ BNKKDFD RS@SHRSHBR BK@RR GDKC CTQHMF SGD C@X @QD:
99; 56; 78; 55.5; 32; 90; 80; 81; 56; 59; 45; 77; 84.5; 84; 70; 72; 68; 32; 79; 90
5DRS RBNQDR ENQ @ BNKKDFD RS@SHRSHBR BK@RR GDKC CTQHMF SGD DUDMHMF @QD:
98; 78; 68; 83; 81; 89; 88; 76; 65; 45; 98; 90; 80; 84.5; 85; 79; 78; 98; 90; 79; 81; 25.5
=. 8G@S @QD SGD RL@KKDRS @MC K@QFDRS C@S@ U@KTDR ENQ D@BG C@S@ RDS
>. 8G@S HR SGD LDCH@M, SGD EHQRS PT@QSHKD, @MC SGD SGHQC PT@QSHKD ENQ D@BG C@S@ RDS
?. 'NQ D@BG C@S@ RDS, VG@S ODQBDMS@FD NE SGD C@S@ HR ADSVDDM SGD RL@KKDRS U@KTD @MC SGD EHQRS PT@QSHKD SGD EHQRS
PT@QSHKD @MC SGD LDCH@M SGD LDCH@M @MC SGD SGHQC PT@QSHKD SGD SGHQC PT@QSHKD @MC SGD K@QFDRS U@KTD 8G@S
ODQBDMS@FD NE SGD C@S@ HR ADSVDDM SGD EHQRS PT@QSHKD @MC SGD K@QFDRS U@KTD
@. $QD@SD @ ANW OKNS ENQ D@BG RDS NE C@S@. 6RD NMD MTLADQ KHMD ENQ ANSG ANW OKNSR.
A. 8GHBG ANW OKNS G@R SGD VHCDRS ROQD@C ENQ SGD LHCCKD 50% NE SGD C@S@ (SGD C@S@ ADSVDDM SGD EHQRS @MC SGHQC
PT@QSHKDR) 8G@S CNDR SGHR LD@M ENQ SG@S RDS NE C@S@ HM BNLO@QHRNM SN SGD NSGDQ RDS NE C@S@
1IFONCIH 2.18
=.
,EJ = 32
Q
1
= 56
M = 74.5
Q
3
= 82.5
,=T = 99
>.
,EJ = 25.5
Q
1
= 78
M = 81
Q
3
= 89
,=T = 98
?. 5GDQD @QD RDUDM C@S@ U@KTDR Q@MFHMF EQNL 25.5 SN 78: 32%. 5GDQD @QD RDUDM C@S@ U@KTDR Q@MFHMF EQNL 78 SN
81: 32%. 5GDQD @QD RHW C@S@ U@KTDR Q@MFHMF EQNL 81 SN 89: 27%. 5GDQD @QD RHW C@S@ U@KTDR Q@MFHMF EQNL 89
SN 98: 27%. 5GDQD @QD 17 C@S@ U@KTDR ADSVDDM SGD EHQRS PT@QSHKD, 78, @MC SGD K@QFDRS U@KTD, 98: 77%.
"'/3$1 2 W #$2"1(/3(5$ 233(23("2 113
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@.
$CAOL? 2.20
A. 5GD EHQRS C@S@ RDS G@R SGD VHCDRS ROQD@C ENQ SGD LHCCKD 50% NE SGD C@S@. 5GD "*+ ENQ SGD EHQRS C@S@ RDS HR
FQD@SDQ SG@M SGD "*+ ENQ SGD RDBNMC RDS. 5GHR LD@MR SG@S SGDQD HR LNQD U@QH@AHKHSX HM SGD LHCCKD 50% NE SGD
EHQRS C@S@ RDS.
2.18 5GD ENKKNVHMF C@S@ RDS RGNVR SGD GDHFGSR HM HMBGDR ENQ SGD ANXR HM @ BK@RR NE 40 RSTCDMSR.
66; 66; 67; 67; 68; 68; 68; 68; 68; 69; 69; 69; 70; 71; 72; 72; 72; 73; 73; 74
5GD ENKKNVHMF C@S@ RDS RGNVR SGD GDHFGSR HM HMBGDR ENQ SGD FHQKR HM @ BK@RR NE 40 RSTCDMSR.
61; 61; 62; 62; 63; 63; 63; 65; 65; 65; 66; 66; 66; 67; 68; 68; 68; 69; 69; 69
$NMRSQTBS @ ANW OKNS TRHMF @ FQ@OGHMF B@KBTK@SNQ ENQ D@BG C@S@ RDS, @MC RS@SD VGHBG ANW OKNS G@R SGD VHCDQ ROQD@C ENQ SGD
LHCCKD 50% NE SGD C@S@.
$T=ILHA 2.19
(Q@OG @ ANW-@MC-VGHRJDQ OKNS ENQ SGD C@S@ U@KTDR RGNVM.
10; 10; 10; 15; 35; 75; 90; 95; 100; 175; 420; 490; 515; 515; 790
5GD EHUD MTLADQR TRDC SN BQD@SD @ ANW-@MC-VGHRJDQ OKNS @QD:
,EJ: 10
Q
1
: 15
,A@: 95
Q
3
: 490
,=T: 790
5GD ENKKNVHMF FQ@OG RGNVR SGD ANW-@MC-VGHRJDQ OKNS.
$CAOL? 2.21
2.19 'NKKNV SGD RSDOR XNT TRDC SN FQ@OG @ ANW-@MC-VGHRJDQ OKNS ENQ SGD C@S@ U@KTDR RGNVM.
0; 5; 5; 15; 30; 30; 45; 50; 50; 60; 75; 110; 140; 240; 330
114 "'/3$1 2 W #$2"1(/3(5$ 233(23("2
3DEO ?KJPAJP EO =R=EH=>HA BKN BNAA =P DPPL://?JT.KNC/?KJPAJP/?KH11562/1.11
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2.5 U +?;MOL?M I@ NB? *I=;NCIH I@ NB? ";N;
5GD BNLLNM LD@RTQDR NE KNB@SHNM @QD FJ6GI>A:H @MC E:G8:CI>A:H
2T@QSHKDR @QD RODBH@K ODQBDMSHKDR. 5GD EHQRS PT@QSHKD, *
1
, HR SGD R@LD @R SGD 25
SG
ODQBDMSHKD, @MC SGD SGHQC PT@QSHKD, *
3
, HR
SGD R@LD @R SGD 75
SG
ODQBDMSHKD. 5GD LDCH@M, &, HR B@KKDC ANSG SGD RDBNMC PT@QSHKD @MC SGD 50
SG
ODQBDMSHKD.
5N B@KBTK@SD PT@QSHKDR @MC ODQBDMSHKDR, SGD C@S@ LTRS AD NQCDQDC EQNL RL@KKDRS SN K@QFDRS. 2T@QSHKDR CHUHCD NQCDQDC C@S@
HMSN PT@QSDQR. 1DQBDMSHKDR CHUHCD NQCDQDC C@S@ HMSN GTMCQDCSGR. 5N RBNQD HM SGD 90
SG
ODQBDMSHKD NE @M DW@L CNDR MNS LD@M,
MDBDRR@QHKX, SG@S XNT QDBDHUDC 90% NM @ SDRS. *S LD@MR SG@S 90% NE SDRS RBNQDR @QD SGD R@LD NQ KDRR SG@M XNTQ RBNQD @MC 10%
NE SGD SDRS RBNQDR @QD SGD R@LD NQ FQD@SDQ SG@M XNTQ SDRS RBNQD.
1DQBDMSHKDR @QD TRDETK ENQ BNLO@QHMF U@KTDR. 'NQ SGHR QD@RNM, TMHUDQRHSHDR @MC BNKKDFDR TRD ODQBDMSHKDR DWSDMRHUDKX.
0MD HMRS@MBD HM VGHBG BNKKDFDR @MC TMHUDQRHSHDR TRD ODQBDMSHKDR HR VGDM 4"5 QDRTKSR @QD TRDC SN CDSDQLHMD @ LHMHLTL
SDRSHMF RBNQD SG@S VHKK AD TRDC @R @M @BBDOS@MBD E@BSNQ. 'NQ DW@LOKD, RTOONRD %TJD @BBDOSR 4"5 RBNQDR @S NQ @ANUD SGD 75
SG
ODQBDMSHKD. 5G@S SQ@MRK@SDR HMSN @ RBNQD NE @S KD@RS 1220.
1DQBDMSHKDR @QD LNRSKX TRDC VHSG UDQX K@QFD ONOTK@SHNMR. 5GDQDENQD, HE XNT VDQD SN R@X SG@S 90% NE SGD SDRS RBNQDR @QD
KDRR (@MC MNS SGD R@LD NQ KDRR) SG@M XNTQ RBNQD, HS VNTKC AD @BBDOS@AKD ADB@TRD QDLNUHMF NMD O@QSHBTK@Q C@S@ U@KTD HR MNS
RHFMHEHB@MS.
5GD B:9>6C HR @ MTLADQ SG@S LD@RTQDR SGD "BDMSDQ" NE SGD C@S@. :NT B@M SGHMJ NE SGD LDCH@M @R SGD "LHCCKD U@KTD," ATS
HS CNDR MNS @BST@KKX G@UD SN AD NMD NE SGD NARDQUDC U@KTDR. *S HR @ MTLADQ SG@S RDO@Q@SDR NQCDQDC C@S@ HMSN G@KUDR. )@KE SGD
U@KTDR @QD SGD R@LD MTLADQ NQ RL@KKDQ SG@M SGD LDCH@M, @MC G@KE SGD U@KTDR @QD SGD R@LD MTLADQ NQ K@QFDQ. 'NQ DW@LOKD,
BNMRHCDQ SGD ENKKNVHMF C@S@.
1; 11.5; 6; 7.2; 4; 8; 9; 10; 6.8; 8.3; 2; 2; 10; 1
0QCDQDC EQNL RL@KKDRS SN K@QFDRS:
1; 1; 2; 2; 4; 6; 6.8; 7.2; 8; 8.3; 9; 10; 10; 11.5
4HMBDQD SGDQD @QD 14 NARDQU@SHNMR, SGD LDCH@M HR ADSVDDM SGD RDUDMSG U@KTD, 6.8, @MC SGD DHFGSG U@KTD, 7.2. 5N EHMC SGD
LDCH@M, @CC SGD SVN U@KTDR SNFDSGDQ @MC CHUHCD AX SVN.
6.8 + 7.2
2
= 7
5GD LDCH@M HR RDUDM. )@KE NE SGD U@KTDR @QD RL@KKDQ SG@M RDUDM @MC G@KE NE SGD U@KTDR @QD K@QFDQ SG@M RDUDM.
.J6GI>A:H @QD MTLADQR SG@S RDO@Q@SD SGD C@S@ HMSN PT@QSDQR. 2T@QSHKDR L@X NQ L@X MNS AD O@QS NE SGD C@S@. 5N EHMC SGD
PT@QSHKDR, EHQRS EHMC SGD LDCH@M NQ RDBNMC PT@QSHKD. 5GD EHQRS PT@QSHKD, *
1
, HR SGD LHCCKD U@KTD NE SGD KNVDQ G@KE NE SGD C@S@,
@MC SGD SGHQC PT@QSHKD, *
3
, HR SGD LHCCKD U@KTD, NQ LDCH@M, NE SGD TOODQ G@KE NE SGD C@S@. 5N FDS SGD HCD@, BNMRHCDQ SGD R@LD
C@S@ RDS:
1; 1; 2; 2; 4; 6; 6.8; 7.2; 8; 8.3; 9; 10; 10; 11.5
5GD LDCH@M NQ H:8DC9 FJ6GI>A: HR RDUDM. 5GD KNVDQ G@KE NE SGD C@S@ @QD 1, 1, 2, 2, 4, 6, 6.8. 5GD LHCCKD U@KTD NE SGD
KNVDQ G@KE HR SVN.
1; 1; 2; 2; 4; 6; 6.8
5GD MTLADQ SVN, VGHBG HR O@QS NE SGD C@S@, HR SGD ;>GHI FJ6GI>A:. 0MD-ENTQSG NE SGD DMSHQD RDSR NE U@KTDR @QD SGD R@LD NQ
KDRR SG@M SVN @MC SGQDD-ENTQSGR NE SGD U@KTDR @QD LNQD SG@M SVN.
5GD TOODQ G@KE NE SGD C@S@ HR 7.2, 8, 8.3, 9, 10, 10, 11.5. 5GD LHCCKD U@KTD NE SGD TOODQ G@KE HR MHMD.
5GD I=>G9 FJ6GI>A:, *3, HR MHMD. 5GQDD-ENTQSGR (75%) NE SGD NQCDQDC C@S@ RDS @QD KDRR SG@M MHMD. 0MD-ENTQSG (25%) NE
SGD NQCDQDC C@S@ RDS @QD FQD@SDQ SG@M MHMD. 5GD SGHQC PT@QSHKD HR O@QS NE SGD C@S@ RDS HM SGHR DW@LOKD.
5GD >CI:GFJ6GI>A: G6C<: HR @ MTLADQ SG@S HMCHB@SDR SGD ROQD@C NE SGD LHCCKD G@KE NQ SGD LHCCKD 50% NE SGD C@S@. *S HR
SGD CHEEDQDMBD ADSVDDM SGD SGHQC PT@QSHKD (*
3
) @MC SGD EHQRS PT@QSHKD (*
1
).
"*+ = *
3
k *
1
5GD "*+ B@M GDKO SN CDSDQLHMD ONSDMSH@K DJIA>:GH. A K6AJ: >H HJHE:8I:9 ID 7: 6 EDI:CI>6A DJIA>:G >; >I >H A:HH I=6C
(1.5)(IQR) 7:ADL I=: ;>GHI FJ6GI>A: DG BDG: I=6C (1.5)(IQR) 67DK: I=: I=>G9 FJ6GI>A:. 1NSDMSH@K NTSKHDQR @KV@XR QDPTHQD
ETQSGDQ HMUDRSHF@SHNM.
,-2#
" ONSDMSH@K NTSKHDQ HR @ C@S@ ONHMS SG@S HR RHFMHEHB@MSKX CHEEDQDMS EQNL SGD NSGDQ C@S@ ONHMSR. 5GDRD RODBH@K C@S@ ONHMSR
L@X AD DQQNQR NQ RNLD JHMC NE @AMNQL@KHSX NQ SGDX L@X AD @ JDX SN TMCDQRS@MCHMF SGD C@S@.
$T=ILHA 2.20
'NQ SGD ENKKNVHMF 13 QD@K DRS@SD OQHBDR, B@KBTK@SD SGD "*+ @MC CDSDQLHMD HE @MX OQHBDR @QD ONSDMSH@K NTSKHDQR. 1QHBDR
@QD HM CNKK@QR.
"'/3$1 2 W #$2"1(/3(5$ 233(23("2 115
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389,950; 230,500; 158,000; 479,000; 639,000; 114,950; 5,500,000; 387,000; 659,000; 529,000; 575,000;
488,800; 1,095,000
1IFONCIH 2.20
0QCDQ SGD C@S@ EQNL RL@KKDRS SN K@QFDRS.
114,950; 158,000; 230,500; 387,000; 389,950; 479,000; 488,800; 529,000; 575,000; 639,000; 659,000;
1,095,000; 5,500,000
& = 488,800
*
1
=
230,500 + 387,000
2
= 308,750
*
3
=
639,000 + 659,000
2
= 340,250
"*+ = 649,000 k 308,750 = 340,250
(1.5)("*+) = (1.5)(340,0250) = 510,375
*
1
k (1.5)("*+) = 308,750 k 510,375 = k201,625
*
3
+ (1.5)("*+) = 649,000 + 510,375 = 1,159,375
/N GNTRD OQHBD HR KDRR SG@M k201,625. )NVDUDQ, 5,500,000 HR LNQD SG@M 1,159,375. 5GDQDENQD, 5,500,000 HR @
ONSDMSH@K DJIA>:G.
2.20 'NQ SGD ENKKNVHMF 11 R@K@QHDR, B@KBTK@SD SGD "*+ @MC CDSDQLHMD HE @MX R@K@QHDR @QD NTSKHDQR. 5GD R@K@QHDR @QD HM
CNKK@QR.
$33,000; $64,500; $28,000; $54,000; $72,000; $68,500; $69,000; $42,000; $54,000; $102,000; $40,500
$T=ILHA 2.21
'NQ SGD SVN C@S@ RDSR HM SGD N?MN M=IL?M ?R;GJF?, EHMC SGD ENKKNVHMF:
=. 5GD HMSDQPT@QSHKD Q@MFD. $NLO@QD SGD SVN HMSDQPT@QSHKD Q@MFDR.
>. "MX NTSKHDQR HM DHSGDQ RDS.
1IFONCIH 2.21
5GD EHUD MTLADQ RTLL@QX ENQ SGD C@X @MC MHFGS BK@RRDR HR
+CHCGOG Q
1 +?>C;H Q
3 +;RCGOG
";S 32 56 74.5 82.5 99
,CABN 25.5 78 81 89 98
2;<F? 2.29
=. 3DA (01 BKN PDA @=U CNKQL EO Q
3
_ Q
1
= 82.5 _ 56 = 26.5
5GD *23 ENQ SGD MHFGS FQNTO HR *
3
k *
1
= 89 k 78 = 11
5GD HMSDQPT@QSHKD Q@MFD (SGD ROQD@C NQ U@QH@AHKHSX) ENQ SGD C@X BK@RR HR K@QFDQ SG@M SGD MHFGS BK@RR "*+.
5GHR RTFFDRSR LNQD U@QH@SHNM VHKK AD ENTMC HM SGD C@X BK@RRnR BK@RR SDRS RBNQDR.
>. #=U ?H=OO KQPHEANO =NA BKQJ@ QOEJC PDA (01 PEIAO 1.5 NQHA. 2K,
Q
1
- IQR(1.5) = 56 _ 26.5(1.5) = 16.25
Q
3
+ IQR(1.5) = 82.5 + 26.5(1.5) = 122.25
4HMBD SGD LHMHLTL @MC L@WHLTL U@KTDR ENQ SGD C@X BK@RR @QD FQD@SDQ SG@M 16.25 @MC KDRR SG@M 122.25, SGDQD
@QD MN NTSKHDQR.
116 "'/3$1 2 W #$2"1(/3(5$ 233(23("2
3DEO ?KJPAJP EO =R=EH=>HA BKN BNAA =P DPPL://?JT.KNC/?KJPAJP/?KH11562/1.11
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/HFGS BK@RR NTSKHDQR @QD B@KBTK@SDC @R:
Q
1
_ IQR (1.5) = 78 _ 11(1.5) = 61.5
Q
3
+ (01(1.5) = 89 + 11(1.5) = 105.5
'NQ SGHR BK@RR, @MX SDRS RBNQD KDRR SG@M 61.5 HR @M NTSKHDQ. 5GDQDENQD, SGD RBNQDR NE 45 @MC 25.5 @QD NTSKHDQR.
4HMBD MN SDRS RBNQD HR FQD@SDQ SG@M 105.5, SGDQD HR MN TOODQ DMC NTSKHDQ.
2.21 'HMC SGD HMSDQPT@QSHKD Q@MFD ENQ SGD ENKKNVHMF SVN C@S@ RDSR @MC BNLO@QD SGDL.
5DRS 4BNQDR ENQ $K@RR A
69; 96; 81; 79; 65; 76; 83; 99; 89; 67; 90; 77; 85; 98; 66; 91; 77; 69; 80; 94
5DRS 4BNQDR ENQ $K@RR B
90; 72; 80; 92; 90; 97; 92; 75; 79; 68; 70; 80; 99; 95; 78; 73; 71; 68; 95; 100
$T=ILHA 2.22
'HESX RS@SHRSHBR RSTCDMSR VDQD @RJDC GNV LTBG RKDDO SGDX FDS ODQ RBGNNK MHFGS (QNTMCDC SN SGD MD@QDRS GNTQ). 5GD
QDRTKSR VDQD:
A+-3,2 -$ 1*##. .#0
1!&--* ,'%&2 (&-301)
$0#/3#,!7
0#*A2'4#
$0#/3#,!7
!3+3*A2'4#
0#*A2'4#
$0#/3#,!7
4 2 0.04 0.04
5 5 0.10 0.14
6 7 0.14 0.28
7 12 0.24 0.52
8 14 0.28 0.80
9 7 0.14 0.94
10 3 0.06 1.00
2;<F? 2.30
#>C9 I=: 28
I=
E:G8:CI>A:. /NSHBD SGD 0.28 HM SGD "BTLTK@SHUD QDK@SHUD EQDPTDMBX" BNKTLM. 5VDMSX-DHFGS
ODQBDMS NE 50 C@S@ U@KTDR HR = 14. 5GDQD @QD 14 U@KTDR KDRR SG@M SGD 28
SG
ODQBDMSHKD. 5GDX HMBKTCD SGD SVN 4R, SGD
EHUD 5R, @MC SGD RDUDM 6R. 5GD 28
SG
ODQBDMSHKD HR ADSVDDM SGD K@RS RHW @MC SGD EHQRS RDUDM. 1=: 28
I=
E:G8:CI>A: >H
6.5.
#>C9 I=: B:9>6C. -NNJ @F@HM @S SGD "BTLTK@SHUD QDK@SHUD EQDPTDMBX" BNKTLM @MC EHMC 0.52. 5GD LDCH@M HR
SGD 50
SG
ODQBDMSHKD NQ SGD RDBNMC PT@QSHKD. 50%NE 50 HR 25. 5GDQD @QD 25 U@KTDR KDRR SG@M SGD LDCH@M. 5GDX HMBKTCD
"'/3$1 2 W #$2"1(/3(5$ 233(23("2 117
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SGD SVN 4R, SGD EHUD 5R, SGD RDUDM 6R, @MC DKDUDM NE SGD 7R. 5GD LDCH@M NQ 50
SG
ODQBDMSHKD HR ADSVDDM SGD 25
SG
, NQ
RDUDM, @MC 26
SG
, NQ RDUDM, U@KTDR. 1=: B:9>6C >H H:K:C.
#>C9 I=: I=>G9 FJ6GI>A:. 5GD SGHQC PT@QSHKD HR SGD R@LD @R SGD 75
SG
ODQBDMSHKD. :NT B@M "DXDA@KK" SGHR @MRVDQ.
*E XNT KNNJ @S SGD "BTLTK@SHUD QDK@SHUD EQDPTDMBX" BNKTLM, XNT EHMC 0.52 @MC 0.80. 8GDM XNT G@UD @KK SGD ENTQR,
EHUDR, RHWDR @MC RDUDMR, XNT G@UD 52% NE SGD C@S@. 8GDM XNT HMBKTCD @KK SGD 8R, XNT G@UD 80% NE SGD C@S@. 1=:
75
I=
E:G8:CI>A:, I=:C, BJHI 7: 6C :><=I. "MNSGDQ V@X SN KNNJ @S SGD OQNAKDL HR SN EHMC 75%NE 50, VGHBG HR 37.5,
@MC QNTMC TO SN 38. 5GD SGHQC PT@QSHKD, *
3
, HR SGD 38
SG
U@KTD, VGHBG HR @M DHFGS. :NT B@M BGDBJ SGHR @MRVDQ AX
BNTMSHMF SGD U@KTDR. (5GDQD @QD 37 U@KTDR ADKNV SGD SGHQC PT@QSHKD @MC 12 U@KTDR @ANUD.)
118 "'/3$1 2 W #$2"1(/3(5$ 233(23("2
3DEO ?KJPAJP EO =R=EH=>HA BKN BNAA =P DPPL://?JT.KNC/?KJPAJP/?KH11562/1.11
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2.22 'NQSX ATR CQHUDQR VDQD @RJDC GNV L@MX GNTQR SGDX RODMC D@BG C@X QTMMHMF SGDHQ QNTSDR (QNTMCDC SN SGD MD@QDRS
GNTQ). 'HMC SGD 65
SG
ODQBDMSHKD.
AGIOHN I@ NCG? MJ?HN IH LION?
(BIOLM)
$L?KO?H=S
0?F;NCP?
$L?KO?H=S
!OGOF;NCP? 0?F;NCP?
$L?KO?H=S
2 12 0.30 0.30
3 14 0.35 0.65
4 10 0.25 0.90
5 4 0.10 1.00
2;<F? 2.31
$T=ILHA 2.23
6RHMF 2;<F? 2.30:
1. 'HMC SGD 80
SG
ODQBDMSHKD.
2. 'HMC SGD 90
SG
ODQBDMSHKD.
3. 'HMC SGD EHQRS PT@QSHKD. 8G@S HR @MNSGDQ M@LD ENQ SGD EHQRS PT@QSHKD
4. $NMRSQTBS @ ANW OKNS NE SGD C@S@.
1IFONCIH 2.23
6RHMF SGD C@S@ EQNL SGD EQDPTDMBX S@AKD, VD G@UD:
1. 5GD 80
SG
ODQBDMSHKD VHKK AD SGD 40
SG
C@S@ U@KTD @MC SGD 40
SG
C@S@ U@KTD HR DHFGS. )NVDUDQ, SGDQD @QD 14 DHFGSR;
SGDQDENQD, VD MDDC SN S@JD SGD LD@M NE SGD 40
SG
@MC 41
RS
U@KTDR. P
80
=
8 + 9
2
= 8.5
2. 5GD 90
SG
ODQBDMSHKD VHKK AD SGD 45
SG
C@S@ U@KTD @MC SGD 45
SG
C@S@ U@KTD HR MHMD.
3. *
1
HR @KRN SGD 25
SG
ODQBDMSHKD. 5GD 25
SG
ODQBDMSHKD VHKK AD: )
25
= 0.25(50) = 12.5 v 13 SGD 13
SG
C@S@ U@KTD.
5GTR, )
25
= 6.
4. " ANW OKNS NE SGD C@S@ KNNJR KHJD:
$CAOL? 2.22
2.23 3DEDQ SN SGD 2;<F? 2.31. 'HMC SGD SGHQC PT@QSHKD. 8G@S HR @MNSGDQ M@LD ENQ SGD SGHQC PT@QSHKD
"'/3$1 2 W #$2"1(/3(5$ 233(23("2 119
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:NTQ HMRSQTBSNQ NQ @ LDLADQ NE SGD BK@RR VHKK @RJ DUDQXNMD HM BK@RR GNV L@MX RVD@SDQR SGDX NVM. "MRVDQ SGD ENKKNVHMF
PTDRSHNMR:
1. )NV L@MX RSTCDMSR VDQD RTQUDXDC
2. 8G@S JHMC NE R@LOKHMF CHC XNT CN
3. $NMRSQTBS SVN CHEEDQDMS GHRSNFQ@LR. 'NQ D@BG, RS@QSHMF U@KTD = ????? DMCHMF U@KTD = ????.
4. 'HMC SGD LDCH@M, EHQRS PT@QSHKD, @MC SGHQC PT@QSHKD.
5. $NMRSQTBS @ S@AKD NE SGD C@S@ SN EHMC SGD ENKKNVHMF:
=. SGD 10
SG
ODQBDMSHKD
>. SGD 70
SG
ODQBDMSHKD
?. SGD ODQBDMS NE RSTCDMSR VGN NVM KDRR SG@M ENTQ RVD@SDQR
A $ILGOF; @IL $CH>CHA NB? .NB .?L=?HNCF?
*E XNT VDQD SN CN @ KHSSKD QDRD@QBG, XNT VNTKC EHMC RDUDQ@K ENQLTK@R ENQ B@KBTK@SHMF SGD A
SG
ODQBDMSHKD. )DQD HR NMD NE SGDL.
A = SGD A
J>
ODQBDMSHKD. *S L@X NQ L@X MNS AD O@QS NE SGD C@S@.
? = SGD HMCDW (Q@MJHMF NQ ONRHSHNM NE @ C@S@ U@KTD)
D = SGD SNS@K MTLADQ NE C@S@
c 0QCDQ SGD C@S@ EQNL RL@KKDRS SN K@QFDRS.
c $@KBTK@SD i =
k
100
(n + 1)
c *E ? HR @ ONRHSHUD HMSDFDQ, SGDM SGD A
J>
ODQBDMSHKD HR SGD C@S@ U@KTD HM SGD ?
J>
ONRHSHNM HM SGD NQCDQDC RDS NE C@S@.
c *E ? HR MNS @ ONRHSHUD HMSDFDQ, SGDM QNTMC ? TO @MC QNTMC ? CNVM SN SGD MD@QDRS HMSDFDQR. "UDQ@FD SGD SVN C@S@ U@KTDR HM
SGDRD SVN ONRHSHNMR HM SGD NQCDQDC C@S@ RDS. 5GHR HR D@RHDQ SN TMCDQRS@MC HM @M DW@LOKD.
$T=ILHA 2.24
-HRSDC @QD 29 @FDR ENQ "B@CDLX "V@QC VHMMHMF ADRS @BSNQR ?D EH:;H <HEC IC7BB;IJ JE B7H=;IJ.
18; 21; 22; 25; 26; 27; 29; 30; 31; 33; 36; 37; 41; 42; 47; 52; 55; 57; 58; 62; 64; 67; 69; 71; 72; 73; 74; 76; 77
=. 'HMC SGD 70
SG
ODQBDMSHKD.
>. 'HMC SGD 83
QC
ODQBDMSHKD.
1IFONCIH 2.24
=.
# = 70
" = PDA EJ@AT
& = 29
? =
k
100
(D + 1) =
70
100
= (29 + 1 = 21). 5VDMSX-NMD HR @M HMSDFDQ, @MC SGD C@S@ U@KTD HM SGD 21
RS
ONRHSHNM
HM SGD NQCDQDC C@S@ RDS HR 64. 5GD 70
SG
ODQBDMSHKD HR 64 XD@QR.
>.
# = 83
N@
LAN?AJPEHA
" = PDA EJ@AT
& = 29
? =
k
100
(D + 1) =
83
100
= (29 + 1) = 24.9, VGHBG HR /05 @M HMSDFDQ. 3NTMC HS CNVM SN 24 @MC TO SN
25. 5GD @FD HM SGD 24
SG
ONRHSHNM HR 71 @MC SGD @FD HM SGD 25
SG
ONRHSHNM HR 72. "UDQ@FD 71 @MC 72. 5GD 83
QC
ODQBDMSHKD HR 71.5 XD@QR.
120 "'/3$1 2 W #$2"1(/3(5$ 233(23("2
3DEO ?KJPAJP EO =R=EH=>HA BKN BNAA =P DPPL://?JT.KNC/?KJPAJP/?KH11562/1.11
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2.24 -HRSDC @QD 29 @FDR ENQ "B@CDLX "V@QC VHMMHMF ADRS @BSNQR ?D EH:;H <HEC IC7BB;IJ JE B7H=;IJ.
18; 21; 22; 25; 26; 27; 29; 30; 31; 33; 36; 37; 41; 42; 47; 52; 55; 57; 58; 62; 64; 67; 69; 71; 72; 73; 74; 76; 77
$@KBTK@SD SGD 20
SG
ODQBDMSHKD @MC SGD 55
SG
ODQBDMSHKD.
,-2#
:NT B@M B@KBTK@SD ODQBDMSHKDR TRHMF B@KBTK@SNQR @MC BNLOTSDQR. 5GDQD @QD @ U@QHDSX NE NMKHMD B@KBTK@SNQR.
A $ILGOF; @IL $CH>CHA NB? .?L=?HNCF? I@ ; 4;FO? CH ; ";N; 1?N
c 0QCDQ SGD C@S@ EQNL RL@KKDRS SN K@QFDRS.
c N = SGD MTLADQ NE C@S@ U@KTDR BNTMSHMF EQNLSGD ANSSNL NE SGD C@S@ KHRS TO SN ATS MNS HMBKTCHMF SGD C@S@ U@KTD ENQ VGHBG
XNT V@MS SN EHMC SGD ODQBDMSHKD.
c O = SGD MTLADQ NE C@S@ U@KTDR DPT@K SN SGD C@S@ U@KTD ENQ VGHBG XNT V@MS SN EHMC SGD ODQBDMSHKD.
c D = SGD SNS@K MTLADQ NE C@S@.
c $@KBTK@SD
x + 0.5y
n
(100). 5GDM QNTMC SN SGD MD@QDRS HMSDFDQ.
$T=ILHA 2.25
-HRSDC @QD 29 @FDR ENQ "B@CDLX "V@QC VHMMHMF ADRS @BSNQR ?D EH:;H <HEC IC7BB;IJ JE B7H=;IJ.
18; 21; 22; 25; 26; 27; 29; 30; 31; 33; 36; 37; 41; 42; 47; 52; 55; 57; 58; 62; 64; 67; 69; 71; 72; 73; 74; 76; 77
=. 'HMC SGD ODQBDMSHKD ENQ 58.
>. 'HMC SGD ODQBDMSHKD ENQ 25.
1IFONCIH 2.25
=. "KQJPEJC BNKI PDA >KPPKI KB PDA HEOP, PDANA =NA 18 @=P= R=HQAO HAOO PD=J 58. 3DANA EO KJA R=HQA KB
58.
N = 18 @MC O = 1.
x + 0.5y
n
(100) =
18 + 0.5(1)
29
(100) = 63.80. 58 HR SGD 64
SG
ODQBDMSHKD.
>. "KQJPEJC BNKI PDA >KPPKI KB PDA HEOP, PDANA =NA PDNAA @=P= R=HQAO HAOO PD=J 25. 3DANA EO KJA R=HQA
KB 25.
N = 3 @MC O = 1.
x + 0.5y
n
(100) =
3 + 0.5(1)
29
(100) = 12.07. 5VDMSX-EHUD HR SGD 12
SG
ODQBDMSHKD.
2.25 -HRSDC @QD 30 @FDR ENQ "B@CDLX "V@QC VHMMHMF ADRS @BSNQR HM NQCDQ EQNL RL@KKDRS SN K@QFDRS.
18; 21; 22; 25; 26; 27; 29; 30; 31, 31; 33; 36; 37; 41; 42; 47; 52; 55; 57; 58; 62; 64; 67; 69; 71; 72; 73; 74; 76; 77
'HMC SGD ODQBDMSHKDR ENQ 47 @MC 31.
'HN?LJL?NCHA .?L=?HNCF?M, /O;LNCF?M, ;H> +?>C;H
"ODQBDMSHKD HMCHB@SDR SGD QDK@SHUD RS@MCHMF NE @ C@S@ U@KTD VGDM C@S@ @QD RNQSDC HMSN MTLDQHB@K NQCDQ EQNLRL@KKDRS SN K@QFDRS.
1DQBDMS@FDR NE C@S@ U@KTDR @QD KDRR SG@M NQ DPT@K SN SGD OSG ODQBDMSHKD. 'NQ DW@LOKD, 15%NE C@S@ U@KTDR @QD KDRR SG@M NQ DPT@K
SN SGD 15
SG
ODQBDMSHKD.
c -NV ODQBDMSHKDR @KV@XR BNQQDRONMC SN KNVDQ C@S@ U@KTDR.
c )HFG ODQBDMSHKDR @KV@XR BNQQDRONMC SN GHFGDQ C@S@ U@KTDR.
" ODQBDMSHKD L@X NQ L@X MNS BNQQDRONMC SN @ U@KTD ITCFLDMS @ANTS VGDSGDQ HS HR "FNNC" NQ "A@C." 5GD HMSDQOQDS@SHNM
NE VGDSGDQ @ BDQS@HM ODQBDMSHKD HR "FNNC" NQ "A@C" CDODMCR NM SGD BNMSDWS NE SGD RHST@SHNM SN VGHBG SGD C@S@ @OOKHDR. *M RNLD
"'/3$1 2 W #$2"1(/3(5$ 233(23("2 121
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RHST@SHNMR, @ KNV ODQBDMSHKD VNTKC AD BNMRHCDQDC "FNNC;" HM NSGDQ BNMSDWSR @ GHFG ODQBDMSHKD LHFGS AD BNMRHCDQDC "FNNC". *M
L@MX RHST@SHNMR, SGDQD HR MN U@KTD ITCFLDMS SG@S @OOKHDR.
6MCDQRS@MCHMF GNV SN HMSDQOQDS ODQBDMSHKDR OQNODQKX HR HLONQS@MS MNS NMKX VGDM CDRBQHAHMF C@S@, ATS @KRN VGDM
B@KBTK@SHMF OQNA@AHKHSHDR HM K@SDQ BG@OSDQR NE SGHR SDWS.
%3'"#*',#
8GDM VQHSHMF SGD HMSDQOQDS@SHNM NE @ ODQBDMSHKD HM SGD BNMSDWS NE SGD FHUDM C@S@, SGD RDMSDMBD RGNTKC BNMS@HM SGD
ENKKNVHMF HMENQL@SHNM.
c HMENQL@SHNM @ANTS SGD BNMSDWS NE SGD RHST@SHNM ADHMF BNMRHCDQDC
c SGD C@S@ U@KTD (U@KTD NE SGD U@QH@AKD) SG@S QDOQDRDMSR SGD ODQBDMSHKD
c SGD ODQBDMS NE HMCHUHCT@KR NQ HSDLR VHSG C@S@ U@KTDR ADKNV SGD ODQBDMSHKD
c SGD ODQBDMS NE HMCHUHCT@KR NQ HSDLR VHSG C@S@ U@KTDR @ANUD SGD ODQBDMSHKD.
$T=ILHA 2.26
0M @ SHLDC L@SG SDRS, SGD EHQRS PT@QSHKD ENQ SHLD HS SNNJ SN EHMHRG SGD DW@LV@R 35 LHMTSDR. *MSDQOQDS SGD EHQRS PT@QSHKD
HM SGD BNMSDWS NE SGHR RHST@SHNM.
1IFONCIH 2.26
c 5VDMSX-EHUD ODQBDMS NE RSTCDMSR EHMHRGDC SGD DW@L HM 35 LHMTSDR NQ KDRR.
c 4DUDMSX-EHUD ODQBDMS NE RSTCDMSR EHMHRGDC SGD DW@L HM 35 LHMTSDR NQ LNQD.
c " KNV ODQBDMSHKD BNTKC AD BNMRHCDQDC FNNC, @R EHMHRGHMF LNQD PTHBJKX NM @ SHLDC DW@L HR CDRHQ@AKD. (*E XNT
S@JD SNN KNMF, XNT LHFGS MNS AD @AKD SN EHMHRG.)
2.26 'NQ SGD 100-LDSDQ C@RG, SGD SGHQC PT@QSHKD ENQ SHLDR ENQ EHMHRGHMF SGD Q@BD V@R 11.5 RDBNMCR. *MSDQOQDS SGD SGHQC
PT@QSHKD HM SGD BNMSDWS NE SGD RHST@SHNM.
$T=ILHA 2.27
0M @ 20 PTDRSHNM L@SG SDRS, SGD 70
SG
ODQBDMSHKD ENQ MTLADQ NE BNQQDBS @MRVDQR V@R 16. *MSDQOQDS SGD 70
SG
ODQBDMSHKD
HM SGD BNMSDWS NE SGHR RHST@SHNM.
1IFONCIH 2.27
c 4DUDMSX ODQBDMS NE RSTCDMSR @MRVDQDC 16 NQ EDVDQ PTDRSHNMR BNQQDBSKX.
c 5GHQSX ODQBDMS NE RSTCDMSR @MRVDQDC 16 NQ LNQD PTDRSHNMR BNQQDBSKX.
c " GHFGDQ ODQBDMSHKD BNTKC AD BNMRHCDQDC FNNC, @R @MRVDQHMF LNQD PTDRSHNMR BNQQDBSKX HR CDRHQ@AKD.
122 "'/3$1 2 W #$2"1(/3(5$ 233(23("2
3DEO ?KJPAJP EO =R=EH=>HA BKN BNAA =P DPPL://?JT.KNC/?KJPAJP/?KH11562/1.11
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2.27 0M @ 60 ONHMS VQHSSDM @RRHFMLDMS, SGD 80
SG
ODQBDMSHKD ENQ SGD MTLADQ NE ONHMSR D@QMDC V@R 49. *MSDQOQDS SGD 80
SG
ODQBDMSHKD HM SGD BNMSDWS NE SGHR RHST@SHNM.
$T=ILHA 2.28
"S @ BNLLTMHSX BNKKDFD, HS V@R ENTMC SG@S SGD 30
SG
ODQBDMSHKD NE BQDCHS TMHSR SG@S RSTCDMSR @QD DMQNKKDC ENQ HR RDUDM
TMHSR. *MSDQOQDS SGD 30
SG
ODQBDMSHKD HM SGD BNMSDWS NE SGHR RHST@SHNM.
1IFONCIH 2.28
c 5GHQSX ODQBDMS NE RSTCDMSR @QD DMQNKKDC HM RDUDM NQ EDVDQ BQDCHS TMHSR.
c 4DUDMSX ODQBDMS NE RSTCDMSR @QD DMQNKKDC HM RDUDM NQ LNQD BQDCHS TMHSR.
c *M SGHR DW@LOKD, SGDQD HR MN "FNNC" NQ "A@C" U@KTD ITCFLDMS @RRNBH@SDC VHSG @ GHFGDQ NQ KNVDQ ODQBDMSHKD.
4STCDMSR @SSDMC BNLLTMHSX BNKKDFD ENQ U@QHDC QD@RNMR @MC MDDCR, @MC SGDHQ BNTQRD KN@C U@QHDR @BBNQCHMF SN
SGDHQ MDDCR.
2.28 %TQHMF @ RD@RNM, SGD 40
SG
ODQBDMSHKD ENQ ONHMSR RBNQDC ODQ OK@XDQ HM @ F@LD HR DHFGS. *MSDQOQDS SGD 40
SG
ODQBDMSHKD
HM SGD BNMSDWS NE SGHR RHST@SHNM.
$T=ILHA 2.29
4G@QOD .HCCKD 4BGNNK HR @OOKXHMF ENQ @ FQ@MS SG@S VHKK AD TRDC SN @CC EHSMDRR DPTHOLDMS SN SGD FXL. 5GD OQHMBHO@K
RTQUDXDC 15 @MNMXLNTR RSTCDMSR SN CDSDQLHMD GNV L@MX LHMTSDR @ C@X SGD RSTCDMSR RODMC DWDQBHRHMF. 5GD QDRTKSR
EQNL SGD 15 @MNMXLNTR RSTCDMSR @QD RGNVM.
0 LHMTSDR; 40 LHMTSDR; 60 LHMTSDR; 30 LHMTSDR; 60 LHMTSDR
10 LHMTSDR; 45 LHMTSDR; 30 LHMTSDR; 300 LHMTSDR; 90 LHMTSDR;
30 LHMTSDR; 120 LHMTSDR; 60 LHMTSDR; 0 LHMTSDR; 20 LHMTSDR
%DSDQLHMD SGD ENKKNVHMF EHUD U@KTDR.
,EJ = 0
Q
1
= 20
,A@ = 40
Q
3
= 60
,=T = 300
*E XNT VDQD SGD OQHMBHO@K, VNTKC XNT AD ITRSHEHDC HM OTQBG@RHMF MDV EHSMDRR DPTHOLDMS 4HMBD 75% NE SGD
RSTCDMSR DWDQBHRD ENQ 60 LHMTSDR NQ KDRR C@HKX, @MC RHMBD SGD "*+ HR 40 LHMTSDR (60 k 20 = 40), VD JMNV SG@S G@KE
NE SGD RSTCDMSR RTQUDXDC DWDQBHRD ADSVDDM 20 LHMTSDR @MC 60 LHMTSDR C@HKX. 5GHR RDDLR @ QD@RNM@AKD @LNTMS NE
SHLD RODMS DWDQBHRHMF, RN SGD OQHMBHO@K VNTKC AD ITRSHEHDC HM OTQBG@RHMF SGD MDV DPTHOLDMS.
)NVDUDQ, SGD OQHMBHO@K MDDCR SN AD B@QDETK. 5GD U@KTD 300 @OOD@QR SN AD @ ONSDMSH@K NTSKHDQ.
*
3
+ 1.5("*+) = 60 + (1.5)(40) = 20.
5GD U@KTD 300 HR FQD@SDQ SG@M 120 RN HS HR @ ONSDMSH@K NTSKHDQ. *E VD CDKDSD HS @MC B@KBTK@SD SGD EHUD U@KTDR, VD
FDS SGD ENKKNVHMF U@KTDR:
,EJ = 0
Q
1
= 20
Q
3
= 60
,=T = 120
"'/3$1 2 W #$2"1(/3(5$ 233(23("2 123
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8D RSHKK G@UD 75% NE SGD RSTCDMSR DWDQBHRHMF ENQ 60 LHMTSDR NQ KDRR C@HKX @MC G@KE NE SGD RSTCDMSR DWDQBHRHMF
ADSVDDM 20 @MC 60 LHMTSDR @ C@X. )NVDUDQ, 15 RSTCDMSR HR @ RL@KK R@LOKD @MC SGD OQHMBHO@K RGNTKC RTQUDX LNQD
RSTCDMSR SN AD RTQD NE GHR RTQUDX QDRTKSR.
2.6 U +?;MOL?M I@ NB? !?HN?L I@ NB? ";N;
5GD "BDMSDQ" NE @ C@S@ RDS HR @KRN @ V@X NE CDRBQHAHMF KNB@SHNM. 5GD SVN LNRS VHCDKX TRDC LD@RTQDR NE SGD "BDMSDQ" NE SGD
C@S@ @QD SGD B:6C (@UDQ@FD) @MC SGD B:9>6C. 5N B@KBTK@SD SGD B:6C L:><=I NE 50 ODNOKD, @CC SGD 50 VDHFGSR SNFDSGDQ @MC
CHUHCD AX 50. 5N EHMC SGD B:9>6C L:><=I NE SGD 50 ODNOKD, NQCDQ SGD C@S@ @MC EHMC SGD MTLADQ SG@S ROKHSR SGD C@S@ HMSN SVN
DPT@K O@QSR. 5GD LDCH@M HR FDMDQ@KKX @ ADSSDQ LD@RTQD NE SGD BDMSDQ VGDM SGDQD @QD DWSQDLD U@KTDR NQ NTSKHDQR ADB@TRD HS HR
MNS @EEDBSDC AX SGD OQDBHRD MTLDQHB@K U@KTDR NE SGD NTSKHDQR. 5GD LD@M HR SGD LNRS BNLLNM LD@RTQD NE SGD BDMSDQ.
,-2#
5GD VNQCR oLD@Mp @MC o@UDQ@FDp @QD NESDM TRDC HMSDQBG@MFD@AKX. 5GD RTARSHSTSHNM NE NMD VNQC ENQ SGD NSGDQ HR BNLLNM
OQ@BSHBD. 5GD SDBGMHB@K SDQL HR o@QHSGLDSHB LD@Mp @MC o@UDQ@FDp HR SDBGMHB@KKX @ BDMSDQ KNB@SHNM. )NVDUDQ, HM OQ@BSHBD
@LNMF MNM-RS@SHRSHBH@MR, o@UDQ@FD" HR BNLLNMKX @BBDOSDC ENQ o@QHSGLDSHB LD@M.p
8GDM D@BG U@KTD HM SGD C@S@ RDS HR MNS TMHPTD, SGD LD@M B@M AD B@KBTK@SDC AX LTKSHOKXHMF D@BG CHRSHMBS U@KTD AX HSR
EQDPTDMBX @MC SGDM CHUHCHMF SGD RTL AX SGD SNS@K MTLADQ NE C@S@ U@KTDR. 5GD KDSSDQ TRDC SN QDOQDRDMS SGD H6BEA: B:6C HR @M
N VHSG @ A@Q NUDQ HS (OQNMNTMBDC oN A@Qp): x

.
5GD (QDDJ KDSSDQ Z (OQNMNTMBDC "LDV") QDOQDRDMSR SGD EDEJA6I>DC B:6C. 0MD NE SGD QDPTHQDLDMSR ENQ SGD H6BEA:
B:6C SN AD @ FNNC DRSHL@SD NE SGD EDEJA6I>DC B:6C HR ENQ SGD R@LOKD S@JDM SN AD SQTKX Q@MCNL.
5N RDD SG@S ANSG V@XR NE B@KBTK@SHMF SGD LD@M @QD SGD R@LD, BNMRHCDQ SGD R@LOKD:
1; 1; 1; 2; 2; 3; 4; 4; 4; 4; 4
x

=
1 + 1 + 1 + 2 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 4 + 4 + 4 + 4
11
= 2.7
x

=
3(1) + 2(2) + 1(3) + 5(4)
11
= 2.7
*M SGD RDBNMC DW@LOKD, SGD EQDPTDMBHDR @QD 3(1) + 2(2) + 1(3) + 5(4).
:NT B@M PTHBJKX EHMC SGD KNB@SHNM NE SGD LDCH@M AX TRHMF SGD DWOQDRRHNM
n + 1
2
.
5GD KDSSDQ D HR SGD SNS@K MTLADQ NE C@S@ U@KTDR HM SGD R@LOKD. *E D HR @M NCC MTLADQ, SGD LDCH@M HR SGD LHCCKD U@KTD NE
SGD NQCDQDC C@S@ (NQCDQDC RL@KKDRS SN K@QFDRS). *E D HR @M DUDM MTLADQ, SGD LDCH@M HR DPT@K SN SGD SVN LHCCKD U@KTDR @CCDC
SNFDSGDQ @MC CHUHCDC AX SVN @ESDQ SGD C@S@ G@R ADDM NQCDQDC. 'NQ DW@LOKD, HE SGD SNS@K MTLADQ NE C@S@ U@KTDR HR 97, SGDM
n + 1
2
=
97 + 1
2
= 49. 5GD LDCH@M HR SGD 49
SG
U@KTD HM SGD NQCDQDC C@S@. *E SGD SNS@K MTLADQ NE C@S@ U@KTDR HR 100, SGDM
n + 1
2
=
100 + 1
2
= 50.5. 5GD LDCH@M NBBTQR LHCV@X ADSVDDM SGD 50
SG
@MC 51
RS
U@KTDR. 5GD KNB@SHNM NE SGD LDCH@M @MC
SGD U@KTD NE SGD LDCH@M @QD CDI SGD R@LD. 5GD TOODQ B@RD KDSSDQ & HR NESDM TRDC SN QDOQDRDMS SGD LDCH@M. 5GD MDWS DW@LOKD
HKKTRSQ@SDR SGD KNB@SHNM NE SGD LDCH@M @MC SGD U@KTD NE SGD LDCH@M.
$T=ILHA 2.30
"*%4 C@S@ HMCHB@SHMF SGD MTLADQ NE LNMSGR @ O@SHDMS VHSG "*%4 KHUDR @ESDQ S@JHMF @ MDV @MSHANCX CQTF @QD @R
ENKKNVR (RL@KKDRS SN K@QFDRS):
3; 4; 8; 8; 10; 11; 12; 13; 14; 15; 15; 16; 16; 17; 17; 18; 21; 22; 22; 24; 24; 25; 26; 26; 27; 27; 29; 29; 31; 32; 33;
33; 34; 34; 35; 37; 40; 44; 44; 47;
$@KBTK@SD SGD LD@M @MC SGD LDCH@M.
1IFONCIH 2.30
5GD B@KBTK@SHNM ENQ SGD LD@M HR:
x

=
[3 + 4 + (8)(2) + 10 + 11 + 12 + 13 + 14 + (15)(2) + (16)(2) + ... + 35 + 37 + 40 + (44)(2) + 47]
40
= 23.6
124 "'/3$1 2 W #$2"1(/3(5$ 233(23("2
3DEO ?KJPAJP EO =R=EH=>HA BKN BNAA =P DPPL://?JT.KNC/?KJPAJP/?KH11562/1.11
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5N EHMC SGD LDCH@M, &, EHQRS TRD SGD ENQLTK@ ENQ SGD KNB@SHNM. 5GD KNB@SHNM HR:
n + 1
2
=
40 + 1
2
= 20.5
4S@QSHMF @S SGD RL@KKDRS U@KTD, SGD LDCH@M HR KNB@SDC ADSVDDM SGD 20
SG
@MC 21
RS
U@KTDR (SGD SVN 24R):
3; 4; 8; 8; 10; 11; 12; 13; 14; 15; 15; 16; 16; 17; 17; 18; 21; 22; 22; 24; 24; 25; 26; 26; 27; 27; 29; 29; 31; 32; 33;
33; 34; 34; 35; 37; 40; 44; 44; 47;
M =
24 + 24
2
= 24
5N EHMC SGD LD@M @MC SGD LDCH@M:
$KD@Q KHRS -1. 1QDR 45"5 4:$KQ-HRS. &MSDQ 2MC 1 ENQ KHRS -1. 1QDRR &/5&3.
&MSDQ C@S@ HMSN SGD KHRS DCHSNQ. 1QDRR 45"5 1:&%*5.
1TS SGD C@S@ U@KTDR HMSN KHRS -1.
1QDRR 45"5 @MC @QQNV SN $"-$. 1QDRR 1:1-7@Q4S@SR. 1QDRR 2MC 1 ENQ -1 @MC SGDM &/5&3.
1QDRR SGD CNVM @MC TO @QQNV JDXR SN RBQNKK.
x

= 23.6, & = 24
2.30 5GD ENKKNVHMF C@S@ RGNV SGD MTLADQ NE LNMSGR O@SHDMSR SXOHB@KKX V@HS NM @ SQ@MROK@MS KHRS ADENQD FDSSHMF RTQFDQX.
5GD C@S@ @QD NQCDQDC EQNL RL@KKDRS SN K@QFDRS. $@KBTK@SD SGD LD@M @MC LDCH@M.
3; 4; 5; 7; 7; 7; 7; 8; 8; 9; 9; 10; 10; 10; 10; 10; 11; 12; 12; 13; 14; 14; 15; 15; 17; 17; 18; 19; 19; 19; 21; 21; 22; 22;
23; 24; 24; 24; 24
$T=ILHA 2.31
4TOONRD SG@S HM @ RL@KK SNVM NE 50 ODNOKD, NMD ODQRNM D@QMR $5,000,000 ODQ XD@Q @MC SGD NSGDQ 49 D@BG D@QM
$30,000. 8GHBG HR SGD ADSSDQ LD@RTQD NE SGD "BDMSDQ": SGD LD@M NQ SGD LDCH@M
1IFONCIH 2.31
x

=
5, 000, 000 + 49(30, 000)
50
= 129,400
& = 30,000
(5GDQD @QD 49 ODNOKD VGN D@QM $30,000 @MC NMD ODQRNM VGN D@QMR $5,000,000.)
5GD LDCH@M HR @ ADSSDQ LD@RTQD NE SGD "BDMSDQ" SG@M SGD LD@M ADB@TRD 49 NE SGD U@KTDR @QD 30,000 @MC NMD HR
5,000,000. 5GD 5,000,000 HR @M NTSKHDQ. 5GD 30,000 FHUDR TR @ ADSSDQ RDMRD NE SGD LHCCKD NE SGD C@S@.
2.31 *M @ R@LOKD NE 60 GNTRDGNKCR, NMD GNTRD HR VNQSG $2,500,000. )@KE NE SGD QDRS @QD VNQSG $280,000, @MC @KK SGD
NSGDQR @QD VNQSG $315,000. 8GHBG HR SGD ADSSDQ LD@RTQD NE SGD oBDMSDQp: SGD LD@M NQ SGD LDCH@M
"'/3$1 2 W #$2"1(/3(5$ 233(23("2 125
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"MNSGDQ LD@RTQD NE SGD BDMSDQ HR SGD LNCD. 5GD BD9: HR SGD LNRS EQDPTDMS U@KTD. 5GDQD B@M AD LNQD SG@M NMD LNCD HM
@ C@S@ RDS @R KNMF @R SGNRD U@KTDR G@UD SGD R@LD EQDPTDMBX @MC SG@S EQDPTDMBX HR SGD GHFGDRS. " C@S@ RDS VHSG SVN LNCDR HR
B@KKDC AHLNC@K.
$T=ILHA 2.32
4S@SHRSHBR DW@L RBNQDR ENQ 20 RSTCDMSR @QD @R ENKKNVR:
50; 53; 59; 59; 63; 63; 72; 72; 72; 72; 72; 76; 78; 81; 83; 84; 84; 84; 90; 93
'HMC SGD LNCD.
1IFONCIH 2.32
3DA IKOP BNAMQAJP O?KNA EO 72, SDE?D K??QNO BERA PEIAO. ,K@A = 72.
2.32 5GD MTLADQ NE ANNJR BGDBJDC NTS EQNL SGD KHAQ@QX EQNL 25 RSTCDMSR @QD @R ENKKNVR:
0; 0; 0; 1; 2; 3; 3; 4; 4; 5; 5; 7; 7; 7; 7; 8; 8; 8; 9; 10; 10; 11; 11; 12; 12
'HMC SGD LNCD.
$T=ILHA 2.33
'HUD QD@K DRS@SD DW@L RBNQDR @QD 430, 430, 480, 480, 495. 5GD C@S@ RDS HR AHLNC@K ADB@TRD SGD RBNQDR 430 @MC 480
D@BG NBBTQ SVHBD.
8GDM HR SGD LNCD SGD ADRS LD@RTQD NE SGD "BDMSDQ" $NMRHCDQ @ VDHFGS KNRR OQNFQ@L SG@S @CUDQSHRDR @ LD@M
VDHFGS KNRR NE RHW ONTMCR SGD EHQRS VDDJ NE SGD OQNFQ@L. 5GD LNCD LHFGS HMCHB@SD SG@S LNRS ODNOKD KNRD SVN
ONTMCR SGD EHQRS VDDJ, L@JHMF SGD OQNFQ@L KDRR @OOD@KHMF.
,-2#
5GD LNCD B@M AD B@KBTK@SDC ENQ PT@KHS@SHUD C@S@ @R VDKK @R ENQ PT@MSHS@SHUD C@S@. 'NQ DW@LOKD, HE SGD C@S@ RDS
HR: QDC, QDC, QDC, FQDDM, FQDDM, XDKKNV, OTQOKD, AK@BJ, AKTD, SGD LNCD HR QDC.
4S@SHRSHB@K RNESV@QD VHKK D@RHKX B@KBTK@SD SGD LD@M, SGD LDCH@M, @MC SGD LNCD. 4NLD FQ@OGHMF B@KBTK@SNQR B@M
@KRN L@JD SGDRD B@KBTK@SHNMR. *M SGD QD@K VNQKC, ODNOKD L@JD SGDRD B@KBTK@SHNMR TRHMF RNESV@QD.
2.33 'HUD BQDCHS RBNQDR @QD 680, 680, 700, 720, 720. 5GD C@S@ RDS HR AHLNC@K ADB@TRD SGD RBNQDR 680 @MC 720 D@BG
NBBTQ SVHBD. $NMRHCDQ SGD @MMT@K D@QMHMFR NE VNQJDQR @S @ E@BSNQX. 5GD LNCD HR $25,000 @MC NBBTQR 150 SHLDR NTS NE
301. 5GD LDCH@M HR $50,000 @MC SGD LD@M HR $47,500. 8G@S VNTKC AD SGD ADRS LD@RTQD NE SGD oBDMSDQp
2B? *;Q I@ *;LA? ,OG<?LM ;H> NB? +?;H
5GD -@V NE -@QFD /TLADQR R@XR SG@S HE XNT S@JD R@LOKDR NE K@QFDQ @MC K@QFDQ RHYD EQNL @MX ONOTK@SHNM, SGDM SGD LD@M x

NE SGD R@LOKD HR UDQX KHJDKX SN FDS BKNRDQ @MC BKNRDQ SN R. 5GHR HR CHRBTRRDC HM LNQD CDS@HK K@SDQ HM SGD SDWS.
1;GJFCHA "CMNLC<ONCIHM ;H> 1N;NCMNC= I@ ; 1;GJFCHA "CMNLC<ONCIH
:NT B@M SGHMJ NE @ H6BEA>C< 9>HIG>7JI>DC @R @ G:A6I>K: ;G:FJ:C8N 9>HIG>7JI>DC VHSG @ FQD@S L@MX R@LOKDR. (4DD 06BEA>C<
6C9 !6I6 ENQ @ QDUHDV NE QDK@SHUD EQDPTDMBX). 4TOONRD SGHQSX Q@MCNLKX RDKDBSDC RSTCDMSR VDQD @RJDC SGD MTLADQ NE LNUHDR
SGDX V@SBGDC SGD OQDUHNTR VDDJ. 5GD QDRTKSR @QD HM SGD G:A6I>K: ;G:FJ:C8N I67A: RGNVM ADKNV.
126 "'/3$1 2 W #$2"1(/3(5$ 233(23("2
3DEO ?KJPAJP EO =R=EH=>HA BKN BNAA =P DPPL://?JT.KNC/?KJPAJP/?KH11562/1.11
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# I@ GIPC?M 0?F;NCP? $L?KO?H=S
0
5
30
1
15
30
2
6
30
3
4
30
4
1
30
2;<F? 2.32
&; NDJ A:I I=: CJB7:G D; H6BEA:H <:I K:GN A6G<: (H6N, 300 B>AA>DC DG BDG:), I=: G:A6I>K: ;G:FJ:C8N I67A: 7:8DB:H
6 G:A6I>K: ;G:FJ:C8N 9>HIG>7JI>DC.
" HI6I>HI>8 HR @ MTLADQ B@KBTK@SDC EQNL @ R@LOKD. 4S@SHRSHB DW@LOKDR HMBKTCD SGD LD@M, SGD LDCH@M @MC SGD LNCD @R
VDKK @R NSGDQR. 5GD R@LOKD LD@M x

HR @M DW@LOKD NE @ RS@SHRSHB VGHBG DRSHL@SDR SGD ONOTK@SHNM LD@M Z.


!;F=OF;NCHA NB? +?;H I@ %LIOJ?> $L?KO?H=S 2;<F?M
8GDM NMKX FQNTODC C@S@ HR @U@HK@AKD, XNT CN MNS JMNV SGD HMCHUHCT@K C@S@ U@KTDR (VD NMKX JMNV HMSDQU@KR @MC HMSDQU@K
EQDPTDMBHDR); SGDQDENQD, XNT B@MMNS BNLOTSD @M DW@BS LD@M ENQ SGD C@S@ RDS. 8G@S VD LTRS CN HR DRSHL@SD SGD @BST@K LD@M
AX B@KBTK@SHMF SGD LD@M NE @ EQDPTDMBX S@AKD. " EQDPTDMBX S@AKD HR @ C@S@ QDOQDRDMS@SHNM HM VGHBG FQNTODC C@S@ HR CHROK@XDC
@KNMF VHSG SGD BNQQDRONMCHMF EQDPTDMBHDR. 5N B@KBTK@SD SGD LD@M EQNL @ FQNTODC EQDPTDMBX S@AKD VD B@M @OOKX SGD A@RHB
CDEHMHSHNM NE LD@M: C;7D =
data sum
number of data values
8D RHLOKX MDDC SN LNCHEX SGD CDEHMHSHNM SN EHS VHSGHM SGD QDRSQHBSHNMR
NE @ EQDPTDMBX S@AKD.
4HMBD VD CN MNS JMNV SGD HMCHUHCT@K C@S@ U@KTDR VD B@M HMRSD@C EHMC SGD LHCONHMS NE D@BG HMSDQU@K. 5GD LHCONHMS
HR
lower boundary + upper boundary
2
. 8D B@M MNV LNCHEX SGD LD@M CDEHMHSHNM SN AD
Mean of Frequency Table =
f m
f
VGDQD < = SGD EQDPTDMBX NE SGD HMSDQU@K @MC C = SGD LHCONHMS NE SGD HMSDQU@K.
$T=ILHA 2.34
" EQDPTDMBX S@AKD CHROK@XHMF OQNEDRRNQ #KNTMSnR K@RS RS@SHRSHB SDRS HR RGNVM. 'HMC SGD ADRS DRSHL@SD NE SGD BK@RR
LD@M.
%L;>? 'HN?LP;F ,OG<?L I@ 1NO>?HNM
50_56.5 1
56.5_62.5 0
2;<F? 2.33
"'/3$1 2 W #$2"1(/3(5$ 233(23("2 127
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%L;>? 'HN?LP;F ,OG<?L I@ 1NO>?HNM
62.5_68.5 4
68.5_74.5 4
74.5_80.5 2
80.5_86.5 3
86.5_92.5 4
92.5_98.5 1
2;<F? 2.33
1IFONCIH 2.34
c 'HMC SGD LHCONHMSR ENQ @KK HMSDQU@KR
%L;>? 'HN?LP;F +C>JICHN
50_56.5 53.25
56.5_62.5 59.5
62.5_68.5 65.5
68.5_74.5 71.5
74.5_80.5 77.5
80.5_86.5 83.5
86.5_92.5 89.5
92.5_98.5 95.5
2;<F? 2.34
c $@KBTK@SD SGD RTL NE SGD OQNCTBS NE D@BG HMSDQU@K EQDPTDMBX @MC LHCONHMS. f m
53.25(1) + 59.5(0) + 65.5(4) + 71.5(4) + 77.5(2) + 83.5(3) + 89.5(4) + 95.5(1) = 1460.25
128 "'/3$1 2 W #$2"1(/3(5$ 233(23("2
3DEO ?KJPAJP EO =R=EH=>HA BKN BNAA =P DPPL://?JT.KNC/?KJPAJP/?KH11562/1.11
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c =
f m
f
=
1460.25
19
= 76.86
2.34 .@QHR BNMCTBSDC @ RSTCX NM SGD DEEDBS SG@S OK@XHMF UHCDN F@LDR G@R NM LDLNQX QDB@KK. "R O@QS NE GDQ RSTCX, RGD
BNLOHKDC SGD ENKKNVHMF C@S@:
&IOLM 2??H;A?LM 1J?H> IH 4C>?I %;G?M ,OG<?L I@ 2??H;A?LM
0_3.5 3
3.5_7.5 7
7.5_11.5 12
11.5_15.5 7
15.5_19.5 9
2;<F? 2.35
8G@S HR SGD ADRS DRSHL@SD ENQ SGD LD@M MTLADQ NE GNTQR RODMS OK@XHMF UHCDN F@LDR
2.7 U 1E?QH?MM ;H> NB? +?;H, +?>C;H, ;H> +I>?
$NMRHCDQ SGD ENKKNVHMF C@S@ RDS.
4; 5; 6; 6; 6; 7; 7; 7; 7; 7; 7; 8; 8; 8; 9; 10
5GHR C@S@ RDS B@M AD QDOQDRDMSDC AX ENKKNVHMF GHRSNFQ@L. &@BG HMSDQU@K G@R VHCSG NMD, @MC D@BG U@KTD HR KNB@SDC HM SGD
LHCCKD NE @M HMSDQU@K.
$CAOL? 2.23
5GD GHRSNFQ@LCHROK@XR @ HNBB:IG>86A CHRSQHATSHNM NE C@S@. " CHRSQHATSHNM HR RXLLDSQHB@K HE @ UDQSHB@K KHMD B@M AD CQ@VM
@S RNLD ONHMS HM SGD GHRSNFQ@LRTBG SG@S SGD RG@OD SN SGD KDES @MC SGD QHFGS NE SGD UDQSHB@K KHMD @QD LHQQNQ HL@FDR NE D@BG NSGDQ.
5GD LD@M, SGD LDCH@M, @MC SGD LNCD @QD D@BG RDUDM ENQ SGDRD C@S@. &C 6 E:G;:8IAN HNBB:IG>86A 9>HIG>7JI>DC, I=: B:6C
"'/3$1 2 W #$2"1(/3(5$ 233(23("2 129
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6C9 I=: B:9>6C 6G: I=: H6B:. 5GHR DW@LOKD G@R NMD LNCD (TMHLNC@K), @MC SGD LNCD HR SGD R@LD @R SGD LD@M @MC LDCH@M.
*M @ RXLLDSQHB@K CHRSQHATSHNM SG@S G@R SVN LNCDR (AHLNC@K), SGD SVN LNCDR VNTKC AD CHEEDQDMS EQNL SGD LD@M @MC LDCH@M.
5GD GHRSNFQ@L ENQ SGD C@S@: 4; 5; 6; 6; 6; 7; 7; 7; 7; 8 HR MNS RXLLDSQHB@K. 5GD QHFGS-G@MC RHCD RDDLR "BGNOODC NEE"
BNLO@QDC SN SGD KDES RHCD. " CHRSQHATSHNM NE SGHR HR B@KKDC H@:L:9 ID I=: A:;I ADB@TRD HS HR OTKKDC NTS SN SGD KDES.
$CAOL? 2.24
5GD LD@M HR 6.3, SGD LDCH@M HR 6.5, @MC SGD LNCD HR RDUDM. +DI>8: I=6I I=: B:6C >H A:HH I=6C I=: B:9>6C, 6C9 I=:N
6G: 7DI= A:HH I=6C I=: BD9:. 5GD LD@M @MC SGD LDCH@M ANSG QDEKDBS SGD RJDVHMF, ATS SGD LD@M QDEKDBSR HS LNQD RN.
5GD GHRSNFQ@L ENQ SGD C@S@: 6; 7; 7; 7; 7; 8; 8; 8; 9; 10, HR @KRN MNS RXLLDSQHB@K. *S HR H@:L:9 ID I=: G><=I.
$CAOL? 2.25
5GD LD@M HR 7.7, SGD LDCH@M HR 7.5, @MC SGD LNCD HR RDUDM. 0E SGD SGQDD RS@SHRSHBR, I=: B:6C >H I=: A6G<:HI, L=>A: I=:
BD9: >H I=: HB6AA:HI. "F@HM, SGD LD@M QDEKDBSR SGD RJDVHMF SGD LNRS.
5N RTLL@QHYD, FDMDQ@KKX HE SGD CHRSQHATSHNM NE C@S@ HR RJDVDC SN SGD KDES, SGD LD@M HR KDRR SG@M SGD LDCH@M, VGHBG HR
NESDM KDRR SG@M SGD LNCD. *E SGD CHRSQHATSHNM NE C@S@ HR RJDVDC SN SGD QHFGS, SGD LNCD HR NESDM KDRR SG@M SGD LDCH@M, VGHBG HR
KDRR SG@M SGD LD@M.
4JDVMDRR @MC RXLLDSQX ADBNLD HLONQS@MS VGDM VD CHRBTRR OQNA@AHKHSX CHRSQHATSHNMR HM K@SDQ BG@OSDQR.
$T=ILHA 2.35
4S@SHRSHBR @QD TRDC SN BNLO@QD @MC RNLDSHLDR HCDMSHEX @TSGNQR. 5GD ENKKNVHMF KHRSR RGNVR @ RHLOKD Q@MCNLR@LOKD
SG@S BNLO@QDR SGD KDSSDQ BNTMSR ENQ SGQDD @TSGNQR.
5DQQX: 7; 9; 3; 3; 3; 4; 1; 3; 2; 2
%@UHR: 3; 3; 3; 4; 1; 4; 3; 2; 3; 1
130 "'/3$1 2 W #$2"1(/3(5$ 233(23("2
3DEO ?KJPAJP EO =R=EH=>HA BKN BNAA =P DPPL://?JT.KNC/?KJPAJP/?KH11562/1.11
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.@QHR: 2; 3; 4; 4; 4; 6; 6; 6; 8; 3
=. .@JD @ CNS OKNS ENQ SGD SGQDD @TSGNQR @MC BNLO@QD SGD RG@ODR.
>. $@KBTK@SD SGD LD@M ENQ D@BG.
?. $@KBTK@SD SGD LDCH@M ENQ D@BG.
@. %DRBQHAD @MX O@SSDQM XNT MNSHBD ADSVDDM SGD RG@OD @MC SGD LD@RTQDR NE BDMSDQ.
1IFONCIH 2.35
=.
$CAOL? 2.26 3ANNU`O @EOPNE>QPEKJ D=O = NECDP (LKOEPERA) OGAS.
$CAOL? 2.27 #=REO` @EOPNE>QPEKJ D=O = HABP (JAC=PERA) OGAS
$CAOL? 2.28 ,=NEO` @EOPNE>QPEKJ EO OUIIAPNE?=HHU OD=LA@.
>. 5DQQXnR LD@M HR 3.7, %@UHRn LD@M HR 2.7, .@QHRn LD@M HR 4.6.
?. 5DQQXnR LDCH@M HR SGQDD, %@UHRn LDCH@M HR SGQDD. .@QHRn LDCH@M HR ENTQ.
@. *S @OOD@QR SG@S SGD LDCH@M HR @KV@XR BKNRDRS SN SGD GHFG ONHMS (SGD LNCD), VGHKD SGD LD@M SDMCR SN AD E@QSGDQ
NTS NM SGD S@HK. *M @ RXLLDSQHB@K CHRSQHATSHNM, SGD LD@M @MC SGD LDCH@M @QD ANSG BDMSQ@KKX KNB@SDC BKNRD SN SGD
GHFG ONHMS NE SGD CHRSQHATSHNM.
2.35 %HRBTRR SGD LD@M, LDCH@M, @MC LNCD ENQ D@BG NE SGD ENKKNVHMF OQNAKDLR. *R SGDQD @ O@SSDQM ADSVDDM SGD RG@OD
@MC LD@RTQD NE SGD BDMSDQ
@.
"'/3$1 2 W #$2"1(/3(5$ 233(23("2 131
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$CAOL? 2.29
A.
2B? AA?M $ILG?L 3.1 .L?MC>?HNM "C?>
4 6 9
5 3 6 7 7 7 8
6 0 0 3 3 4 4 5 6 7 7 7 8
7 0 1 1 2 3 4 7 8 8 9
8 0 1 3 5 8
9 0 0 3 3
*AU: 8W0 IA=JO 80.
2;<F? 2.36
B.
$CAOL? 2.30
132 "'/3$1 2 W #$2"1(/3(5$ 233(23("2
3DEO ?KJPAJP EO =R=EH=>HA BKN BNAA =P DPPL://?JT.KNC/?KJPAJP/?KH11562/1.11
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IR JFIN
$CLMN /O;LNCF?
$L?KO?H=S .IFSAIH
$L?KO?H=S 2;<F?
$L?KO?H=S
&CMNIAL;G
'HN?LKO;LNCF? 0;HA?
'HN?LP;F
+?;H
+?>C;H
+C>JICHN
+I>?
-ONFC?L
.;CL?> ";N; 1?N
.?L=?HNCF?
/O;LNCF?M
0?F;NCP? $L?KO?H=S
1E?Q?>
1N;H>;L> "?PC;NCIH
4;LC;H=?
)#7 2#0+1
@ FQ@OG SG@S FHUDR @ PTHBJ OHBSTQD NE SGD LHCCKD 50% NE SGD C@S@
SGD U@KTD SG@S HR SGD LDCH@M NE SGD NE SGD KNVDQ G@KE NE SGD NQCDQDC C@S@ RDS
KNNJR KHJD @ KHMD FQ@OG ATS TRDR HMSDQU@KR SN CHROK@X Q@MFDR NE K@QFD @LNTMSR NE C@S@
@ C@S@ QDOQDRDMS@SHNM HM VGHBG FQNTODC C@S@ HR CHROK@XDC @KNMF VHSG SGD BNQQDRONMCHMF EQDPTDMBHDR
SGD MTLADQ NE SHLDR @ U@KTD NE SGD C@S@ NBBTQR
@ FQ@OGHB@K QDOQDRDMS@SHNM HM N-O ENQL NE SGD CHRSQHATSHNM NE C@S@ HM @ C@S@ RDS; N QDOQDRDMSR SGD C@S@ @MC O
QDOQDRDSMR SGD EQDPTDMBX, NQ QDK@SHUD EQDPTDMBX. 5GD FQ@OG BNMRHRSR NE BNMSHFTNTR QDBS@MFKDR.
NQ "*+, HR SGD Q@MFD NE SGD LHCCKD 50 ODQBDMS NE SGD C@S@ U@KTDR; SGD "*+ HR ENTMC AX RTASQ@BSHMF
SGD EHQRS PT@QSHKD EQNL SGD SGHQC PT@QSHKD.
@KRN B@KKDC @ BK@RR HMSDQU@K; @M HMSDQU@K QDOQDRDMSR @ Q@MFD NE C@S@ @MC HR TRDC VGDM CHROK@XHMF K@QFD C@S@ RDSR
@ MTLADQ SG@S LD@RTQDR SGD BDMSQ@K SDMCDMBX NE SGD C@S@; @ BNLLNM M@LD ENQ LD@M HR '@UDQ@FD.' 5GD SDQL'LD@M' HR
@ RGNQSDMDC ENQL NE '@QHSGLDSHB LD@M.' #X CDEHMHSHNM, SGD LD@M ENQ @ R@LOKD (CDMNSDC AX x

) HR
x

=
Sum of all values in the sample
Number of values in the sample
, @MC SGD LD@M ENQ @ ONOTK@SHNM (CDMNSDC AX Z) HR
=
Sum of all values in the population
Number of values in the population
.
@ MTLADQ SG@S RDO@Q@SDR NQCDQDC C@S@ HMSN G@KUDR; G@KE SGD U@KTDR @QD SGD R@LD MTLADQ NQ RL@KKDQ SG@M SGD LDCH@M
@MC G@KE SGD U@KTDR @QD SGD R@LD MTLADQ NQ K@QFDQ SG@M SGD LDCH@M. 5GD LDCH@M L@X NQ L@X MNS AD O@QS NE SGD C@S@.
SGD LD@M NE @M HMSDQU@K HM @ EQDPTDMBX S@AKD
SGD U@KTD SG@S @OOD@QR LNRS EQDPTDMSKX HM @ RDS NE C@S@
@M NARDQU@SHNM SG@S CNDR MNS EHS SGD QDRS NE SGD C@S@
SVN C@S@ RDSR SG@S G@UD @ NMD SN NMD QDK@SHNMRGHO RN SG@S:
c ANSG C@S@ RDSR @QD SGD R@LD RHYD, @MC
c D@BG C@S@ ONHMS HM NMD C@S@ RDS HR L@SBGDC VHSG DW@BSKX NMD ONHMS EQNL SGD NSGDQ RDS.
@ MTLADQ SG@S CHUHCDR NQCDQDC C@S@ HMSN GTMCQDCSGR; ODQBDMSHKDR L@X NQ L@X MNS AD O@QS NE SGD C@S@. 5GD
LDCH@M NE SGD C@S@ HR SGD RDBNMC PT@QSHKD @MC SGD 50
SG
ODQBDMSHKD. 5GD EHQRS @MC SGHQC PT@QSHKDR @QD SGD 25
SG
@MC SGD 27
SG
ODQBDMSHKDR, QDRODBSHUDKX.
SGD MTLADQR SG@S RDO@Q@SD SGD C@S@ HMSN PT@QSDQR; PT@QSHKDR L@X NQ L@X MNS AD O@QS NE SGD C@S@. 5GD RDBNMC
PT@QSHKD HR SGD LDCH@M NE SGD C@S@.
SGD Q@SHN NE SGD MTLADQ NE SHLDR @ U@KTD NE SGD C@S@ NBBTQR HM SGD RDS NE @KK NTSBNLDR SN SGD MTLADQ
NE @KK NTSBNLDR
TRDC SN CDRBQHAD C@S@ SG@S HR MNS RXLLDSQHB@K; VGDM SGD QHFGS RHCD NE @ FQ@OG KNNJR oBGNOODC NEEp BNLO@QDC SGD
KDES RHCD, VD R@X HS HR oRJDVDC SN SGD KDES.p 8GDM SGD KDES RHCD NE SGD FQ@OG KNNJR oBGNOODC NEEp BNLO@QDC SN SGD QHFGS
RHCD, VD R@X SGD C@S@ HR oRJDVDC SN SGD QHFGS.p "KSDQM@SHUDKX: VGDM SGD KNVDQ U@KTDR NE SGD C@S@ @QD LNQD ROQD@C NTS,
VD R@X SGD C@S@ @QD RJDVDC SN SGD KDES. 8GDM SGD FQD@SDQ U@KTDR @QD LNQD ROQD@C NTS, SGD C@S@ @QD RJDVDC SN SGD
QHFGS.
@ MTLADQ SG@S HR DPT@K SN SGD RPT@QD QNNS NE SGD U@QH@MBD @MC LD@RTQDR GNV E@Q C@S@ U@KTDR @QD
EQNL SGDHQ LD@M; MNS@SHNM: I ENQ R@LOKD RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNM @MC j ENQ ONOTK@SHNM RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNM.
LD@M NE SGD RPT@QDC CDUH@SHNMR EQNL SGD LD@M, NQ SGD RPT@QD NE SGD RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNM; ENQ @ RDS NE C@S@, @
CDUH@SHNM B@M AD QDOQDRDMSDC @R N k x

VGDQD N HR @ U@KTD NE SGD C@S@ @MC x

HR SGD R@LOKD LD@M. 5GD R@LOKD


U@QH@MBD HR DPT@K SN SGD RTL NE SGD RPT@QDR NE SGD CDUH@SHNMR CHUHCDC AX SGD CHEEDQDMBD NE SGD R@LOKD RHYD @MC NMD.
"'/3$1 2 W #$2"1(/3(5$ 233(23("2 133
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!&A.2#0 0#4'#5
2.1 +?;MOL?M I@ NB? 1JL?;> I@ NB? ";N;
5GD RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNM B@M GDKO XNT B@KBTK@SD SGD ROQD@C NE C@S@. 5GDQD @QD CHEEDQDMS DPT@SHNMR SN TRD HE @QD B@KBTK@SHMF SGD
RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNM NE @ R@LOKD NQ NE @ ONOTK@SHNM.
c 5GD 4S@MC@QC %DUH@SHNM @KKNVR TR SN BNLO@QD HMCHUHCT@K C@S@ NQ BK@RRDR SN SGD C@S@ RDS LD@M MTLDQHB@KKX.
c I =
(x x

)
2
n 1
NQ I =
f (x x

)
2
n 1
HR SGD ENQLTK@ ENQ B@KBTK@SHMF SGD RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNM NE @ R@LOKD.
5N B@KBTK@SD SGD RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNM NE @ ONOTK@SHNM, VD VNTKC TRD SGD ONOTK@SHNM LD@M, Z, @MC SGD ENQLTK@ \ =
(x )
2
N
NQ \ =
f (x )
2
N
.
2.2 1N?G-;H>-*?;@ %L;JBM (1N?GJFINM), *CH? %L;JBM, ;H> ;L %L;JBM
" HI:B-6C9-A:6; EADI HR @ V@X SN OKNS C@S@ @MC KNNJ @S SGD CHRSQHATSHNM. *M @ RSDL-@MC-KD@E OKNS, @KK C@S@ U@KTDR VHSGHM @
BK@RR @QD UHRHAKD. 5GD @CU@MS@FD HM @ RSDL-@MC-KD@E OKNS HR SG@S @KK U@KTDR @QD KHRSDC, TMKHJD @ GHRSNFQ@L, VGHBG FHUDR BK@RRDR
NE C@S@ U@KTDR. " A>C: <G6E= HR NESDM TRDC SN QDOQDRDMS @ RDS NE C@S@ U@KTDR HM VGHBG @ PT@MSHSX U@QHDR VHSG SHLD. 5GDRD
FQ@OGR @QD TRDETK ENQ EHMCHMF SQDMCR. 5G@S HR, EHMCHMF @ FDMDQ@K O@SSDQM HM C@S@ RDSR HMBKTCHMF SDLODQ@STQD, R@KDR, DLOKNXLDMS,
BNLO@MX OQNEHS NQ BNRS NUDQ @ ODQHNC NE SHLD. " 76G <G6E= HR @ BG@QS SG@S TRDR DHSGDQ GNQHYNMS@K NQ UDQSHB@K A@QR SN RGNV
BNLO@QHRNMR @LNMF B@SDFNQHDR. 0MD @WHR NE SGD BG@QS RGNVR SGD RODBHEHB B@SDFNQHDR ADHMF BNLO@QDC, @MC SGD NSGDQ @WHR
QDOQDRDMSR @ CHRBQDSD U@KTD. 4NLD A@Q FQ@OGR OQDRDMS A@QR BKTRSDQDC HM FQNTOR NE LNQD SG@M NMD (FQNTODC A@Q FQ@OGR), @MC
NSGDQR RGNV SGD A@QR CHUHCDC HMSN RTAO@QSR SN RGNV BTLTK@SHUD DEEDBS (RS@BJDC A@Q FQ@OGR). #@Q FQ@OGR @QD DRODBH@KKX TRDETK
VGDM B@SDFNQHB@K C@S@ HR ADHMF TRDC.
2.3 &CMNIAL;GM, $L?KO?H=S .IFSAIHM, ;H> 2CG? 1?LC?M %L;JBM
" =>HID<G6B HR @ FQ@OGHB UDQRHNM NE @ EQDPTDMBX CHRSQHATSHNM. 5GD FQ@OG BNMRHRSR NE A@QR NE DPT@K VHCSG CQ@VM @CI@BDMS SN
D@BG NSGDQ. 5GD GNQHYNMS@K RB@KD QDOQDRDMSR BK@RRDR NE PT@MSHS@SHUD C@S@ U@KTDR @MC SGD UDQSHB@K RB@KD QDOQDRDMSR EQDPTDMBHDR.
5GD GDHFGSR NE SGD A@QR BNQQDRONMC SN EQDPTDMBX U@KTDR. )HRSNFQ@LR @QD SXOHB@KKX TRDC ENQ K@QFD, BNMSHMTNTR, PT@MSHS@SHUD
C@S@ RDSR. " EQDPTDMBX ONKXFNM B@M @KRN AD TRDC VGDM FQ@OGHMF K@QFD C@S@ RDSR VHSG C@S@ ONHMSR SG@S QDOD@S. 5GD C@S@ TRT@KKX
FNDR NM O-@WHR VHSG SGD EQDPTDMBX ADHMF FQ@OGDC NM SGD N-@WHR. 5HLD RDQHDR FQ@OGR B@M AD GDKOETK VGDM KNNJHMF @S K@QFD
@LNTMSR NE C@S@ ENQ NMD U@QH@AKD NUDQ @ ODQHNC NE SHLD.
2.4 IR .FINM
#NW OKNSR @QD @ SXOD NE FQ@OG SG@S B@M GDKO UHRT@KKX NQF@MHYD C@S@. 5N FQ@OG @ ANW OKNS SGD ENKKNVHMF C@S@ ONHMSR LTRS AD
B@KBTK@SDC: SGD LHMHLTL U@KTD, SGD EHQRS PT@QSHKD, SGD LDCH@M, SGD SGHQC PT@QSHKD, @MC SGD L@WHLTL U@KTD. 0MBD SGD ANW OKNS
HR FQ@OGDC, XNT B@M CHROK@X @MC BNLO@QD CHRSQHATSHNMR NE C@S@.
2.5 +?;MOL?M I@ NB? *I=;NCIH I@ NB? ";N;
5GD U@KTDR SG@S CHUHCD @ Q@MJ-NQCDQDC RDS NE C@S@ HMSN 100 DPT@K O@QSR @QD B@KKDC ODQBDMSHKDR. 1DQBDMSHKDR @QD TRDC SN BNLO@QD
@MC HMSDQOQDS C@S@. 'NQ DW@LOKD, @M NARDQU@SHNM @S SGD 50
SG
ODQBDMSHKD VNTKC AD FQD@SDQ SG@M 50 ODQBDMS NE SGD NSGDQ
NADRDQU@SHNMR HM SGD RDS. 2T@QSHKDR CHUHCD C@S@ HMSN PT@QSDQR. 5GD EHQRS PT@QSHKD (*
1
) HR SGD 25
SG
ODQBDMSHKD,SGD RDBNMC PT@QSHKD
(*
2
NQ LDCH@M) HR 50
SG
ODQBDMSHKD, @MC SGD SGHQC PT@QSHKD (*
3
) HR SGD SGD 75
SG
ODQBDMSHKD. 5GD HMSDQPT@QSHKD Q@MFD, NQ "*+, HR
SGD Q@MFD NE SGD LHCCKD 50 ODQBDMS NE SGD C@S@ U@KTDR. 5GD "*+ HR ENTMC AX RTASQ@BSHMF *
1
EQNL *
3
, @MC B@M GDKO CDSDQLHMD
NTSKHDQR AX TRHMF SGD ENKKNVHMF SVN DWOQDRRHNMR.
c *
3
+ "*+(1.5)
c *
3
k "*+(1.5)
2.6 +?;MOL?M I@ NB? !?HN?L I@ NB? ";N;
5GD LD@M @MC SGD LDCH@M B@M AD B@KBTK@SDC SN GDKO XNT EHMC SGD "BDMSDQ" NE @ C@S@ RDS. 5GD LD@M HR SGD ADRS DRSHL@SD ENQ
SGD @BST@K C@S@ RDS, ATS SGD LDCH@M HR SGD ADRS LD@RTQDLDMS VGDM @ C@S@ RDS BNMS@HMR RDUDQ@K NTSKHDQR NQ DWSQDLD U@KTDR. 5GD
LNCD VHKK SDKK XNT SGD LNRS EQDPTDMSKX NBBTQHMF C@STL(NQ C@S@) HM XNTQ C@S@ RDS. 5GD LD@M, LDCH@M, @MC LNCD @QD DWSQDLDKX
GDKOETK VGDM XNT MDDC SN @M@KXYD XNTQ C@S@, ATS HE XNTQ C@S@ RDS BNMRHRSR NE Q@MFDR VGHBG K@BJ RODBHEHB U@KTDR, SGD LD@M L@X
134 "'/3$1 2 W #$2"1(/3(5$ 233(23("2
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RDDL HLONRRHAKD SN B@KBTK@SD. )NVDUDQ, SGD LD@M B@M AD B@KBTK@SDC HE XNT @CC SGD KNVDQ ANTMC@QX VHSG SGD TOODQ ANTMC@QX
@MC CHUHCD AX SVN.
2.7 1E?QH?MM ;H> NB? +?;H, +?>C;H, ;H> +I>?
-NNJHMF @S SGD CHRSQHATSHNM NE C@S@ B@M QDUD@K @ KNS @ANTS SGD QDK@SHNMRGHO ADSVDDM SGD LD@M, SGD LDCH@M, @MC SGD LNCD.
5GDQD @QD SGQDD SXODR NE CHRSQHATSHNMR. " G><=I (DG EDH>I>K:) H@:L:9 CHRSQHATSHNM G@R @ RG@OD KHJD $CAOL? 2.24. " A:;I (DG
C:<6I>K:) H@:L:9 CHRSQHATSHNM G@R @ RG@OD KHJD $CAOL? 2.25. " HNBB:IG>86A CHRSQTASHNM KNNJR KHJD $CAOL? 2.23.
$-0+3*A 0#4'#5
2.1 +?;MOL?M I@ NB? 1JL?;> I@ NB? ";N;
s
x
=
f m
2
n
x
2
VGDQD
s
x
= sample standard deviation
x

= sample mean
2.5 +?;MOL?M I@ NB? *I=;NCIH I@ NB? ";N;
i =

k
100

(n + 1)
VGDQD ? = SGD Q@MJHMF NQ ONRHSHNM NE @ C@S@ U@KTD,
A = SGD JSG ODQBDMSHKD,
D = SNS@K MTLADQ NE C@S@.
&WOQDRRHNM ENQ EHMCHMF SGD ODQBDMSHKD NE @ C@S@ U@KTD:

x + 0.5y
n

(100)
VGDQD N = SGD MTLADQ NE U@KTDR BNTMSHMF EQNL SGD ANSSNL NE
SGD C@S@ KHRS TO SN ATS MNS HMBKTCHMF SGD C@S@ U@KTD ENQ VGHBG
XNT V@MS SN EHMC SGD ODQBDMSHKD,
O = SGD MTLADQ NE C@S@ U@KTDR DPT@K SN SGD C@S@ U@KTD ENQ
VGHBG XNT V@MS SN EHMC SGD ODQBDMSHKD,
D = SNS@K MTLADQ NE C@S@
2.6 +?;MOL?M I@ NB? !?HN?L I@ NB? ";N;
=
f m
f
8GDQD < = HMSDQU@K EQDPTDMBHDR @MC C =
HMSDQU@K LHCONHMSR.
.0A!2'!#
2.1 +?;MOL?M I@ NB? 1JL?;> I@ NB? ";N;
.I; J>; <EBBEM?D= ?D<EHC7J?ED JE 7DIM;H J>; D;NJ JME ;N;H9?I;I: 5GD ENKKNVHMF C@S@ @QD SGD CHRS@MBDR ADSVDDM 20 QDS@HK RSNQDR
@MC @ K@QFD CHRSQHATSHNM BDMSDQ. 5GD CHRS@MBDR @QD HM LHKDR.
29; 37; 38; 40; 58; 67; 68; 69; 76; 86; 87; 95; 96; 96; 99; 106; 112; 127; 145; 150
1. 6RD @ FQ@OGHMF B@KBTK@SNQ BNLOTSDQ SN EHMC SGD RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNM @MC QNTMC SN SGD MD@QDRS SDMSG.
2. 'HMC SGD U@KTD SG@S HR NMD RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNM ADKNV SGD LD@M.
3. 5VN A@RDA@KK OK@XDQR, 'QDCN @MC ,@QK, NM CHEEDQDMS SD@LR V@MSDC SN EHMC NTS VGN G@C SGD GHFGDQ A@SSHMF @UDQ@FD VGDM
BNLO@QDC SN GHR SD@L. 8GHBG A@RDA@KK OK@XDQ G@C SGD GHFGDQ A@SSHMF @UDQ@FD VGDM BNLO@QDC SN GHR SD@L
;M?<;FF .F;S?L ;NNCHA AP?L;A? 2?;G ;NNCHA AP?L;A? 2?;G 1N;H>;L> "?PC;NCIH
%NA@K 0.158 0.166 0.012
*=NH 0.177 0.189 0.015
2;<F? 2.37
4. 6RD 2;<F? 2.37 SN EHMC SGD U@KTD SG@S HR SGQDD RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNMR:
;. =>KRA PDA IA=J
<. >AHKS PDA IA=J
F?D: J>; IJ7D:7H: :;L?7J?ED <EH J>; <EBBEM?D= <H;GK;D9O J78B;I KI?D= J>; <EHCKB7. C>;9A J>; 97B9KB7J?EDI M?J> J>; -" 83/84.
5.
"'/3$1 2 W #$2"1(/3(5$ 233(23("2 135
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=.
%L;>? $L?KO?H=S
49.5_59.5 2
59.5_69.5 3
69.5_79.5 8
79.5_89.5 12
89.5_99.5 5
2;<F? 2.38
>.
";CFS *IQ 2?GJ?L;NOL? $L?KO?H=S
49.5_59.5 53
59.5_69.5 32
69.5_79.5 15
79.5_89.5 1
89.5_99.5 0
2;<F? 2.39
?.
.ICHNM J?L %;G? $L?KO?H=S
49.5_59.5 14
59.5_69.5 32
69.5_79.5 15
79.5_89.5 23
89.5_99.5 2
2;<F? 2.40
2.2 1N?G-;H>-*?;@ %L;JBM (1N?GJFINM), *CH? %L;JBM, ;H> ;L %L;JBM
FEH ;79> E< J>; <EBBEM?D= :7J7 I;JI, 9H;7J; 7 IJ;C FBEJ 7D: ?:;DJ?<O 7DO EKJB?;HI.
6. 5GD LHKDR ODQ F@KKNM Q@SHMF ENQ 30 B@QR @QD RGNVM ADKNV (KNVDRS SN GHFGDRS).
19, 19, 19, 20, 21, 21, 25, 25, 25, 26, 26, 28, 29, 31, 31, 32, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 37, 38, 38, 38, 38, 41, 43, 43
136 "'/3$1 2 W #$2"1(/3(5$ 233(23("2
3DEO ?KJPAJP EO =R=EH=>HA BKN BNAA =P DPPL://?JT.KNC/?KJPAJP/?KH11562/1.11
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7. 5GD GDHFGS HM EDDS NE 25 SQDDR HR RGNVM ADKNV (KNVDRS SN GHFGDRS).
25, 27, 33, 34, 34, 34, 35, 37, 37, 38, 39, 39, 39, 40, 41, 45, 46, 47, 49, 50, 50, 53, 53, 54, 54
8. 5GD C@S@ @QD SGD OQHBDR NE CHEEDQDMS K@OSNOR @S @M DKDBSQNMHBR RSNQD. 3NTMC D@BG U@KTD SN SGD MD@QDRS SDM. BQD@SD @ RSDL OKNS
TRHMF SGD GTMCQDCR CHFHSR @R SGD RSDLR @MC SGD SDMR CHFHSR @R SGD KD@UDR. *CDMSHEX @MX NTSKHDQR.
249, 249, 260, 265, 265, 280, 299, 299, 309, 319, 325, 326, 350, 350, 350, 365, 369, 389, 409, 459, 489, 559, 569, 570, 610
9. 5GD C@S@ @QD C@HKX GHFG SDLODQ@STQDR HM @ SNVM ENQ NMD LNMSG. $QD@SD @ RSDL OKNS TRHMF SGD C@S@ @MC HCDMSHEX @MX NTSKHDQR.
61, 61, 62, 64, 66, 67, 67, 67, 68, 69, 70, 70, 70, 71, 71, 72, 74, 74, 74, 75, 75, 75, 76, 76, 77, 78, 78, 79, 79, 95
FEH J>; D;NJ J>H;; ;N;H9?I;I, KI; J>; :7J7 JE 9EDIJHK9J 7 B?D; =H7F>.
10. *M @ RTQUDX, 40 ODNOKD VDQD @RJDC GNV L@MX SHLDR SGDX UHRHSDC @ RSNQD ADENQD L@JHMF @ L@INQ OTQBG@RD. 5GD QDRTKSR @QD
RGNVM HM SGD 2;<F? 2.41.
,OG<?L I@ NCG?M CH MNIL? $L?KO?H=S
1 4
2 10
3 16
4 6
5 4
2;<F? 2.41
11. *M @ RTQUDX, RDUDQ@K ODNOKD VDQD @RJDC GNV L@MX XD@QR HS G@R ADDM RHMBD SGDX OTQBG@RDC @ L@SSQDRR. 5GD QDRTKSR @QD
RGNVM HM SGD 2;<F? 2.42.
7?;LM MCH=? F;MN JOL=B;M? $L?KO?H=S
0 2
1 8
2 13
3 22
4 16
5 9
2;<F? 2.42
12. 4DUDQ@K BGHKCQDM VDQD @RJDC GNV L@MX 57 RGNVR SGDX V@SBG D@BG C@X. 5GD QDRTKSR NE SGD RTQUDX @QD RGNVM HM 2;<F?
2.43.
"'/3$1 2 W #$2"1(/3(5$ 233(23("2 137
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,OG<?L I@ 24 1BIQM $L?KO?H=S
0 12
1 18
2 36
3 7
4 2
2;<F? 2.43
13. 5GD RSTCDMSR HM .R. 3@LHQDYnR L@SG BK@RR G@UD AHQSGC@XR HM D@BG NE SGD ENTQ RD@RNMR. 2;<F? 2.44 RGNVR SGD ENTQ
RD@RNMR, SGD MTLADQ NE RSTCDMSR VGN G@UD AHQSGC@XR HM D@BG RD@RNM, @MC SGD ODQBDMS@FD (%) NE RSTCDMSR HM D@BG FQNTO.
$NMRSQTBS @ A@Q FQ@OG RGNVHMF SGD MTLADQ NE RSTCDMSR.
1?;MIHM ,OG<?L I@ MNO>?HNM .LIJILNCIH I@ JIJOF;NCIH
2LNEJC 8 24%
2QIIAN 9 26%
QPQIJ 11 32%
6EJPAN 6 18%
2;<F? 2.44
14. 6RHMF SGD C@S@ EQNL .QR. 3@LHQDYnR L@SG BK@RR RTOOKHDC HM #R?L=CM? 2.8, BNMRSQTBS @ A@Q FQ@OG RGNVHMF SGD
ODQBDMS@FDR.
15. %@UHC $NTMSX G@R RHW GHFG RBGNNKR. &@BG RBGNNK RDMS RSTCDMSR SN O@QSHBHO@SD HM @ BNTMSX-VHCD RBHDMBD BNLODSHSHNM.
2;<F? 2.45 RGNVR SGD ODQBDMS@FD AQD@JCNVM NE BNLODSHSNQR EQNL D@BG RBGNNK, @MC SGD ODQBDMS@FD NE SGD DMSHQD RSTCDMS
ONOTK@SHNM NE SGD BNTMSX SG@S FNDR SN D@BG RBGNNK. $NMRSQTBS @ A@Q FQ@OG SG@S RGNVR SGD ONOTK@SHNM ODQBDMS@FD NE BNLODSHSNQR
EQNL D@BG RBGNNK.
&CAB 1=BIIF 1=C?H=? =IGJ?NCNCIH JIJOF;NCIH -P?L;FF MNO>?HN JIJOF;NCIH
H=>=OPAN 28.9% 8.6%
"KJ?KN@E= 7.6% 23.2%
&AJK= 12.1% 15.0%
,K?GOREHHA 18.5% 14.3%
2;<F? 2.45
138 "'/3$1 2 W #$2"1(/3(5$ 233(23("2
3DEO ?KJPAJP EO =R=EH=>HA BKN BNAA =P DPPL://?JT.KNC/?KJPAJP/?KH11562/1.11
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&CAB 1=BIIF 1=C?H=? =IGJ?NCNCIH JIJOF;NCIH -P?L;FF MNO>?HN JIJOF;NCIH
3UJJAOKJ 24.2% 10.1%
6AOP $J@ 8.7% 28.8%
2;<F? 2.45
16. 6RD SGD C@S@ EQNL SGD %@UHC $NTMSX RBHDMBD BNLODSHSHNM RTOOKHDC HM #R?L=CM? 2.15. $NMRSQTBS @ A@Q FQ@OG SG@S RGNVR
SGD BNTMSX-VHCD ONOTK@SHNM ODQBDMS@FD NE RSTCDMSR @S D@BG RBGNNK.
2.3 &CMNIAL;GM, $L?KO?H=S .IFSAIHM, ;H> 2CG? 1?LC?M %L;JBM
17. 4HWSX-EHUD Q@MCNLKX RDKDBSDC B@Q R@KDRODQRNMR VDQD @RJDC SGD MTLADQ NE B@QR SGDX FDMDQ@KKX RDKK HM NMD VDDJ. 'NTQSDDM
ODNOKD @MRVDQDC SG@S SGDX FDMDQ@KKX RDKK SGQDD B@QR; MHMDSDDM FDMDQ@KKX RDKK ENTQ B@QR; SVDKUD FDMDQ@KKX RDKK EHUD B@QR; MHMD
FDMDQ@KKX RDKK RHW B@QR; DKDUDM FDMDQ@KKX RDKK RDUDM B@QR. $NLOKDSD SGD S@AKD.
";N; 4;FO? (# =;LM) $L?KO?H=S 0?F;NCP? $L?KO?H=S !OGOF;NCP? 0?F;NCP? $L?KO?H=S
2;<F? 2.46
18. 8G@S CNDR SGD EQDPTDMBX BNKTLM RTL SN 8GX
19. 8G@S CNDR SGD QDK@SHUD EQDPTDMBX BNKTLM RTL SN 8GX
20. 8G@S HR SGD CHEEDQDMBD ADSVDDM QDK@SHUD EQDPTDMBX @MC EQDPTDMBX ENQ D@BG C@S@ U@KTD
21. 8G@S HR SGD CHEEDQDMBD ADSVDDM BTLTK@SHUD QDK@SHUD EQDPTDMBX @MC QDK@SHUD EQDPTDMBX ENQ D@BG C@S@ U@KTD
22. 5N BNMRSQTBS SGD GHRSNFQ@L, CDSDQLHMD @OOQNOQH@SD LHMHLTL @MC L@WHLTL N @MC O U@KTDR @MC SGD RB@KHMF. 4JDSBG SGD
GHRSNFQ@L. -@ADK SGD GNQHYNMS@K @MC UDQSHB@K @WDR VHSG VNQCR. *MBKTCD MTLDQHB@K RB@KHMF.
$CAOL? 2.31
23. $NMRSQTBS @ EQDPTDMBX ONKXFNM ENQ SGD ENKKNVHMF:
"'/3$1 2 W #$2"1(/3(5$ 233(23("2 139
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.OFM? 0;N?M @IL 5IG?H $L?KO?H=S
60_69 12
70_79 14
80_89 11
90_99 1
100_109 1
110_119 0
120_129 1
2;<F? 2.47
>.
A=NO;F 1J??> CH ; 30 +.& 8IH? $L?KO?H=S
42_45 25
46_49 14
50_53 7
54_57 3
58_61 1
2;<F? 2.48
?.
2;L (GA) CH ,IH@CFN?L?> !CA;L?NN?M $L?KO?H=S
10_13 1
14_17 0
18_21 15
22_25 7
26_29 2
2;<F? 2.49
24. $NMRSQTBS @ EQDPTDMBX ONKXFNM EQNL SGD EQDPTDMBX CHRSQHATSHNM ENQ SGD 50 GHFGDRS Q@MJDC BNTMSQHDR ENQ CDOSG NE GTMFDQ.
140 "'/3$1 2 W #$2"1(/3(5$ 233(23("2
3DEO ?KJPAJP EO =R=EH=>HA BKN BNAA =P DPPL://?JT.KNC/?KJPAJP/?KH11562/1.11
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"?JNB I@ &OHA?L $L?KO?H=S
230_259 21
260_289 13
290_319 5
320_349 7
350_379 1
380_409 1
410_439 1
2;<F? 2.50
25. 6RD SGD SVN EQDPTDMBX S@AKDR SN BNLO@QD SGD KHED DWODBS@MBX NE LDM @MC VNLDM EQNL 20 Q@MCNLKX RDKDBSDC BNTMSQHDR.
*MBKTCD @M NUDQK@XDC EQDPTDMBX ONKXFNM @MC CHRBTRR SGD RG@ODR NE SGD CHRSQHATSHNMR, SGD BDMSDQ, SGD ROQD@C, @MC @MX NTSKHDQR.
8G@S B@M VD BNMBKTCD @ANTS SGD KHED DWODBS@MBX NE VNLDM BNLO@QDC SN LDM
*C@? #RJ?=N;H=S ;N CLNB X 5IG?H $L?KO?H=S
49_55 3
56_62 3
63_69 1
70_76 3
77_83 8
84_90 2
2;<F? 2.51
*C@? #RJ?=N;H=S ;N CLNB X +?H $L?KO?H=S
49_55 3
56_62 3
63_69 1
2;<F? 2.52
"'/3$1 2 W #$2"1(/3(5$ 233(23("2 141
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*C@? #RJ?=N;H=S ;N CLNB X +?H $L?KO?H=S
70_76 1
77_83 7
84_90 5
2;<F? 2.52
26. $NMRSQTBS @ SHLDR RDQHDR FQ@OG ENQ (@) SGD MTLADQ NE L@KD AHQSGR, (A) SGD MTLADQ NE EDL@KD AHQSGR, @MC (B) SGD SNS@K
MTLADQ NE AHQSGR.
1?R/7?;L 1855 1856 1857 1858 1859 1860 1861
$?G;F? 45,545 49,582 50,257 50,324 51,915 51,220 52,403
+;F? 47,804 52,239 53,158 53,694 54,628 54,409 54,606
2IN;F 93,349 101,821 103,415 104,018 106,543 105,629 107,009
2;<F? 2.53
1?R/
7?;L
1862 1863 1864 1865 1866 1867 1868 1869
$?G;F? 51,812 53,115 54,959 54,850 55,307 55,527 56,292 55,033
+;F? 55,257 56,226 57,374 58,220 58,360 58,517 59,222 58,321
2IN;F 107,069 109,341 112,333 113,070 113,667 114,044 115,514 113,354
2;<F? 2.54
1?R/
7?;L
1871 1870 1872 1871 1872 1827 1874 1875
$?G;F? 56,099 56,431 57,472 56,099 57,472 58,233 60,109 60,146
+;F? 60,029 58,959 61,293 60,029 61,293 61,467 63,602 63,432
2IN;F 116,128 115,390 118,765 116,128 118,765 119,700 123,711 123,578
2;<F? 2.55
27. 5GD ENKKNVHMF C@S@ RDSR KHRS ETKK SHLD ONKHBD ODQ 100,000 BHSHYDMR @KNMF VHSG GNLHBHCDR ODQ 100,000 BHSHYDMR ENQ SGD BHSX
NE %DSQNHS, .HBGHF@M CTQHMF SGD ODQHNC EQNL 1961 SN 1973.
142 "'/3$1 2 W #$2"1(/3(5$ 233(23("2
3DEO ?KJPAJP EO =R=EH=>HA BKN BNAA =P DPPL://?JT.KNC/?KJPAJP/?KH11562/1.11
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7?;L 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967
.IFC=? 260.35 269.8 272.04 272.96 272.51 261.34 268.89
&IGC=C>?M 8.6 8.9 8.52 8.89 13.07 14.57 21.36
2;<F? 2.56
7?;L 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973
.IFC=? 295.99 319.87 341.43 356.59 376.69 390.19
&IGC=C>?M 28.03 31.49 37.39 46.26 47.24 52.33
2;<F? 2.57
=. $NMRSQTBS @ CNTAKD SHLD RDQHDR FQ@OG TRHMF @ BNLLNM N-@WHR ENQ ANSG RDSR NE C@S@.
>. 8GHBG U@QH@AKD HMBQD@RDC SGD E@RSDRS &WOK@HM.
?. %HC %DSQNHSnR HMBQD@RD HM ONKHBD NEEHBDQR G@UD @M HLO@BS NM SGD LTQCDQ Q@SD &WOK@HM.
2.4 IR .FINM
4HWSX-EHUD Q@MCNLKX RDKDBSDC B@Q R@KDRODQRNMR VDQD @RJDC SGD MTLADQ NE B@QR SGDX FDMDQ@KKX RDKK HM NMD VDDJ. 'NTQSDDM
ODNOKD @MRVDQDC SG@S SGDX FDMDQ@KKX RDKK SGQDD B@QR; MHMDSDDM FDMDQ@KKX RDKK ENTQ B@QR; SVDKUD FDMDQ@KKX RDKK EHUD B@QR; MHMD
FDMDQ@KKX RDKK RHW B@QR; DKDUDM FDMDQ@KKX RDKK RDUDM B@QR.
28. $NMRSQTBS @ ANW OKNS ADKNV. 6RD @ QTKDQ SN LD@RTQD @MC RB@KD @BBTQ@SDKX.
29. -NNJHMF @S XNTQ ANW OKNS, CNDR HS @OOD@Q SG@S SGD C@S@ @QD BNMBDMSQ@SDC SNFDSGDQ, ROQD@C NTS DUDMKX, NQ BNMBDMSQ@SDC HM
RNLD @QD@R, ATS MNS HM NSGDQR )NV B@M XNT SDKK
2.5 +?;MOL?M I@ NB? *I=;NCIH I@ NB? ";N;
30. -HRSDC @QD 29 @FDR ENQ "B@CDLX "V@QC VHMMHMF ADRS @BSNQR ?D EH:;H <HEC IC7BB;IJ JE B7H=;IJ.
18; 21; 22; 25; 26; 27; 29; 30; 31; 33; 36; 37; 41; 42; 47; 52; 55; 57; 58; 62; 64; 67; 69; 71; 72; 73; 74; 76; 77
=. 'HMC SGD 40
SG
ODQBDMSHKD.
>. 'HMC SGD 78
SG
ODQBDMSHKD.
31. -HRSDC @QD 32 @FDR ENQ "B@CDLX "V@QC VHMMHMF ADRS @BSNQR ?D EH:;H <HEC IC7BB;IJ JE B7H=;IJ.
18; 18; 21; 22; 25; 26; 27; 29; 30; 31; 31; 33; 36; 37; 37; 41; 42; 47; 52; 55; 57; 58; 62; 64; 67; 69; 71; 72; 73; 74; 76;
77
=. 'HMC SGD ODQBDMSHKD NE 37.
>. 'HMC SGD ODQBDMSHKD NE 72.
32. +DRRD V@R Q@MJDC 37
SG
HM GHR FQ@CT@SHMF BK@RR NE 180 RSTCDMSR. "S VG@S ODQBDMSHKD HR +DRRDnR Q@MJHMF
33.
=. 'NQ QTMMDQR HM @ Q@BD, @ KNV SHLD LD@MR @ E@RSDQ QTM. 5GD VHMMDQR HM @ Q@BD G@UD SGD RGNQSDRS QTMMHMF SHLDR. *R HS
LNQD CDRHQ@AKD SN G@UD @ EHMHRG SHLD VHSG @ GHFG NQ @ KNV ODQBDMSHKD VGDM QTMMHMF @ Q@BD
>. 5GD 20
SG
ODQBDMSHKD NE QTM SHLDR HM @ O@QSHBTK@Q Q@BD HR 5.2 LHMTSDR. 8QHSD @ RDMSDMBD HMSDQOQDSHMF SGD 20
SG
ODQBDMSHKD
HM SGD BNMSDWS NE SGD RHST@SHNM.
?. " AHBXBKHRS HM SGD 90
SG
ODQBDMSHKD NE @ AHBXBKD Q@BD BNLOKDSDC SGD Q@BD HM 1 GNTQ @MC 12 LHMTSDR. *R GD @LNMF
SGD E@RSDRS NQ RKNVDRS BXBKHRSR HM SGD Q@BD 8QHSD @ RDMSDMBD HMSDQOQDSHMF SGD 90
SG
ODQBDMSHKD HM SGD BNMSDWS NE SGD
RHST@SHNM.
"'/3$1 2 W #$2"1(/3(5$ 233(23("2 143
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34.
=. 'NQ QTMMDQR HM @ Q@BD, @ GHFGDQ RODDC LD@MR @ E@RSDQ QTM. *R HS LNQD CDRHQ@AKD SN G@UD @ RODDC VHSG @ GHFG NQ @ KNV
ODQBDMSHKD VGDM QTMMHMF @ Q@BD
>. 5GD 40
SG
ODQBDMSHKD NE RODDCR HM @ O@QSHBTK@Q Q@BD HR 7.5 LHKDR ODQ GNTQ. 8QHSD @ RDMSDMBD HMSDQOQDSHMF SGD 40
SG
ODQBDMSHKD HM SGD BNMSDWS NE SGD RHST@SHNM.
35. 0M @M DW@L, VNTKC HS AD LNQD CDRHQ@AKD SN D@QM @ FQ@CD VHSG @ GHFG NQ KNV ODQBDMSHKD &WOK@HM.
36. .HM@ HR V@HSHMF HM KHMD @S SGD %DO@QSLDMS NE .NSNQ 7DGHBKDR (%.7). )DQ V@HS SHLD NE 32 LHMTSDR HR SGD 85
SG
ODQBDMSHKD
NE V@HS SHLDR. *R SG@S FNNC NQ A@C 8QHSD @ RDMSDMBD HMSDQOQDSHMF SGD 85
SG
ODQBDMSHKD HM SGD BNMSDWS NE SGHR RHST@SHNM.
37. *M @ RTQUDX BNKKDBSHMF C@S@ @ANTS SGD R@K@QHDR D@QMDC AX QDBDMS BNKKDFD FQ@CT@SDR, -H ENTMC SG@S GDQ R@K@QX V@R HM SGD 78
SG
ODQBDMSHKD. 4GNTKC -H AD OKD@RDC NQ TORDS AX SGHR QDRTKS &WOK@HM.
38. *M @ RSTCX BNKKDBSHMF C@S@ @ANTS SGD QDO@HQ BNRSR NE C@L@FD SN @TSNLNAHKDR HM @ BDQS@HM SXOD NE BQ@RG SDRSR, @ BDQS@HM LNCDK
NE B@Q G@C $1,700 HM C@L@FD @MC V@R HM SGD 90
SG
ODQBDMSHKD. 4GNTKC SGD L@MTE@BSTQDQ @MC SGD BNMRTLDQ AD OKD@RDC NQ TORDS
AX SGHR QDRTKS &WOK@HM @MC VQHSD @ RDMSDMBD SG@S HMSDQOQDSR SGD 90
SG
ODQBDMSHKD HM SGD BNMSDWS NE SGHR OQNAKDL.
39. 5GD 6MHUDQRHSX NE $@KHENQMH@ G@R SVN BQHSDQH@ TRDC SN RDS @CLHRRHNM RS@MC@QCR ENQ EQDRGL@M SN AD @CLHSSDC SN @ BNKKDFD
HM SGD 6$ RXRSDL:
=. 4STCDMSR' (1"R @MC RBNQDR NM RS@MC@QCHYDC SDRSR (4"5R @MC "$5R) @QD DMSDQDC HMSN @ ENQLTK@ SG@S B@KBTK@SDR @M
"@CLHRRHNMR HMCDW" RBNQD. 5GD @CLHRRHNMR HMCDW RBNQD HR TRDC SN RDS DKHFHAHKHSX RS@MC@QCR HMSDMCDC SN LDDS SGD FN@K
NE @CLHSSHMF SGD SNO 12% NE GHFG RBGNNK RSTCDMSR HM SGD RS@SD. *M SGHR BNMSDWS, VG@S ODQBDMSHKD CNDR SGD SNO 12%
QDOQDRDMS
>. 4STCDMSR VGNRD (1"R @QD @S NQ @ANUD SGD 96
SG
ODQBDMSHKD NE @KK RSTCDMSR @S SGDHQ GHFG RBGNNK @QD DKHFHAKD (B@KKDC
DKHFHAKD HM SGD KNB@K BNMSDWS), DUDM HE SGDX @QD MNS HM SGD SNO 12% NE @KK RSTCDMSR HM SGD RS@SD. 8G@S ODQBDMS@FD NE
RSTCDMSR EQNL D@BG GHFG RBGNNK @QD "DKHFHAKD HM SGD KNB@K BNMSDWS"
40. 4TOONRD SG@S XNT @QD ATXHMF @ GNTRD. :NT @MC XNTQ QD@KSNQ G@UD CDSDQLHMDC SG@S SGD LNRS DWODMRHUD GNTRD XNT B@M
@EENQC HR SGD 34
SG
ODQBDMSHKD. 5GD 34
SG
ODQBDMSHKD NE GNTRHMF OQHBDR HR $240,000 HM SGD SNVM XNT V@MS SN LNUD SN. *M SGHR SNVM,
B@M XNT @EENQC 34% NE SGD GNTRDR NQ 66% NE SGD GNTRDR
6RD #R?L=CM? 12 SN B@KBTK@SD SGD ENKKNVHMF U@KTDR:
41. 'HQRS PT@QSHKD = ???????
42. 4DBNMC PT@QSHKD = LDCH@M = 50
SG
ODQBDMSHKD = ???????
43. 5GHQC PT@QSHKD = ???????
44. *MSDQPT@QSHKD Q@MFD ("*+) = ????? k ????? = ?????
45. 10
SG
ODQBDMSHKD = ???????
46. 70
SG
ODQBDMSHKD = ???????
2.6 +?;MOL?M I@ NB? !?HN?L I@ NB? ";N;
47. 'HMC SGD LD@M ENQ SGD ENKKNVHMF EQDPTDMBX S@AKDR.
=.
%L;>? $L?KO?H=S
49.5_59.5 2
59.5_69.5 3
69.5_79.5 8
79.5_89.5 12
89.5_99.5 5
2;<F? 2.58
144 "'/3$1 2 W #$2"1(/3(5$ 233(23("2
3DEO ?KJPAJP EO =R=EH=>HA BKN BNAA =P DPPL://?JT.KNC/?KJPAJP/?KH11562/1.11
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";CFS *IQ 2?GJ?L;NOL? $L?KO?H=S
49.5_59.5 53
59.5_69.5 32
69.5_79.5 15
79.5_89.5 1
89.5_99.5 0
2;<F? 2.59
?.
.ICHNM J?L %;G? $L?KO?H=S
49.5_59.5 14
59.5_69.5 32
69.5_79.5 15
79.5_89.5 23
89.5_99.5 2
2;<F? 2.60
.I; J>; <EBBEM?D= ?D<EHC7J?ED JE 7DIM;H J>; D;NJ J>H;; ;N;H9?I;I: 5GD ENKKNVHMF C@S@ RGNV SGD KDMFSGR NE AN@SR LNNQDC HM @
L@QHM@. 5GD C@S@ @QD NQCDQDC EQNL RL@KKDRS SN K@QFDRS: 16; 17; 19; 20; 20; 21; 23; 24; 25; 25; 25; 26; 26; 27; 27; 27; 28; 29;
30; 32; 33; 33; 34; 35; 37; 39; 40
48. $@KBTK@SD SGD LD@M.
49. *CDMSHEX SGD LDCH@M.
50. *CDMSHEX SGD LNCD.
.I; J>; <EBBEM?D= ?D<EHC7J?ED JE 7DIM;H J>; D;NJ J>H;; ;N;H9?I;I: 4HWSX-EHUD Q@MCNLKX RDKDBSDC B@Q R@KDRODQRNMR VDQD
@RJDC SGD MTLADQ NE B@QR SGDX FDMDQ@KKX RDKK HM NMD VDDJ. 'NTQSDDM ODNOKD @MRVDQDC SG@S SGDX FDMDQ@KKX RDKK SGQDD B@QR;
MHMDSDDM FDMDQ@KKX RDKK ENTQ B@QR; SVDKUD FDMDQ@KKX RDKK EHUD B@QR; MHMD FDMDQ@KKX RDKK RHW B@QR; DKDUDM FDMDQ@KKX RDKK RDUDM B@QR.
$@KBTK@SD SGD ENKKNVHMF:
51. R@LOKD LD@M = x

= ???????
52. LDCH@M = ???????
53. LNCD = ???????
2.7 1E?QH?MM ;H> NB? +?;H, +?>C;H, ;H> +I>?
.I; J>; <EBBEM?D= ?D<EHC7J?ED JE 7DIM;H J>; D;NJ J>H;; ;N;H9?I;I: 4S@SD VGDSGDQ SGD C@S@ @QD RXLLDSQHB@K, RJDVDC SN SGD KDES,
NQ RJDVDC SN SGD QHFGS.
54. 1; 1; 1; 2; 2; 2; 2; 3; 3; 3; 3; 3; 3; 3; 3; 4; 4; 4; 5; 5
55. 16; 17; 19; 22; 22; 22; 22; 22; 23
"'/3$1 2 W #$2"1(/3(5$ 233(23("2 145
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56. 87; 87; 87; 87; 87; 88; 89; 89; 90; 91
57. 8GDM SGD C@S@ @QD RJDVDC KDES, VG@S HR SGD SXOHB@K QDK@SHNMRGHO ADSVDDM SGD LD@M @MC LDCH@M
58. 8GDM SGD C@S@ @QD RXLLDSQHB@K, VG@S HR SGD SXOHB@K QDK@SHNMRGHO ADSVDDM SGD LD@M @MC LDCH@M
59. 8G@S VNQC CDRBQHADR @ CHRSQHATSHNM SG@S G@R SVN LNCDR
60. %DRBQHAD SGD RG@OD NE SGHR CHRSQHATSHNM.
$CAOL? 2.32
61. %DRBQHAD SGD QDK@SHNMRGHO ADSVDDM SGD LNCD @MC SGD LDCH@M NE SGHR CHRSQHATSHNM.
$CAOL? 2.33
62. %DRBQHAD SGD QDK@SHNMRGHO ADSVDDM SGD LD@M @MC SGD LDCH@M NE SGHR CHRSQHATSHNM.
$CAOL? 2.34
146 "'/3$1 2 W #$2"1(/3(5$ 233(23("2
3DEO ?KJPAJP EO =R=EH=>HA BKN BNAA =P DPPL://?JT.KNC/?KJPAJP/?KH11562/1.11
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63. %DRBQHAD SGD RG@OD NE SGHR CHRSQHATSHNM.
$CAOL? 2.35
64. %DRBQHAD SGD QDK@SHNMRGHO ADSVDDM SGD LNCD @MC SGD LDCH@M NE SGHR CHRSQHATSHNM.
$CAOL? 2.36
65. "QD SGD LD@M @MC SGD LDCH@M SGD DW@BS R@LD HM SGHR CHRSQHATSHNM 8GX NQ VGX MNS
$CAOL? 2.37
66. %DRBQHAD SGD RG@OD NE SGHR CHRSQHATSHNM.
"'/3$1 2 W #$2"1(/3(5$ 233(23("2 147
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$CAOL? 2.38
67. %DRBQHAD SGD QDK@SHNMRGHO ADSVDDM SGD LNCD @MC SGD LDCH@M NE SGHR CHRSQHATSHNM.
$CAOL? 2.39
68. %DRBQHAD SGD QDK@SHNMRGHO ADSVDDM SGD LD@M @MC SGD LDCH@M NE SGHR CHRSQHATSHNM.
$CAOL? 2.40
69. 5GD LD@M @MC LDCH@M ENQ SGD C@S@ @QD SGD R@LD.
3; 4; 5; 5; 6; 6; 6; 6; 7; 7; 7; 7; 7; 7; 7
*R SGD C@S@ ODQEDBSKX RXLLDSQHB@K 8GX NQ VGX MNS
70. 8GHBG HR SGD FQD@SDRS, SGD LD@M, SGD LNCD, NQ SGD LDCH@M NE SGD C@S@ RDS
11; 11; 12; 12; 12; 12; 13; 15; 17; 22; 22; 22
148 "'/3$1 2 W #$2"1(/3(5$ 233(23("2
3DEO ?KJPAJP EO =R=EH=>HA BKN BNAA =P DPPL://?JT.KNC/?KJPAJP/?KH11562/1.11
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71. 8GHBG HR SGD KD@RS, SGD LD@M, SGD LNCD, @MC SGD LDCH@M NE SGD C@S@ RDS
56; 56; 56; 58; 59; 60; 62; 64; 64; 65; 67
72. 0E SGD SGQDD LD@RTQDR, VGHBG SDMCR SN QDEKDBS RJDVHMF SGD LNRS, SGD LD@M, SGD LNCD, NQ SGD LDCH@M 8GX
73. *M @ ODQEDBSKX RXLLDSQHB@K CHRSQHATSHNM, VGDM VNTKC SGD LNCD AD CHEEDQDMS EQNL SGD LD@M @MC LDCH@M
&-+#5-0)
2.1 +?;MOL?M I@ NB? 1JL?;> I@ NB? ";N;
.I; J>; <EBBEM?D= ?D<EHC7J?ED JE 7DIM;H J>; D;NJ D?D; ;N;H9?I;I: 5GD ONOTK@SHNM O@Q@LDSDQR ADKNV CDRBQHAD SGD ETKK-SHLD
DPTHU@KDMS MTLADQ NE RSTCDMSR ('5&4) D@BG XD@Q @S -@JD 5@GND $NLLTMHSX $NKKDFD EQNL 1976k1977 SGQNTFG 2004k2005.
c Z = 1000 '5&4
c LDCH@M = 1,014 '5&4
c \ = 474 '5&4
c EHQRS PT@QSHKD = 528.5 '5&4
c SGHQC PT@QSHKD = 1,447.5 '5&4
c D = 29 XD@QR
74. " R@LOKD NE 11 XD@QR HR S@JDM. "ANTS GNV L@MX @QD DWODBSDC SN G@UD @ '5&4 NE 1014 NQ @ANUD &WOK@HM GNV XNT
CDSDQLHMDC XNTQ @MRVDQ.
75. 75% NE @KK XD@QR G@UD @M '5&4:
=. @S NQ ADKNV: ?????
>. @S NQ @ANUD: ?????
76. 5GD ONOTK@SHNM RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNM = ?????
77. 8G@S ODQBDMS NE SGD '5&4 VDQD EQNL 528.5 SN 1447.5 )NV CN XNT JMNV
78. 8G@S HR SGD "*+ 8G@S CNDR SGD "*+ QDOQDRDMS
79. )NV L@MX RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNMR @V@X EQNL SGD LD@M HR SGD LDCH@M
A::?J?ED7B "D<EHC7J?ED: 5GD ONOTK@SHNM '5&4 ENQ 2005k2006 SGQNTFG 2010k2011 V@R FHUDM HM @M TOC@SDC QDONQS. 5GD C@S@
@QD QDONQSDC GDQD.
7?;L 2005_06 2006_07 2007_08 2008_09 2009_10 2010_11
2IN;F $2#1 1,585 1,690 1,735 1,935 2,021 1,890
2;<F? 2.61
80. $@KBTK@SD SGD LD@M, LDCH@M, RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNM, SGD EHQRS PT@QSHKD, SGD SGHQC PT@QSHKD @MC SGD "*+. 3NTMC SN NMD CDBHL@K
OK@BD.
81. $NMRSQTBS @ ANW OKNS ENQ SGD '5&4 ENQ 2005k2006 SGQNTFG 2010k2011 @MC @ ANW OKNS ENQ SGD '5&4 ENQ 1976k1977
SGQNTFG 2004k2005.
82. $NLO@QD SGD "*+ ENQ SGD '5&4 ENQ 1976k77 SGQNTFG 2004k2005 VHSG SGD "*+ ENQ SGD '5&4 ENQ 2005-2006 SGQNTFG
2010k2011. 8GX CN XNT RTOONRD SGD "*+R @QD RN CHEEDQDMS
83. 5GQDD RSTCDMSR VDQD @OOKXHMF SN SGD R@LD FQ@CT@SD RBGNNK. 5GDX B@LD EQNL RBGNNKR VHSG CHEEDQDMS FQ@CHMF RXRSDLR.
8GHBG RSTCDMS G@C SGD ADRS (1" VGDM BNLO@QDC SN NSGDQ RSTCDMSR @S GHR RBGNNK &WOK@HM GNV XNT CDSDQLHMDC XNTQ @MRVDQ.
1NO>?HN %.A 1=BIIF AP?L;A? %.A 1=BIIF 1N;H>;L> "?PC;NCIH
3DQU 2.7 3.2 0.8
5E?DAP 87 75 20
2;<F? 2.62
"'/3$1 2 W #$2"1(/3(5$ 233(23("2 149
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1NO>?HN %.A 1=BIIF AP?L;A? %.A 1=BIIF 1N;H>;L> "?PC;NCIH
*=I=H= 8.6 8 0.4
2;<F? 2.62
84. " LTRHB RBGNNK G@R ATCFDSDC SN OTQBG@RD SGQDD LTRHB@K HMRSQTLDMSR. 5GDX OK@M SN OTQBG@RD @ OH@MN BNRSHMF $3,000, @
FTHS@Q BNRSHMF $550, @MC @ CQTL RDS BNRSHMF $600. 5GD LD@M BNRS ENQ @ OH@MN HR $4,000 VHSG @ RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNM NE $2,500.
5GD LD@M BNRS ENQ @ FTHS@Q HR $500 VHSG @ RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNM NE $200. 5GD LD@M BNRS ENQ CQTLR HR $700 VHSG @ RS@MC@QC
CDUH@SHNM NE $100. 8GHBG BNRS HR SGD KNVDRS, VGDM BNLO@QDC SN NSGDQ HMRSQTLDMSR NE SGD R@LD SXOD 8GHBG BNRS HR SGD GHFGDRS
VGDM BNLO@QDC SN NSGDQ HMRSQTLDMSR NE SGD R@LD SXOD. +TRSHEX XNTQ @MRVDQ.
85. "M DKDLDMS@QX RBGNNK BK@RR Q@M NMD LHKD VHSG @ LD@M NE 11 LHMTSDR @MC @ RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNM NE SGQDD LHMTSDR. 3@BGDK,
@ RSTCDMS HM SGD BK@RR, Q@M NMD LHKD HM DHFGS LHMTSDR. " ITMHNQ GHFG RBGNNK BK@RR Q@M NMD LHKD VHSG @ LD@M NE MHMD LHMTSDR
@MC @ RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNM NE SVN LHMTSDR. ,DMIH, @ RSTCDMS HM SGD BK@RR, Q@M 1 LHKD HM 8.5 LHMTSDR. " GHFG RBGNNK BK@RR Q@M NMD
LHKD VHSG @ LD@M NE RDUDM LHMTSDR @MC @ RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNM NE ENTQ LHMTSDR. /DCC@, @ RSTCDMS HM SGD BK@RR, Q@M NMD LHKD HM
DHFGS LHMTSDR.
=. 8GX HR ,DMIH BNMRHCDQDC @ ADSSDQ QTMMDQ SG@M /DCC@, DUDM SGNTFG /DCC@ Q@M E@RSDQ SG@M GD
>. 8GN HR SGD E@RSDRS QTMMDQ VHSG QDRODBS SN GHR NQ GDQ BK@RR &WOK@HM VGX.
86. 5GD LNRS NADRD BNTMSQHDR HM SGD VNQKC G@UD NADRHSX Q@SDR SG@S Q@MFD EQNL 11.4% SN 74.6%. 5GHR C@S@ HR RTLL@QHYDC HM
2;<F? 14.
.?L=?HN I@ .IJOF;NCIH -<?M? ,OG<?L I@ !IOHNLC?M
11.4_20.45 29
20.45_29.45 13
29.45_38.45 4
38.45_47.45 0
47.45_56.45 2
56.45_65.45 1
65.45_74.45 0
74.45_83.45 1
2;<F? 2.63
8G@S HR SGD ADRS DRSHL@SD NE SGD @UDQ@FD NADRHSX ODQBDMS@FD ENQ SGDRD BNTMSQHDR 8G@S HR SGD RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNM ENQ SGD KHRSDC
NADRHSX Q@SDR 5GD 6MHSDC 4S@SDR G@R @M @UDQ@FD NADRHSX Q@SD NE 33.9%. *R SGHR Q@SD @ANUD @UDQ@FD NQ ADKNV )NV oTMTRT@Kp
HR SGD 6MHSDC 4S@SDRn NADRHSX Q@SD BNLO@QDC SN SGD @UDQ@FD Q@SD &WOK@HM.
87. 2;<F? 2.64 FHUDR SGD ODQBDMS NE BGHKCQDM TMCDQ EHUD BNMRHCDQDC SN AD TMCDQVDHFGS.
150 "'/3$1 2 W #$2"1(/3(5$ 233(23("2
3DEO ?KJPAJP EO =R=EH=>HA BKN BNAA =P DPPL://?JT.KNC/?KJPAJP/?KH11562/1.11
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.?L=?HN I@ 3H>?LQ?CABN !BCF>L?H ,OG<?L I@ !IOHNLC?M
16_21.45 23
21.45_26.9 4
26.9_32.35 9
32.35_37.8 7
37.8_43.25 6
43.25_48.7 1
2;<F? 2.64
8G@S HR SGD ADRS DRSHL@SD ENQ SGD LD@M ODQBDMS@FD NE TMCDQVDHFGS BGHKCQDM 8G@S HR SGD RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNM 8GHBG
HMSDQU@K(R) BNTKC AD BNMRHCDQDC TMTRT@K &WOK@HM.
2.2 1N?G-;H>-*?;@ %L;JBM (1N?GJFINM), *CH? %L;JBM, ;H> ;L %L;JBM
88. 4STCDMS FQ@CDR NM @ BGDLHRSQX DW@L VDQD: 77, 78, 76, 81, 86, 51, 79, 82, 84, 99
=. $NMRSQTBS @ RSDL-@MC-KD@E OKNS NE SGD C@S@.
>. "QD SGDQD @MX ONSDMSH@K NTSKHDQR *E RN, VGHBG RBNQDR @QD SGDX 8GX CN XNT BNMRHCDQ SGDL NTSKHDQR
89. 2;<F? 2.65 BNMS@HMR SGD 2010 NADRHSX Q@SDR HM 6.4. RS@SDR @MC 8@RGHMFSNM, %$.
1N;N? .?L=?HN (%) 1N;N? .?L=?HN (%) 1N;N? .?L=?HN (%)
H=>=I= 32.2 *AJPQ?GU 31.3 -KNPD #=GKP= 27.2
H=OG= 24.5 +KQEOE=J= 31.0 .DEK 29.2
NEVKJ= 24.3 ,=EJA 26.8 .GH=DKI= 30.4
NG=JO=O 30.1 ,=NUH=J@ 27.1 .NACKJ 26.8
"=HEBKNJE= 24.0 ,=OO=?DQOAPPO 23.0 /AJJOUHR=JE= 28.6
"KHKN=@K 21.0 ,E?DEC=J 30.9 1DK@A (OH=J@ 25.5
"KJJA?PE?QP 22.5 ,EJJAOKP= 24.8 2KQPD "=NKHEJ= 31.5
#AH=S=NA 28.0 ,EOOEOOELLE 34.0 2KQPD #=GKP= 27.3
6=ODEJCPKJ, #" 22.2 ,EOOKQNE 30.5 3AJJAOOAA 30.8
%HKNE@= 26.6 ,KJP=J= 23.0 3AT=O 31.0
2;<F? 2.65
"'/3$1 2 W #$2"1(/3(5$ 233(23("2 151
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1N;N? .?L=?HN (%) 1N;N? .?L=?HN (%) 1N;N? .?L=?HN (%)
&AKNCE= 29.6 -A>N=OG= 26.9 4P=D 22.5
'=S=EE 22.7 -AR=@= 22.4 5ANIKJP 23.2
(@=DK 26.5 -AS '=ILODENA 25.0 5ENCEJE= 26.0
(HHEJKEO 28.2 -AS )ANOAU 23.8 6=ODEJCPKJ 25.5
(J@E=J= 29.6 -AS ,ATE?K 25.1 6AOP 5ENCEJE= 32.5
(KS= 28.4 -AS 8KNG 23.9 6EO?KJOEJ 26.3
*=JO=O 29.4 -KNPD "=NKHEJ= 27.8 6UKIEJC 25.1
2;<F? 2.65
=. 6RD @ Q@MCNL MTLADQ FDMDQ@SNQ SN Q@MCNLKX OHBJ DHFGS RS@SDR. $NMRSQTBS @ A@Q FQ@OG NE SGD NADRHSX Q@SDR NE SGNRD
DHFGS RS@SDR.
>. $NMRSQTBS @ A@Q FQ@OG ENQ @KK SGD RS@SDR ADFHMMHMF VHSG SGD KDSSDQ ""."
?. $NMRSQTBS @ A@Q FQ@OG ENQ @KK SGD RS@SDR ADFHMMHMF VHSG SGD KDSSDQ ".."
2.3 &CMNIAL;GM, $L?KO?H=S .IFSAIHM, ;H> 2CG? 1?LC?M %L;JBM
90. 4TOONRD SG@S SGQDD ANNJ OTAKHRGDQR VDQD HMSDQDRSDC HM SGD MTLADQ NE EHBSHNM O@ODQA@BJR @CTKS BNMRTLDQR OTQBG@RD ODQ
LNMSG. &@BG OTAKHRGDQ BNMCTBSDC @ RTQUDX. *M SGD RTQUDX, @CTKS BNMRTLDQR VDQD @RJDC SGD MTLADQ NE EHBSHNM O@ODQA@BJR SGDX
G@C OTQBG@RDC SGD OQDUHNTR LNMSG. 5GD QDRTKSR @QD @R ENKKNVR:
# I@ <IIEM $L?K. 0?F. $L?K.
0 10
1 12
2 16
3 12
4 8
5 6
6 2
8 2
2;<F? 2.66 .O<FCMB?L A
152 "'/3$1 2 W #$2"1(/3(5$ 233(23("2
3DEO ?KJPAJP EO =R=EH=>HA BKN BNAA =P DPPL://?JT.KNC/?KJPAJP/?KH11562/1.11
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# I@ <IIEM $L?K. 0?F. $L?K.
0 18
1 24
2 24
3 22
4 15
5 10
7 5
9 1
2;<F? 2.67 .O<FCMB?L
# I@ <IIEM $L?K. 0?F. $L?K.
0_1 20
2_3 35
4_5 12
6_7 2
8_9 1
2;<F? 2.68 .O<FCMB?L !
=. 'HMC SGD QDK@SHUD EQDPTDMBHDR ENQ D@BG RTQUDX. 8QHSD SGDL HM SGD BG@QSR.
>. 6RHMF DHSGDQ @ FQ@OGHMF B@KBTK@SNQ, BNLOTSDQ, NQ AX G@MC, TRD SGD EQDPTDMBX BNKTLM SN BNMRSQTBS @ GHRSNFQ@L ENQ
D@BG OTAKHRGDQ'R RTQUDX. 'NQ 1TAKHRGDQR " @MC #, L@JD A@Q VHCSGR NE NMD. 'NQ 1TAKHRGDQ $, L@JD A@Q VHCSGR NE
SVN.
?. *M BNLOKDSD RDMSDMBDR, FHUD SVN QD@RNMR VGX SGD FQ@OGR ENQ 1TAKHRGDQR " @MC # @QD MNS HCDMSHB@K.
@. 8NTKC XNT G@UD DWODBSDC SGD FQ@OG ENQ 1TAKHRGDQ $ SN KNNJ KHJD SGD NSGDQ SVN FQ@OGR 8GX NQ VGX MNS
A. .@JD MDV GHRSNFQ@LR ENQ 1TAKHRGDQ " @MC 1TAKHRGDQ #. 5GHR SHLD, L@JD A@Q VHCSGR NE SVN.
B. /NV, BNLO@QD SGD FQ@OG ENQ 1TAKHRGDQ $ SN SGD MDV FQ@OGR ENQ 1TAKHRGDQR " @MC #. "QD SGD FQ@OGR LNQD RHLHK@Q
NQ LNQD CHEEDQDMS &WOK@HM XNTQ @MRVDQ.
91. 0ESDM, BQTHRD RGHOR BNMCTBS @KK NM-AN@QC SQ@MR@BSHNMR, VHSG SGD DWBDOSHNM NE F@LAKHMF, NM @ B@RGKDRR A@RHR. "S SGD DMC
NE SGD BQTHRD, FTDRSR O@X NMD AHKK SG@S BNUDQR @KK NMAN@QC SQ@MR@BSHNMR. 4TOONRD SG@S 60 RHMFKD SQ@UDKDQR @MC 70 BNTOKDR VDQD
RTQUDXDC @R SN SGDHQ NM-AN@QC AHKKR ENQ @ RDUDM-C@X BQTHRD EQNL-NR "MFDKDR SN SGD .DWHB@M 3HUHDQ@. 'NKKNVHMF HR @ RTLL@QX
NE SGD AHKKR ENQ D@BG FQNTO.
"'/3$1 2 W #$2"1(/3(5$ 233(23("2 153
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AGIOHN($) $L?KO?H=S 0?F. $L?KO?H=S
51_100 5
101_150 10
151_200 15
201_250 15
251_300 10
301_350 5
2;<F? 2.69 1CHAF?M
AGIOHN($) $L?KO?H=S 0?F. $L?KO?H=S
100_150 5
201_250 5
251_300 5
301_350 5
351_400 10
401_450 10
451_500 10
501_550 10
551_600 5
601_650 5
2;<F? 2.70 !IOJF?M
=. 'HKK HM SGD QDK@SHUD EQDPTDMBX ENQ D@BG FQNTO.
>. $NMRSQTBS @ GHRSNFQ@L ENQ SGD RHMFKDR FQNTO. 4B@KD SGD N-@WHR AX $50 VHCSGR. 6RD QDK@SHUD EQDPTDMBX NM SGD O-@WHR.
?. $NMRSQTBS @ GHRSNFQ@L ENQ SGD BNTOKDR FQNTO. 4B@KD SGD N-@WHR AX $50 VHCSGR. 6RD QDK@SHUD EQDPTDMBX NM SGD O-@WHR.
@. $NLO@QD SGD SVN FQ@OGR:
E. -HRS SVN RHLHK@QHSHDR ADSVDDM SGD FQ@OGR.
EE. -HRS SVN CHEEDQDMBDR ADSVDDM SGD FQ@OGR.
EEE. 0UDQ@KK, @QD SGD FQ@OGR LNQD RHLHK@Q NQ CHEEDQDMS
154 "'/3$1 2 W #$2"1(/3(5$ 233(23("2
3DEO ?KJPAJP EO =R=EH=>HA BKN BNAA =P DPPL://?JT.KNC/?KJPAJP/?KH11562/1.11
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A. $NMRSQTBS @ MDV FQ@OG ENQ SGD BNTOKDR AX G@MC. 4HMBD D@BG BNTOKD HR O@XHMF ENQ SVN HMCHUHCT@KR, HMRSD@C NE RB@KHMF
SGD N-@WHR AX $50, RB@KD HS AX $100. 6RD QDK@SHUD EQDPTDMBX NM SGD O-@WHR.
B. $NLO@QD SGD FQ@OG ENQ SGD RHMFKDR VHSG SGD MDV FQ@OG ENQ SGD BNTOKDR:
E. -HRS SVN RHLHK@QHSHDR ADSVDDM SGD FQ@OGR.
EE. 0UDQ@KK, @QD SGD FQ@OGR LNQD RHLHK@Q NQ CHEEDQDMS
C. )NV CHC RB@KHMF SGD BNTOKDR FQ@OG CHEEDQDMSKX BG@MFD SGD V@X XNT BNLO@QDC HS SN SGD RHMFKDR FQ@OG
D. #@RDC NM SGD FQ@OGR, CN XNT SGHMJ SG@S HMCHUHCT@KR RODMC SGD R@LD @LNTMS, LNQD NQ KDRR, @R RHMFKDR @R SGDX CN
ODQRNM AX ODQRNM @R @ BNTOKD &WOK@HM VGX HM NMD NQ SVN BNLOKDSD RDMSDMBDR.
92. 5VDMSX-EHUD Q@MCNLKX RDKDBSDC RSTCDMSR VDQD @RJDC SGD MTLADQ NE LNUHDR SGDX V@SBGDC SGD OQDUHNTR VDDJ. 5GD QDRTKSR
@QD @R ENKKNVR.
# I@ GIPC?M $L?KO?H=S 0?F;NCP? $L?KO?H=S !OGOF;NCP? 0?F;NCP? $L?KO?H=S
0 5
1 9
2 6
3 4
4 1
2;<F? 2.71
=. $NMRSQTBS @ GHRSNFQ@L NE SGD C@S@.
>. $NLOKDSD SGD BNKTLMR NE SGD BG@QS.
.I; J>; <EBBEM?D= ?D<EHC7J?ED JE 7DIM;H J>; D;NJ JME ;N;H9?I;I: 4TOONRD NMD GTMCQDC DKDUDM ODNOKD VGN RGNOODC HM @
RODBH@K S-RGHQS RSNQD VDQD @RJDC SGD MTLADQ NE S-RGHQSR SGDX NVM BNRSHMF LNQD SG@M $19 D@BG.
93. 5GD ODQBDMS@FD NE ODNOKD VGN NVM @S LNRS SGQDD S-RGHQSR BNRSHMF LNQD SG@M $19 D@BG HR @OOQNWHL@SDKX:
=. 21
>. 59
?. 41
@. $@MMNS AD CDSDQLHMDC
94. *E SGD C@S@ VDQD BNKKDBSDC AX @RJHMF SGD EHQRS 111 ODNOKD VGN DMSDQDC SGD RSNQD, SGDM SGD SXOD NE R@LOKHMF HR:
=. BKTRSDQ
>. RHLOKD Q@MCNL
?. RSQ@SHEHDC
@. BNMUDMHDMBD
95. 'NKKNVHMF @QD SGD 2010 NADRHSX Q@SDR AX 6.4. RS@SDR @MC 8@RGHMFSNM, %$.
"'/3$1 2 W #$2"1(/3(5$ 233(23("2 155
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1N;N? .?L=?HN (%) 1N;N? .?L=?HN (%) 1N;N? .?L=?HN (%)
H=>=I= 32.2 *AJPQ?GU 31.3 -KNPD #=GKP= 27.2
H=OG= 24.5 +KQEOE=J= 31.0 .DEK 29.2
NEVKJ= 24.3 ,=EJA 26.8 .GH=DKI= 30.4
NG=JO=O 30.1 ,=NUH=J@ 27.1 .NACKJ 26.8
"=HEBKNJE= 24.0 ,=OO=?DQOAPPO 23.0 /AJJOUHR=JE= 28.6
"KHKN=@K 21.0 ,E?DEC=J 30.9 1DK@A (OH=J@ 25.5
"KJJA?PE?QP 22.5 ,EJJAOKP= 24.8 2KQPD "=NKHEJ= 31.5
#AH=S=NA 28.0 ,EOOEOOELLE 34.0 2KQPD #=GKP= 27.3
6=ODEJCPKJ, #" 22.2 ,EOOKQNE 30.5 3AJJAOOAA 30.8
%HKNE@= 26.6 ,KJP=J= 23.0 3AT=O 31.0
&AKNCE= 29.6 -A>N=OG= 26.9 4P=D 22.5
'=S=EE 22.7 -AR=@= 22.4 5ANIKJP 23.2
(@=DK 26.5 -AS '=ILODENA 25.0 5ENCEJE= 26.0
(HHEJKEO 28.2 -AS )ANOAU 23.8 6=ODEJCPKJ 25.5
(J@E=J= 29.6 -AS ,ATE?K 25.1 6AOP 5ENCEJE= 32.5
(KS= 28.4 -AS 8KNG 23.9 6EO?KJOEJ 26.3
*=JO=O 29.4 -KNPD "=NKHEJ= 27.8 6UKIEJC 25.1
2;<F? 2.72
$NMRSQTBS @ A@Q FQ@OG NE NADRHSX Q@SDR NE XNTQ RS@SD @MC SGD ENTQ RS@SDR BKNRDRS SN XNTQ RS@SD. )HMS: -@ADK SGD N-@WHR VHSG SGD
RS@SDR.
2.4 IR .FINM
96. *M @ RTQUDX NE 20-XD@Q-NKCR HM $GHM@, (DQL@MX, @MC SGD 6MHSDC 4S@SDR, ODNOKD VDQD @RJDC SGD MTLADQ NE ENQDHFM
BNTMSQHDR SGDX G@C UHRHSDC HM SGDHQ KHEDSHLD. 5GD ENKKNVHMF ANW OKNSR CHROK@X SGD QDRTKSR.
156 "'/3$1 2 W #$2"1(/3(5$ 233(23("2
3DEO ?KJPAJP EO =R=EH=>HA BKN BNAA =P DPPL://?JT.KNC/?KJPAJP/?KH11562/1.11
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$CAOL? 2.41
=. *M BNLOKDSD RDMSDMBDR, CDRBQHAD VG@S SGD RG@OD NE D@BG ANW OKNS HLOKHDR @ANTS SGD CHRSQHATSHNM NE SGD C@S@
BNKKDBSDC.
>. )@UD LNQD "LDQHB@MR NQ LNQD (DQL@MR RTQUDXDC ADDM SN NUDQ DHFGS ENQDHFM BNTMSQHDR
?. $NLO@QD SGD SGQDD ANW OKNSR. 8G@S CN SGDX HLOKX @ANTS SGD ENQDHFM SQ@UDK NE 20-XD@Q-NKC QDRHCDMSR NE SGD SGQDD
BNTMSQHDR VGDM BNLO@QDC SN D@BG NSGDQ
97. (HUDM SGD ENKKNVHMF ANW OKNS, @MRVDQ SGD ENKKNVHMF PTDRSHNMR.
$CAOL? 2.42
=. 5GHMJ NE @M DW@LOKD (HM VNQCR) VGDQD SGD C@S@ LHFGS EHS HMSN SGD @ANUD ANW OKNS. *M 2k5 RDMSDMBDR, VQHSD CNVM SGD
DW@LOKD.
>. 8G@S CNDR HS LD@M SN G@UD SGD EHQRS @MC RDBNMC PT@QSHKDR RN BKNRD SNFDSGDQ, VGHKD SGD RDBNMC SN SGHQC PT@QSHKDR @QD
E@Q @O@QS
98. (HUDM SGD ENKKNVHMF ANW OKNS, @MRVDQ SGD ENKKNVHMF PTDRSHNMR.
$CAOL? 2.43
=. *M BNLOKDSD RDMSDMBDR, DWOK@HM VGX D@BG RS@SDLDMS HR E@KRD.
E. !6I6 1 G@R LNQD C@S@ U@KTDR @ANUD SVN SG@M !6I6 2 G@R @ANUD SVN.
EE. 5GD C@S@ RDSR B@MMNS G@UD SGD R@LD LNCD.
EEE. 'NQ !6I6 1, SGDQD @QD LNQD C@S@ U@KTDR ADKNV ENTQ SG@M SGDQD @QD @ANUD ENTQ.
>. 'NQ VGHBG FQNTO, %@S@ 1 NQ %@S@ 2, HR SGD U@KTD NE o7p LNQD KHJDKX SN AD @M NTSKHDQ &WOK@HM VGX HM BNLOKDSD
RDMSDMBDR.
"'/3$1 2 W #$2"1(/3(5$ 233(23("2 157
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99. " RTQUDX V@R BNMCTBSDC NE 130 OTQBG@RDQR NE MDV #.83 RDQHDR B@QR, 130 OTQBG@RDQR NE MDV #.85 RDQHDR B@QR, @MC
130 OTQBG@RDQR NE MDV #.8 7 RDQHDR B@QR. *M HS, ODNOKD VDQD @RJDC SGD @FD SGDX VDQD VGDM SGDX OTQBG@RDC SGDHQ B@Q. 5GD
ENKKNVHMF ANW OKNSR CHROK@X SGD QDRTKSR.
$CAOL? 2.44
=. *M BNLOKDSD RDMSDMBDR, CDRBQHAD VG@S SGD RG@OD NE D@BG ANW OKNS HLOKHDR @ANTS SGD CHRSQHATSHNM NE SGD C@S@ BNKKDBSDC
ENQ SG@S B@Q RDQHDR.
>. 8GHBG FQNTO HR LNRS KHJDKX SN G@UD @M NTSKHDQ &WOK@HM GNV XNT CDSDQLHMDC SG@S.
?. $NLO@QD SGD SGQDD ANW OKNSR. 8G@S CN SGDX HLOKX @ANTS SGD @FD NE OTQBG@RHMF @ #.8 EQNL SGD RDQHDR VGDM
BNLO@QDC SN D@BG NSGDQ
@. -NNJ @S SGD #.8 5 RDQHDR. 8GHBG PT@QSDQ G@R SGD RL@KKDRS ROQD@C NE C@S@ 8G@S HR SGD ROQD@C
A. -NNJ @S SGD #.8 5 RDQHDR. 8GHBG PT@QSDQ G@R SGD K@QFDRS ROQD@C NE C@S@ 8G@S HR SGD ROQD@C
B. -NNJ @S SGD #.8 5 RDQHDR. &RSHL@SD SGD HMSDQPT@QSHKD Q@MFD (*23).
C. -NNJ @S SGD #.8 5 RDQHDR. "QD SGDQD LNQD C@S@ HM SGD HMSDQU@K 31 SN 38 NQ HM SGD HMSDQU@K 45 SN 55 )NV CN XNT
JMNV SGHR
D. -NNJ @S SGD #.8 5 RDQHDR. 8GHBG HMSDQU@K G@R SGD EDVDRS C@S@ HM HS )NV CN XNT JMNV SGHR
E. 31k35
EE. 38k41
EEE. 41k64
100. 5VDMSX-EHUD Q@MCNLKX RDKDBSDC RSTCDMSR VDQD @RJDC SGD MTLADQ NE LNUHDR SGDX V@SBGDC SGD OQDUHNTR VDDJ. 5GD QDRTKSR
@QD @R ENKKNVR:
# I@ GIPC?M $L?KO?H=S 0?F;NCP? $L?KO?H=S !OGOF;NCP? 0?F;NCP? $L?KO?H=S
0 5
1 9
2 6
3 4
4 1
2;<F? 2.73
$NMRSQTBS @ ANW OKNS NE SGD C@S@.
2.5 +?;MOL?M I@ NB? *I=;NCIH I@ NB? ";N;
101. 5GD LDCH@M @FD ENQ 6.4. AK@BJR BTQQDMSKX HR 30.9 XD@QR; ENQ 6.4. VGHSDR HS HR 42.3 XD@QR.
=. #@RDC TONM SGHR HMENQL@SHNM, FHUD SVN QD@RNMR VGX SGD AK@BJ LDCH@M @FD BNTKC AD KNVDQ SG@M SGD VGHSD LDCH@M
@FD.
>. %NDR SGD KNVDQ LDCH@M @FD ENQ AK@BJR MDBDRR@QHKX LD@M SG@S AK@BJR CHD XNTMFDQ SG@M VGHSDR 8GX NQ VGX MNS
158 "'/3$1 2 W #$2"1(/3(5$ 233(23("2
3DEO ?KJPAJP EO =R=EH=>HA BKN BNAA =P DPPL://?JT.KNC/?KJPAJP/?KH11562/1.11
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?. )NV LHFGS HS AD ONRRHAKD ENQ AK@BJR @MC VGHSDR SN CHD @S @OOQNWHL@SDKX SGD R@LD @FD, ATS ENQ SGD LDCH@M @FD ENQ
VGHSDR SN AD GHFGDQ
102. 4HW )TMCQDC @CTKS "LDQHB@MR VDQD @RJDC AX SDKDOGNMD ONKK, "8G@S CN XNT SGHMJ BNMRSHSTSDR @ LHCCKD-BK@RR HMBNLD"
5GD QDRTKSR @QD HM 2;<F? 2.74. "KRN, HMBKTCD KDES DMCONHMS, ATS MNS SGD QHFGS DMCONHMS.
1;F;LS ($) 0?F;NCP? $L?KO?H=S
< 20,000 0.02
20,000_25,000 0.09
25,000_30,000 0.19
30,000_40,000 0.26
40,000_50,000 0.18
50,000_75,000 0.17
75,000_99,999 0.02
100,000+ 0.01
2;<F? 2.74
=. 8G@S ODQBDMS@FD NE SGD RTQUDX @MRVDQDC "MNS RTQD"
>. 8G@S ODQBDMS@FD SGHMJ SG@S LHCCKD-BK@RR HR EQNL $25,000 SN $50,000
?. $NMRSQTBS @ GHRSNFQ@L NE SGD C@S@.
E. 4GNTKC @KK A@QR G@UD SGD R@LD VHCSG, A@RDC NM SGD C@S@ 8GX NQ VGX MNS
EE. )NV RGNTKC SGD <20,000 @MC SGD 100,000+ HMSDQU@KR AD G@MCKDC 8GX
@. 'HMC SGD 40
SG
@MC 80
SG
ODQBDMSHKDR
A. $NMRSQTBS @ A@Q FQ@OG NE SGD C@S@
103. (HUDM SGD ENKKNVHMF ANW OKNS:
$CAOL? 2.45
=. VGHBG PT@QSDQ G@R SGD RL@KKDRS ROQD@C NE C@S@ 8G@S HR SG@S ROQD@C
>. VGHBG PT@QSDQ G@R SGD K@QFDRS ROQD@C NE C@S@ 8G@S HR SG@S ROQD@C
?. EHMC SGD HMSDQPT@QSHKD Q@MFD ("*+).
@. @QD SGDQD LNQD C@S@ HM SGD HMSDQU@K 5k10 NQ HM SGD HMSDQU@K 10k13 )NV CN XNT JMNV SGHR
A. VGHBG HMSDQU@K G@R SGD EDVDRS C@S@ HM HS )NV CN XNT JMNV SGHR
E. 0k2
EE. 2k4
EEE. 10k12
ER. 12k13
R. MDDC LNQD HMENQL@SHNM
104. 5GD ENKKNVHMF ANW OKNS RGNVR SGD 6.4. ONOTK@SHNM ENQ 1990, SGD K@SDRS @U@HK@AKD XD@Q.
"'/3$1 2 W #$2"1(/3(5$ 233(23("2 159
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$CAOL? 2.46
=. "QD SGDQD EDVDQ NQ LNQD BGHKCQDM (@FD 17 @MC TMCDQ) SG@M RDMHNQ BHSHYDMR (@FD 65 @MC NUDQ) )NV CN XNT JMNV
>. 12.6% @QD @FD 65 @MC NUDQ. "OOQNWHL@SDKX VG@S ODQBDMS@FD NE SGD ONOTK@SHNM @QD VNQJHMF @FD @CTKSR (@ANUD @FD
17 SN @FD 65)
2.6 +?;MOL?M I@ NB? !?HN?L I@ NB? ";N;
105. 5GD LNRS NADRD BNTMSQHDR HM SGD VNQKC G@UD NADRHSX Q@SDR SG@S Q@MFD EQNL 11.4% SN 74.6%. 5GHR C@S@ HR RTLL@QHYDC HM
SGD ENKKNVHMF S@AKD.
.?L=?HN I@ .IJOF;NCIH -<?M? ,OG<?L I@ !IOHNLC?M
11.4_20.45 29
20.45_29.45 13
29.45_38.45 4
38.45_47.45 0
47.45_56.45 2
56.45_65.45 1
65.45_74.45 0
74.45_83.45 1
2;<F? 2.75
=. 8G@S HR SGD ADRS DRSHL@SD NE SGD @UDQ@FD NADRHSX ODQBDMS@FD ENQ SGDRD BNTMSQHDR
>. 5GD 6MHSDC 4S@SDR G@R @M @UDQ@FD NADRHSX Q@SD NE 33.9%. *R SGHR Q@SD @ANUD @UDQ@FD NQ ADKNV
?. )NV CNDR SGD 6MHSDC 4S@SDR BNLO@QD SN NSGDQ BNTMSQHDR
106. 2;<F? 2.76 FHUDR SGD ODQBDMS NE BGHKCQDM TMCDQ EHUD BNMRHCDQDC SN AD TMCDQVDHFGS. 8G@S HR SGD ADRS DRSHL@SD ENQ SGD
LD@M ODQBDMS@FD NE TMCDQVDHFGS BGHKCQDM
.?L=?HN I@ 3H>?LQ?CABN !BCF>L?H ,OG<?L I@ !IOHNLC?M
16_21.45 23
21.45_26.9 4
2;<F? 2.76
160 "'/3$1 2 W #$2"1(/3(5$ 233(23("2
3DEO ?KJPAJP EO =R=EH=>HA BKN BNAA =P DPPL://?JT.KNC/?KJPAJP/?KH11562/1.11
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.?L=?HN I@ 3H>?LQ?CABN !BCF>L?H ,OG<?L I@ !IOHNLC?M
26.9_32.35 9
32.35_37.8 7
37.8_43.25 6
43.25_48.7 1
2;<F? 2.76
2.7 1E?QH?MM ;H> NB? +?;H, +?>C;H, ;H> +I>?
107. 5GD LDCH@M @FD NE SGD 6.4. ONOTK@SHNM HM 1980 V@R 30.0 XD@QR. *M 1991, SGD LDCH@M @FD V@R 33.1 XD@QR.
=. 8G@S CNDR HS LD@M ENQ SGD LDCH@M @FD SN QHRD
>. (HUD SVN QD@RNMR VGX SGD LDCH@M @FD BNTKC QHRD.
?. 'NQ SGD LDCH@M @FD SN QHRD, HR SGD @BST@K MTLADQ NE BGHKCQDM KDRR HM 1991 SG@M HS V@R HM 1980 8GX NQ VGX MNS
0',%',% '2 2-%#2&#0 : &-+#5-0)
108. 5VDMSX-EHUD Q@MCNLKX RDKDBSDC RSTCDMSR VDQD @RJDC SGD MTLADQ NE LNUHDR SGDX V@SBGDC SGD OQDUHNTR VDDJ. 5GD QDRTKSR
@QD @R ENKKNVR:
# I@ GIPC?M $L?KO?H=S 0?F;NCP? $L?KO?H=S !OGOF;NCP? 0?F;NCP? $L?KO?H=S
0 5
1 9
2 6
3 4
4 1
2;<F? 2.77
=. 'HMC SGD R@LOKD LD@M x

.
>. 'HMC SGD @OOQNWHL@SD R@LOKD RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNM, I.
109. 'NQSX Q@MCNLKX RDKDBSDC RSTCDMSR VDQD @RJDC SGD MTLADQ NE O@HQR NE RMD@JDQR SGDX NVMDC. -DS 1 = SGD MTLADQ NE O@HQR
NE RMD@JDQR NVMDC. 5GD QDRTKSR @QD @R ENKKNVR:
" $L?KO?H=S 0?F;NCP? $L?KO?H=S !OGOF;NCP? 0?F;NCP? $L?KO?H=S
1 2
2;<F? 2.78
"'/3$1 2 W #$2"1(/3(5$ 233(23("2 161
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" $L?KO?H=S 0?F;NCP? $L?KO?H=S !OGOF;NCP? 0?F;NCP? $L?KO?H=S
2 5
3 8
4 12
5 12
6 0
7 1
2;<F? 2.78
=. 'HMC SGD R@LOKD LD@M x

>. 'HMC SGD R@LOKD RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNM, I


?. $NMRSQTBS @ GHRSNFQ@L NE SGD C@S@.
@. $NLOKDSD SGD BNKTLMR NE SGD BG@QS.
A. 'HMC SGD EHQRS PT@QSHKD.
B. 'HMC SGD LDCH@M.
C. 'HMC SGD SGHQC PT@QSHKD.
D. $NMRSQTBS @ ANW OKNS NE SGD C@S@.
E. 8G@S ODQBDMS NE SGD RSTCDMSR NVMDC @S KD@RS EHUD O@HQR
F. 'HMC SGD 40
SG
ODQBDMSHKD.
G. 'HMC SGD 90
SG
ODQBDMSHKD.
H. $NMRSQTBS @ KHMD FQ@OG NE SGD C@S@
I. $NMRSQTBS @ RSDLOKNS NE SGD C@S@
110. 'NKKNVHMF @QD SGD OTAKHRGDC VDHFGSR (HM ONTMCR) NE @KK NE SGD SD@LLDLADQR NE SGD 4@M 'Q@MBHRBN 49DQR EQNL@ OQDUHNTR
XD@Q.
177; 205; 210; 210; 232; 205; 185; 185; 178; 210; 206; 212; 184; 174; 185; 242; 188; 212; 215; 247; 241; 223; 220;
260; 245; 259; 278; 270; 280; 295; 275; 285; 290; 272; 273; 280; 285; 286; 200; 215; 185; 230; 250; 241; 190; 260; 250;
302; 265; 290; 276; 228; 265
=. 0QF@MHYD SGD C@S@ EQNL RL@KKDRS SN K@QFDRS U@KTD.
>. 'HMC SGD LDCH@M.
?. 'HMC SGD EHQRS PT@QSHKD.
@. 'HMC SGD SGHQC PT@QSHKD.
A. $NMRSQTBS @ ANW OKNS NE SGD C@S@.
B. 5GD LHCCKD 50% NE SGD VDHFGSR @QD EQNL ??????? SN ???????.
C. *E NTQ ONOTK@SHNM VDQD @KK OQNEDRRHNM@K ENNSA@KK OK@XDQR, VNTKC SGD @ANUD C@S@ AD @ R@LOKD NE VDHFGSR NQ SGD
ONOTK@SHNM NE VDHFGSR 8GX
D. *E NTQ ONOTK@SHNM HMBKTCDC DUDQX SD@LLDLADQ VGN DUDQ OK@XDC ENQ SGD 4@M 'Q@MBHRBN 49DQR, VNTKC SGD @ANUD C@S@
AD @ R@LOKD NE VDHFGSR NQ SGD ONOTK@SHNM NE VDHFGSR 8GX
E. "RRTLD SGD ONOTK@SHNM V@R SGD 4@M 'Q@MBHRBN 49DQR. 'HMC:
E. SGD ONOTK@SHNM LD@M, Z.
EE. SGD ONOTK@SHNM RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNM, \.
EEE. SGD VDHFGS SG@S HR SVN RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNMR ADKNV SGD LD@M.
ER. 8GDM 4SDUD :NTMF, PT@QSDQA@BJ, OK@XDC ENNSA@KK, GD VDHFGDC 205 ONTMCR. )NV L@MX RS@MC@QC
CDUH@SHNMR @ANUD NQ ADKNV SGD LD@M V@R GD
F. 5G@S R@LD XD@Q, SGD LD@M VDHFGS ENQ SGD %@KK@R $NVANXR V@R 240.08 ONTMCR VHSG @ RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNM NE 44.38
ONTMCR. &LLHS 4LHSG VDHFGDC HM @S 209 ONTMCR. 8HSG QDRODBS SN GHR SD@L, VGN V@R KHFGSDQ, 4LHSG NQ :NTMF )NV
CHC XNT CDSDQLHMD XNTQ @MRVDQ
162 "'/3$1 2 W #$2"1(/3(5$ 233(23("2
3DEO ?KJPAJP EO =R=EH=>HA BKN BNAA =P DPPL://?JT.KNC/?KJPAJP/?KH11562/1.11
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111. 0MD GTMCQDC SD@BGDQR @SSDMCDC @ RDLHM@Q NM L@SGDL@SHB@K OQNAKDL RNKUHMF. 5GD @SSHSTCDR NE @ QDOQDRDMS@SHUD R@LOKD
NE 12 NE SGD SD@BGDQR VDQD LD@RTQDC ADENQD @MC @ESDQ SGD RDLHM@Q. " ONRHSHUD MTLADQ ENQ BG@MFD HM @SSHSTCD HMCHB@SDR SG@S @
SD@BGDQ'R @SSHSTCD SNV@QC L@SG ADB@LD LNQD ONRHSHUD. 5GD 12 BG@MFD RBNQDR @QD @R ENKKNVR:
3; 8; k1; 2; 0; 5; k3; 1; k1; 6; 5; k2
=. 8G@S HR SGD LD@M BG@MFD RBNQD
>. 8G@S HR SGD RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNM ENQ SGHR ONOTK@SHNM
?. 8G@S HR SGD LDCH@M BG@MFD RBNQD
@. 'HMC SGD BG@MFD RBNQD SG@S HR 2.2 RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNMR ADKNV SGD LD@M.
112. 3DEDQ SN $CAOL? 2.47 CDSDQLHMD VGHBG NE SGD ENKKNVHMF @QD SQTD @MC VGHBG @QD E@KRD. &WOK@HM XNTQ RNKTSHNM SN D@BG
O@QS HM BNLOKDSD RDMSDMBDR.
$CAOL? 2.47
=. 5GD LDCH@MR ENQ @KK SGQDD FQ@OGR @QD SGD R@LD.
>. 8D B@MMNS CDSDQLHMD HE @MX NE SGD LD@MR ENQ SGD SGQDD FQ@OGR HR CHEEDQDMS.
?. 5GD RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNM ENQ FQ@OG A HR K@QFDQ SG@M SGD RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNM ENQ FQ@OG @.
@. 8D B@MMNS CDSDQLHMD HE @MX NE SGD SGHQC PT@QSHKDR ENQ SGD SGQDD FQ@OGR HR CHEEDQDMS.
113. *M @ QDBDMS HRRTD NE SGD "EEE ,F;9JHKC, 84 DMFHMDDQHMF BNMEDQDMBDR VDQD @MMNTMBDC. 'NTQ BNMEDQDMBDR K@RSDC SVN C@XR.
5GHQSX-RHW K@RSDC SGQDD C@XR. &HFGSDDM K@RSDC ENTQ C@XR. /HMDSDDM K@RSDC EHUD C@XR. 'NTQ K@RSDC RHW C@XR. 0MD K@RSDC RDUDM
C@XR. 0MD K@RSDC DHFGS C@XR. 0MD K@RSDC MHMD C@XR. -DS 1 = SGD KDMFSG (HM C@XR) NE @M DMFHMDDQHMF BNMEDQDMBD.
=. 0QF@MHYD SGD C@S@ HM @ BG@QS.
>. 'HMC SGD LDCH@M, SGD EHQRS PT@QSHKD, @MC SGD SGHQC PT@QSHKD.
?. 'HMC SGD 65
SG
ODQBDMSHKD.
@. 'HMC SGD 10
SG
ODQBDMSHKD.
A. $NMRSQTBS @ ANW OKNS NE SGD C@S@.
B. 5GD LHCCKD 50% NE SGD BNMEDQDMBDR K@RS EQNL ??????? C@XR SN ??????? C@XR.
C. $@KBTK@SD SGD R@LOKD LD@M NE C@XR NE DMFHMDDQHMF BNMEDQDMBDR.
D. $@KBTK@SD SGD R@LOKD RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNM NE C@XR NE DMFHMDDQHMF BNMEDQDMBDR.
E. 'HMC SGD LNCD.
F. *E XNT VDQD OK@MMHMF @M DMFHMDDQHMF BNMEDQDMBD, VGHBG VNTKC XNT BGNNRD @R SGD KDMFSG NE SGD BNMEDQDMBD: LD@M;
LDCH@M; NQ LNCD &WOK@HM VGX XNT L@CD SG@S BGNHBD.
G. (HUD SVN QD@RNMR VGX XNT SGHMJ SG@S SGQDD SN EHUD C@XR RDDL SN AD ONOTK@Q KDMFSGR NE DMFHMDDQHMF BNMEDQDMBDR.
114. " RTQUDX NE DMQNKKLDMS @S 35 BNLLTMHSX BNKKDFDR @BQNRR SGD 6MHSDC 4S@SDR XHDKCDC SGD ENKKNVHMF EHFTQDR:
6414; 1550; 2109; 9350; 21828; 4300; 5944; 5722; 2825; 2044; 5481; 5200; 5853; 2750; 10012; 6357; 27000; 9414;
7681; 3200; 17500; 9200; 7380; 18314; 6557; 13713; 17768; 7493; 2771; 2861; 1263; 7285; 28165; 5080; 11622
=. 0QF@MHYD SGD C@S@ HMSN @ BG@QS VHSG EHUD HMSDQU@KR NE DPT@K VHCSG. -@ADK SGD SVN BNKTLMR "&MQNKKLDMS" @MC
"'QDPTDMBX."
>. $NMRSQTBS @ GHRSNFQ@L NE SGD C@S@.
?. *E XNT VDQD SN ATHKC @ MDV BNLLTMHSX BNKKDFD, VGHBG OHDBD NE HMENQL@SHNM VNTKC AD LNQD U@KT@AKD: SGD LNCD NQ
SGD LD@M
@. $@KBTK@SD SGD R@LOKD LD@M.
A. $@KBTK@SD SGD R@LOKD RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNM.
B. " RBGNNK VHSG @M DMQNKKLDMS NE 8000 VNTKC AD GNV L@MX RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNMR @V@X EQNL SGD LD@M
.I; J>; <EBBEM?D= ?D<EHC7J?ED JE 7DIM;H J>; D;NJ JME ;N;H9?I;I. 1 = SGD MTLADQ NE C@XR ODQ VDDJ SG@S 100 BKHDMSR TRD @
O@QSHBTK@Q DWDQBHRD E@BHKHSX.
"'/3$1 2 W #$2"1(/3(5$ 233(23("2 163
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: $L?KO?H=S
0 3
1 12
2 33
3 28
4 11
5 9
6 4
2;<F? 2.79
115. 5GD 80
SG
ODQBDMSHKD HR ?????
=. 5
>. 80
?. 3
@. 4
116. 5GD MTLADQ SG@S HR 1.5 RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNMR #&-08 SGD LD@M HR @OOQNWHL@SDKX ?????
=. 0.7
>. 4.8
?. k2.8
@. $@MMNS AD CDSDQLHMDC
117. 4TOONRD SG@S @ OTAKHRGDQ BNMCTBSDC @ RTQUDX @RJHMF @CTKS BNMRTLDQR SGD MTLADQ NE EHBSHNM O@ODQA@BJ ANNJR SGDX G@C
OTQBG@RDC HM SGD OQDUHNTR LNMSG. 5GD QDRTKSR @QD RTLL@QHYDC HM SGD 2;<F? 2.80.
# I@ <IIEM $L?K. 0?F. $L?K.
0 18
1 24
2 24
3 22
4 15
5 10
7 5
2;<F? 2.80
164 "'/3$1 2 W #$2"1(/3(5$ 233(23("2
3DEO ?KJPAJP EO =R=EH=>HA BKN BNAA =P DPPL://?JT.KNC/?KJPAJP/?KH11562/1.11
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# I@ <IIEM $L?K. 0?F. $L?K.
9 1
2;<F? 2.80
=. "QD SGDQD @MX NTSKHDQR HM SGD C@S@ 6RD @M @OOQNOQH@SD MTLDQHB@K SDRS HMUNKUHMF SGD "*+ SN HCDMSHEX NTSKHDQR, HE @MX,
@MC BKD@QKX RS@SD XNTQ BNMBKTRHNM.
>. *E @ C@S@ U@KTD HR HCDMSHEHDC @R @M NTSKHDQ, VG@S RGNTKC AD CNMD @ANTS HS
?. "QD @MX C@S@ U@KTDR ETQSGDQ SG@M SVN RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNMR @V@X EQNL SGD LD@M *M RNLD RHST@SHNMR, RS@SHRSHBH@MR
L@X TRD SGHR BQHSDQH@ SN HCDMSHEX C@S@ U@KTDR SG@S @QD TMTRT@K, BNLO@QDC SN SGD NSGDQ C@S@ U@KTDR. (/NSD SG@S SGHR
BQHSDQH@ HR LNRS @OOQNOQH@SD SN TRD ENQ C@S@ SG@S HR LNTMC-RG@ODC @MC RXLLDSQHB, Q@SGDQ SG@M ENQ RJDVDC C@S@.)
@. %N O@QSR @ @MC B NE SGHR OQNAKDL FHUD SGD R@LD @MRVDQ
A. &W@LHMD SGD RG@OD NE SGD C@S@. 8GHBG O@QS, @ NQ B, NE SGHR PTDRSHNM FHUDR @ LNQD @OOQNOQH@SD QDRTKS ENQ SGHR C@S@
B. #@RDC NM SGD RG@OD NE SGD C@S@ VGHBG HR SGD LNRS @OOQNOQH@SD LD@RTQD NE BDMSDQ ENQ SGHR C@S@: LD@M, LDCH@M NQ
LNCD
118. 4@MS@ $K@Q@ $NTMSX, $", G@R @OOQNWHL@SDKX 27,873 +@O@MDRD-"LDQHB@MR. 5GDHQ @FDR @QD @R ENKKNVR:
AA? %LIOJ .?L=?HN I@ !IGGOHCNS
0_17 18.9
18_24 8.0
25_34 22.8
35_44 15.0
45_54 13.1
55_64 11.9
65+ 10.3
2;<F? 2.81
=. $NMRSQTBS @ GHRSNFQ@L NE SGD +@O@MDRD-"LDQHB@M BNLLTMHSX HM 4@MS@ $K@Q@ $NTMSX, $". 5GD A@QR VHKK CDI AD SGD
R@LD VHCSG ENQ SGHR DW@LOKD. 8GX MNS 8G@S HLO@BS CNDR SGHR G@UD NM SGD QDKH@AHKHSX NE SGD FQ@OG
>. 8G@S ODQBDMS@FD NE SGD BNLLTMHSX HR TMCDQ @FD 35
?. 8GHBG ANW OKNS LNRS QDRDLAKDR SGD HMENQL@SHNM @ANUD
"'/3$1 2 W #$2"1(/3(5$ 233(23("2 165
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$CAOL? 2.48
119. +@UHDQ @MC &QBHKH@ @QD RTODQUHRNQR @S @ RGNOOHMF L@KK. &@BG V@R FHUDM SGD S@RJ NE DRSHL@SHMF SGD LD@M CHRS@MBD SG@S
RGNOODQR KHUD EQNL SGD L@KK. 5GDX D@BG Q@MCNLKX RTQUDXDC 100 RGNOODQR. 5GD R@LOKDR XHDKCDC SGD ENKKNVHMF HMENQL@SHNM.
(;PC?L #L=CFC;
x

6.0 IEHAO 6.0 IEHAO


s
4.0 IEHAO 7.0 IEHAO
2;<F? 2.82
=. )NV B@M XNT CDSDQLHMD VGHBG RTQUDX V@R BNQQDBS
>. &WOK@HM VG@S SGD CHEEDQDMBD HM SGD QDRTKSR NE SGD RTQUDXR HLOKHDR @ANTS SGD C@S@.
?. *E SGD SVN GHRSNFQ@LR CDOHBS SGD CHRSQHATSHNM NE U@KTDR ENQ D@BG RTODQUHRNQ, VGHBG NMD CDOHBSR &QBHKH@'R R@LOKD
)NV CN XNT JMNV
$CAOL? 2.49
@. *E SGD SVN ANW OKNSR CDOHBS SGD CHRSQHATSHNM NE U@KTDR ENQ D@BG RTODQUHRNQ, VGHBG NMD CDOHBSR &QBHKH@nR R@LOKD )NV
CN XNT JMNV
166 "'/3$1 2 W #$2"1(/3(5$ 233(23("2
3DEO ?KJPAJP EO =R=EH=>HA BKN BNAA =P DPPL://?JT.KNC/?KJPAJP/?KH11562/1.11
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$CAOL? 2.50
.I; J>; <EBBEM?D= ?D<EHC7J?ED JE 7DIM;H J>; D;NJ J>H;; ;N;H9?I;I: 8D @QD HMSDQDRSDC HM SGD MTLADQ NE XD@QR RSTCDMSR HM
@ O@QSHBTK@Q DKDLDMS@QX RS@SHRSHBR BK@RR G@UD KHUDC HM $@KHENQMH@. 5GD HMENQL@SHNM HM SGD ENKKNVHMF S@AKD HR EQNL SGD DMSHQD
RDBSHNM.
,OG<?L I@ S?;LM $L?KO?H=S ,OG<?L I@ S?;LM $L?KO?H=S
7 1 22 1
14 3 23 1
15 1 26 1
18 1 40 2
19 4 42 2
20 3
2IN;F = 20
2;<F? 2.83
120. 8G@S HR SGD "*+
=. 8
>. 11
?. 15
@. 35
121. 8G@S HR SGD LNCD
=. 19
>. 19.5
?. 14 @MC 20
@. 22.65
122. *R SGHR @ R@LOKD NQ SGD DMSHQD ONOTK@SHNM
=. R@LOKD
>. DMSHQD ONOTK@SHNM
?. MDHSGDQ
0#$#0#,!#1
2.1 +?;MOL?M I@ NB? 1JL?;> I@ NB? ";N;
%@S@ EQNL .HBQNRNES #NNJRGDKE.
,HMF, #HKK.o(Q@OGHB@KKX 4OD@JHMF.p *MRSHSTSHNM@K 3DRD@QBG, -@JD 5@GND $NLLTMHSX $NKKDFD. "U@HK@AKD NMKHMD @S
GSSO://VVV.KSBB.DCT/VDA/@ANTS/HMRSHSTSHNM@K-QDRD@QBG (@BBDRRDC "OQHK 3, 2013).
"'/3$1 2 W #$2"1(/3(5$ 233(23("2 167
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2.2 1N?G-;H>-*?;@ %L;JBM (1N?GJFINM), *CH? %L;JBM, ;H> ;L %L;JBM
#TQA@QX, ,DM. F79;8EEA D;CE=H7F>?9I +;L?I?J;: ^ 2001 ,J7J?IJ?9I, 2011. "U@HK@AKD NMKHMD @S GSSO://VVV.JDMATQA@QX.BNL/
2011/03/E@BDANNJ-CDLNFQ@OGHBR-QDUHRHSDC-2011-RS@SHRSHBR-2/ (@BBDRRDC "TFTRS 21, 2013).
o9SG "MMT@K "1 3DONQS SN SGD /@SHNM.p $NKKDFD#N@QC, 2013. "U@HK@AKD NMKHMD @S GSSO://@OQDONQS.BNKKDFDAN@QC.NQF/FN@KR-@MC-
EHMCHMFR/OQNLNSHMF-DPTHSX (@BBDRRDC 4DOSDLADQ 13, 2013).
o0UDQVDHFGS @MC 0ADRHSX: "CTKS 0ADRHSX '@BSR.p $DMSDQR ENQ %HRD@RD $NMSQNK @MC 1QDUDMSHNM. "U@HK@AKD NMKHMD @S
GSSO://VVV.BCB.FNU/NADRHSX/C@S@/@CTKS.GSLK (@BBDRRDC 4DOSDLADQ 13, 2013).
2.3 &CMNIAL;GM, $L?KO?H=S .IFSAIHM, ;H> 2CG? 1?LC?M %L;JBM
%@S@ NM @MMT@K GNLHBHCDR HM %DSQNHS, 1961k73, EQNL (TMRS & .@RNMnR ANNJ m3DFQDRRHNM "M@KXRHR @MC HSR "OOKHB@SHNMn,
.@QBDK %DJJDQ
o5HLDKHMD: (THCD SN SGD 6.4. 1QDRHCDMSR: *MENQL@SHNM NM DUDQX OQDRHCDMSnR AHQSGOK@BD, ONKHSHB@K O@QSX, SDQL NE NEEHBD,
@MC LNQD.p 4BGNK@RSHB, 2013. "U@HK@AKD NMKHMD @S GSSO://VVV.RBGNK@RSHB.BNL/SD@BGDQR/@QSHBKD/SHLDKHMD-FTHCD-TR-OQDRHCDMSR
(@BBDRRDC "OQHK 3, 2013).
o1QDRHCDMSR.p '@BS .NMRSDQ. 1D@QRNM &CTB@SHNM, 2007. "U@HK@AKD NMKHMD @S GSSO://VVV.E@BSLNMRSDQ.BNL/HOJ@/"0194030.GSLK
(@BBDRRDC "OQHK 3, 2013).
o'NNC 4DBTQHSX 4S@SHRSHBR.p 'NNC @MC "FQHBTKSTQD 0QF@MHY@SHNM NE SGD 6MHSDC /@SHNMR. "U@HK@AKD NMKHMD @S
GSSO://VVV.E@N.NQF/DBNMNLHB/DRR/DRR-ER/DM/ (@BBDRRDC "OQHK 3, 2013).
o$NMRTLDQ 1QHBD *MCDW.p 6MHSDC 4S@SDR %DO@QSLDMS NE -@ANQ: #TQD@T NE -@ANQ 4S@SHRSHBR. "U@HK@AKD NMKHMD @S
GSSO://C@S@.AKR.FNU/OCP/4TQUDX0TSOTS4DQUKDS (@BBDRRDC "OQHK 3, 2013).
o$02 DLHRRHNMR (JS).p 5GD 8NQKC #@MJ, 2013. "U@HK@AKD NMKHMD @S GSSO://C@S@A@MJ.VNQKCA@MJ.NQF/C@S@/GNLD.@ROW (@BBDRRDC
"OQHK 3, 2013).
o#HQSGR 5HLD 4DQHDR %@S@.p (DMDQ@K 3DFHRSDQ 0EEHBD 'NQ 4BNSK@MC, 2013. "U@HK@AKD NMKHMD @S GSSO://VVV.FQN-RBNSK@MC.FNU.TJ/
RS@SHRSHBR/SGDLD/UHS@K-DUDMSR/AHQSGR/SHLD-RDQHDR.GSLK (@BBDRRDC "OQHK 3, 2013).
o%DLNFQ@OGHBR: $GHKCQDM TMCDQ SGD @FD NE 5 XD@QR TMCDQVDHFGS.p *MCDWLTMCH. "U@HK@AKD NMKHMD @S
GSSO://VVV.HMCDWLTMCH.BNL/F/Q.@ROWS=50&U=2224&@LK=DM (@BBDRRDC "OQHK 3, 2013).
(TMRS, 3HBG@QC, 3NADQS .@RNM. +;=H;II?ED AD7BOI?I 7D: "JI AFFB?97J?ED: A D7J7-(H?;DJ;: AFFHE79>. $3$ 1QDRR: 1980.
o0UDQVDHFGS @MC 0ADRHSX: "CTKS 0ADRHSX '@BSR.p $DMSDQR ENQ %HRD@RD $NMSQNK @MC 1QDUDMSHNM. "U@HK@AKD NMKHMD @S
GSSO://VVV.BCB.FNU/NADRHSX/C@S@/@CTKS.GSLK (@BBDRRDC 4DOSDLADQ 13, 2013).
2.4 IR .FINM
%@S@ EQNL 0;IJ &7=7P?D;.
2.5 +?;MOL?M I@ NB? *I=;NCIH I@ NB? ";N;
$@TBGNM, %DMMHR, 1@TK 0UDQADQF. o$DMRTR C@S@ RGNVR LHMNQHSHDR MNV @ L@INQHSX NE 6.4. AHQSGR.p 64" 5NC@X, 2012.
"U@HK@AKD NMKHMD @S GSSO://TR@SNC@X30.TR@SNC@X.BNL/MDVR/M@SHNM/RSNQX/2012-05-17/LHMNQHSX-AHQSGRBDMRTR/55029100/1
(@BBDRRDC "OQHK 3, 2013).
%@S@ EQNL SGD 6MHSDC 4S@SDR %DO@QSLDMS NE $NLLDQBD: 6MHSDC 4S@SDR $DMRTR #TQD@T. "U@HK@AKD NMKHMD @S
GSSO://VVV.BDMRTR.FNU/ (@BBDRRDC "OQHK 3, 2013).
o1990 $DMRTR.p 6MHSDC 4S@SDR %DO@QSLDMS NE $NLLDQBD: 6MHSDC 4S@SDR $DMRTR #TQD@T. "U@HK@AKD NMKHMD @S
GSSO://VVV.BDMRTR.FNU/L@HM/VVV/BDM1990.GSLK (@BBDRRDC "OQHK 3, 2013).
%@S@ EQNL ,7D #EI; &;H9KHO ';MI.
%@S@ EQNL -?C; &7=7P?D;; RTQUDX AX :@MJDKNUHBG 1@QSMDQR, *MB.
2.6 +?;MOL?M I@ NB? !?HN?L I@ NB? ";N;
%@S@ EQNL 5GD 8NQKC #@MJ, @U@HK@AKD NMKHMD @S GSSO://VVV.VNQKCA@MJ.NQF (@BBDRRDC "OQHK 3, 2013).
o%DLNFQ@OGHBR: 0ADRHSX k @CTKS OQDU@KDMBD Q@SD.p *MCDWLTMCH. "U@HK@AKD NMKHMD @S GSSO://VVV.HMCDWLTMCH.BNL/F/
Q.@ROWS=50&U=2228&K=DM (@BBDRRDC "OQHK 3, 2013).
1-*32'-,1
1 I = 34.5
3 'NQ 'QDCN: P =
0.158 0.166
0.012
= k0.67 'NQ ,@QK: P =
0.177 0.189
0.015
= k0.8 'QDCNnR P-RBNQD NE k0.67 HR GHFGDQ SG@M
,@QKnR P-RBNQD NE k0.8. 'NQ A@SSHMF @UDQ@FD, GHFGDQ U@KTDR @QD ADSSDQ, RN 'QDCN G@R @ ADSSDQ A@SSHMF @UDQ@FD BNLO@QDC SN GHR
SD@L.
5
168 "'/3$1 2 W #$2"1(/3(5$ 233(23("2
3DEO ?KJPAJP EO =R=EH=>HA BKN BNAA =P DPPL://?JT.KNC/?KJPAJP/?KH11562/1.11
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@. s
x
=
f m
2
n
x
2
=
193277.21
30
79.5
2
= 11.06
A. s
x
=
f m
2
n
x
2
=
381054.79
101
60.94
2
= 7.69
B. s
x
=
f m
2
n
x
2
=
440133.21
86
70.66
2
= 11.18
6
0I:B ):6;
1 9 9 9
2 0 1 1 5 5 5 6 6 8 9
3 1 1 2 2 3 4 5 6 7 7 8 8 8 8
4 1 3 3
167A: 2.84
8
0I:B ):6;
2 5 5 6 7 7 8
3 0 0 1 2 3 3 5 5 5 7 9
4 1 6 9
5 5 7 7
6 1
167A: 2.85
10
"'/3$1 2 W #$2"1(/3(5$ 233(23("2 169
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$CAOL? 2.51
12
$CAOL? 2.52
14
170 "'/3$1 2 W #$2"1(/3(5$ 233(23("2
3DEO ?KJPAJP EO =R=EH=>HA BKN BNAA =P DPPL://?JT.KNC/?KJPAJP/?KH11562/1.11
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$CAOL? 2.53
16
$CAOL? 2.54
18 65
20 5GD QDK@SHUD EQDPTDMBX RGNVR SGD FHEFEHJ?ED NE C@S@ ONHMSR SG@S G@UD D@BG U@KTD. 5GD EQDPTDMBX SDKKR SGD DKC8;H NE C@S@
ONHMSR SG@S G@UD D@BG U@KTD.
22 "MRVDQR VHKK U@QX. 0MD ONRRHAKD GHRSNFQ@L HR RGNVM:
"'/3$1 2 W #$2"1(/3(5$ 233(23("2 171
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$CAOL? 2.55
24 'HMC SGD LHCONHMS ENQ D@BG BK@RR. 5GDRD VHKK AD FQ@OGDC NM SGD N-@WHR. 5GD EQDPTDMBX U@KTDR VHKK AD FQ@OGDC NM SGD
O-@WHR U@KTDR.
$CAOL? 2.56
26
172 "'/3$1 2 W #$2"1(/3(5$ 233(23("2
3DEO ?KJPAJP EO =R=EH=>HA BKN BNAA =P DPPL://?JT.KNC/?KJPAJP/?KH11562/1.11
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$CAOL? 2.57
29 .NQD SG@M 25% NE R@KDRODQRNMR RDKK ENTQ B@QR HM @ SXOHB@K VDDJ. :NT B@M RDD SGHR BNMBDMSQ@SHNM HM SGD ANW OKNS ADB@TRD
SGD EHQRS PT@QSHKD HR DPT@K SN SGD LDCH@M. 5GD SNO 25%@MC SGD ANSSNL 25%@QD ROQD@C NTS DUDMKX; SGD VGHRJDQR G@UD SGD R@LD
KDMFSG.
30
@. 5GD 40
SG
ODQBDMSHKD HR 37 XD@QR.
A. 5GD 78
SG
ODQBDMSHKD HR 70 XD@QR.
32 +DRRD FQ@CT@SDC 37
SG
NTS NE @ BK@RR NE 180 RSTCDMSR. 5GDQD @QD 180 k 37 = 143 RSTCDMSR Q@MJDC ADKNV +DRRD. 5GDQD HR
NMD Q@MJ NE 37. N = 143 @MC O = 1.
x + 0.5y
n
(100) =
143 + 0.5(1)
180
(100) = 79.72. +DRRDnR Q@MJ NE 37 OTSR GHL @S SGD 80
SG
ODQBDMSHKD.
34
@. 'NQ QTMMDQR HM @ Q@BD HS HR LNQD CDRHQ@AKD SN G@UD @ GHFG ODQBDMSHKD ENQ RODDC. " GHFG ODQBDMSHKD LD@MR @ GHFGDQ RODDC
VGHBG HR E@RSDQ.
A. 40%NE QTMMDQR Q@M @S RODDCR NE 7.5 LHKDR ODQ GNTQ NQ KDRR (RKNVDQ). 60%NE QTMMDQR Q@M @S RODDCR NE 7.5 LHKDR ODQ GNTQ
NQ LNQD (E@RSDQ).
36 8GDM V@HSHMF HM KHMD @S SGD %.7, SGD 85
SG
ODQBDMSHKD VNTKC AD @ KNMF V@HS SHLD BNLO@QDC SN SGD NSGDQ ODNOKD V@HSHMF.
85% NE ODNOKD G@C RGNQSDQ V@HS SHLDR SG@M .HM@. *M SGHR BNMSDWS, .HM@ VNTKC OQDEDQ @ V@HS SHLD BNQQDRONMCHMF SN @ KNVDQ
ODQBDMSHKD. 85% NE ODNOKD @S SGD %.7 V@HSDC 32 LHMTSDR NQ KDRR. 15% NE ODNOKD @S SGD %.7 V@HSDC 32 LHMTSDR NQ KNMFDQ.
38 5GD L@MTE@BSTQDQ @MC SGD BNMRTLDQ VNTKC AD TORDS. 5GHR HR @ K@QFD QDO@HQ BNRS ENQ SGD C@L@FDR, BNLO@QDC SN SGD NSGDQ
B@QR HM SGD R@LOKD. */5&313&5"5*0/: 90% NE SGD BQ@RG SDRSDC B@QR G@C C@L@FD QDO@HQ BNRSR NE $1700 NQ KDRR; NMKX 10%
G@C C@L@FD QDO@HQ BNRSR NE $1700 NQ LNQD.
40 :NT B@M @EENQC 34% NE GNTRDR. 66% NE SGD GNTRDR @QD SNN DWODMRHUD ENQ XNTQ ATCFDS. */5&313&5"5*0/: 34% NE
GNTRDR BNRS $240,000 NQ KDRR. 66% NE GNTRDR BNRS $240,000 NQ LNQD.
42 4
44 6 k 4 = 2
46 6
"'/3$1 2 W #$2"1(/3(5$ 233(23("2 173
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48 .D@M: 16 + 17 + 19 + 20 + 20 + 21 + 23 + 24 + 25 + 25 + 25 + 26 + 26 + 27 + 27 + 27 + 28 + 29 + 30 + 32 + 33 + 33
+ 34 + 35 + 37 + 39 + 40 = 738
738
27
= 27.33
50 5GD LNRS EQDPTDMS KDMFSGR @QD 25 @MC 27, VGHBG NBBTQ SGQDD SHLDR. .NCD = 25, 27
52 4
54 5GD C@S@ @QD RXLLDSQHB@K. 5GD LDCH@M HR 3 @MC SGD LD@M HR 2.85. 5GDX @QD BKNRD, @MC SGD LNCD KHDR BKNRD SN SGD LHCCKD
NE SGD C@S@, RN SGD C@S@ @QD RXLLDSQHB@K.
56 5GD C@S@ @QD RJDVDC QHFGS. 5GD LDCH@M HR 87.5 @MC SGD LD@M HR 88.2. &UDM SGNTFG SGDX @QD BKNRD, SGD LNCD KHDR SN SGD
KDES NE SGD LHCCKD NE SGD C@S@, @MC SGDQD @QD L@MX LNQD HMRS@MBDR NE 87 SG@M @MX NSGDQ MTLADQ, RN SGD C@S@ @QD RJDVDC QHFGS.
58 8GDM SGD C@S@ @QD RXLLDSQHB@K, SGD LD@M @MC LDCH@M @QD BKNRD NQ SGD R@LD.
60 5GD CHRSQHATSHNM HR RJDVDC QHFGS ADB@TRD HS KNNJR OTKKDC NTS SN SGD QHFGS.
62 5GD LD@M HR 4.1 @MC HR RKHFGSKX FQD@SDQ SG@M SGD LDCH@M, VGHBG HR ENTQ.
64 5GD LNCD @MC SGD LDCH@M @QD SGD R@LD. *M SGHR B@RD, SGDX @QD ANSG EHUD.
66 5GD CHRSQHATSHNM HR RJDVDC KDES ADB@TRD HS KNNJR OTKKDC NTS SN SGD KDES.
68 5GD LD@M @MC SGD LDCH@M @QD ANSG RHW.
70 5GD LNCD HR 12, SGD LDCH@M HR 13.5, @MC SGD LD@M HR 15.1. 5GD LD@M HR SGD K@QFDRS.
72 5GD LD@M SDMCR SN QDEKDBS RJDVHMF SGD LNRS ADB@TRD HS HR @EEDBSDC SGD LNRS AX NTSKHDQR.
74 6
76 474 '5&4
78 919
80
q LD@M = 1,809.3
q LDCH@M = 1,812.5
q RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNM = 151.2
q EHQRS PT@QSHKD = 1,690
q SGHQC PT@QSHKD = 1,935
q "*+ = 245
82 )HMS: 5GHMJ @ANTS SGD MTLADQ NE XD@QR BNUDQDC AX D@BG SHLD ODQHNC @MC VG@S G@OODMDC SN GHFGDQ DCTB@SHNM CTQHMF SGNRD
ODQHNCR.
84 'NQ OH@MNR, SGD BNRS NE SGD OH@MN HR 0.4 RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNMR #&-08SGD LD@M. 'NQ FTHS@QR, SGD BNRS NE SGD FTHS@Q HR 0.25
RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNMR "#07& SGD LD@M. 'NQ CQTLR, SGD BNRS NE SGD CQTL RDS HR 1.0 RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNMR #&-08 SGD LD@M.
0E SGD SGQDD, SGD CQTLR BNRS SGD KNVDRS HM BNLO@QHRNM SN SGD BNRS NE NSGDQ HMRSQTLDMSR NE SGD R@LD SXOD. 5GD FTHS@Q BNRSR SGD
LNRS HM BNLO@QHRNM SN SGD BNRS NE NSGDQ HMRSQTLDMSR NE SGD R@LD SXOD.
86
q x

= 23.32
q 6RHMF SGD 5* 83/84, VD NAS@HM @ RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNM NE: s
x
= 12.95.
q 5GD NADRHSX Q@SD NE SGD 6MHSDC 4S@SDR HR 10.58% GHFGDQ SG@M SGD @UDQ@FD NADRHSX Q@SD.
q 4HMBD SGD RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNM HR 12.95, VD RDD SG@S 23.32 + 12.95 = 36.27 HR SGD NADRHSX ODQBDMS@FD SG@S HR NMD RS@MC@QC
CDUH@SHNM EQNL SGD LD@M. 5GD 6MHSDC 4S@SDR NADRHSX Q@SD HR RKHFGSKX KDRR SG@M NMD RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNM EQNL SGD LD@M.
5GDQDENQD, VD B@M @RRTLD SG@S SGD 6MHSDC 4S@SDR, VGHKD 34% NADRD, CNDR MNS G@U D @M TMTRT@KKX GHFG ODQBDMS@FD NE
NADRD ODNOKD.
89
174 "'/3$1 2 W #$2"1(/3(5$ 233(23("2
3DEO ?KJPAJP EO =R=EH=>HA BKN BNAA =P DPPL://?JT.KNC/?KJPAJP/?KH11562/1.11
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@. &W@LOKD RNKTSHNM ENQ TRHMF SGD Q@MCNL MTLADQ FDMDQ@SNQ ENQ SGD 5*-84+ SN FDMDQ@SD @ RHLOKD Q@MCNL R@LOKD NE 8
RS@SDR. *MRSQTBSHNMR @QD @R ENKKNVR.
/TLADQ SGD DMSQHDR HM SGD S@AKD 1k51 (*MBKTCDR 8@RGHMFSNM, %$; /TLADQDC UDQSHB@KKX)
1QDRR ."5)
"QQNV NUDQ SN 13#
1QDRR 5:Q@MC*MS(
&MSDQ 51,1,8)
&HFGS MTLADQR @QD FDMDQ@SDC (TRD SGD QHFGS @QQNV JDX SN RBQNKK SGQNTFG SGD MTLADQR). 5GD MTLADQR BNQQDRONMC SN SGD
MTLADQDC RS@SDR (ENQ SGHR DW@LOKD: Z47 21 9 23 51 13 25 4\. *E @MX MTLADQR @QD QDOD@SDC, FDMDQ@SD @ CHEEDQDMS MTLADQ
AX TRHMF 5:Q@MC*MS(51,1)). )DQD, SGD RS@SDR (@MC 8@RGHMFSNM %$) @QD Z"QJ@MR@R, 8@RGHMFSNM %$, *C@GN, .@QXK@MC,
.HBGHF@M, .HRRHRRHOOH, 7HQFHMH@, 8XNLHMF\.
$NQQDRONMCHMF ODQBDMSR @QD Z30.1, 22.2, 26.5, 27.1, 30.9, 34.0, 26.0, 25.1\.
#><JG: 2.58
A.
#><JG: 2.59
"'/3$1 2 W #$2"1(/3(5$ 233(23("2 175
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B.
#><JG: 2.60
176 "'/3$1 2 W #$2"1(/3(5$ 233(23("2
3DEO ?KJPAJP EO =R=EH=>HA BKN BNAA =P DPPL://?JT.KNC/?KJPAJP/?KH11562/1.11
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91
ABDJCI($) #G:FJ:C8N /:A6I>K: #G:FJ:C8N
51k100 5 0.08
101k150 10 0.17
151k200 15 0.25
201k250 15 0.25
251k300 10 0.17
301k350 5 0.08
167A: 2.86 0>C<A:H
ABDJCI($) #G:FJ:C8N /:A6I>K: #G:FJ:C8N
100k150 5 0.07
201k250 5 0.07
251k300 5 0.07
301k350 5 0.07
351k400 10 0.14
401k450 10 0.14
451k500 10 0.14
501k550 10 0.14
551k600 5 0.07
601k650 5 0.07
167A: 2.87 DJEA:H
@. 4DD 2;<F? 2.86 @MC 2;<F? 2.87.
A. *M SGD ENKKNVHMF GHRSNFQ@L C@S@ U@KTDR SG@S E@KK NM SGD QHFGS ANTMC@QX @QD BNTMSDC HM SGD BK@RR HMSDQU@K, VGHKD U@KTDR
SG@S E@KK NM SGD KDES ANTMC@QX @QD MNS BNTMSDC (VHSG SGD DWBDOSHNM NE SGD EHQRS HMSDQU@K VGDQD ANSG ANTMC@QX U@KTDR @QD
HMBKTCDC).
"'/3$1 2 W #$2"1(/3(5$ 233(23("2 177
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#><JG: 2.61
B. *M SGD ENKKNVHMF GHRSNFQ@L, SGD C@S@ U@KTDR SG@S E@KK NM SGD QHFGS ANTMC@QX @QD BNTMSDC HM SGD BK@RR HMSDQU@K, VGHKD U@KTDR
SG@S E@KK NM SGD KDES ANTMC@QX @QD MNS BNTMSDC (VHSG SGD DWBDOSHNM NE SGD EHQRS HMSDQU@K VGDQD U@KTDR NM ANSG ANTMC@QHDR
@QD HMBKTCDC).
#><JG: 2.62
C. $NLO@QD SGD SVN FQ@OGR:
H. "MRVDQR L@X U@QX. 1NRRHAKD @MRVDQR HMBKTCD:
z #NSG FQ@OGR G@UD @ RHMFKD OD@J.
z #NSG FQ@OGR TRD BK@RR HMSDQU@KR VHSG VHCSG DPT@K SN $50.
HH. "MRVDQR L@X U@QX. 1NRRHAKD @MRVDQR HMBKTCD:
z 5GD BNTOKDR FQ@OG G@R @ BK@RR HMSDQU@K VHSG MN U@KTDR.
z *S S@JDR @KLNRS SVHBD @R L@MX BK@RR HMSDQU@KR SN CHROK@X SGD C@S@ ENQ BNTOKDR.
HHH. "MRVDQR L@X U@QX. 1NRRHAKD @MRVDQR HMBKTCD: 5GD FQ@OGR @QD LNQD RHLHK@Q SG@M CHEEDQDMS ADB@TRD SGD NUDQ@KK
O@SSDQMR ENQ SGD FQ@OGR @QD SGD R@LD.
D. *M SGD ENKKNVHMF GHRSNFQ@L, C@S@ U@KTDR SG@S E@KK NM SGD QHFGS ANTMC@QX @QD BNTMSDC HM SGD BK@RR HMSDQU@K, VGHKD U@KTDR
SG@S E@KK NM SGD KDES ANTMC@QX @QD MNS BNTMSDC (VHSG SGD DWBDOSHNM NE SGD EHQRS HMSDQU@K VGDQD U@KTDR NM ANSG ANTMC@QHDR
@QD HMBKTCDC).
178 "'/3$1 2 W #$2"1(/3(5$ 233(23("2
3DEO ?KJPAJP EO =R=EH=>HA BKN BNAA =P DPPL://?JT.KNC/?KJPAJP/?KH11562/1.11
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#><JG: 2.63
E. $NLO@QD SGD FQ@OG ENQ SGD 4HMFKDR VHSG SGD MDV FQ@OG ENQ SGD $NTOKDR:
H. z #NSG FQ@OGR G@UD @ RHMFKD OD@J.
z #NSG FQ@OGR CHROK@X 6 BK@RR HMSDQU@KR.
z #NSG FQ@OGR RGNV SGD R@LD FDMDQ@K O@SSDQM.
HH. "MRVDQR L@X U@QX. 1NRRHAKD @MRVDQR HMBKTCD: "KSGNTFG SGD VHCSG NE SGD BK@RR HMSDQU@KR ENQ BNTOKDR HR CNTAKD SG@S
NE SGD BK@RR HMSDQU@KR ENQ RHMFKDR, SGD FQ@OGR @QD LNQD RHLHK@Q SG@M SGDX @QD CHEEDQDMS.
F. "MRVDQR L@X U@QX. 1NRRHAKD @MRVDQR HMBKTCD: :NT @QD @AKD SN BNLO@QD SGD FQ@OGR HMSDQU@K AX HMSDQU@K. *S HR D@RHDQ SN
BNLO@QD SGD NUDQ@KK O@SSDQMR VHSG SGD MDV RB@KD NM SGD $NTOKDR FQ@OG. #DB@TRD @ BNTOKD QDOQDRDMSR SVN HMCHUHCT@KR,
SGD MDV RB@KD KD@CR SN @ LNQD @BBTQ@SD BNLO@QHRNM.
G. "MRVDQR L@X U@QX. 1NRRHAKD @MRVDQR HMBKTCD: #@RDC NM SGD GHRSNFQ@LR, HS RDDLR SG@S RODMCHMF CNDR MNS U@QX LTBG
EQNL RHMFKDR SN HMCHUHCT@KR VGN @QD O@QS NE @ BNTOKD. 5GD NUDQ@KK O@SSDQMR @QD SGD R@LD. 5GD Q@MFD NE RODMCHMF ENQ
BNTOKDR HR @OOQNWHL@SDKX CNTAKD SGD Q@MFD ENQ HMCHUHCT@KR.
93 B
95 "MRVDQR VHKK U@QX.
97
@. "MRVDQR VHKK U@QX. 1NRRHAKD @MRVDQ: 4S@SD 6MHUDQRHSX BNMCTBSDC @ RTQUDX SN RDD GNV HMUNKUDC HSR RSTCDMSR @QD HM
BNLLTMHSX RDQUHBD. 5GD ANW OKNS RGNVR SGD MTLADQ NE BNLLTMHSX RDQUHBD GNTQR KNFFDC AX O@QSHBHO@MSR NUDQ SGD O@RS
XD@Q.
A. #DB@TRD SGD EHQRS @MC RDBNMC PT@QSHKDR @QD BKNRD, SGD C@S@ HM SGHR PT@QSDQ HR UDQX RHLHK@Q. 5GDQD HR MNS LTBG U@QH@SHNM HM
SGD U@KTDR. 5GD C@S@ HM SGD SGHQC PT@QSDQ HR LTBG LNQD U@QH@AKD, NQ ROQD@C NTS. 5GHR HR BKD@Q ADB@TRD SGD RDBNMC PT@QSHKD
HR RN E@Q @V@X EQNL SGD SGHQC PT@QSHKD.
99
@. &@BG ANW OKNS HR ROQD@C NTS LNQD HM SGD FQD@SDQ U@KTDR. &@BG OKNS HR RJDVDC SN SGD QHFGS, RN SGD @FDR NE SGD SNO 50% NE
ATXDQR @QD LNQD U@QH@AKD SG@M SGD @FDR NE SGD KNVDQ 50%.
A. 5GD #.8 3 RDQHDR HR LNRS KHJDKX SN G@UD @M NTSKHDQ. *S G@R SGD KNMFDRS VGHRJDQ.
B. $NLO@QHMF SGD LDCH@M @FDR, XNTMFDQ ODNOKD SDMC SN ATX SGD #.83 RDQHDR, VGHKD NKCDQ ODNOKD SDMC SN ATX SGD #.8
7 RDQHDR. )NVDUDQ, SGHR HR MNS @ QTKD, ADB@TRD SGDQD HR RN LTBG U@QH@AHKHSX HM D@BG C@S@ RDS.
C. 5GD RDBNMC PT@QSDQ G@R SGD RL@KKDRS ROQD@C. 5GDQD RDDLR SN AD NMKX @ SGQDD-XD@Q CHEEDQDMBD ADSVDDM SGD EHQRS PT@QSHKD
@MC SGD LDCH@M.
D. 5GD SGHQC PT@QSDQ G@R SGD K@QFDRS ROQD@C. 5GDQD RDDLR SN AD @OOQNWHL@SDKX @ 14-XD@Q CHEEDQDMBD ADSVDDM SGD LDCH@M @MC
SGD SGHQC PT@QSHKD.
E. "*+ ] 17 XD@QR
F. 5GDQD HR MNS DMNTFG HMENQL@SHNM SN SDKK. &@BG HMSDQU@K KHDR VHSGHM @ PT@QSDQ, RN VD B@MMNS SDKK DW@BSKX VGDQD SGD C@S@ HM
SG@S PT@QSDQ HR BNMBDMSQ@SDC.
G. 5GD HMSDQU@K EQNL 31 SN 35 XD@QR G@R SGD EDVDRS C@S@ U@KTDR. 5VDMSX-EHUD ODQBDMS NE SGD U@KTDR E@KK HM SGD HMSDQU@K 38 SN
41, @MC 25% E@KK ADSVDDM 41 @MC 64. 4HMBD 25% NE U@KTDR E@KK ADSVDDM 31 @MC 38, VD JMNV SG@S EDVDQ SG@M 25% E@KK
ADSVDDM 31 @MC 35.
102
@. 1 k (0.02+0.09+0.19+0.26+0.18+0.17+0.02+0.01) = 0.06
A. 0.19+0.26+0.18 = 0.63
B. $GDBJ RSTCDMSnR RNKTSHNM.
"'/3$1 2 W #$2"1(/3(5$ 233(23("2 179
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C. 40
SG
ODQBDMSHKD VHKK E@KK ADSVDDM 30,000 @MC 40,000
80
SG
ODQBDMSHKD VHKK E@KK ADSVDDM 50,000 @MC 75,000
D. $GDBJ RSTCDMSnR RNKTSHNM.
104
@. LNQD BGHKCQDM
A. 62.4%
106 5GD LD@M ODQBDMS@FD, x

=
1328.65
50
= 26.75
108
@. 1.48
A. 1.12
110
@. 174; 177; 178; 184; 185; 185; 185; 185; 188; 190; 200; 205; 205; 206; 210; 210; 210; 212; 212; 215; 215; 220; 223;
228; 230; 232; 241; 241; 242; 245; 247; 250; 250; 259; 260; 260; 265; 265; 270; 272; 273; 275; 276; 278; 280; 280;
285; 285; 286; 290; 290; 295; 302
A. 241
B. 205.5
C. 272.5
D.
E. 205.5, 272.5
F. R@LOKD
G. ONOTK@SHNM
H. H. 236.34
HH. 37.50
HHH. 161.34
HU. 0.84 RSC. CDU. ADKNV SGD LD@M
I. :NTMF
112
@. 5QTD
A. 5QTD
B. 5QTD
C. '@KRD
180 "'/3$1 2 W #$2"1(/3(5$ 233(23("2
3DEO ?KJPAJP EO =R=EH=>HA BKN BNAA =P DPPL://?JT.KNC/?KJPAJP/?KH11562/1.11
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114
@.
"CGDAAB:CI #G:FJ:C8N
1000-5000 10
5000-10000 16
10000-15000 3
15000-20000 3
20000-25000 1
25000-30000 2
167A: 2.88
A. $GDBJ RSTCDMSnR RNKTSHNM.
B. LNCD
C. 8628.74
D. 6943.88
E. k0.09
116 @
118
@. *M SGHR GHRSNFQ@L, U@KTDR SG@S E@KK NM SGD KDES ANTMC@QX @QD BNTMSDC HM SGD HMSDQU@K, VGHKD U@KTDR SG@S E@KK NM SGD QHFGS
ANTMC@QX @QD MNS. /NSD SG@S SGD VHCSG NE SGD HMSDQU@KR U@QHDR. 5GD C@S@ V@R QDBNQCDC HM BK@RRDR NE U@QXHMF VHCSG.
1@X BKNRD @SSDMSHNM SN SGD RB@KD K@ADKR NE SGD FQ@OG ADB@TRD SGD GHRSNFQ@L B@M AD LHRKD@CHMF VGDM SGD HMSDQU@KR G@UD
CHEEDQDMS VHCSGR.
A. 49.7% NE SGD BNLLTMHSX HR TMCDQ SGD @FD NE 35.
B. #@RDC NM SGD HMENQL@SHNM HM SGD S@AKD, FQ@OG (@) LNRS BKNRDKX QDOQDRDMSR SGD C@S@.
120 @
122 A
"'/3$1 2 W #$2"1(/3(5$ 233(23("2 181
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182 "'/3$1 2 W #$2"1(/3(5$ 233(23("2
3DEO ?KJPAJP EO =R=EH=>HA BKN BNAA =P DPPL://?JT.KNC/?KJPAJP/?KH11562/1.11
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3 U .0-A'*'27 2-.'!1
$CAOL? 3.1 ,APAKN ODKSANO =NA N=NA, >QP PDA LNK>=>EHEPU KB PDAI K??QNNEJC ?=J >A ?=H?QH=PA@. (?NA@EP: -=RE?KNA/BHE?GN)
'HNLI>O=NCIH
!B;JN?L -<D?=NCP?M
#X SGD DMC NE SGHR BG@OSDQ, SGD RSTCDMS RGNTKC AD @AKD SN:
c 6MCDQRS@MC @MC TRD SGD SDQLHMNKNFX NE OQNA@AHKHSX.
c %DSDQLHMD VGDSGDQ SVN DUDMSR @QD LTST@KKX DWBKTRHUD @MC VGDSGDQ SVN DUDMSR @QD HMCDODMCDMS.
c $@KBTK@SD OQNA@AHKHSHDR TRHMF SGD "CCHSHNM 3TKDR @MC .TKSHOKHB@SHNM 3TKDR.
c $NMRSQTBS @MC HMSDQOQDS $NMSHMFDMBX 5@AKDR.
c $NMRSQTBS @MC HMSDQOQDS 7DMM %H@FQ@LR.
c $NMRSQTBS @MC HMSDQOQDS 5QDD %H@FQ@LR.
*S HR NESDM MDBDRR@QX SN "FTDRR" @ANTS SGD NTSBNLD NE @M DUDMS HM NQCDQ SN L@JD @ CDBHRHNM. 1NKHSHBH@MR RSTCX ONKKR SN FTDRR
SGDHQ KHJDKHGNNC NE VHMMHMF @M DKDBSHNM. 5D@BGDQR BGNNRD @ O@QSHBTK@Q BNTQRD NE RSTCX A@RDC NM VG@S SGDX SGHMJ RSTCDMSR B@M
BNLOQDGDMC. %NBSNQR BGNNRD SGD SQD@SLDMSR MDDCDC ENQ U@QHNTR CHRD@RDR A@RDC NM SGDHQ @RRDRRLDMS NE KHJDKX QDRTKSR. :NT
"'/3$1 3 W /1.!!(+(38 3./("2 183
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L@X G@UD UHRHSDC @ B@RHMN VGDQD ODNOKD OK@X F@LDR BGNRDM ADB@TRD NE SGD ADKHDE SG@S SGD KHJDKHGNNC NE VHMMHMF HR FNNC. :NT
L@X G@UD BGNRDM XNTQ BNTQRD NE RSTCX A@RDC NM SGD OQNA@AKD @U@HK@AHKHSX NE INAR.
:NT G@UD, LNQD SG@M KHJDKX, TRDC OQNA@AHKHSX. *M E@BS, XNT OQNA@AKX G@UD @M HMSTHSHUD RDMRD NE OQNA@AHKHSX. 1QNA@AHKHSX
CD@KR VHSG SGD BG@MBD NE @M DUDMS NBBTQQHMF. 8GDMDUDQ XNT VDHFG SGD NCCR NE VGDSGDQ NQ MNS SN CN XNTQ GNLDVNQJ NQ
SN RSTCX ENQ @M DW@L, XNT @QD TRHMF OQNA@AHKHSX. *M SGHR BG@OSDQ, XNT VHKK KD@QM GNV SN RNKUD OQNA@AHKHSX OQNAKDLR TRHMF @
RXRSDL@SHB @OOQN@BG.
:NTQ HMRSQTBSNQ VHKK RTQUDX XNTQ BK@RR. $NTMS SGD MTLADQ NE RSTCDMSR HM SGD BK@RR SNC@X.
c 3@HRD XNTQ G@MC HE XNT G@UD @MX BG@MFD HM XNTQ ONBJDS NQ OTQRD. 3DBNQC SGD MTLADQ NE Q@HRDC G@MCR.
c 3@HRD XNTQ G@MC HE XNT QNCD @ ATR VHSGHM SGD O@RS LNMSG. 3DBNQC SGD MTLADQ NE Q@HRDC G@MCR.
c 3@HRD XNTQ G@MC HE XNT @MRVDQDC "XDR" SN #05) NE SGD EHQRS SVN PTDRSHNMR. 3DBNQC SGD MTLADQ NE Q@HRDC G@MCR.
6RD SGD BK@RR C@S@ @R DRSHL@SDR NE SGD ENKKNVHMF OQNA@AHKHSHDR. )(BG@MFD) LD@MR SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S @ Q@MCNLKX BGNRDM
ODQRNM HM XNTQ BK@RR G@R BG@MFD HM GHR/GDQ ONBJDS NQ OTQRD. )(ATR) LD@MR SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S @ Q@MCNLKX BGNRDM ODQRNM
HM XNTQ BK@RR QNCD @ ATR VHSGHM SGD K@RS LNMSG @MC RN NM. %HRBTRR XNTQ @MRVDQR.
c 'HMC )(BG@MFD).
c 'HMC )(ATR).
c 'HMC )(BG@MFD "/% ATR). 'HMC SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S @ Q@MCNLKX BGNRDM RSTCDMS HM XNTQ BK@RR G@R BG@MFD HM GHR/GDQ
ONBJDS NQ OTQRD @MC QNCD @ ATR VHSGHM SGD K@RS LNMSG.
c 'HMC )(BG@MFD[ATR). 'HMC SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S @ Q@MCNLKX BGNRDM RSTCDMS G@R BG@MFD FHUDM SG@S GD NQ RGD QNCD @
ATR VHSGHM SGD K@RS LNMSG. $NTMS @KK SGD RSTCDMSR SG@S QNCD @ ATR. 'QNL SGD FQNTO NE RSTCDMSR VGN QNCD @ ATR,
BNTMS SGNRD VGN G@UD BG@MFD. 5GD OQNA@AHKHSX HR DPT@K SN SGNRD VGN G@UD BG@MFD @MC QNCD @ ATR CHUHCDC AX SGNRD
VGN QNCD @ ATR.
3.1 U 2?LGCHIFIAS
1QNA@AHKHSX HR @ LD@RTQD SG@S HR @RRNBH@SDC VHSG GNV BDQS@HM VD @QD NE NTSBNLDR NE @ O@QSHBTK@Q DWODQHLDMS NQ @BSHUHSX.
"M :ME:G>B:CI HR @ OK@MMDC NODQ@SHNM B@QQHDC NTS TMCDQ BNMSQNKKDC BNMCHSHNMR. *E SGD QDRTKS HR MNS OQDCDSDQLHMDC, SGDM SGD
DWODQHLDMS HR R@HC SN AD @ 8=6C8: DWODQHLDMS. 'KHOOHMF NMD E@HQ BNHM SVHBD HR @M DW@LOKD NE @M DWODQHLDMS.
" QDRTKS NE @M DWODQHLDMS HR B@KKDC @M DJI8DB:. 5GD H6BEA: HE68: NE @M DWODQHLDMS HR SGD RDS NE @KK ONRRHAKD NTSBNLDR.
5GQDD V@XR SN QDOQDRDMS @ R@LOKD RO@BD @QD: SN KHRS SGD ONRRHAKD NTSBNLDR, SN BQD@SD @ SQDD CH@FQ@L, NQ SN BQD@SD @ 7DMM
CH@FQ@L. 5GD TOODQB@RD KDSSDQ , HR TRDC SN CDMNSD SGD R@LOKD RO@BD. 'NQ DW@LOKD, HE XNT EKHO NMD E@HQ BNHM, , = Z!, -\ VGDQD
! = GD@CR @MC - = S@HKR @QD SGD NTSBNLDR.
"M :K:CI HR @MX BNLAHM@SHNM NE NTSBNLDR. 6OODQ B@RD KDSSDQR KHJD A @MC B QDOQDRDMS DUDMSR. 'NQ DW@LOKD, HE SGD
DWODQHLDMS HR SN EKHO NMD E@HQ BNHM, DUDMS A LHFGS AD FDSSHMF @S LNRS NMD GD@C. 5GD OQNA@AHKHSX NE @M DUDMS A HR VQHSSDM )(A).
5GD EGD767>A>IN NE @MX NTSBNLD HR SGD ADC<-I:GB G:A6I>K: ;G:FJ:C8N NE SG@S NTSBNLD. -GD767>A>I>:H 6G: 7:IL::C O:GD
6C9 DC:, >C8AJH>K: (SG@S HR, YDQN @MC NMD @MC @KK MTLADQR ADSVDDM SGDRD U@KTDR). )(A) = 0 LD@MR SGD DUDMS A B@M MDUDQ
G@OODM. )(A) = 1 LD@MR SGD DUDMS A @KV@XR G@OODMR. )(A) = 0.5 LD@MR SGD DUDMS A HR DPT@KKX KHJDKX SN NBBTQ NQ MNS SN
NBBTQ. 'NQ DW@LOKD, HE XNT EKHO NMD E@HQ BNHM QDOD@SDCKX (EQNL 20 SN 2,000 SN 20,000 SHLDR) SGD QDK@SHUD EQDPTDMBX NE GD@CR
@OOQN@BGDR 0.5 (SGD OQNA@AHKHSX NE GD@CR).
"FJ6AAN A>@:AN LD@MR SG@S D@BG NTSBNLD NE @M DWODQHLDMS NBBTQR VHSG DPT@K OQNA@AHKHSX. 'NQ DW@LOKD, HE XNT SNRR @
;6>G, RHW-RHCDC CHD, D@BG E@BD (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, NQ 6) HR @R KHJDKX SN NBBTQ @R @MX NSGDQ E@BD. *E XNT SNRR @ E@HQ BNHM, @ )D@C (!) @MC
@ 5@HK (-) @QD DPT@KKX KHJDKX SN NBBTQ. *E XNT Q@MCNLKX FTDRR SGD @MRVDQ SN @ SQTD/E@KRD PTDRSHNM NM @M DW@L, XNT @QD DPT@KKX
KHJDKX SN RDKDBS @ BNQQDBS @MRVDQ NQ @M HMBNQQDBS @MRVDQ.
1D 86A8JA6I: I=: EGD767>A>IN D; 6C :K:CI A L=:C 6AA DJI8DB:H >C I=: H6BEA: HE68: 6G: :FJ6AAN A>@:AN, BNTMS SGD
MTLADQ NE NTSBNLDR ENQ DUDMS A @MC CHUHCD AX SGD SNS@K MTLADQ NE NTSBNLDR HM SGD R@LOKD RO@BD. 'NQ DW@LOKD, HE XNT SNRR
@ E@HQ CHLD @MC @ E@HQ MHBJDK, SGD R@LOKD RO@BD HR Z!!, -!, !-, --\ VGDQD - = S@HKR @MC ! = GD@CR. 5GD R@LOKD RO@BD G@R
ENTQ NTSBNLDR. A = FDSSHMF NMD GD@C. 5GDQD @QD SVN NTSBNLDR Z!-, -!\, RN )(A) =
2
4
= 0.5.
4TOONRD XNT QNKK NMD E@HQ RHW-RHCDC CHD, VHSG SGD MTLADQR Z1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6\ NM HSR E@BDR. -DS DUDMS E = QNKKHMF @ MTLADQ
SG@S HR @S KD@RS EHUD. 5GDQD @QD SVN NTSBNLDR Z5, 6\. )(E) =
2
6
. *E XNT VDQD SN QNKK SGD CHD NMKX @ EDV SHLDR, XNT VNTKC MNS AD
184 "'/3$1 3 W /1.!!(+(38 3./("2
3DEO ?KJPAJP EO =R=EH=>HA BKN BNAA =P DPPL://?JT.KNC/?KJPAJP/?KH11562/1.11
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n
RTQOQHRDC HE XNTQ NARDQUDC QDRTKSR CHC MNS L@SBG SGD OQNA@AHKHSX. *E XNT VDQD SN QNKK SGD CHD @ UDQX K@QFD MTLADQ NE SHLDR, XNT
VNTKC DWODBS SG@S, NUDQ@KK,
2
6
NE SGD QNKKR VNTKC QDRTKS HM @M NTSBNLD NE "@S KD@RS EHUD". :NT VNTKC MNS DWODBS DW@BSKX
2
6
.
5GD KNMF-SDQL QDK@SHUD EQDPTDMBX NE NAS@HMHMF SGHR QDRTKS VNTKC @OOQN@BG SGD SGDNQDSHB@K OQNA@AHKHSX NE
2
6
@R SGD MTLADQ NE
QDODSHSHNMR FQNVR K@QFDQ @MC K@QFDQ.
5GHR HLONQS@MS BG@Q@BSDQHRSHB NE OQNA@AHKHSX DWODQHLDMSR HR JMNVM @R SGD A6L D; A6G<: CJB7:GH VGHBG RS@SDR SG@S @R
SGD MTLADQ NE QDODSHSHNMR NE @M DWODQHLDMS HR HMBQD@RDC, SGD QDK@SHUD EQDPTDMBX NAS@HMDC HM SGD DWODQHLDMS SDMCR SN ADBNLD
BKNRDQ @MC BKNRDQ SN SGD SGDNQDSHB@K OQNA@AHKHSX. &UDM SGNTFG SGD NTSBNLDR CN MNS G@OODM @BBNQCHMF SN @MX RDS O@SSDQM NQ
NQCDQ, NUDQ@KK, SGD KNMF-SDQL NARDQUDC QDK@SHUD EQDPTDMBX VHKK @OOQN@BG SGD SGDNQDSHB@K OQNA@AHKHSX. (5GD VNQC :BE>G>86A HR
NESDM TRDC HMRSD@C NE SGD VNQC NARDQUDC.)
*S HR HLONQS@MS SN QD@KHYD SG@S HM L@MX RHST@SHNMR, SGD NTSBNLDR @QD MNS DPT@KKX KHJDKX. " BNHM NQ CHD L@X AD JC;6>G, NQ
7>6H:9. 5VN L@SG OQNEDRRNQR HM &TQNOD G@C SGDHQ RS@SHRSHBR RSTCDMSR SDRS SGD #DKFH@M NMD &TQN BNHM @MC CHRBNUDQDC SG@S HM
250 SQH@KR, @ GD@C V@R NAS@HMDC 56% NE SGD SHLD @MC @ S@HK V@R NAS@HMDC 44% NE SGD SHLD. 5GD C@S@ RDDL SN RGNV SG@S SGD
BNHM HR MNS @ E@HQ BNHM; LNQD QDODSHSHNMR VNTKC AD GDKOETK SN CQ@V @ LNQD @BBTQ@SD BNMBKTRHNM @ANTS RTBG AH@R. 4NLD CHBD
L@X AD AH@RDC. -NNJ @S SGD CHBD HM @ F@LD XNT G@UD @S GNLD; SGD RONSR NM D@BG E@BD @QD TRT@KKX RL@KK GNKDR B@QUDC NTS @MC
SGDM O@HMSDC SN L@JD SGD RONSR UHRHAKD. :NTQ CHBD L@X NQ L@X MNS AD AH@RDC; HS HR ONRRHAKD SG@S SGD NTSBNLDR L@X AD @EEDBSDC
AX SGD RKHFGS VDHFGS CHEEDQDMBDR CTD SN SGD CHEEDQDMS MTLADQR NE GNKDR HM SGD E@BDR. (@LAKHMF B@RHMNR L@JD @ KNS NE LNMDX
CDODMCHMF NM NTSBNLDR EQNL QNKKHMF CHBD, RN B@RHMN CHBD @QD L@CD CHEEDQDMSKX SN DKHLHM@SD AH@R. $@RHMN CHBD G@UD EK@S E@BDR;
SGD GNKDR @QD BNLOKDSDKX EHKKDC VHSG O@HMS G@UHMF SGD R@LD CDMRHSX @R SGD L@SDQH@K SG@S SGD CHBD @QD L@CD NTS NE RN SG@S D@BG
E@BD HR DPT@KKX KHJDKX SN NBBTQ. -@SDQ VD VHKK KD@QM SDBGMHPTDR SN TRD SN VNQJ VHSG OQNA@AHKHSHDR ENQ DUDMSR SG@S @QD MNS DPT@KKX
KHJDKX.
"-0" #P?HN:
"M NTSBNLD HR HM SGD DUDMS A 03 B HE SGD NTSBNLD HR HM A NQ HR HM B NQ HR HM ANSG A @MC B. 'NQ DW@LOKD, KDS A = Z1, 2, 3,
4, 5\ @MC B = Z4, 5, 6, 7, 8\. A 03 B = Z1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8\. /NSHBD SG@S 4 @MC 5 @QD /05 KHRSDC SVHBD.
"A,"" #P?HN:
"M NTSBNLD HR HM SGD DUDMS A "/% B HE SGD NTSBNLD HR HM ANSG A @MC B @S SGD R@LD SHLD. 'NQ DW@LOKD, KDS A @MC B AD
Z1, 2, 3, 4, 5\ @MC Z4, 5, 6, 7, 8\, QDRODBSHUDKX. 5GDM A "/% B = Z4, 5\.
5GD 8DBEA:B:CI NE DUDMS A HR CDMNSDC Ac (QD@C "A OQHLD"). Ac BNMRHRSR NE @KK NTSBNLDR SG@S @QD +,1 HM A. /NSHBD SG@S
)(A) + )(Ac) = 1. 'NQ DW@LOKD, KDS , = Z1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6\ @MC KDS A = Z1, 2, 3, 4\. 5GDM, Ac = Z5, 6\. )(A) =
4
6
, )(Ac) =
2
6
,
@MC )(A) + )(Ac) =
4
6
+
2
6
= 1
5GD 8DC9>I>DC6A EGD767>A>IN NE A FHUDM B HR VQHSSDM )(A[B). )(A[B) HR SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S DUDMS A VHKK NBBTQ FHUDM
SG@S SGD DUDMS B G@R @KQD@CX NBBTQQDC. A 8DC9>I>DC6A G:9J8:H I=: H6BEA: HE68:. 8D B@KBTK@SD SGD OQNA@AHKHSX NE A EQNL SGD
QDCTBDC R@LOKD RO@BD B. 5GD ENQLTK@ SN B@KBTK@SD )(A[B) HR )(A[B) =
P(AANDB)
P(B)
VGDQD )(B) HR FQD@SDQ SG@M YDQN.
'NQ DW@LOKD, RTOONRD VD SNRR NMD E@HQ, RHW-RHCDC CHD. 5GD R@LOKD RO@BD , = Z1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6\. -DS A = E@BD HR 2 NQ 3 @MC
B = E@BD HR DUDM (2, 4, 6). 5N B@KBTK@SD )(A[B), VD BNTMS SGD MTLADQ NE NTSBNLDR 2 NQ 3 HM SGD R@LOKD RO@BD B = Z2, 4, 6\.
5GDM VD CHUHCD SG@S AX SGD MTLADQ NE NTSBNLDR B (Q@SGDQ SG@M ,).
8D FDS SGD R@LD QDRTKS AX TRHMF SGD ENQLTK@. 3DLDLADQ SG@S , G@R RHW NTSBNLDR.
)(A[B) =
P(A
|
B)
P(B)
=
(the number of outcomes that are 2 or 3 and even inS)
6
(the number of outcomes that are even inS)
6
=
1
6
3
6
=
1
3
3H>?LMN;H>CHA 2?LGCHIFIAS ;H> 1SG<IFM
*S HR HLONQS@MS SN QD@C D@BG OQNAKDL B@QDETKKX SN SGHMJ @ANTS @MC TMCDQRS@MC VG@S SGD DUDMSR @QD. 6MCDQRS@MCHMF SGD
VNQCHMF HR SGD EHQRS UDQX HLONQS@MS RSDO HM RNKUHMF OQNA@AHKHSX OQNAKDLR. 3DQD@C SGD OQNAKDL RDUDQ@K SHLDR HE MDBDRR@QX.
$KD@QKX HCDMSHEX SGD DUDMS NE HMSDQDRS. %DSDQLHMD VGDSGDQ SGDQD HR @ BNMCHSHNM RS@SDC HM SGD VNQCHMF SG@S VNTKC HMCHB@SD SG@S
SGD OQNA@AHKHSX HR BNMCHSHNM@K; B@QDETKKX HCDMSHEX SGD BNMCHSHNM, HE @MX.
$T=ILHA 3.1
5GD R@LOKD RO@BD , HR SGD VGNKD MTLADQR RS@QSHMF @S NMD @MC KDRR SG@M 20.
=. S = <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<
-DS DUDMS A = SGD DUDM MTLADQR @MC DUDMS B = MTLADQR FQD@SDQ SG@M 13.
>. A = ?????????????????????, B = ?????????????????????
?. )(A) = ?????????????, )(B) = ????????????????
@. A "/% B = ????????????????????, A 03 B = ????????????????
A. )(A "/% B) = ?????????, )(A 03 B) = ?????????????
"'/3$1 3 W /1.!!(+(38 3./("2 185
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B. Ac = ?????????????, )(Ac) = ?????????????
C. )(A) + )(Ac) = ????????????
D. )(A[B) = ???????????, )(B[A) = ?????????????; @QD SGD OQNA@AHKHSHDR DPT@K
1IFONCIH 3.1
=. , = Z1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19\
>. A = Z2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18\, B = Z14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19\
?. )(A) =
9
19
, )(B) =
6
19
@. A "/% B = Z14,16,18\, A 03 B = 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19\
A. )(A "/% B) =
3
19
, )(A 03 B) =
12
19
B. Ac = 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15, 17, 19; )(Ac) =
10
19
C. )(A) + )(Ac) = 1 (
9
19
+
10
19
= 1)
D. )(A[B) =
P(AANDB)
P(B)
=
3
6
, )(B[A) =
P(AANDB)
P(A)
=
3
9
, /N
3.1 5GD R@LOKD RO@BD , HR SGD NQCDQDC O@HQR NE SVN VGNKD MTLADQR, SGD EHQRS EQNLNMD SN SGQDD @MC SGD RDBNMC EQNLNMD
SN ENTQ (&W@LOKD: (1, 4)).
=. , = ?????????????????????????????
-DS DUDMS A = SGD RTL HR DUDM @MC DUDMS B = SGD EHQRS MTLADQ HR OQHLD.
>. A = ?????????????????????, B = ?????????????????????
?. )(A) = ?????????????, )(B) = ????????????????
@. A "/% B = ????????????????????, A 03 B = ????????????????
A. )(A "/% B) = ?????????, )(A 03 B) = ?????????????
B. Bc = ?????????????, )(Bc) = ?????????????
C. )(A) + )(Ac) = ????????????
D. )(A[B) = ???????????, )(B[A) = ?????????????; @QD SGD OQNA@AHKHSHDR DPT@K
$T=ILHA 3.2
" E@HQ, RHW-RHCDC CHD HR QNKKDC. %DRBQHAD SGD R@LOKD RO@BD ,, HCDMSHEX D@BG NE SGD ENKKNVHMF DUDMSR VHSG @ RTARDS NE
, @MC BNLOTSD HSR OQNA@AHKHSX (@M NTSBNLD HR SGD MTLADQ NE CNSR SG@S RGNV TO).
=. &UDMS - = SGD NTSBNLD HR SVN.
>. &UDMS A = SGD NTSBNLD HR @M DUDM MTLADQ.
?. &UDMS B = SGD NTSBNLD HR KDRR SG@M ENTQ.
@. 5GD BNLOKDLDMS NE A.
A. A (*7&/ B
B. B (*7&/ A
C. A "/% B
D. A 03 B
E. A 03 Bc
F. &UDMS ' = SGD NTSBNLD HR @ OQHLD MTLADQ.
G. &UDMS " = SGD NTSBNLD HR RDUDM.
1IFONCIH 3.2
=. - = Z2\, )(-) =
1
6
186 "'/3$1 3 W /1.!!(+(38 3./("2
3DEO ?KJPAJP EO =R=EH=>HA BKN BNAA =P DPPL://?JT.KNC/?KJPAJP/?KH11562/1.11
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>. A = Z2, 4, 6\, )(A) =
1
2
?. B = Z1, 2, 3\, )(B) =
1
2
@. Ac = Z1, 3, 5\, )(Ac) =
1
2
A. A[B = Z2\, )(A[B) =
1
3
B. B[A = Z2\, )(B[A) =
1
3
C. A "/% B = Z2\, )(A "/% B) =
1
6
D. A 03 B = Z1, 2, 3, 4, 6\, )(A 03 B) =
5
6
E. A 03 Bc = Z2, 4, 5, 6\, )(A 03 Bc) =
2
3
F. ' = Z2, 3, 5\, )(') =
1
2
G. " RHW-RHCDC CHD CNDR MNS G@UD RDUDM CNSR. )(7) = 0.
$T=ILHA 3.3
2;<F? 3.1 CDRBQHADR SGD CHRSQHATSHNM NE @ Q@MCNL R@LOKD , NE 100 HMCHUHCT@KR, NQF@MHYDC AX FDMCDQ @MC VGDSGDQ
SGDX @QD QHFGS- NQ KDES-G@MCDC.
0CABN-B;H>?> *?@N-B;H>?>
,=HAO 43 9
%AI=HAO 44 4
2;<F? 3.1
-DSnR CDMNSD SGD DUDMSR &= SGD RTAIDBS HR L@KD, F = SGD RTAIDBS HR EDL@KD, + = SGD RTAIDBS HR QHFGS-G@MCDC, % = SGD
RTAIDBS HR KDES-G@MCDC. $NLOTSD SGD ENKKNVHMF OQNA@AHKHSHDR:
=. )(&)
>. )(F)
?. )(+)
@. )(%)
A. )(& "/% +)
B. )(F "/% %)
C. )(& 03 F)
D. )(& 03 +)
E. )(F 03 %)
F. )(&')
G. )(+[&)
H. )(F[%)
I. )(%[F)
1IFONCIH 3.3
=. )(&) = 0.52
>. )(F) = 0.48
?. )(+) = 0.87
@. )(%) = 0.13
A. )(& "/% +) = 0.43
"'/3$1 3 W /1.!!(+(38 3./("2 187
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B. )(F "/% %) = 0.04
C. )(& 03 F) = 1
D. )(& 03 +) = 0.96
E. )(F 03 %) = 0.57
F. )(&') = 0.48
G. )(+[&) = 0.8269 (QNTMCDC SN ENTQ CDBHL@K OK@BDR)
H. )(F[%) = 0.3077 (QNTMCDC SN ENTQ CDBHL@K OK@BDR)
I. )(%[F) = 0.0833
3.2 U 'H>?J?H>?HN ;H> +ONO;FFS #R=FOMCP? #P?HNM
*MCDODMCDMS @MC LTST@KKX DWBKTRHUD CN CDI LD@M SGD R@LD SGHMF.
'H>?J?H>?HN #P?HNM
5VN DUDMSR @QD HMCDODMCDMS HE SGD ENKKNVHMF @QD SQTD:
c )(A[B) = )(A)
c )(B[A) = )(B)
c )(A "/% B) = )(A))(B)
5VN DUDMSR A @MC B @QD >C9:E:C9:CI HE SGD JMNVKDCFD SG@S NMD NBBTQQDC CNDR MNS @EEDBS SGD BG@MBD SGD NSGDQ NBBTQR.
'NQ DW@LOKD, SGD NTSBNLDR NE SVN QNKDR NE @ E@HQ CHD @QD HMCDODMCDMS DUDMSR. 5GD NTSBNLD NE SGD EHQRS QNKK CNDR MNS BG@MFD
SGD OQNA@AHKHSX ENQ SGD NTSBNLD NE SGD RDBNMC QNKK. 5N RGNV SVN DUDMSR @QD HMCDODMCDMS, XNT LTRS RGNV DCAN DC: NE SGD
@ANUD BNMCHSHNMR. *E SVN DUDMSR @QD /05 HMCDODMCDMS, SGDM VD R@X SG@S SGDX @QD 9:E:C9:CI.
4@LOKHMF L@X AD CNMD L>I= G:EA68:B:CI NQ L>I=DJI G:EA68:B:CI.
c 4>I= G:EA68:B:CI: *E D@BG LDLADQ NE @ ONOTK@SHNM HR QDOK@BDC @ESDQ HS HR OHBJDC, SGDM SG@S LDLADQ G@R SGD ONRRHAHKHSX
NE ADHMF BGNRDM LNQD SG@M NMBD. 8GDM R@LOKHMF HR CNMD VHSG QDOK@BDLDMS, SGDM DUDMSR @QD BNMRHCDQDC SN AD
HMCDODMCDMS, LD@MHMF SGD QDRTKS NE SGD EHQRS OHBJ VHKK MNS BG@MFD SGD OQNA@AHKHSHDR ENQ SGD RDBNMC OHBJ.
c 4>I=DJI G:EA68:B:CI: 8GDM R@LOKHMF HR CNMD VHSGNTS QDOK@BDLDMS, D@BG LDLADQ NE @ ONOTK@SHNM L@X AD BGNRDM
NMKX NMBD. *M SGHR B@RD, SGD OQNA@AHKHSHDR ENQ SGD RDBNMC OHBJ @QD @EEDBSDC AX SGD QDRTKS NE SGD EHQRS OHBJ. 5GD DUDMSR @QD
BNMRHCDQDC SN AD CDODMCDMS NQ MNS HMCDODMCDMS.
*E HS HR MNS JMNVM VGDSGDQ A @MC B @QD HMCDODMCDMS NQ CDODMCDMS, 6HHJB: I=:N 6G: 9:E:C9:CI JCI>A NDJ 86C H=DL
DI=:GL>H:.
$T=ILHA 3.4
:NT G@UD @ E@HQ, VDKK-RGTEEKDC CDBJ NE 52 B@QCR. *S BNMRHRSR NE ENTQ RTHSR. 5GD RTHSR @QD BKTAR, CH@LNMCR, GD@QSR @MC
RO@CDR. 5GDQD @QD 13 B@QCR HM D@BG RTHS BNMRHRSHMF NE 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, # (I@BJ), * (PTDDM), $ (JHMF) NE
SG@S RTHS.
@. 4@LOKHMF VHSG QDOK@BDLDMS:
4TOONRD XNT OHBJ SGQDD B@QCR VHSG QDOK@BDLDMS. 5GD EHQRS B@QC XNT OHBJ NTS NE SGD 52 B@QCR HR SGD * NE RO@CDR. :NT
OTS SGHR B@QC A@BJ, QDRGTEEKD SGD B@QCR @MC OHBJ @ RDBNMC B@QC EQNL SGD 52-B@QC CDBJ. *S HR SGD SDM NE BKTAR. :NT
OTS SGHR B@QC A@BJ, QDRGTEEKD SGD B@QCR @MC OHBJ @ SGHQC B@QC EQNL SGD 52-B@QC CDBJ. 5GHR SHLD, SGD B@QC HR SGD * NE
RO@CDR @F@HM. :NTQ OHBJR @QD Z* NE RO@CDR, SDM NE BKTAR, * NE RO@CDR\. :NT G@UD OHBJDC SGD * NE RO@CDR SVHBD.
:NT OHBJ D@BG B@QC EQNL SGD 52-B@QC CDBJ.
A. 4@LOKHMF VHSGNTS QDOK@BDLDMS:
4TOONRD XNT OHBJ SGQDD B@QCR VHSGNTS QDOK@BDLDMS. 5GD EHQRS B@QC XNT OHBJ NTS NE SGD 52 B@QCR HR SGD $ NE GD@QSR.
:NT OTS SGHR B@QC @RHCD @MC OHBJ SGD RDBNMC B@QC EQNL SGD 51 B@QCR QDL@HMHMF HM SGD CDBJ. *S HR SGD SGQDD NE
CH@LNMCR. :NT OTS SGHR B@QC @RHCD @MC OHBJ SGD SGHQC B@QC EQNL SGD QDL@HMHMF 50 B@QCR HM SGD CDBJ. 5GD SGHQC B@QC
HR SGD # NE RO@CDR. :NTQ OHBJR @QD Z$ NE GD@QSR, SGQDD NE CH@LNMCR, # NE RO@CDR\. #DB@TRD XNT G@UD OHBJDC SGD
B@QCR VHSGNTS QDOK@BDLDMS, XNT B@MMNS OHBJ SGD R@LD B@QC SVHBD.
188 "'/3$1 3 W /1.!!(+(38 3./("2
3DEO ?KJPAJP EO =R=EH=>HA BKN BNAA =P DPPL://?JT.KNC/?KJPAJP/?KH11562/1.11
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3.4 :NT G@UD @ E@HQ, VDKK-RGTEEKDC CDBJ NE 52 B@QCR. *S BNMRHRSR NE ENTQ RTHSR. 5GD RTHSR @QD BKTAR, CH@LNMCR, GD@QSR @MC
RO@CDR. 5GDQD @QD 13 B@QCR HM D@BG RTHS BNMRHRSHMF NE 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, # (I@BJ), * (PTDDM), $ (JHMF) NE SG@S RTHS.
5GQDD B@QCR @QD OHBJDC @S Q@MCNL.
=. 4TOONRD XNT JMNV SG@S SGD OHBJDC B@QCR @QD * NE RO@CDR, $ NE GD@QSR @MC * NE RO@CDR. $@M XNT CDBHCD HE SGD
R@LOKHMF V@R VHSG NQ VHSGNTS QDOK@BDLDMS
>. 4TOONRD XNT JMNV SG@S SGD OHBJDC B@QCR @QD * NE RO@CDR, $ NE GD@QSR, @MC # NE RO@CDR. $@M XNT CDBHCD HE SGD
R@LOKHMF V@R VHSG NQ VHSGNTS QDOK@BDLDMS
$T=ILHA 3.5
:NT G@UD @ E@HQ, VDKK-RGTEEKDC CDBJ NE 52 B@QCR. *S BNMRHRSR NE ENTQ RTHSR. 5GD RTHSR @QD BKTAR, CH@LNMCR, GD@QSR, @MC
RO@CDR. 5GDQD @QD 13 B@QCR HM D@BG RTHS BNMRHRSHMF NE 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, # (I@BJ), * (PTDDM), @MC $ (JHMF)
NE SG@S RTHS. , = RO@CDR, ! = )D@QSR, D = %H@LNMCR, C = $KTAR.
=. 4TOONRD XNT OHBJ ENTQ B@QCR, ATS CN MNS OTS @MX B@QCR A@BJ HMSN SGD CDBJ. :NTQ B@QCR @QD *,, 1D, 1C, *D.
>. 4TOONRD XNT OHBJ ENTQ B@QCR @MC OTS D@BG B@QC A@BJ ADENQD XNT OHBJ SGD MDWS B@QC. :NTQ B@QCR @QD $!, 7D,
6D, $!.
8GHBG NE 1 NQ 2 CHC XNT R@LOKD VHSG QDOK@BDLDMS @MC VGHBG CHC XNT R@LOKD VHSGNTS QDOK@BDLDMS
1IFONCIH 3.5
@. 8HSGNTS QDOK@BDLDMS; A. 8HSG QDOK@BDLDMS
3.5 :NT G@UD @ E@HQ, VDKK-RGTEEKDC CDBJ NE 52 B@QCR. *S BNMRHRSR NE ENTQ RTHSR. 5GD RTHSR @QD BKTAR, CH@LNMCR, GD@QSR, @MC
RO@CDR. 5GDQD @QD 13 B@QCR HM D@BG RTHS BNMRHRSHMF NE 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, # (I@BJ), * (PTDDM), @MC $ (JHMF) NE
SG@S RTHS. , = RO@CDR, ! = )D@QSR, D = %H@LNMCR, C = $KTAR. 4TOONRD SG@S XNT R@LOKD ENTQ B@QCR VHSGNTS QDOK@BDLDMS.
8GHBG NE SGD ENKKNVHMF NTSBNLDR @QD ONRRHAKD "MRVDQ SGD R@LD PTDRSHNM ENQ R@LOKHMF VHSG QDOK@BDLDMS.
=. *,, 1D, 1C, *D
>. $!, 7D, 6D, $!
?. *,, 7D, 6D, $,
+ONO;FFS #R=FOMCP? #P?HNM
A @MC B @QD BJIJ6AAN :M8AJH>K: DUDMSR HE SGDX B@MMNS NBBTQ @S SGD R@LD SHLD. 5GHR LD@MR SG@S A @MC B CN MNS RG@QD @MX
NTSBNLDR @MC )(A "/% B) = 0.
'NQ DW@LOKD, RTOONRD SGD R@LOKD RO@BD , = Z1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10\. -DS A = Z1, 2, 3, 4, 5\, B = Z4, 5, 6, 7, 8\, @MC
C = Z7, 9\. A "/% B = Z4, 5\. )(A "/% B) =
2
10
@MC HR MNS DPT@K SN YDQN. 5GDQDENQD, A @MC B @QD MNS LTST@KKX DWBKTRHUD.
A @MC C CN MNS G@UD @MX MTLADQR HM BNLLNM RN )(A "/% C) = 0. 5GDQDENQD, A @MC C @QD LTST@KKX DWBKTRHUD.
*E HS HR MNS JMNVM VGDSGDQ A @MC B @QD LTST@KKX DWBKTRHUD, 6HHJB: I=:N 6G: CDI JCI>A NDJ 86C H=DL DI=:GL>H:. 5GD
ENKKNVHMF DW@LOKDR HKKTRSQ@SD SGDRD CDEHMHSHNMR @MC SDQLR.
$T=ILHA 3.6
'KHO SVN E@HQ BNHMR. (5GHR HR @M DWODQHLDMS.)
5GD R@LOKD RO@BD HR Z!!, !-, -!, --\ VGDQD - = S@HKR @MC ! = GD@CR. 5GD NTSBNLDR @QD !!, !-, -!, @MC
--. 5GD NTSBNLDR )5 @MC 5) @QD CHEEDQDMS. 5GD !- LD@MR SG@S SGD EHQRS BNHM RGNVDC GD@CR @MC SGD RDBNMC BNHM
RGNVDC S@HKR. 5GD -! LD@MR SG@S SGD EHQRS BNHM RGNVDC S@HKR @MC SGD RDBNMC BNHM RGNVDC GD@CR.
c -DS A = SGD DUDMS NE FDSSHMF 6I BDHI DC: I6>A. ("S LNRS NMD S@HK LD@MR YDQN NQ NMD S@HK.) 5GDM A B@M AD VQHSSDM
@R Z!!, !-, -!\. 5GD NTSBNLD !! RGNVR YDQN S@HKR. !- @MC -! D@BG RGNV NMD S@HK.
"'/3$1 3 W /1.!!(+(38 3./("2 189
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c -DS B = SGD DUDMS NE FDSSHMF @KK S@HKR. B B@M AD VQHSSDM @R Z--\. B HR SGD 8DBEA:B:CI NE A, RN B = Ac. "KRN,
)(A) + )(B) = )(A) + )(Ac) = 1.
c 5GD OQNA@AHKHSHDR ENQ A @MC ENQ B @QD )(A) =
3
4
@MC )(B) =
1
4
.
c -DS C = SGD DUDMS NE FDSSHMF @KK GD@CR. C = Z!!\. 4HMBD B = Z--\, )(B "/% C) = 0. B @MC C @QD LTST@KKX
DWBKTRHUD. (B @MC C G@UD MN LDLADQR HM BNLLNM ADB@TRD XNT B@MMNS G@UD @KK S@HKR @MC @KK GD@CR @S SGD R@LD
SHLD.)
c -DS D = DUDMS NE FDSSHMF BDG: I=6C DC: S@HK. D = Z--\. )(D) =
1
4
c -DS E = DUDMS NE FDSSHMF @ GD@C NM SGD EHQRS QNKK. (5GHR HLOKHDR XNT B@M FDS DHSGDQ @ GD@C NQ S@HK NM SGD RDBNMC
QNKK.) E = Z!-, !!\. )(E) =
2
4
c 'HMC SGD OQNA@AHKHSX NE FDSSHMF 6I A:6HI DC: (NMD NQ SVN) S@HK HM SVN EKHOR. -DS F = DUDMS NE FDSSHMF @S KD@RS NMD
S@HK HM SVN EKHOR. F = Z!-, -!, --\. )(F) =
3
4
3.6 %Q@V SVN B@QCR EQNL @ RS@MC@QC 52-B@QC CDBJ VHSG QDOK@BDLDMS. 'HMC SGD OQNA@AHKHSX NE FDSSHMF @S KD@RS NMD AK@BJ
B@QC.
$T=ILHA 3.7
'KHO SVN E@HQ BNHMR. 'HMC SGD OQNA@AHKHSHDR NE SGD DUDMSR.
=. -DS F = SGD DUDMS NE FDSSHMF @S LNRS NMD S@HK (YDQN NQ NMD S@HK).
>. -DS = SGD DUDMS NE FDSSHMF SVN E@BDR SG@S @QD SGD R@LD.
?. -DS ! = SGD DUDMS NE FDSSHMF @ GD@C NM SGD EHQRS EKHO ENKKNVDC AX @ GD@C NQ S@HK NM SGD RDBNMC EKHO.
@. "QD F @MC LTST@KKX DWBKTRHUD
A. -DS # = SGD DUDMS NE FDSSHMF @KK S@HKR. "QD # @MC ! LTST@KKX DWBKTRHUD
1IFONCIH 3.7
-NNJ @S SGD R@LOKD RO@BD HM #R;GJF? 3.6.
=. ;DQN (0) NQ NMD (1) S@HKR NBBTQ VGDM SGD NTSBNLDR !!, -!, !- RGNV TO. )(F) =
3
4
>. 5VN E@BDR @QD SGD R@LD HE !! NQ -- RGNV TO. )() =
2
4
?. " GD@C NM SGD EHQRS EKHO ENKKNVDC AX @ GD@C NQ S@HK NM SGD RDBNMC EKHO NBBTQR VGDM !! NQ !- RGNV TO. )(!)
=
2
4
@. F @MC RG@QD !! RN )(F "/% ) HR MNS DPT@K SN YDQN (0). F @MC @QD MNS LTST@KKX DWBKTRHUD.
A. (DSSHMF @KK S@HKR NBBTQR VGDM S@HKR RGNVR TO NM ANSG BNHMR (--). !nR NTSBNLDR @QD !! @MC !-.
# @MC ! G@UD MNSGHMF HM BNLLNM RN )(# "/% !) = 0. # @MC ! @QD LTST@KKX DWBKTRHUD.
190 "'/3$1 3 W /1.!!(+(38 3./("2
3DEO ?KJPAJP EO =R=EH=>HA BKN BNAA =P DPPL://?JT.KNC/?KJPAJP/?KH11562/1.11
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3.7 " ANW G@R SVN A@KKR, NMD VGHSD @MC NMD QDC. 8D RDKDBS NMD A@KK, OTS HS A@BJ HM SGD ANW, @MC RDKDBS @ RDBNMC A@KK
(R@LOKHMF VHSG QDOK@BDLDMS). 'HMC SGD OQNA@AHKHSX NE SGD ENKKNVHMF DUDMSR:
=. -DS F = SGD DUDMS NE FDSSHMF SGD VGHSD A@KK SVHBD.
>. -DS = SGD DUDMS NE FDSSHMF SVN A@KKR NE CHEEDQDMS BNKNQR.
?. -DS ! = SGD DUDMS NE FDSSHMF VGHSD NM SGD EHQRS OHBJ.
@. "QD F @MC LTST@KKX DWBKTRHUD
A. "QD @MC ! LTST@KKX DWBKTRHUD
$T=ILHA 3.8
3NKK NMD E@HQ, RHW-RHCDC CHD. 5GD R@LOKD RO@BD HR Z1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6\. -DS DUDMS A = @ E@BD HR NCC. 5GDM A = Z1, 3, 5\.
-DS DUDMS B = @ E@BD HR DUDM. 5GDM B = Z2, 4, 6\.
c 'HMC SGD BNLOKDLDMS NE A, Ac. 5GD BNLOKDLDMS NE A, Ac, HR B ADB@TRD A @MC B SNFDSGDQ L@JD TO SGD R@LOKD
RO@BD. )(A) + )(B) = )(A) + )(Ac) = 1. "KRN, )(A) =
3
6
@MC )(B) =
3
6
.
c -DS DUDMS C = NCC E@BDR K@QFDQ SG@M SVN. 5GDM C = Z3, 5\. -DS DUDMS D= @KK DUDM E@BDR RL@KKDQ SG@M EHUD. 5GDM
D = Z2, 4\. )(C "/% D) = 0 ADB@TRD XNT B@MMNS G@UD @M NCC @MC DUDM E@BD @S SGD R@LD SHLD. 5GDQDENQD, C
@MC D @QD LTST@KKX DWBKTRHUD DUDMSR.
c -DS DUDMS E = @KK E@BDR KDRR SG@M EHUD. E = Z1, 2, 3, 4\.
"QD C @MC E LTST@KKX DWBKTRHUD DUDMSR ("MRVDQ XDR NQ MN.) 8GX NQ VGX MNS
1IFONCIH 3.8
/N. C = Z3, 5\ @MC E = Z1, 2, 3, 4\. )(C "/% E) =
1
6
. 5N AD LTST@KKX DWBKTRHUD, )(C "/% E) LTRS AD YDQN.
c 'HMC )(C[A). 5GHR HR @ BNMCHSHNM@K OQNA@AHKHSX. 3DB@KK SG@S SGD DUDMS C HR Z3, 5\ @MC DUDMS A HR Z1, 3, 5\. 5N
EHMC )(C[A), EHMC SGD OQNA@AHKHSX NE C TRHMF SGD R@LOKD RO@BD A. :NT G@UD QDCTBDC SGD R@LOKD RO@BD EQNL
SGD NQHFHM@K R@LOKD RO@BD Z1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6\ SN Z1, 3, 5\. 4N, )(C[A) =
2
3
.
3.8 -DS DUDMS A = KD@QMHMF 4O@MHRG. -DS DUDMS B = KD@QMHMF (DQL@M. 5GDM A "/% B = KD@QMHMF 4O@MHRG @MC (DQL@M.
4TOONRD )(A) = 0.4 @MC )(B) = 0.2. )(A "/% B) = 0.08. "QD DUDMSR A @MC B HMCDODMCDMS )HMS: :NT LTRS RGNV 0/&
NE SGD ENKKNVHMF:
c )(A[B) = )(A)
c )(B[A)
c )(A "/% B) = )(A))(B)
$T=ILHA 3.9
-DS DUDMS = S@JHMF @ L@SG BK@RR. -DS DUDMS ! = S@JHMF @ RBHDMBD BK@RR. 5GDM, "/% ! = S@JHMF @ L@SG BK@RR
@MC @ RBHDMBD BK@RR. 4TOONRD )() = 0.6, )(!) = 0.5, @MC )( "/% !) = 0.3. "QD @MC ! HMCDODMCDMS
"'/3$1 3 W /1.!!(+(38 3./("2 191
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*E @MC ! @QD HMCDODMCDMS, SGDM XNT LTRS RGNV ,+" NE SGD ENKKNVHMF:
c )([!) = )()
c )(![) = )(!)
c )( "/% !) = )())(!)
,-2#
1=: 8=D>8: NDJ B6@: 9:E:C9H DC I=: >C;DGB6I>DC NDJ =6K:. :NT BNTKC BGNNRD @MX NE SGD LDSGNCR GDQD
ADB@TRD XNT G@UD SGD MDBDRR@QX HMENQL@SHNM.
@. 4GNV SG@S )([!) = )().
1IFONCIH 3.9
P(GWH) =
P(G AND H)
P(H)
=
0.3
0.5
= 0.6 = P(G)
A. 4GNV )( "/% !) = )())(!).
1IFONCIH 3.9
P(G)P(H) = (0.6)(0.5) = 0.3 = P(G -# H)
4HMBD @MC ! @QD HMCDODMCDMS, JMNVHMF SG@S @ ODQRNM HR S@JHMF @ RBHDMBD BK@RR CNDR MNS BG@MFD SGD BG@MBD
SG@S GD NQ RGD HR S@JHMF @ L@SG BK@RR. *E SGD SVN DUDMSR G@C MNS ADDM HMCDODMCDMS (SG@S HR, SGDX @QD CDODMCDMS) SGDM
JMNVHMF SG@S @ ODQRNM HR S@JHMF @ RBHDMBD BK@RR VNTKC BG@MFD SGD BG@MBD GD NQ RGD HR S@JHMF L@SG. 'NQ OQ@BSHBD,
RGNV SG@S )(![) = )(!) SN RGNV SG@S @MC ! @QD HMCDODMCDMS DUDMSR.
3.9 *M @ A@F, SGDQD @QD RHW QDC L@QAKDR @MC ENTQ FQDDM L@QAKDR. 5GD QDC L@QAKDR @QD L@QJDC VHSG SGD MTLADQR 1, 2, 3,
4, 5, @MC 6. 5GD FQDDM L@QAKDR @QD L@QJDC VHSG SGD MTLADQR 1, 2, 3, @MC 4.
c + = @ QDC L@QAKD
c = @ FQDDM L@QAKD
c ( = @M NCC-MTLADQDC L@QAKD
c 5GD R@LOKD RO@BD HR , = Z+1, +2, +3, +4, +5, +6, 1, 2, 3, 4\.
, G@R SDM NTSBNLDR. 8G@S HR )( "/% ()
$T=ILHA 3.10
-DS DUDMS C = S@JHMF @M &MFKHRG BK@RR. -DS DUDMS D = S@JHMF @ RODDBG BK@RR.
4TOONRD )(C) = 0.75, )(D) = 0.3, )(C[D) = 0.75 @MC )(C "/% D) = 0.225.
+TRSHEX XNTQ @MRVDQR SN SGD ENKKNVHMF PTDRSHNMR MTLDQHB@KKX.
=. "QD C @MC D HMCDODMCDMS
>. "QD C @MC D LTST@KKX DWBKTRHUD
?. 8G@S HR )(D[C)
1IFONCIH 3.10
=. :DR, ADB@TRD )(C[D) = )(C).
>. /N, ADB@TRD )(C "/% D) HR MNS DPT@K SN YDQN.
?. )(D[C) =
P(C AND D)
P(C)
=
0.225
0.75
= 0.3
192 "'/3$1 3 W /1.!!(+(38 3./("2
3DEO ?KJPAJP EO =R=EH=>HA BKN BNAA =P DPPL://?JT.KNC/?KJPAJP/?KH11562/1.11
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3.10 " RSTCDMS FNDR SN SGD KHAQ@QX. -DS DUDMSR B = SGD RSTCDMS BGDBJR NTS @ ANNJ @MC D = SGD RSTCDMS BGDBJ NTS @ %7%.
4TOONRD SG@S )(B) = 0.40, )(D) = 0.30 @MC )(B "/% D) = 0.20.
=. 'HMC )(B[D).
>. 'HMC )(D[B).
?. "QD B @MC D HMCDODMCDMS
@. "QD B @MC D LTST@KKX DWBKTRHUD
$T=ILHA 3.11
*M @ ANW SGDQD @QD SGQDD QDC B@QCR @MC EHUD AKTD B@QCR. 5GD QDC B@QCR @QD L@QJDC VHSG SGD MTLADQR 1, 2, @MC 3, @MC
SGD AKTD B@QCR @QD L@QJDC VHSG SGD MTLADQR 1, 2, 3, 4, @MC 5. 5GD B@QCR @QD VDKK-RGTEEKDC. :NT QD@BG HMSN SGD ANW
(XNT B@MMNS RDD HMSN HS) @MC CQ@V NMD B@QC.
-DS + = QDC B@QC HR CQ@VM, B = AKTD B@QC HR CQ@VM, E = DUDM-MTLADQDC B@QC HR CQ@VM.
5GD R@LOKD RO@BD , = +1, +2, +3, B1, B2, B3, B4, B5. , G@R DHFGS NTSBNLDR.
c )(+) =
3
8
. )(B) =
5
8
. )(+ "/% B) = 0. (:NT B@MMNS CQ@V NMD B@QC SG@S HR ANSG QDC @MC AKTD.)
c )(E) =
3
8
. (5GDQD @QD SGQDD DUDM-MTLADQDC B@QCR, +2, B2, @MC B4.)
c )(E[B) =
2
5
. (5GDQD @QD EHUD AKTD B@QCR: B1, B2, B3, B4, @MC B5. 0TS NE SGD AKTD B@QCR, SGDQD @QD SVN DUDM
B@QCR; B2 @MC B4.)
c )(B[E) =
2
3
. (5GDQD @QD SGQDD DUDM-MTLADQDC B@QCR: +2, B2, @MC B4. 0TS NE SGD DUDM-MTLADQDC B@QCR, SN @QD
AKTD; B2 @MC B4.)
c 5GD DUDMSR + @MC B @QD LTST@KKX DWBKTRHUD ADB@TRD )(+ "/% B) = 0.
c -DS = B@QC VHSG @ MTLADQ FQD@SDQ SG@M 3. = ZB4, B5\. )() =
2
8
. -DS ! = AKTD B@QC MTLADQDC ADSVDDM
NMD @MC ENTQ, HMBKTRHUD. ! = ZB1, B2, B3, B4\. )([!) =
1
4
. (5GD NMKX B@QC HM ! SG@S G@R @ MTLADQ FQD@SDQ
SG@M SGQDD HR B4.) 4HMBD
2
8
=
1
4
, )() = )([!), VGHBG LD@MR SG@S @MC ! @QD HMCDODMCDMS.
3.11 *M @ A@RJDSA@KK @QDM@,
c 70% NE SGD E@MR @QD QNNSHMF ENQ SGD GNLD SD@L.
c 25% NE SGD E@MR @QD VD@QHMF AKTD.
c 20% NE SGD E@MR @QD VD@QHMF AKTD @MC @QD QNNSHMF ENQ SGD @V@X SD@L.
c 0E SGD E@MR QNNSHMF ENQ SGD @V@X SD@L, 67% @QD VD@QHMF AKTD.
-DS A AD SGD DUDMS SG@S @ E@M HR QNNSHMF ENQ SGD @V@X SD@L.
-DS B AD SGD DUDMS SG@S @ E@M HR VD@QHMF AKTD.
"QD SGD DUDMSR NE QNNSHMF ENQ SGD @V@X SD@L @MC VD@QHMF AKTD HMCDODMCDMS "QD SGDX LTST@KKX DWBKTRHUD
$T=ILHA 3.12
*M @ O@QSHBTK@Q BNKKDFD BK@RR, 60% NE SGD RSTCDMSR @QD EDL@KD. 'HESX ODQBDMS NE @KK RSTCDMSR HM SGD BK@RR G@UD KNMF
G@HQ. 'NQSX-EHUD ODQBDMS NE SGD RSTCDMSR @QD EDL@KD @MC G@UD KNMF G@HQ. 0E SGD EDL@KD RSTCDMSR, 75%G@UD KNMF G@HQ.
-DS F AD SGD DUDMS SG@S @ RSTCDMS HR EDL@KD. -DS % AD SGD DUDMS SG@S @ RSTCDMS G@R KNMF G@HQ. 0MD RSTCDMS HR OHBJDC
Q@MCNLKX. "QD SGD DUDMSR NE ADHMF EDL@KD @MC G@UHMF KNMF G@HQ HMCDODMCDMS
c 5GD ENKKNVHMF OQNA@AHKHSHDR @QD FHUDM HM SGHR DW@LOKD:
c )(F) = 0.60; )(%) = 0.50
"'/3$1 3 W /1.!!(+(38 3./("2 193
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c )(F "/% %) = 0.45
c )(%[F) = 0.75
,-2#
1=: 8=D>8: NDJ B6@: 9:E:C9H DC I=: >C;DGB6I>DC NDJ =6K:. :NT BNTKC TRD SGD EHQRS NQ K@RS BNMCHSHNM NM
SGD KHRS ENQ SGHR DW@LOKD. :NT CN MNS JMNV )(F[%) XDS, RN XNT B@MMNS TRD SGD RDBNMC BNMCHSHNM.
1IFONCIH 1
$GDBJ VGDSGDQ )(F "/% %) = )(F))(%). 8D @QD FHUDM SG@S )(F "/% %) = 0.45, ATS )(F))(%) = (0.60)(0.50)
= 0.30. 5GD DUDMSR NE ADHMF EDL@KD @MC G@UHMF KNMF G@HQ @QD MNS HMCDODMCDMS ADB@TRD )(F "/% %) CNDR MNS DPT@K
)(F))(%).
1IFONCIH 2
$GDBJ VGDSGDQ )(%[F) DPT@KR )(%). 8D @QD FHUDM SG@S )(%[F) = 0.75, ATS )(%) = 0.50; SGDX @QD MNS DPT@K. 5GD
DUDMSR NE ADHMF EDL@KD @MC G@UHMF KNMF G@HQ @QD MNS HMCDODMCDMS.
'HN?LJL?N;NCIH I@ 0?MOFNM
5GD DUDMSR NE ADHMF EDL@KD @MC G@UHMF KNMF G@HQ @QD MNS HMCDODMCDMS; JMNVHMF SG@S @ RSTCDMS HR EDL@KD
BG@MFDR SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S @ RSTCDMS G@R KNMF G@HQ.
3.12 .@QJ HR CDBHCHMF VGHBG QNTSD SN S@JD SN VNQJ. )HR BGNHBDR @QD " = SGD *MSDQRS@SD @MC F = 'HESG 4SQDDS.
c )(") = 0.44 @MC )(F) = 0.55
c )(" "/% F) = 0 ADB@TRD .@QJ VHKK S@JD NMKX NMD QNTSD SN VNQJ.
8G@S HR SGD OQNA@AHKHSX NE )(" 03 F)
$T=ILHA 3.13
=. 5NRR NMD E@HQ BNHM (SGD BNHM G@R SVN RHCDR, !@MC -). 5GD NTSBNLDR @QD ????????. $NTMS SGD NTSBNLDR. 5GDQD
@QD ???? NTSBNLDR.
>. 5NRR NMD E@HQ, RHW-RHCDC CHD (SGD CHD G@R 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 NQ 6 CNSR NM @ RHCD). 5GD NTSBNLDR @QD
????????????????. $NTMS SGD NTSBNLDR. 5GDQD @QD ??? NTSBNLDR.
?. .TKSHOKX SGD SVN MTLADQR NE NTSBNLDR. 5GD @MRVDQ HR ???????.
@. *E XNT EKHO NMD E@HQ BNHM @MC ENKKNV HS VHSG SGD SNRR NE NMD E@HQ, RHW-RHCDC CHD, SGD @MRVDQ HM SGQDD HR SGD MTLADQ
NE NTSBNLDR (RHYD NE SGD R@LOKD RO@BD). 8G@S @QD SGD NTSBNLDR ()HMS: 5VN NE SGD NTSBNLDR @QD !1 @MC -6.)
A. &UDMS A = GD@CR (!) NM SGD BNHM ENKKNVDC AX @M DUDM MTLADQ (2, 4, 6) NM SGD CHD.
A = Z?????????????????\. 'HMC )(A).
B. &UDMS B = GD@CR NM SGD BNHM ENKKNVDC AX @ SGQDD NM SGD CHD. B = Z????????\. 'HMC )(B).
C. "QD A @MC B LTST@KKX DWBKTRHUD ()HMS: 8G@S HR )(A "/% B) *E )(A "/% B) = 0, SGDM A @MC B @QD LTST@KKX
DWBKTRHUD.)
D. "QD A @MC B HMCDODMCDMS ()HMS: *R )(A "/% B) = )(A))(B) *E )(A "/% B) = )(A))(B), SGDM A @MC B @QD
HMCDODMCDMS. *E MNS, SGDM SGDX @QD CDODMCDMS).
1IFONCIH 3.13
=. ! @MC -; 2
>. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6; 6
?. 2(6) = 12
@. -1, -2, -3, -4, -5, -6, !1, !2, !3, !4, !5, !6
A. A = Z!2, !4, !6\; )(A) =
3
12
B. B = Z!3\; )(B) =
1
12
C. :DR, ADB@TRD )(A "/% B) = 0
D. )(A "/% B) = 0.)(A))(B) =

3
12

1
12

. )(A "/% B) CNDR MNS DPT@K )(A))(B), RN A @MC B @QD CDODMCDMS.


194 "'/3$1 3 W /1.!!(+(38 3./("2
3DEO ?KJPAJP EO =R=EH=>HA BKN BNAA =P DPPL://?JT.KNC/?KJPAJP/?KH11562/1.11
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3.13 " ANW G@R SVN A@KKR, NMD VGHSD @MC NMD QDC. 8D RDKDBS NMD A@KK, OTS HS A@BJ HM SGD ANW, @MC RDKDBS @ RDBNMC A@KK
(R@LOKHMF VHSG QDOK@BDLDMS). -DS - AD SGD DUDMS NE FDSSHMF SGD VGHSD A@KK SVHBD, F SGD DUDMS NE OHBJHMF SGD VGHSD A@KK
EHQRS, , SGD DUDMS NE OHBJHMF SGD VGHSD A@KK HM SGD RDBNMC CQ@VHMF.
=. $NLOTSD )(-).
>. $NLOTSD )(-[F).
?. "QD - @MC F HMCDODMCDMS.
@. "QD F @MC , LTST@KKX DWBKTRHUD
A. "QD F @MC , HMCDODMCDMS
3.3 U 2QI ;MC= 0OF?M I@ .LI<;<CFCNS
8GDM B@KBTK@SHMF OQNA@AHKHSX, SGDQD @QD SVN QTKDR SN BNMRHCDQ VGDM CDSDQLHMHMF HE SVN DUDMSR @QD HMCDODMCDMS NQ CDODMCDMS
@MC HE SGDX @QD LTST@KKX DWBKTRHUD NQ MNS.
2B? +OFNCJFC=;NCIH 0OF?
*E A @MC B @QD SVN DUDMSR CDEHMDC NM @ H6BEA: HE68:, SGDM: )(A "/% B) = )(B))(A[B).
5GHR QTKD L@X @KRN AD VQHSSDM @R: )(A[B) =
P(A AND B)
P(B)
(5GD OQNA@AHKHSX NE A FHUDM B DPT@KR SGD OQNA@AHKHSX NE A @MC B CHUHCDC AX SGD OQNA@AHKHSX NE B.)
*E A @MC B @QD >C9:E:C9:CI, SGDM )(A[B) = )(A). 5GDM )(A "/% B) = )(A[B))(B) ADBNLDR )(A "/% B) = )(A))(B).
2B? A>>CNCIH 0OF?
*E A @MC B @QD CDEHMDC NM @ R@LOKD RO@BD, SGDM: )(A 03 B) = )(A) + )(B) - )(A "/% B).
"'/3$1 3 W /1.!!(+(38 3./("2 195
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*E A @MC B @QD BJIJ6AAN :M8AJH>K:, SGDM )(A "/% B) = 0. 5GDM )(A 03 B) = )(A) + )(B) - )(A "/% B) ADBNLDR )(A
03 B) = )(A) + )(B).
$T=ILHA 3.14
,K@TR HR SQXHMF SN BGNNRD VGDQD SN FN NM U@B@SHNM. )HR SVN BGNHBDR @QD: A = /DV ;D@K@MC @MC B = "K@RJ@
c ,K@TR B@M NMKX @EENQC NMD U@B@SHNM. 5GD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S GD BGNNRDR A HR )(A) = 0.6 @MC SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S
GD BGNNRDR B HR )(B) = 0.35.
c )(A "/% B) = 0 ADB@TRD ,K@TR B@M NMKX @EENQC SN S@JD NMD U@B@SHNM
c 5GDQDENQD, SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S GD BGNNRDR DHSGDQ /DV ;D@K@MC NQ "K@RJ@ HR )(A 03 B) = )(A) + )(B) = 0.6
+ 0.35 = 0.95. /NSD SG@S SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S GD CNDR MNS BGNNRD SN FN @MXVGDQD NM U@B@SHNM LTRS AD 0.05.
$T=ILHA 3.15
$@QKNR OK@XR BNKKDFD RNBBDQ. )D L@JDR @ FN@K 65%NE SGD SHLD GD RGNNSR. $@QKNR HR FNHMF SN @SSDLOS SVN FN@KR HM @
QNV HM SGD MDWS F@LD. A = SGD DUDMS $@QKNR HR RTBBDRRETK NM GHR EHQRS @SSDLOS. )(A) = 0.65. B = SGD DUDMS $@QKNR HR
RTBBDRRETK NM GHR RDBNMC @SSDLOS. )(B) = 0.65. $@QKNR SDMCR SN RGNNS HM RSQD@JR. 5GD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S GD L@JDR SGD
RDBNMC FN@K $&3"+ SG@S GD L@CD SGD EHQRS FN@K HR 0.90.
@. 8G@S HR SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S GD L@JDR ANSG FN@KR
1IFONCIH 3.15
@. 5GD OQNAKDL HR @RJHMF XNT SN EHMC )(A "/% B) = )(B "/% A). 4HMBD )(B[A) = 0.90: )(B "/% A) = )(B[A)
)(A) = (0.90)(0.65) = 0.585
$@QKNR L@JDR SGD EHQRS @MC RDBNMC FN@KR VHSG OQNA@AHKHSX 0.585.
A. 8G@S HR SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S $@QKNR L@JDR DHSGDQ SGD EHQRS FN@K NQ SGD RDBNMC FN@K
1IFONCIH 3.15
A. 5GD OQNAKDL HR @RJHMF XNT SN EHMC )(A 03 B).
)(A 03 B) = )(A) + )(B) - )(A "/% B) = 0.65 + 0.65 - 0.585 = 0.715
$@QKNR L@JDR DHSGDQ SGD EHQRS FN@K NQ SGD RDBNMC FN@K VHSG OQNA@AHKHSX 0.715.
B. "QD A @MC B HMCDODMCDMS
1IFONCIH 3.15
B. /N, SGDX @QD MNS, ADB@TRD )(B "/% A) = 0.585.
)(B))(A) = (0.65)(0.65) = 0.423
0.423 w 0.585 = )(B "/% A)
4N, )(B "/% A) HR CDI DPT@K SN )(B))(A).
C. "QD A @MC B LTST@KKX DWBKTRHUD
1IFONCIH 3.15
C. /N, SGDX @QD MNS ADB@TRD )(A @MC B) = 0.585.
5N AD LTST@KKX DWBKTRHUD, )(A "/% B) LTRS DPT@K YDQN.
196 "'/3$1 3 W /1.!!(+(38 3./("2
3DEO ?KJPAJP EO =R=EH=>HA BKN BNAA =P DPPL://?JT.KNC/?KJPAJP/?KH11562/1.11
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3.15 )DKDM OK@XR A@RJDSA@KK. 'NQ EQDD SGQNVR, RGD L@JDR SGD RGNS 75% NE SGD SHLD. )DKDM LTRS MNV @SSDLOS SVN EQDD
SGQNVR. C = SGD DUDMS SG@S )DKDM L@JDR SGD EHQRS RGNS. )(C) = 0.75. D = SGD DUDMS )DKDM L@JDR SGD RDBNMC RGNS. )(D)
= 0.75. 5GD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S )DKDM L@JDR SGD RDBNMC EQDD SGQNV FHUDM SG@S RGD L@CD SGD EHQRS HR 0.85. 8G@S HR SGD
OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S )DKDM L@JDR ANSG EQDD SGQNVR
$T=ILHA 3.16
" BNLLTMHSX RVHL SD@L G@R 150 LDLADQR. 0:K:CIN-;>K: NE SGD LDLADQR @QD @CU@MBDC RVHLLDQR. #DGIN-
H:K:C NE SGD LDLADQR @QD HMSDQLDCH@SD RVHLLDQR. 5GD QDL@HMCDQ @QD MNUHBD RVHLLDQR. #DGIN NE SGD @CU@MBDC
RVHLLDQR OQ@BSHBD ENTQ SHLDR @ VDDJ. 1=>GIN NE SGD HMSDQLDCH@SD RVHLLDQR OQ@BSHBD ENTQ SHLDR @ VDDJ. 1:C NE
SGD MNUHBD RVHLLDQR OQ@BSHBD ENTQ SHLDR @ VDDJ. 4TOONRD NMD LDLADQ NE SGD RVHL SD@L HR BGNRDM Q@MCNLKX.
@. 8G@S HR SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S SGD LDLADQ HR @ MNUHBD RVHLLDQ
1IFONCIH 3.16
=.
28
150
A. 8G@S HR SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S SGD LDLADQ OQ@BSHBDR ENTQ SHLDR @ VDDJ
1IFONCIH 3.16
>.
80
150
B. 8G@S HR SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S SGD LDLADQ HR @M @CU@MBDC RVHLLDQ @MC OQ@BSHBDR ENTQ SHLDR @ VDDJ
1IFONCIH 3.16
?.
40
150
C. 8G@S HR SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S @ LDLADQ HR @M @CU@MBDC RVHLLDQ @MC @M HMSDQLDCH@SD RVHLLDQ "QD ADHMF @M
@CU@MBDC RVHLLDQ @MC @M HMSDQLDCH@SD RVHLLDQ LTST@KKX DWBKTRHUD 8GX NQ VGX MNS
1IFONCIH 3.16
@. P(=@R=J?A@ -# EJPANIA@E=PA) = 0, OK PDAOA =NA IQPQ=HHU AT?HQOERA ARAJPO. OSEIIAN ?=JJKP >A
=J =@R=J?A@ OSEIIAN =J@ =J EJPANIA@E=PA OSEIIAN =P PDA O=IA PEIA.
D. "QD ADHMF @ MNUHBD RVHLLDQ @MC OQ@BSHBHMF ENTQ SHLDR @ VDDJ HMCDODMCDMS DUDMSR 8GX NQ VGX MNS
1IFONCIH 3.16
A. -K, PDAOA =NA JKP EJ@ALAJ@AJP ARAJPO.
P(JKRE?A -# LN=?PE?AO BKQN PEIAO LAN SAAG) = 0.0667
P(JKRE?A)P(LN=?PE?AO BKQN PEIAO LAN SAAG) = 0.0996
0.0667 f 0.0996
3.16 " RBGNNK G@R 200 RDMHNQR NE VGNL 140 VHKK AD FNHMF SN BNKKDFD MDWS XD@Q. 'NQSX VHKK AD FNHMF CHQDBSKX SN VNQJ.
5GD QDL@HMCDQ @QD S@JHMF @ F@O XD@Q. 'HESX NE SGD RDMHNQR FNHMF SN BNKKDFD OK@X RONQSR. 5GHQSX NE SGD RDMHNQR FNHMF
"'/3$1 3 W /1.!!(+(38 3./("2 197
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CHQDBSKX SN VNQJ OK@X RONQSR. 'HUD NE SGD RDMHNQR S@JHMF @ F@O XD@Q OK@X RONQSR. 8G@S HR SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S @ RDMHNQ HR
S@JHMF @ F@O XD@Q
$T=ILHA 3.17
'DKHBHSX @SSDMCR .NCDRSN +$ HM .NCDRSN, $". 5GD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S 'DKHBHSX DMQNKKR HM @ L@SG BK@RR HR 0.2 @MC SGD
OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S RGD DMQNKKR HM @ RODDBG BK@RR HR 0.65. 5GD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S RGD DMQNKKR HM @ L@SG BK@RR (*7&/ SG@S
RGD DMQNKKR HM RODDBG BK@RR HR 0.25.
-DS: & = L@SG BK@RR, , = RODDBG BK@RR, &[, = L@SG FHUDM RODDBG
=. 8G@S HR SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S 'DKHBHSX DMQNKKR HM L@SG @MC RODDBG
'HMC )(& "/% ,) = )(&[,))(,).
>. 8G@S HR SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S 'DKHBHSX DMQNKKR HM L@SG NQ RODDBG BK@RRDR
'HMC )(& 03 ,) = )(&) + )(,) - )(& "/% ,).
?. "QD & @MC , HMCDODMCDMS *R )(&[,) = )(&)
@. "QD & @MC , LTST@KKX DWBKTRHUD *R )(& "/% ,) = 0
1IFONCIH 3.17
=. 0.1625, >. 0.6875, ?. -K, @. -K
198 "'/3$1 3 W /1.!!(+(38 3./("2
3DEO ?KJPAJP EO =R=EH=>HA BKN BNAA =P DPPL://?JT.KNC/?KJPAJP/?KH11562/1.11
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3.17 " RSTCDMS FNDR SN SGD KHAQ@QX. -DS DUDMSR B = SGD RSTCDMS BGDBJR NTS @ ANNJ @MC D = SGD RSTCDMS BGDBJ NTS @ %7%.
4TOONRD SG@S )(B) = 0.40, )(D) = 0.30 @MC )(D[B) = 0.5.
=. 'HMC )(B "/% D).
>. 'HMC )(B 03 D).
$T=ILHA 3.18
4STCHDR RGNV SG@S @ANTS NMD VNL@M HM RDUDM (@OOQNWHL@SDKX 14.3%) VGN KHUD SN AD 90 VHKK CDUDKNO AQD@RS B@MBDQ.
4TOONRD SG@S NE SGNRD VNLDM VGN CDUDKNO AQD@RS B@MBDQ, @ SDRS HR MDF@SHUD 2% NE SGD SHLD. "KRN RTOONRD SG@S HM
SGD FDMDQ@K ONOTK@SHNM NE VNLDM, SGD SDRS ENQ AQD@RS B@MBDQ HR MDF@SHUD @ANTS 85% NE SGD SHLD. -DS B = VNL@M
CDUDKNOR AQD@RS B@MBDQ @MC KDS ' = SDRSR MDF@SHUD. 4TOONRD NMD VNL@M HR RDKDBSDC @S Q@MCNL.
@. 8G@S HR SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S SGD VNL@M CDUDKNOR AQD@RS B@MBDQ 8G@S HR SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S VNL@M SDRSR
MDF@SHUD
1IFONCIH 3.18
=. P(B) = 0.143; P(N) = 0.85
A. (HUDM SG@S SGD VNL@M G@R AQD@RS B@MBDQ, VG@S HR SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S RGD SDRSR MDF@SHUD
1IFONCIH 3.18
>. P(NWB) = 0.02
B. 8G@S HR SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S SGD VNL@M G@R AQD@RS B@MBDQ "/% SDRSR MDF@SHUD
1IFONCIH 3.18
?. P(B -# N) = P(B)P(NWB) = (0.143)(0.02) = 0.0029
C. 8G@S HR SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S SGD VNL@M G@R AQD@RS B@MBDQ NQ SDRSR MDF@SHUD
1IFONCIH 3.18
@. P(B .1 N) = P(B) + P(N) - P(B -# N) = 0.143 + 0.85 - 0.0029 = 0.9901
D. "QD G@UHMF AQD@RS B@MBDQ @MC SDRSHMF MDF@SHUD HMCDODMCDMS DUDMSR
1IFONCIH 3.18
A. -K. P(N) = 0.85; P(NWB) = 0.02. 2K, P(NWB) @KAO JKP AMQ=H P(N).
E. "QD G@UHMF AQD@RS B@MBDQ @MC SDRSHMF MDF@SHUD LTST@KKX DWBKTRHUD
1IFONCIH 3.18
B. -K. P(B -# N) = 0.0029. %KN B =J@ N PK >A IQPQ=HHU AT?HQOERA, P(B -# N) IQOP >A VANK.
"'/3$1 3 W /1.!!(+(38 3./("2 199
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3.18 " RBGNNK G@R 200 RDMHNQR NE VGNL 140 VHKK AD FNHMF SN BNKKDFD MDWS XD@Q. 'NQSX VHKK AD FNHMF CHQDBSKX SN VNQJ.
5GD QDL@HMCDQ @QD S@JHMF @ F@O XD@Q. 'HESX NE SGD RDMHNQR FNHMF SN BNKKDFD OK@X RONQSR. 5GHQSX NE SGD RDMHNQR FNHMF
CHQDBSKX SN VNQJ OK@X RONQSR. 'HUD NE SGD RDMHNQR S@JHMF @ F@O XD@Q OK@X RONQSR. 8G@S HR SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S @ RDMHNQ HR
FNHMF SN BNKKDFD @MC OK@XR RONQSR
$T=ILHA 3.19
3DEDQ SN SGD HMENQL@SHNM HM #R;GJF? 3.18. ) = SDRSR ONRHSHUD.
=. (HUDM SG@S @ VNL@M CDUDKNOR AQD@RS B@MBDQ, VG@S HR SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S RGD SDRSR ONRHSHUD. 'HMC )()[B) = 1 -
)('[B).
>. 8G@S HR SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S @ VNL@M CDUDKNOR AQD@RS B@MBDQ @MC SDRSR ONRHSHUD. 'HMC )(B "/% )) =
)()[B))(B).
?. 8G@S HR SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S @ VNL@M CNDR MNS CDUDKNO AQD@RS B@MBDQ. 'HMC )(Bc) = 1 - )(B).
@. 8G@S HR SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S @ VNL@M SDRSR ONRHSHUD ENQ AQD@RS B@MBDQ. 'HMC )()) = 1 - )(').
1IFONCIH 3.19
=. 0.98; >. 0.1401; ?. 0.857; @. 0.15
3.19 " RSTCDMS FNDR SN SGD KHAQ@QX. -DS DUDMSR B = SGD RSTCDMS BGDBJR NTS @ ANNJ @MC D = SGD RSTCDMS BGDBJR NTS @
%7%. 4TOONRD SG@S )(B) = 0.40, )(D) = 0.30 @MC )(D[B) = 0.5.
=. 'HMC )(Bc).
>. 'HMC )(D "/% B).
?. 'HMC )(B[D).
@. 'HMC )(D "/% Bc).
A. 'HMC )(D[Bc).
200 "'/3$1 3 W /1.!!(+(38 3./("2
3DEO ?KJPAJP EO =R=EH=>HA BKN BNAA =P DPPL://?JT.KNC/?KJPAJP/?KH11562/1.11
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3.4 U !IHNCHA?H=S 2;<F?M
" 8DCI>C<:C8N I67A: OQNUHCDR @ V@X NE ONQSQ@XHMF C@S@ SG@S B@M E@BHKHS@SD B@KBTK@SHMF OQNA@AHKHSHDR. 5GD S@AKD GDKOR HM
CDSDQLHMHMF BNMCHSHNM@K OQNA@AHKHSHDR PTHSD D@RHKX. 5GD S@AKD CHROK@XR R@LOKD U@KTDR HM QDK@SHNM SN SVN CHEEDQDMS U@QH@AKDR SG@S
L@X AD CDODMCDMS NQ BNMSHMFDMS NM NMD @MNSGDQ. -@SDQ NM, VD VHKK TRD BNMSHMFDMBX S@AKDR @F@HM, ATS HM @MNSGDQ L@MMDQ.
$T=ILHA 3.20
4TOONRD @ RSTCX NE RODDCHMF UHNK@SHNMR @MC CQHUDQR VGN TRD B@Q OGNMDR OQNCTBDC SGD ENKKNVHMF EHBSHNM@K C@S@:
1J??>CHA PCIF;NCIH CH NB?
F;MN S?;L
,I MJ??>CHA PCIF;NCIH CH NB?
F;MN S?;L
2IN;F
"=N LDKJA QOAN 25 280 305
-KP = ?=N LDKJA
QOAN
45 405 450
3KP=H 70 685 755
2;<F? 3.2
5GD SNS@K MTLADQ NE ODNOKD HM SGD R@LOKD HR 755. 5GD QNV SNS@KR @QD 305 @MC 450. 5GD BNKTLM SNS@KR @QD 70
@MC 685. /NSHBD SG@S 305 + 450 = 755 @MC 70 + 685 = 755.
$@KBTK@SD SGD ENKKNVHMF OQNA@AHKHSHDR TRHMF SGD S@AKD.
@. 'HMC )(1DQRNM HR @ B@Q OGNMD TRDQ).
1IFONCIH 3.20
=.
number of car phone users
total number in study
=
305
755
A. 'HMC )(ODQRNM G@C MN UHNK@SHNM HM SGD K@RS XD@Q).
1IFONCIH 3.20
>.
number that had no violation
total number in study
=
685
755
B. 'HMC )(1DQRNM G@C MN UHNK@SHNM HM SGD K@RS XD@Q "/% V@R @ B@Q OGNMD TRDQ).
1IFONCIH 3.20
?.
280
755
C. 'HMC )(1DQRNM HR @ B@Q OGNMD TRDQ 03 ODQRNM G@C MN UHNK@SHNM HM SGD K@RS XD@Q).
1IFONCIH 3.20
@.

305
755
+
685
755


280
755
=
710
755
D. 'HMC )(1DQRNM HR @ B@Q OGNMD TRDQ (*7&/ ODQRNM G@C @ UHNK@SHNM HM SGD K@RS XD@Q).
1IFONCIH 3.20
"'/3$1 3 W /1.!!(+(38 3./("2 201
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A.
25
70
(3DA O=ILHA OL=?A EO NA@Q?A@ PK PDA JQI>AN KB LANOKJO SDK D=@ = REKH=PEKJ.)
E. 'HMC )(1DQRNM G@C MN UHNK@SHNM K@RS XD@Q (*7&/ ODQRNM V@R MNS @ B@Q OGNMD TRDQ)
1IFONCIH 3.20
B.
405
450
(3DA O=ILHA OL=?A EO NA@Q?A@ PK PDA JQI>AN KB LANOKJO SDK SANA JKP ?=N LDKJA QOANO.)
3.20 2;<F? 3.3 RGNVR SGD MTLADQ NE @SGKDSDR VGN RSQDSBG ADENQD DWDQBHRHMF @MC GNV L@MX G@C HMITQHDR VHSGHM SGD
O@RS XD@Q.
'HDOLS CH F;MN S?;L ,I CHDOLS CH F;MN S?;L 2IN;F
2PNAP?DAO 55 295 350
#KAO JKP OPNAP?D 231 219 450
3KP=H 286 514 800
2;<F? 3.3
=. 8G@S HR )(@SGKDSD RSQDSBGDR ADENQD DWDQBHRHMF)
>. 8G@S HR )(@SGKDSD RSQDSBGDR ADENQD DWDQBHRHMF[MN HMITQX HM SGD K@RS XD@Q)
$T=ILHA 3.21
2;<F? 3.4 RGNVR @ Q@MCNL R@LOKD NE 100 GHJDQR @MC SGD @QD@R NE GHJHMF SGDX OQDEDQ.
1?R 2B? !I;MNFCH? ,?;L *;E?M ;H> 1NL?;GM -H +IOHN;CH .?;EM 2IN;F
%AI=HA 18 16 <<< 45
,=HA <<< <<< 14 55
3KP=H <<< 41 <<< <<<
2;<F? 3.4 &CECHA AL?; .L?@?L?H=?
@. $NLOKDSD SGD S@AKD.
1IFONCIH 3.21
202 "'/3$1 3 W /1.!!(+(38 3./("2
3DEO ?KJPAJP EO =R=EH=>HA BKN BNAA =P DPPL://?JT.KNC/?KJPAJP/?KH11562/1.11
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=.
1?R 2B? !I;MNFCH? ,?;L *;E?M ;H> 1NL?;GM -H +IOHN;CH .?;EM 2IN;F
%AI=HA 18 16 11 45
,=HA 16 25 14 55
3KP=H 34 41 25 100
2;<F? 3.5 &CECHA AL?; .L?@?L?H=?
A. "QD SGD DUDMSR "ADHMF EDL@KD" @MC "OQDEDQQHMF SGD BN@RSKHMD" HMCDODMCDMS DUDMSR
-DS F = ADHMF EDL@KD @MC KDS C = OQDEDQQHMF SGD BN@RSKHMD.
1. 'HMC )(F "/% C).
2. 'HMC )(F))(C)
"QD SGDRD SVN MTLADQR SGD R@LD *E SGDX @QD, SGDM F @MC C @QD HMCDODMCDMS. *E SGDX @QD MNS, SGDM F @MC C @QD
MNS HMCDODMCDMS.
1IFONCIH 3.21
A.
1. )(F "/% C) =
18
100
= 0.18
2. )(F))(C) =

45
100

34
100

= (0.45)(0.34) = 0.153
)(F "/% C) w )(F))(C), RN SGD DUDMSR F @MC C @QD MNS HMCDODMCDMS.
B. 'HMC SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S @ ODQRNM HR L@KD FHUDM SG@S SGD ODQRNM OQDEDQR GHJHMF MD@Q K@JDR @MC RSQD@LR. -DS L@KD
& = ADHMF L@KD, @MC KDS % = OQDEDQR GHJHMF MD@Q K@JDR @MC RSQD@LR.
1. 8G@S VNQC SDKKR XNT SGHR HR @ BNMCHSHNM@K
2. 'HKK HM SGD AK@MJR @MC B@KBTK@SD SGD OQNA@AHKHSX: )(???[???) = ???.
3. *R SGD R@LOKD RO@BD ENQ SGHR OQNAKDL @KK 100 GHJDQR *E MNS, VG@S HR HS
1IFONCIH 3.21
?.
1. 5GD VNQC 'FHUDM' SDKKR XNT SG@S SGHR HR @ BNMCHSHNM@K.
2. )(&[%) =
25
41
3. /N, SGD R@LOKD RO@BD ENQ SGHR OQNAKDL HR SGD 41 GHJDQR VGN OQDEDQ K@JDR @MC RSQD@LR.
C. 'HMC SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S @ ODQRNM HR EDL@KD NQ OQDEDQR GHJHMF NM LNTMS@HM OD@JR. -DS F = ADHMF EDL@KD, @MC KDS
) = OQDEDQR LNTMS@HM OD@JR.
1. 'HMC )(F).
2. 'HMC )()).
3. 'HMC )(F "/% )).
4. 'HMC )(F 03 )).
1IFONCIH 3.21
@.
1. )(F) =
45
100
2. )()) =
25
100
"'/3$1 3 W /1.!!(+(38 3./("2 203
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3. )(F "/% )) =
11
100
4. )(F 03 )) =
45
100
+
25
100
-
11
100
=
59
100
3.21 2;<F? 3.6 RGNVR @ Q@MCNL R@LOKD NE 200 BXBKHRSR @MC SGD QNTSDR SGDX OQDEDQ. -DS & = L@KDR @MC ! = GHKKX O@SG.
%?H>?L *;E? .;NB &CFFS .;NB 5II>?> .;NB 2IN;F
%AI=HA 45 38 27 110
,=HA 26 52 12 90
3KP=H 71 90 39 200
2;<F? 3.6
=. 0TS NE SGD L@KDR, VG@S HR SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S SGD BXBKHRS OQDEDQR @ GHKKX O@SG
>. "QD SGD DUDMSR oADHMF L@KDp @MC oOQDEDQQHMF SGD GHKKX O@SGp HMCDODMCDMS DUDMSR
$T=ILHA 3.22
.TCCX .NTRD KHUDR HM @ B@FD VHSG SGQDD CNNQR. *E .TCCX FNDR NTS SGD EHQRS CNNQ, SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S GD FDSR B@TFGS
AX "KHRR@ SGD B@S HR
1
5
@MC SGD OQNA@AHKHSX GD HR MNS B@TFGS HR
4
5
. *E GD FNDR NTS SGD RDBNMC CNNQ, SGD OQNA@AHKHSX GD
FDSR B@TFGS AX "KHRR@ HR
1
4
@MC SGD OQNA@AHKHSX GD HR MNS B@TFGS HR
3
4
. 5GD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S "KHRR@ B@SBGDR .TCCX
BNLHMF NTS NE SGD SGHQC CNNQ HR
1
2
@MC SGD OQNA@AHKHSX RGD CNDR MNS B@SBG .TCCX HR
1
2
. *S HR DPT@KKX KHJDKX SG@S
.TCCX VHKK BGNNRD @MX NE SGD SGQDD CNNQR RN SGD OQNA@AHKHSX NE BGNNRHMF D@BG CNNQ HR
1
3
.
!;OABN IL ,IN "IIL -H? "IIL 2QI "IIL 2BL?? 2IN;F
"=QCDP
1
15
1
12
1
6
<<<<
-KP "=QCDP
4
15
3
12
1
6
<<<<
3KP=H <<<< <<<< <<<< 1
2;<F? 3.7 "IIL !BIC=?
c 5GD EHQRS DMSQX
1
15
=

1
5

1
3

HR )(%NNQ 0MD "/% $@TFGS)


204 "'/3$1 3 W /1.!!(+(38 3./("2
3DEO ?KJPAJP EO =R=EH=>HA BKN BNAA =P DPPL://?JT.KNC/?KJPAJP/?KH11562/1.11
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c 5GD DMSQX
4
15
=

4
5

1
3

HR )(%NNQ 0MD "/% /NS $@TFGS)


7DQHEX SGD QDL@HMHMF DMSQHDR.
@. $NLOKDSD SGD OQNA@AHKHSX BNMSHMFDMBX S@AKD. $@KBTK@SD SGD DMSQHDR ENQ SGD SNS@KR. 7DQHEX SG@S SGD KNVDQ-QHFGS
BNQMDQ DMSQX HR 1.
1IFONCIH 3.22
=.
!;OABN IL ,IN "IIL -H? "IIL 2QI "IIL 2BL?? 2IN;F
"=QCDP
1
15
1
12
1
6
19
60
-KP "=QCDP
4
15
3
12
1
6
41
60
3KP=H
5
15
4
12
2
6
1
2;<F? 3.8 "IIL !BIC=?
A. 8G@S HR SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S "KHRR@ CNDR MNS B@SBG .TCCX
1IFONCIH 3.22
>.
41
60
B. 8G@S HR SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S .TCCX BGNNRDR %NNQ 0MD 03 %NNQ 5VN FHUDM SG@S .TCCX HR B@TFGS AX "KHRR@
1IFONCIH 3.22
?.
9
19
$T=ILHA 3.23
2;<F? 3.9 BNMS@HMR SGD MTLADQ NE BQHLDR ODQ 100,000 HMG@AHS@MSR EQNL 2008 SN 2011 HM SGD 6.4.
7?;L 0I<<?LS OLAF;LS 0;J? 4?BC=F? 2IN;F
2008 145.7 732.1 29.7 314.7
2009 133.1 717.7 29.1 259.2
2010 119.3 701 27.7 239.1
2;<F? 3.9 3HCN?> 1N;N?M !LCG? 'H>?R 0;N?M .?L 100,000
'HB;<CN;HNM 2008X2011
"'/3$1 3 W /1.!!(+(38 3./("2 205
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7?;L 0I<<?LS OLAF;LS 0;J? 4?BC=F? 2IN;F
2011 113.7 702.2 26.8 229.6
3KP=H
2;<F? 3.9 3HCN?> 1N;N?M !LCG? 'H>?R 0;N?M .?L 100,000
'HB;<CN;HNM 2008X2011
505"- D@BG BNKTLM @MC D@BG QNV. 5NS@K C@S@ = 4,520.7
=. 'HMC )(2009 "/% 3NAADQX).
>. 'HMC )(2010 "/% #TQFK@QX).
?. 'HMC )(2010 03 #TQFK@QX).
@. 'HMC )(2011[3@OD).
A. 'HMC )(7DGHBKD[2008).
1IFONCIH 3.23
=. 0.0294, >. 0.1551, ?. 0.7165, @. 0.2365, A. 0.2575
3.23 2;<F? 3.10 QDK@SDR SGD VDHFGSR @MC GDHFGSR NE @ FQNTO NE HMCHUHCT@KR O@QSHBHO@SHMF HM @M NARDQU@SHNM@K RSTCX.
5?CABN/&?CABN 2;FF +?>COG 1BILN 2IN;FM
.>AOA 18 28 14
-KNI=H 20 51 28
4J@ANSAECDP 12 25 9
3KP=HO
2;<F? 3.10
=. 'HMC SGD SNS@K ENQ D@BG QNV @MC BNKTLM
>. 'HMC SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S @ Q@MCNLKX BGNRDM HMCHUHCT@K EQNL SGHR FQNTO HR 5@KK.
?. 'HMC SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S @ Q@MCNLKX BGNRDM HMCHUHCT@K EQNL SGHR FQNTO HR 0ADRD @MC 5@KK.
@. 'HMC SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S @ Q@MCNLKX BGNRDM HMCHUHCT@K EQNL SGHR FQNTO HR 5@KK FHUDM SG@S SGD HCHUHCT@K HR 0ADRD.
A. 'HMC SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S @ Q@MCNLKX BGNRDM HMCHUHCT@K EQNL SGHR FQNTO HR 0ADRD FHUDM SG@S SGD HMCHUHCT@K HR 5@KK.
B. 'HMC SGD OQNA@AHKHSX @ Q@MCNLKX BGNRDM HMCHUHCT@K EQNL SGHR FQNTO HR 5@KK @MC 6MCDQVDHFGS.
C. "QD SGD DUDMSR 0ADRD @MC 5@KK HMCDODMCDMS
3.5 U 2L?? ;H> 4?HH "C;AL;GM
4NLDSHLDR, VGDM SGD OQNA@AHKHSX OQNAKDLR @QD BNLOKDW, HS B@M AD GDKOETK SN FQ@OG SGD RHST@SHNM. 5QDD CH@FQ@LR @MC 7DMM
CH@FQ@LR @QD SVN SNNKR SG@S B@M AD TRDC SN UHRT@KHYD @MC RNKUD BNMCHSHNM@K OQNA@AHKHSHDR.
206 "'/3$1 3 W /1.!!(+(38 3./("2
3DEO ?KJPAJP EO =R=EH=>HA BKN BNAA =P DPPL://?JT.KNC/?KJPAJP/?KH11562/1.11
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2L?? "C;AL;GM
" IG:: 9>6<G6B HR @ RODBH@K SXOD NE FQ@OG TRDC SN CDSDQLHMD SGD NTSBNLDR NE @M DWODQHLDMS. *S BNMRHRSR NE "AQ@MBGDR" SG@S
@QD K@ADKDC VHSG DHSGDQ EQDPTDMBHDR NQ OQNA@AHKHSHDR. 5QDD CH@FQ@LR B@M L@JD RNLD OQNA@AHKHSX OQNAKDLR D@RHDQ SN UHRT@KHYD
@MC RNKUD. 5GD ENKKNVHMF DW@LOKD HKKTRSQ@SDR GNV SN TRD @ SQDD CH@FQ@L.
$T=ILHA 3.24
*M @M TQM, SGDQD @QD 11 A@KKR. 5GQDD A@KKR @QD QDC (+) @MC DHFGS A@KKR @QD AKTD (B). %Q@V SVN A@KKR, NMD @S @ SHLD,
L>I= G:EA68:B:CI. "8HSG QDOK@BDLDMS" LD@MR SG@S XNT OTS SGD EHQRS A@KK A@BJ HM SGD TQM ADENQD XNT RDKDBS SGD
RDBNMC A@KK. 5GD SQDD CH@FQ@L TRHMF EQDPTDMBHDR SG@S RGNV @KK SGD ONRRHAKD NTSBNLDR ENKKNVR.
$CAOL? 3.2 3KP=H = 64 + 24 + 24 + 9 = 121
5GD EHQRS RDS NE AQ@MBGDR QDOQDRDMSR SGD EHQRS CQ@V. 5GD RDBNMC RDS NE AQ@MBGDR QDOQDRDMSR SGD RDBNMC CQ@V.
&@BG NE SGD NTSBNLDR HR CHRSHMBS. *M E@BS, VD B@M KHRS D@BG QDC A@KK @R +1, +2, @MC +3 @MC D@BG AKTD A@KK @R B1, B2,
B3, B4, B5, B6, B7, @MC B8. 5GDM SGD MHMD ++ NTSBNLDR B@M AD VQHSSDM @R:
+1+1; +1+2; +1+3; +2+1; +2+2; +2+3; +3+1; +3+2; +3+3
5GD NSGDQ NTSBNLDR @QD RHLHK@Q.
5GDQD @QD @ SNS@K NE 11 A@KKR HM SGD TQM. %Q@V SVN A@KKR, NMD @S @ SHLD, VHSG QDOK@BDLDMS. 5GDQD @QD 11(11) =
121 NTSBNLDR, SGD RHYD NE SGD H6BEA: HE68:.
@. -HRS SGD 24 B+ NTSBNLDR: B1+1, B1+2, B1+3, ...
1IFONCIH 3.24
=. B1R1; B1R2; B1R3; B2R1; B2R2; B2R3; B3R1; B3R2; B3R3; B4R1; B4R2; B4R3; B5R1; B5R2;
B5R3; B6R1; B6R2; B6R3; B7R1; B7R2; B7R3; B8R1; B8R2; B8R3
A. 6RHMF SGD SQDD CH@FQ@L, B@KBTK@SD )(++).
1IFONCIH 3.24
>. P(RR) =

3
11

3
11

=
9
121
B. 6RHMF SGD SQDD CH@FQ@L, B@KBTK@SD )(+B 03 B+).
1IFONCIH 3.24
?. P(RB .1 BR) =

3
11

8
11

8
11

3
11

=
48
121
C. 6RHMF SGD SQDD CH@FQ@L, B@KBTK@SD )(+ NM 1RS CQ@V "/% B NM 2MC CQ@V).
1IFONCIH 3.24
"'/3$1 3 W /1.!!(+(38 3./("2 207
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@. P(R KJ 1OP @N=S -# B KJ 2J@ @N=S) = P(RB) =

3
11

8
11

=
24
121
D. 6RHMF SGD SQDD CH@FQ@L, B@KBTK@SD )(+ NM 2MC CQ@V (*7&/ B NM 1RS CQ@V).
1IFONCIH 3.24
D. )(+ NM 2MC CQ@V (*7&/ B NM 1RS CQ@V) = )(+ NM 2MC[B NM 1RS) =
24
88
=
3
11
5GHR OQNAKDL HR @ BNMCHSHNM@K NMD. 5GD R@LOKD RO@BD G@R ADDM QDCTBDC SN SGNRD NTSBNLDR SG@S @KQD@CX G@UD
@ AKTD NM SGD EHQRS CQ@V. 5GDQD @QD 24 + 64 = 88 ONRRHAKD NTSBNLDR (24 B+ @MC 64 BB). 5VDMSX-ENTQ NE SGD 88
ONRRHAKD NTSBNLDR @QD B+.
24
88
=
3
11
.
E. 6RHMF SGD SQDD CH@FQ@L, B@KBTK@SD )(BB).
1IFONCIH 3.24
B. P(BB) =
64
121
F. 6RHMF SGD SQDD CH@FQ@L, B@KBTK@SD )(B NM SGD 2MC CQ@V FHUDM + NM SGD EHQRS CQ@V).
1IFONCIH 3.24
F. )(B NM 2MC CQ@V[+ NM 1RS CQ@V) =
8
11
5GDQD @QD 9 + 24 NTSBNLDR SG@S G@UD + NM SGD EHQRS CQ@V (9 ++ @MC 24 +B). 5GD R@LOKD RO@BD HR SGDM 9 + 24
= 33. 24 NE SGD 33 NTSBNLDR G@UD B NM SGD RDBNMC CQ@V. 5GD OQNA@AHKHSX HR SGDM
24
33
.
208 "'/3$1 3 W /1.!!(+(38 3./("2
3DEO ?KJPAJP EO =R=EH=>HA BKN BNAA =P DPPL://?JT.KNC/?KJPAJP/?KH11562/1.11
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3.24 *M @ RS@MC@QC CDBJ, SGDQD @QD 52 B@QCR. 12 B@QCR @QD E@BD B@QCR (DUDMS F) @MC 40 B@QCR @QD MNS E@BD B@QCR (DUDMS ').
%Q@V SVN B@QCR, NMD @S @ SHLD, VHSG QDOK@BDLDMS. "KK ONRRHAKD NTSBNLDR @QD RGNVM HM SGD SQDD CH@FQ@L @R EQDPTDMBHDR.
6RHMF SGD SQDD CH@FQ@L, B@KBTK@SD )(FF).
$CAOL? 3.3
"'/3$1 3 W /1.!!(+(38 3./("2 209
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$T=ILHA 3.25
"M TQM G@R SGQDD QDC L@QAKDR @MC DHFGS AKTD L@QAKDR HM HS. %Q@V SVN L@QAKDR, NMD @S @ SHLD, SGHR SHLD VHSGNTS
QDOK@BDLDMS, EQNL SGD TQM. "4>I=DJI G:EA68:B:CI" LD@MR SG@S XNT CN MNS OTS SGD EHQRS A@KK A@BJ ADENQD XNT
RDKDBS SGD RDBNMC L@QAKD. 'NKKNVHMF HR @ SQDD CH@FQ@LENQ SGHR RHST@SHNM. 5GD AQ@MBGDR @QD K@ADKDC VHSG OQNA@AHKHSHDR
HMRSD@C NE EQDPTDMBHDR. 5GD MTLADQR @S SGD DMCR NE SGD AQ@MBGDR @QD B@KBTK@SDC AX LTKSHOKXHMF SGD MTLADQR NM SGD
SVN BNQQDRONMCHMF AQ@MBGDR, ENQ DW@LOKD,

3
11

2
10

=
6
110
.
$CAOL? 3.4 3KP=H =
56 + 24 + 24 + 6
110
=
110
110
= 1
,-2#
*E XNT CQ@V @ QDC NM SGD EHQRS CQ@V EQNL SGD SGQDD QDC ONRRHAHKHSHDR, SGDQD @QD SVN QDC L@QAKDR KDES SN CQ@V NM
SGD RDBNMC CQ@V. :NT CN MNS OTS A@BJ NQ QDOK@BD SGD EHQRS L@QAKD @ESDQ XNT G@UD CQ@VM HS. :NT CQ@V L>I=DJI
G:EA68:B:CI, RN SG@S NM SGD RDBNMC CQ@V SGDQD @QD SDM L@QAKDR KDES HM SGD TQM.
210 "'/3$1 3 W /1.!!(+(38 3./("2
3DEO ?KJPAJP EO =R=EH=>HA BKN BNAA =P DPPL://?JT.KNC/?KJPAJP/?KH11562/1.11
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$@KBTK@SD SGD ENKKNVHMF OQNA@AHKHSHDR TRHMF SGD SQDD CH@FQ@L.
@. )(++) = ????????
1IFONCIH 3.25
=. P(RR) =

3
11

2
10

=
6
110
A. 'HKK HM SGD AK@MJR:
)(+B 03 B+) =

3
11

8
10

+ (___)(___) =
48
110
1IFONCIH 3.25
>. P(RB .1 BR) =

3
11

8
10

8
11

3
10

=
48
110
B. )(+ NM 2MC[B NM 1RS) =
1IFONCIH 3.25
?. P(R KJ 2J@WB KJ 1OP) =
3
10
C. 'HKK HM SGD AK@MJR.
)(+ NM 1RS "/% B NM 2MC) = )(+B) = (???)(???) =
24
100
1IFONCIH 3.25
@. P(R KJ 1OP -# B KJ 2J@) = P(RB) =

3
11

8
10

=
24
100
D. 'HMC )(BB).
1IFONCIH 3.25
A. P(BB) =

8
11

7
10

E. 'HMC )(B NM 2MC[+ NM 1RS).


1IFONCIH 3.25
B. 4OEJC PDA PNAA @E=CN=I, P(B KJ 2J@WR KJ 1OP) = P(RWB) =
8
10
.
*E VD @QD TRHMF OQNA@AHKHSHDR, VD B@M K@ADK SGD SQDD HM SGD ENKKNVHMF FDMDQ@K V@X.
c )(+[+) GDQD LD@MR )(+ NM 2MC[+ NM 1RS)
c )(B[+) GDQD LD@MR )(B NM 2MC[+ NM 1RS)
"'/3$1 3 W /1.!!(+(38 3./("2 211
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c )(+[B) GDQD LD@MR )(+ NM 2MC[B NM 1RS)
c )(B[B) GDQD LD@MR )(B NM 2MC[B NM 1RS)
3.25 *M @ RS@MC@QC CDBJ, SGDQD @QD 52 B@QCR. 5VDKUD B@QCR @QD E@BD B@QCR (F) @MC 40 B@QCR @QD MNS E@BD B@QCR ('). %Q@V
SVN B@QCR, NMD @S @ SHLD, VHSGNTS QDOK@BDLDMS. 5GD SQDD CH@FQ@L HR K@ADKDC VHSG @KK ONRRHAKD OQNA@AHKHSHDR.
$CAOL? 3.5
=. 'HMC )(F' 03 'F).
>. 'HMC )('[F).
?. 'HMC )(@S LNRS NMD E@BD B@QC).
)HMS: ""S LNRS NMD E@BD B@QC" LD@MR YDQN NQ NMD E@BD B@QC.
@. 'HMC )(@S KD@RS NM E@BD B@QC).
)HMS: ""S KD@RS NMD E@BD B@QC" LD@MR NMD NQ SVN E@BD B@QCR.
$T=ILHA 3.26
" KHSSDQ NE JHSSDMR @U@HK@AKD ENQ @CNOSHNM @S SGD )TL@MD 4NBHDSX G@R ENTQ S@AAX JHSSDMR @MC EHUD AK@BJ JHSSDMR. "
E@LHKX BNLDR HM @MC Q@MCNLKX RDKDBSR SVN JHSSDMR (VHSGNTS QDOK@BDLDMS) ENQ @CNOSHNM.
212 "'/3$1 3 W /1.!!(+(38 3./("2
3DEO ?KJPAJP EO =R=EH=>HA BKN BNAA =P DPPL://?JT.KNC/?KJPAJP/?KH11562/1.11
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=. 8G@S HR SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S ANSG JHSSDMR @QD S@AAX
@.

1
2

1
2

A.

4
9

4
9

B.

4
9

3
8

C.

4
9

5
9

>. 8G@S HR SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S NMD JHSSDM NE D@BG BNKNQHMF HR RDKDBSDC
@.

4
9

5
9

A.

4
9

5
8

B.

4
9

5
9

5
9

4
9

C.

4
9

5
8

5
9

4
8

?. 8G@S HR SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S @ S@AAX HR BGNRDM @R SGD RDBNMC JHSSDM VGDM @ AK@BJ JHSSDM V@R BGNRDM @R SGD
EHQRS
@. 8G@S HR SGD OQNA@AHKHSX NE BGNNRHMF SVN JHSSDMR NE SGD R@LD BNKNQ
1IFONCIH 3.26
=. ?, >. @, ?.
4
8
, @.
32
72
3.26 4TOONRD SGDQD @QD ENTQ QDC A@KKR @MC SGQDD XDKKNV A@KKR HM @ ANW. 5GQDD A@KKR @QD CQ@VM EQNL SGD ANW VHSGNTS
QDOK@BDLDMS. 8G@S HR SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S NMD A@KK NE D@BG BNKNQHMF HR RDKDBSDC
"'/3$1 3 W /1.!!(+(38 3./("2 213
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4?HH "C;AL;G
" 3:CC 9>6<G6B HR @ OHBSTQD SG@S QDOQDRDMSR SGD NTSBNLDR NE @M DWODQHLDMS. *S FDMDQ@KKX BNMRHRSR NE @ ANW SG@S QDOQDRDMSR
SGD R@LOKD RO@BD 4 SNFDSGDQ VHSG BHQBKDR NQ NU@KR. 5GD BHQBKDR NQ NU@KR QDOQDRDMS DUDMSR.
$T=ILHA 3.27
4TOONRD @M DWODQHLDMS G@R SGD NTSBNLDR 1, 2, 3, ... , 12 VGDQD D@BG NTSBNLD G@R @M DPT@K BG@MBD NE NBBTQQHMF.
-DS DUDMS A = Z1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6\ @MC DUDMS B = Z6, 7, 8, 9\. 5GDM A "/% B = Z6\ @MC A 03 B = Z1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7,
8, 9\. 5GD 7DMM CH@FQ@L HR @R ENKKNVR:
$CAOL? 3.6
3.27 4TOONRD @M DWODQHLDMS G@R NTSBNLDR AK@BJ, VGHSD, QDC, NQ@MFD, XDKKNV, FQDDM, AKTD, @MC OTQOKD, VGDQD D@BG
NTSBNLD G@R @M DPT@K BG@MBD NE NBBTQQHMF. -DS DUDMS C = ZFQDDM, AKTD, OTQOKD\ @MC DUDMS ) = ZQDC, XDKKNV, AKTD\. 5GDM
C "/% ) = ZAKTD\ @MC C 03 ) = ZFQDDM, AKTD, OTQOKD, QDC, XDKKNV\. %Q@V @ 7DMM CH@FQ@L QDOQDRDMSHMF SGHR RHST@SHNM.
$T=ILHA 3.28
'KHO SVN E@HQ BNHMR. -DS A = S@HKR NM SGD EHQRS BNHM. -DS B = S@HKR NM SGD RDBNMC BNHM. 5GDM A = Z--, -!\ @MC B =
Z--, !-\. 5GDQDENQD, A "/% B = Z--\. A 03 B = Z-!, --, !-\.
214 "'/3$1 3 W /1.!!(+(38 3./("2
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5GD R@LOKD RO@BD VGDM XNT EKHO SVN E@HQ BNHMR HR 1 = Z!!, !-, -!, --\. 5GD NTSBNLD !! HR HM /&*5)&3
A /03 B. 5GD 7DMM CH@FQ@L HR @R ENKKNVR:
$CAOL? 3.7
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3.28 3NKK @ E@HQ, RHW-RHCDC CHD. -DS A = @ OQHLD MTLADQ NE CNSR HR QNKKDC. -DS B = @M NCC MTLADQ NE CNSR HR QNKKDC. 5GDM
A = Z2, 3, 5\ @MC B = Z1, 3, 5\. 5GDQDENQD, A "/% B = Z3, 5\. A 03 B = Z1, 2, 3, 5\. 5GD R@LOKD RO@BD ENQ QNKKHMF @
E@HQ CHD HR , = Z1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6\. %Q@V @ 7DMM CH@FQ@L QDOQDRDMSHMF SGHR RHST@SHNM.
$T=ILHA 3.29
#DGIN E:G8:CI NE SGD RSTCDMSR @S @ KNB@K BNKKDFD ADKNMF SN @ BKTA @MC 50% VNQJ O@QS SHLD. #>K: E:G8:CI NE SGD
RSTCDMSR VNQJ O@QS SHLD @MC ADKNMF SN @ BKTA. %Q@V @ 7DMM CH@FQ@L RGNVHMF SGD QDK@SHNMRGHOR. -DS C = RSTCDMS
ADKNMFR SN @ BKTA @MC )- = RSTCDMS VNQJR O@QS SHLD.
$CAOL? 3.8
*E @ RSTCDMS HR RDKDBSDC @S Q@MCNL, EHMC
c SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S SGD RSTCDMS ADKNMFR SN @ BKTA. )(C) = 0.40
c SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S SGD RSTCDMS VNQJR O@QS SHLD. )()-) = 0.50
c SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S SGD RSTCDMS ADKNMFR SN @ BKTA "/% VNQJR O@QS SHLD. )(C "/% )-) = 0.05
c SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S SGD RSTCDMS ADKNMFR SN @ BKTA <>K:C SG@S SGD RSTCDMS VNQJR O@QS SHLD.
P(C|PT) =
P(C AND PT)
P(PT)
=
0.05
0.50
= 0.1
c SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S SGD RSTCDMS ADKNMFR SN @ BKTA ,/ VNQJR O@QS SHLD. )(C 03 )-) = )(C) + )()-) - )(C
"/% )-) = 0.40 + 0.50 - 0.05 = 0.85
216 "'/3$1 3 W /1.!!(+(38 3./("2
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3.29 'HESX ODQBDMS NE SGD VNQJDQR @S @ E@BSNQX VNQJ @ RDBNMC INA, 25% G@UD @ RONTRD VGN @KRN VNQJR, 5% VNQJ @
RDBNMC INA @MC G@UD @ RONTRD VGN @KRN VNQJR. %Q@V @ 7DMM CH@FQ@L RGNVHMF SGD QDK@SHNMRGHOR. -DS 0 = VNQJR @
RDBNMC INA @MC , = RONTRD @KRN VNQJR.
$T=ILHA 3.30
" ODQRNM VHSG SXOD 0 AKNNC @MC @ MDF@SHUD 3G E@BSNQ (3G-) B@M CNM@SD AKNNC SN @MX ODQRNM VHSG @MX AKNNC SXOD.
'NTQ ODQBDMS NE "EQHB@M "LDQHB@MR G@UD SXOD 0 AKNNC @MC @ MDF@SHUD 3) E@BSNQ, 5u10% NE "EQHB@M "LDQHB@MR
G@UD SGD 3G- E@BSNQ, @MC 51% G@UD SXOD 0 AKNNC.
$CAOL? 3.9
5GD o0p BHQBKD QDOQDRDMSR SGD "EQHB@M "LDQHB@MR VHSG SXOD 0 AKNNC. 5GD o3G-o NU@K QDOQDRDMSR SGD "EQHB@M
"LDQHB@MR VHSG SGD 3G- E@BSNQ.
8D VHKK S@JD SGD @UDQ@FD NE 5% @MC 10% @MC TRD 7.5% @R SGD ODQBDMS NE "EQHB@M "LDQHB@MR VGN G@UD SGD
3G- E@BSNQ. -DS ( = "EQHB@M "LDQHB@M VHSG 5XOD 0 AKNNC @MC + = "EQHB@M "LDQHB@M VHSG 3G- E@BSNQ.
=. )(() = ???????????
>. )(+) = ???????????
?. )(( "/% +) = ???????????
@. )(( 03 +) = ????????????
A. *M SGD 7DMM %H@FQ@L, CDRBQHAD SGD NUDQK@OOHMF @QD@ TRHMF @ BNLOKDSD RDMSDMBD.
B. *M SGD 7DMM %H@FQ@L, CDRBQHAD SGD @QD@ HM SGD QDBS@MFKD ATS NTSRHCD ANSG SGD BHQBKD @MC SGD NU@K TRHMF @
BNLOKDSD RDMSDMBD.
1IFONCIH 3.30
=. 0.51; >. 0.075; ?. 0.04; @. 0.545; A. 3DA =NA= NALNAOAJPO PDA BNE?=J IANE?=JO PD=P D=RA PULA .
>HKK@ =J@ PDA 1D- B=?PKN. B. 3DA =NA= NALNAOAJPO PDA BNE?=J IANE?=JO PD=P D=RA JAEPDAN PULA . >HKK@
JKN PDA 1D- B=?PKN.
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3.30 *M @ ANNJRSNQD, SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S SGD BTRSNLDQ ATXR @ MNUDK HR 0.6, @MC SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S SGD BTRSNLDQ ATXR
@ MNM-EHBSHNM ANNJ HR 0.4. 4TOONRD SG@S SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S SGD BTRSNLDQ ATXR ANSG HR 0.2.
=. %Q@V @ 7DMM CH@FQ@L QDOQDRDMSHMF SGD RHST@SHNM.
>. 'HMC SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S SGD BTRSNLDQ ATXR DHSGDQ @ MNUDK NQ @MNM-EHBSHNM ANNJ.
?. *M SGD 7DMM CH@FQ@L, CDRBQHAD SGD NUDQK@OOHMF @QD@ TRHMF @ BNLOKDSD RDMSDMBD.
@. 4TOONRD SG@S RNLD BTRSNLDQR ATX NMKX BNLO@BS CHRJR. %Q@V @M NU@K HM XNTQ 7DMM CH@FQ@L QDOQDRDMSHMF SGHR
DUDMS.
218 "'/3$1 3 W /1.!!(+(38 3./("2
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3.1 .LI<;<CFCNS 2IJC=M
$K@RR SHLD:
/@LDR:
1NO>?HN *?;LHCHA -ON=IG?M
c 5GD RSTCDMS VHKK TRD SGDNQDSHB@K @MC DLOHQHB@K LDSGNCR SN DRSHL@SD OQNA@AHKHSHDR.
c 5GD RSTCDMS VHKK @OOQ@HRD SGD CHEEDQDMBDR ADSVDDM SGD SVN DRSHL@SDR.
c 5GD RSTCDMS VHKK CDLNMRSQ@SD @M TMCDQRS@MCHMF NE KNMF-SDQL QDK@SHUD EQDPTDMBHDR.
"I NB? #RJ?LCG?HN
$NTMS NTS 40 LHWDC-BNKNQ .&.R_ VGHBG HR @OOQNWHL@SDKX NMD RL@KK A@FnR VNQSG. 3DBNQC SGD MTLADQ NE D@BG
BNKNQ HM 2;<F? 3.11. 6RD SGD HMENQL@SHNM EQNL SGHR S@AKD SN BNLOKDSD 2;<F? 3.12. /DWS, OTS SGD .&.R HM @ BTO. 5GD
DWODQHLDMS HR SN OHBJ SVN .&.R, NMD @S @ SHLD. %N CDI KNNJ @S SGDL @R XNT OHBJ SGDL. 5GD EHQRS SHLD SGQNTFG, QDOK@BD
SGD EHQRS .&.ADENQD OHBJHMF SGD RDBNMC NMD. 3DBNQC SGD QDRTKSR HM SGD o8HSG 3DOK@BDLDMSp BNKTLM NE 2;<F? 3.13. %N
SGHR 24 SHLDR. 5GD RDBNMC SHLD SGQNTFG, @ESDQ OHBJHMF SGD EHQRS .&., CN CDI QDOK@BD HS ADENQD OHBJHMF SGD RDBNMC NMD.
5GDM, OHBJ SGD RDBNMC NMD. 3DBNQC SGD QDRTKSR HM SGD o8HSGNTS 3DOK@BDLDMSp BNKTLM RDBSHNM NE 2;<F? 3.14. "ESDQ XNT
QDBNQC SGD OHBJ, OTS 7DI= .&.R A@BJ. %N SGHR @ SNS@K NE 24 SHLDR, @KRN. 6RD SGD C@S@ EQNL 2;<F? 3.14 SN B@KBTK@SD SGD
DLOHQHB@K OQNA@AHKHSX PTDRSHNMR. -D@UD XNTQ @MRVDQR HM TMQDCTBDC EQ@BSHNM@K ENQL. %N CDI LTKSHOKX NTS @MX EQ@BSHNMR.
!IFIL /O;HNCNS
8AHHKS (Y)
&NAAJ (G)
!HQA (BL)
!NKSJ (B)
.N=JCA (O)
1A@ (R)
2;<F? 3.11 .IJOF;NCIH
5CNB 0?JF;=?G?HN 5CNBION 0?JF;=?G?HN
P(2 NA@O)
P(R
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B
2
.1 B
1
R
2
)
P(R
1
-# G
2
)
2;<F? 3.12 2B?IL?NC=;F .LI<;<CFCNC?M
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5CNB 0?JF;=?G?HN 5CNBION 0?JF;=?G?HN
P(G
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1
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P(JK UAHHKSO)
P(@KQ>HAO)
P(JK @KQ>HAO)
2;<F? 3.12 2B?IL?NC=;F .LI<;<CFCNC?M
,-2#

2
= FQDDM NM RDBNMC OHBJ; +
1
= QDC NM EHQRS OHBJ; B
1
= AQNVM NM EHQRS OHBJ; B
2
= AQNVM NM RDBNMC OHBJ; CNTAKDR
= ANSG OHBJR @QD SGD R@LD BNKNTQ.
5CNB 0?JF;=?G?HN 5CNBION 0?JF;=?G?HN
( << , << ) ( << , << ) ( << , << ) ( << , << )
( << , << ) ( << , << ) ( << , << ) ( << , << )
( << , << ) ( << , << ) ( << , << ) ( << , << )
( << , << ) ( << , << ) ( << , << ) ( << , << )
( << , << ) ( << , << ) ( << , << ) ( << , << )
( << , << ) ( << , << ) ( << , << ) ( << , << )
( << , << ) ( << , << ) ( << , << ) ( << , << )
( << , << ) ( << , << ) ( << , << ) ( << , << )
( << , << ) ( << , << ) ( << , << ) ( << , << )
( << , << ) ( << , << ) ( << , << ) ( << , << )
( << , << ) ( << , << ) ( << , << ) ( << , << )
( << , << ) ( << , << ) ( << , << ) ( << , << )
2;<F? 3.13 #GJCLC=;F 0?MOFNM
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5CNB 0?JF;=?G?HN 5CNBION 0?JF;=?G?HN
P(2 NA@O)
P(R
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1
R
2
)
P(R
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2
)
P(G
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P(JK UAHHKSO)
P(@KQ>HAO)
P(JK @KQ>HAO)
2;<F? 3.14 #GJCLC=;F .LI<;<CFCNC?M
"CM=OMMCIH /O?MNCIHM
1. 8GX @QD SGD o8HSG 3DOK@BDLDMSp @MC o8HSGNTS 3DOK@BDLDMSp OQNA@AHKHSHDR CHEEDQDMS
2. $NMUDQS )(MN XDKKNVR) SN CDBHL@K ENQL@S ENQ ANSG 5GDNQDSHB@K o8HSG 3DOK@BDLDMSp @MC ENQ &LOHQHB@K o8HSG
3DOK@BDLDMSp. 3NTMC SN ENTQ CDBHL@K OK@BDR.
=. 5GDNQDSHB@K o8HSG 3DOK@BDLDMSp: )(MN XDKKNVR) = ???????
>. &LOHQHB@K o8HSG 3DOK@BDLDMSp: )(MN XDKKNVR) = ???????
?. "QD SGD CDBHL@K U@KTDR oBKNRDp %HC XNT DWODBS SGDL SN AD BKNRDQ SNFDSGDQ NQ E@QSGDQ @O@QS 8GX
3. *E XNT HMBQD@RDC SGD MTLADQ NE SHLDR XNT OHBJDC SVN .&.R SN 240 SHLDR, VGX VNTKC DLOHQHB@K OQNA@AHKHSX
U@KTDR BG@MFD
4. 8NTKC SGHR BG@MFD (RDD O@QS 3) B@TRD SGD DLOHQHB@K OQNA@AHKHSHDR @MC SGDNQDSHB@K OQNA@AHKHSHDR SN AD BKNRDQ SNFDSGDQ
NQ E@QSGDQ @O@QS )NV CN XNT JMNV
5. &WOK@HM SGD CHEEDQDMBDR HM VG@S )(
1
"/% +
2
) @MC )(+
1
[
2
) QDOQDRDMS. )HMS: 5GHMJ @ANTS SGD R@LOKD RO@BD ENQ
D@BG OQNA@AHKHSX.
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!IH>CNCIH;F .LI<;<CFCNS
=IHNCHA?H=S N;<F?
"?J?H>?HN #P?HNM
#KO;FFS *CE?FS
#P?HN
#RJ?LCG?HN
'H>?J?H>?HN #P?HNM
+ONO;FFS #R=FOMCP?
-ON=IG?
.LI<;<CFCNS
1;GJF? 1J;=?
1;GJFCHA QCNB 0?JF;=?G?HN
1;GJFCHA QCNBION 0?JF;=?G?HN
2B? A," #P?HN
2B? !IGJF?G?HN #P?HN
2B? !IH>CNCIH;F .LI<;<CFCNS I@ -H? #P?HN %CP?H AHINB?L #P?HN
2B? !IH>CNCIH;F .LI<;<CFCNS I@ A %'4#, B
2B? -0 I@ 2QI #P?HNM
2B? -L #P?HN
2L?? "C;AL;G
4?HH "C;AL;G
)#7 2#0+1
SGD KHJDKHGNNC SG@S @M DUDMS VHKK NBBTQ FHUDM SG@S @MNSGDQ DUDMS G@R @KQD@CX NBBTQQDC
SGD LDSGNC NE CHROK@XHMF @ EQDPTDMBX CHRSQHATSHNM @R @ S@AKD VHSG QNVR @MC BNKTLMR SN RGNV GNV
SVN U@QH@AKDR L@X AD CDODMCDMS (BNMSHMFDMS) TONM D@BG NSGDQ; SGD S@AKD OQNUHCDR @M D@RX V@X SN B@KBTK@SD
BNMCHSHNM@K OQNA@AHKHSHDR.
*E SVN DUDMSR @QD /05 HMCDODMCDMS, SGDM VD R@X SG@S SGDX @QD CDODMCDMS.
D@BG NTSBNLD NE @M DWODQHLDMS G@R SGD R@LD OQNA@AHKHSX
@ RTARDS NE SGD RDS NE @KK NTSBNLDR NE @M DWODQHLDMS; SGD RDS NE @KK NTSBNLDR NE @M DWODQHLDMS HR B@KKDC @ H6BEA:
HE68: @MC HR TRT@KKX CDMNSDC AX ,. "M DUDMS HR @M @QAHSQ@QX RTARDS HM ,. *S B@M BNMS@HM NMD NTSBNLD, SVN NTSBNLDR,
MN NTSBNLDR (DLOSX RTARDS), SGD DMSHQD R@LOKD RO@BD, @MC SGD KHJD. 4S@MC@QC MNS@SHNMR ENQ DUDMSR @QD B@OHS@K KDSSDQR
RTBG @R A, B, C, @MC RN NM.
@ OK@MMDC @BSHUHSX B@QQHDC NTS TMCDQ BNMSQNKKDC BNMCHSHNMR
5GD NBBTQQDMBD NE NMD DUDMS G@R MN DEEDBS NM SGD OQNA@AHKHSX NE SGD NBBTQQDMBD NE @MNSGDQ DUDMS.
&UDMSR A @MC B @QD HMCDODMCDMS HE NMD NE SGD ENKKNVHMF HR SQTD:
1. )(A[B) = )(A)
2. )(B[A) = )(B)
3. )(A "/% B) = )(A))(B)
5VN DUDMSR @QD LTST@KKX DWBKTRHUD HE SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S SGDX ANSG G@OODM @S SGD R@LD SHLD HR
YDQN. *E DUDMSR A @MC B @QD LTST@KKX DWBKTRHUD, SGDM )(A "/% B) = 0.
@ O@QSHBTK@Q QDRTKS NE @M DWODQHLDMS
@ MTLADQ ADSVDDM YDQN @MC NMD, HMBKTRHUD, SG@S FHUDR SGD KHJDKHGNNC SG@S @ RODBHEHB DUDMS VHKK NBBTQ, SGD
ENTMC@SHNM NE RS@SHRSHBR HR FHUDM AX SGD ENKKNVHMF 3 @WHNLR (AX "./. ,NKLNFNQNU, 1930nR): -DS , CDMNSD SGD R@LOKD
RO@BD @MC A @MC B @QD SVN DUDMSR HM ,. 5GDM:
c 0 x )(A) x 1
c *E A @MC B @QD @MX SVN LTST@KKX DWBKTRHUD DUDMSR, SGDM )(A 03 B) = )(A) + )(#).
c )(,) = 1
SGD RDS NE @KK ONRRHAKD NTSBNLDR NE @M DWODQHLDMS
*E D@BG LDLADQ NE @ ONOTK@SHNM HR QDOK@BDC @ESDQ HS HR OHBJDC, SGDM SG@S LDLADQ G@R SGD
ONRRHAHKHSX NE ADHMF BGNRDM LNQD SG@M NMBD.
8GDM R@LOKHMF HR CNMD VHSGNTS QDOK@BDLDMS, D@BG LDLADQ NE @ ONOTK@SHNM L@X AD
BGNRDM NMKX NMBD.
"M NTSBNLD HR HM SGD DUDMS A "/% B HE SGD NTSBNLD HR HM ANSG A "/% B @S SGD R@LD SHLD
5GD BNLOKDLDMS NE DUDMS A BNMRHRSR NE @KK NTSBNLDR SG@S @QD /05 HM A.
)(A[B) HR SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S DUDMS A VHKK
NBBTQ FHUDM SG@S SGD DUDMS B G@R @KQD@CX NBBTQQDC.
)(A[B) HR SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S DUDMS A VHKK NBBTQ FHUDM SG@S SGD DUDMS B
G@R @KQD@CX NBBTQQDC.
"M NTSBNLD HR HM SGD DUDMS A 03 B HE SGD NTSBNLD HR HM A, HR HM B, NQ HR HM ANSG A @MC B.
"M NTSBNLD HR HM SGD DUDMS A 03 B HE SGD NTSBNLD HR HM A NQ HR HM B NQ HR HM ANSG A @MC B.
SGD TRDETK UHRT@K QDOQDRDMS@SHNM NE @ R@LOKD RO@BD @MC DUDMSR HM SGD ENQL NE @ oSQDDp VHSG AQ@MBGDR
L@QJDC AX ONRRHAKD NTSBNLDR SNFDSGDQ VHSG @RRNBH@SDC OQNA@AHKHSHDR (EQDPTDMBHDR, QDK@SHUD EQDPTDMBHDR)
SGD UHRT@K QDOQDRDMS@SHNM NE @ R@LOKD RO@BD @MC DUDMSR HM SGD ENQL NE BHQBKDR NQ NU@KR RGNVHMF SGDHQ
HMSDQRDBSHNMR
222 "'/3$1 3 W /1.!!(+(38 3./("2
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!&A.2#0 0#4'#5
3.1 2?LGCHIFIAS
*M SGHR LNCTKD VD KD@QMDC SGD A@RHB SDQLHMNKNFX NE OQNA@AHKHSX. 5GD RDS NE @KK ONRRHAKD NTSBNLDR NE @M DWODQHLDMS HR B@KKDC
SGD R@LOKD RO@BD. &UDMSR @QD RTARDSR NE SGD R@LOKD RO@BD, @MC SGDX @QD @RRHFMDC @ OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S HR @ MTLADQ ADSVDDM YDQN
@MC NMD, HMBKTRHUD.
3.2 'H>?J?H>?HN ;H> +ONO;FFS #R=FOMCP? #P?HNM
5VN DUDMSR A @MC B @QD HMCDODMCDMS HE SGD JMNVKDCFD SG@S NMD NBBTQQDC CNDR MNS @EEDBS SGD BG@MBD SGD NSGDQ NBBTQR. *E SVN
DUDMSR @QD MNS HMCDODMCDMS, SGDM VD R@X SG@S SGDX @QD CDODMCDMS.
*M 4@LOKHMF VHSG QDOK@BDLDMS, D@BG LDLADQ NE @ ONOTK@SHNM HR QDOK@BDC @ESDQ HS HR OHBJDC, RN SG@S LDLADQ G@R
SGD ONRRHAHKHSX NE ADHMF BGNRDM LNQD SG@M NMBD, @MC SGD DUDMSR @QD BNMRHCDQDC SN AD HMCDODMCDMS. *M R@LOKHMF VHSGNTS
QDOK@BDLDMS, D@BG LDLADQ NE @ ONOTK@SHNM L@X AD BGNRDM NMKX NMBD, @MC SGD DUDMSR @QD BNMRHCDQDC MNS SN AD HMCDODMCDMS.
8GDM DUDMSR CN MNS RG@QD NTSBNLDR, SGDX @QD LTST@KKX DWBKTRHUD NE D@BG NSGDQ.
3.3 2QI ;MC= 0OF?M I@ .LI<;<CFCNS
5GD LTKSHOKHB@SHNM QTKD @MC SGD @CCHSHNM QTKD @QD TRDC ENQ BNLOTSHMF SGD OQNA@AHKHSX NE A @MC B, @R VDKK @R SGD OQNA@AHKHSX NE
A NQ B ENQ SVN FHUDM DUDMSR A, B CDEHMDC NM SGD R@LOKD RO@BD. *M R@LOKHMF VHSG QDOK@BDLDMS D@BG LDLADQ NE @ ONOTK@SHNM HR
QDOK@BDC @ESDQ HS HR OHBJDC, RN SG@S LDLADQ G@R SGD ONRRHAHKHSX NE ADHMF BGNRDM LNQD SG@M NMBD, @MC SGD DUDMSR @QD BNMRHCDQDC
SN AD HMCDODMCDMS. *M R@LOKHMF VHSGNTS QDOK@BDLDMS, D@BG LDLADQ NE @ ONOTK@SHNM L@X AD BGNRDM NMKX NMBD, @MC SGD
DUDMSR @QD BNMRHCDQDC SN AD MNS HMCDODMCDMS. 5GD DUDMSR A @MC B @QD LTST@KKX DWBKTRHUD DUDMSR VGDM SGDX CN MNS G@UD @MX
NTSBNLDR HM BNLLNM.
3.4 !IHNCHA?H=S 2;<F?M
5GDQD @QD RDUDQ@K SNNKR XNT B@M TRD SN GDKO NQF@MHYD @MC RNQS C@S@ VGDM B@KBTK@SHMF OQNA@AHKHSHDR. $NMSHMFDMBX S@AKDR GDKO
CHROK@X C@S@ @MC @QD O@QSHBTK@QKX TRDETK VGDM B@KBTK@SHMF OQNA@AHKHSDR SG@S G@UD LTKSHOKD CDODMCDMS U@QH@AKDR.
3.5 2L?? ;H> 4?HH "C;AL;GM
" SQDD CH@FQ@L TRD AQ@MBGDR SN RGNV SGD CHEEDQDMS NTSBNLDR NE DWODQHLDMSR @MC L@JDR BNLOKDW OQNA@AHKHSX PTDRSHNMR D@RX
SN UHRT@KHYD.
" 7DMM CH@FQ@LHR @ OHBSTQD SG@S QDOQDRDMSR SGD NTSBNLDR NE @M DWODQHLDMS. *S FDMDQ@KKX BNMRHRSR NE @ ANW SG@S QDOQDRDMSR
SGD R@LOKD RO@BD , SNFDSGDQ VHSG BHQBKDR NQ NU@KR. 5GD BHQBKDR NQ NU@KR QDOQDRDMS DUDMSR. " 7DMM CH@FQ@L HR DRODBH@KKX
GDKOETK ENQ UHRT@KHYHMF SGD 03 DUDMS, SGD "/% DUDMS, @MC SGD BNLOKDLDMS NE @M DUDMS @MC ENQ TMCDQRS@MCHMF BNMCHSHNM@K
OQNA@AHKHSHDR.
$-0+3*A 0#4'#5
3.1 2?LGCHIFIAS
A @MC B @QD DUDMSR
)(,) = 1 VGDQD , HR SGD R@LOKD RO@BD
0 x )(A) x 1
)(A[B) =
P(AANDB)
P(B)
3.2 'H>?J?H>?HN ;H> +ONO;FFS #R=FOMCP? #P?HNM
*E A @MC B @QD HMCDODMCDMS, )(A "/% B) = )(A))(B), )(A[B)
= )(A) @MC )(B[A) = )(B).
*E A @MC B @QD LTST@KKX DWBKTRHUD, )(A 03 B) = )(A) + )(B)
@MC )(A "/% B) = 0.
3.3 2QI ;MC= 0OF?M I@ .LI<;<CFCNS
1=: BJAI>EA>86I>DC GJA:: )(A "/% B) = )(A[B))(B)
1=: 699>I>DC GJA:: )(A 03 B) = )(A) + )(B) - )(A "/% B)
.0A!2'!#
3.1 2?LGCHIFIAS
1. *M @ O@QSHBTK@Q BNKKDFD BK@RR, SGDQD @QD L@KD @MC EDL@KD RSTCDMSR. 4NLD RSTCDMSR G@UD KNMF G@HQ @MC RNLD RSTCDMSR G@UD
RGNQS G@HQ. 8QHSD SGD HNB7DAH ENQ SGD OQNA@AHKHSHDR NE SGD DUDMSR ENQ O@QSR @ SGQNTFG I. (/NSD SG@S XNT B@MMNS EHMC MTLDQHB@K
@MRVDQR GDQD. :NT VDQD MNS FHUDM DMNTFG HMENQL@SHNM SN EHMC @MX OQNA@AHKHSX U@KTDR XDS; BNMBDMSQ@SD NM TMCDQRS@MCHMF SGD
RXLANKR.)
"'/3$1 3 W /1.!!(+(38 3./("2 223
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c -DS F AD SGD DUDMS SG@S @ RSTCDMS HR EDL@KD.
c -DS & AD SGD DUDMS SG@S @ RSTCDMS HR L@KD.
c -DS , AD SGD DUDMS SG@S @ RSTCDMS G@R RGNQS G@HQ.
c -DS % AD SGD DUDMS SG@S @ RSTCDMS G@R KNMF G@HQ.
=. 5GD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S @ RSTCDMS CNDR MNS G@UD KNMF G@HQ.
>. 5GD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S @ RSTCDMS HR L@KD NQ G@R RGNQS G@HQ.
?. 5GD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S @ RSTCDMS HR @ EDL@KD @MC G@R KNMF G@HQ.
@. 5GD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S @ RSTCDMS HR L@KD, FHUDM SG@S SGD RSTCDMS G@R KNMF G@HQ.
A. 5GD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S @ RSTCDMS G@R KNMF G@HQ, FHUDM SG@S SGD RSTCDMS HR L@KD.
B. 0E @KK SGD EDL@KD RSTCDMSR, SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S @ RSTCDMS G@R RGNQS G@HQ.
C. 0E @KK RSTCDMSR VHSG KNMF G@HQ, SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S @ RSTCDMS HR EDL@KD.
D. 5GD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S @ RSTCDMS HR EDL@KD NQ G@R KNMF G@HQ.
E. 5GD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S @ Q@MCNLKX RDKDBSDC RSTCDMS HR @ L@KD RSTCDMS VHSG RGNQS G@HQ.
F. 5GD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S @ RSTCDMS HR EDL@KD.
.I; J>; <EBBEM?D= ?D<EHC7J?ED JE 7DIM;H J>; D;NJ <EKH ;N;H9?I;I. " ANW HR EHKKDC VHSG RDUDQ@K O@QSX E@UNQR. *S BNMS@HMR 12
G@SR, 15 MNHRDL@JDQR, SDM EHMFDQ SQ@OR, @MC EHUD A@FR NE BNMEDSSH.
-DS ! = SGD DUDMS NE FDSSHMF @ G@S.
-DS ' = SGD DUDMS NE FDSSHMF @ MNHRDL@JDQ.
-DS F = SGD DUDMS NE FDSSHMF @ EHMFDQ SQ@O.
-DS C = SGD DUDMS NE FDSSHMF @ A@F NE BNMEDSSH.
2. 'HMC )(!).
3. 'HMC )(').
4. 'HMC )(F).
5. 'HMC )(C).
.I; J>; <EBBEM?D= ?D<EHC7J?ED JE 7DIM;H J>; D;NJ I?N ;N;H9?I;I. " I@Q NE 150 IDKKX AD@MR BNMS@HMR 22 QDC IDKKX AD@MR, 38
XDKKNV, 20 FQDDM, 28 OTQOKD, 26 AKTD, @MC SGD QDRS @QD NQ@MFD.
-DS B = SGD DUDMS NE FDSSHMF @ AKTD IDKKX AD@M
-DS = SGD DUDMS NE FDSSHMF @ FQDDM IDKKX AD@M.
-DS ( = SGD DUDMS NE FDSSHMF @M NQ@MFD IDKKX AD@M.
-DS ) = SGD DUDMS NE FDSSHMF @ OTQOKD IDKKX AD@M.
-DS + = SGD DUDMS NE FDSSHMF @ QDC IDKKX AD@M.
-DS 2 = SGD DUDMS NE FDSSHMF @ XDKKNV IDKKX AD@M.
6. 'HMC )(B).
7. 'HMC )().
8. 'HMC )()).
9. 'HMC )(+).
10. 'HMC )(2).
11. 'HMC )(().
.I; J>; <EBBEM?D= ?D<EHC7J?ED JE 7DIM;H J>; D;NJ I?N ;N;H9?I;I. 5GDQD @QD 23 BNTMSQHDR HM /NQSG "LDQHB@, 12 BNTMSQHDR HM
4NTSG "LDQHB@, 47 BNTMSQHDR HM &TQNOD, 44 BNTMSQHDR HM "RH@, 54 BNTMSQHDR HM "EQHB@, @MC 14 HM 0BD@MH@ (1@BHEHB 0BD@M
QDFHNM).
-DS A = SGD DUDMS SG@S @ BNTMSQX HR HM "RH@.
-DS E = SGD DUDMS SG@S @ BNTMSQX HR HM &TQNOD.
-DS F = SGD DUDMS SG@S @ BNTMSQX HR HM "EQHB@.
-DS ' = SGD DUDMS SG@S @ BNTMSQX HR HM /NQSG "LDQHB@.
-DS ( = SGD DUDMS SG@S @ BNTMSQX HR HM 0BD@MH@.
-DS , = SGD DUDMS SG@S @ BNTMSQX HR HM 4NTSG "LDQHB@.
12. 'HMC )(A).
13. 'HMC )(E).
14. 'HMC )(F).
15. 'HMC )(').
16. 'HMC )(().
224 "'/3$1 3 W /1.!!(+(38 3./("2
3DEO ?KJPAJP EO =R=EH=>HA BKN BNAA =P DPPL://?JT.KNC/?KJPAJP/?KH11562/1.11
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17. 'HMC )(,).
18. 8G@S HR SGD OQNA@AHKHSX NE CQ@VHMF @ QDC B@QC HM @ RS@MC@QC CDBJ NE 52 B@QCR
19. 8G@S HR SGD OQNA@AHKHSX NE CQ@VHMF @ BKTA HM @ RS@MC@QC CDBJ NE 52 B@QCR
20. 8G@S HR SGD OQNA@AHKHSX NE QNKKHMF @M DUDM MTLADQ NE CNSR VHSG @ E@HQ, RHW-RHCDC CHD MTLADQDC NMD SGQNTFG RHW
21. 8G@S HR SGD OQNA@AHKHSX NE QNKKHMF @ OQHLD MTLADQ NE CNSR VHSG @ E@HQ, RHW-RHCDC CHD MTLADQDC NMD SGQNTFG RHW
.I; J>; <EBBEM?D= ?D<EHC7J?ED JE 7DIM;H J>; D;NJ JME ;N;H9?I;I. :NT RDD @ F@LD @S @ KNB@K E@HQ. :NT G@UD SN SGQNV @ C@QS @S @
BNKNQ VGDDK. &@BG RDBSHNM NM SGD BNKNQ VGDDK HR DPT@K HM @QD@.
$CAOL? 3.10
-DS B = SGD DUDMS NE K@MCHMF NM AKTD.
-DS + = SGD DUDMS NE K@MCHMF NM QDC.
-DS = SGD DUDMS NE K@MCHMF NM FQDDM.
-DS 2 = SGD DUDMS NE K@MCHMF NM XDKKNV.
22. *E XNT K@MC NM 2, XNT FDS SGD AHFFDRS OQHYD. 'HMC )(2).
23. *E XNT K@MC NM QDC, XNT CNMnS FDS @ OQHYD. 8G@S HR )(+)
.I; J>; <EBBEM?D= ?D<EHC7J?ED JE 7DIM;H J>; D;NJ J;D ;N;H9?I;I. 0M @ A@RDA@KK SD@L, SGDQD @QD HMEHDKCDQR @MC NTSEHDKCDQR.
4NLD OK@XDQR @QD FQD@S GHSSDQR, @MC RNLD OK@XDQR @QD MNS FQD@S GHSSDQR.
-DS " = SGD DUDMS SG@S @ OK@XDQ HM @M HMEHDKCDQ.
-DS ( = SGD DUDMS SG@S @ OK@XDQ HR @M NTSEHDKCDQ.
-DS ! = SGD DUDMS SG@S @ OK@XDQ HR @ FQD@S GHSSDQ.
-DS ' = SGD DUDMS SG@S @ OK@XDQ HR MNS @ FQD@S GHSSDQ.
24. 8QHSD SGD RXLANKR ENQ SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S @ OK@XDQ HR MNS @M NTSEHDKCDQ.
25. 8QHSD SGD RXLANKR ENQ SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S @ OK@XDQ HR @M NTSEHDKCDQ NQ HR @ FQD@S GHSSDQ.
26. 8QHSD SGD RXLANKR ENQ SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S @ OK@XDQ HR @M HMEHDKCDQ @MC HR MNS @ FQD@S GHSSDQ.
27. 8QHSD SGD RXLANKR ENQ SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S @ OK@XDQ HR @ FQD@S GHSSDQ, FHUDM SG@S SGD OK@XDQ HR @M HMEHDKCDQ.
28. 8QHSD SGD RXLANKR ENQ SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S @ OK@XDQ HR @M HMEHDKCDQ, FHUDM SG@S SGD OK@XDQ HR @ FQD@S GHSSDQ.
29. 8QHSD SGD RXLANKR ENQ SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S NE @KK SGD NTSEHDKCDQR, @ OK@XDQ HR MNS @ FQD@S GHSSDQ.
30. 8QHSD SGD RXLANKR ENQ SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S NE @KK SGD FQD@S GHSSDQR, @ OK@XDQ HR @M NTSEHDKCDQ.
31. 8QHSD SGD RXLANKR ENQ SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S @ OK@XDQ HR @M HMEHDKCDQ NQ HR MNS @ FQD@S GHSSDQ.
32. 8QHSD SGD RXLANKR ENQ SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S @ OK@XDQ HR @M NTSEHDKCDQ @MC HR @ FQD@S GHSSDQ.
33. 8QHSD SGD RXLANKR ENQ SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S @ OK@XDQ HR @M HMEHDKCDQ.
34. 8G@S HR SGD VNQC ENQ SGD RDS NE @KK ONRRHAKD NTSBNLDR
35. 8G@S HR BNMCHSHNM@K OQNA@AHKHSX
"'/3$1 3 W /1.!!(+(38 3./("2 225
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36. " RGDKE GNKCR 12 ANNJR. &HFGS @QD EHBSHNM @MC SGD QDRS @QD MNMEHBSHNM. &@BG HR @ CHEEDQDMS ANNJ VHSG @ TMHPTD SHSKD. 5GD
EHBSHNM ANNJR @QD MTLADQDC NMD SN DHFGS. 5GD MNMEHBSHNM ANNJR @QD MTLADQDC NMD SN ENTQ. 3@MCNLKX RDKDBS NMD ANNJ
-DS F = DUDMS SG@S ANNJ HR EHBSHNM
-DS ' = DUDMS SG@S ANNJ HR MNMEHBSHNM
8G@S HR SGD R@LOKD RO@BD
37. 8G@S HR SGD RTL NE SGD OQNA@AHKHSHDR NE @M DUDMS @MC HSR BNLOKDLDMS
.I; J>; <EBBEM?D= ?D<EHC7J?ED JE 7DIM;H J>; D;NJ JME ;N;H9?I;I. :NT @QD QNKKHMF @ E@HQ, RHW-RHCDC MTLADQ BTAD. -DS E = SGD
DUDMS SG@S HS K@MCR NM @M DUDM MTLADQ. -DS & = SGD DUDMS SG@S HS K@MCR NM @ LTKSHOKD NE SGQDD.
38. 8G@S CNDR )(E[&) LD@M HM VNQCR
39. 8G@S CNDR )(E 03 &) LD@M HM VNQCR
3.2 'H>?J?H>?HN ;H> +ONO;FFS #R=FOMCP? #P?HNM
40. E @MC F LTST@KKX DWBKTRHUD DUDMSR. )(E) = 0.4; )(F) = 0.5. 'HMC )(EF).
41. # @MC $ @QD HMCDODMCDMS DUDMSR. )(#[$) = 0.3. 'HMC )(#).
42. . @MC / @QD LTST@KKX DWBKTRHUD DUDMSR. )(.) = 0.26; )(/) = 0.37. 'HMC:
=. )(. "/% /) =
>. )(.[/) =
?. )(. 03 /) =
43. * @MC + @QD HMCDODMCDMS DUDMSR. )(*) = 0.4 @MC )(* "/% +) = 0.1. 'HMC )(+).
3.3 2QI ;MC= 0OF?M I@ .LI<;<CFCNS
.I; J>; <EBBEM?D= ?D<EHC7J?ED JE 7DIM;H J>; D;NJ J;D ;N;H9?I;I. 'NTQSX-DHFGS ODQBDMS NE @KK $@KHENQMH@MR QDFHRSDQDC UNSDQR
OQDEDQ KHED HM OQHRNM VHSGNTS O@QNKD NUDQ SGD CD@SG ODM@KSX ENQ @ ODQRNM BNMUHBSDC NE EHQRS CDFQDD LTQCDQ. "LNMF -@SHMN
$@KHENQMH@ QDFHRSDQDC UNSDQR, 55% OQDEDQ KHED HM OQHRNM VHSGNTS O@QNKD NUDQ SGD CD@SG ODM@KSX ENQ @ ODQRNM BNMUHBSDC NE EHQRS
CDFQDD LTQCDQ. 37.6% NE @KK $@KHENQMH@MR @QD -@SHMN.
*M SGHR OQNAKDL, KDS:
c C = $@KHENQMH@MR (QDFHRSDQDC UNSDQR) OQDEDQQHMF KHED HM OQHRNM VHSGNTS O@QNKD NUDQ SGD CD@SG ODM@KSX ENQ @ ODQRNM
BNMUHBSDC NE EHQRS CDFQDD LTQCDQ.
c % = -@SHMN $@KHENQMH@MR
4TOONRD SG@S NMD $@KHENQMH@M HR Q@MCNLKX RDKDBSDC.
44. 'HMC )(C).
45. 'HMC )(%).
46. 'HMC )(C[%).
47. *M VNQCR, VG@S HR C[%
48. 'HMC )(% "/% C).
49. *M VNQCR, VG@S HR % "/% C
50. "QD % @MC C HMCDODMCDMS DUDMSR 4GNV VGX NQ VGX MNS.
51. 'HMC )(% 03 C).
52. *M VNQCR, VG@S HR % 03 C
53. "QD % @MC C LTST@KKX DWBKTRHUD DUDMSR 4GNV VGX NQ VGX MNS.
3.4 !IHNCHA?H=S 2;<F?M
.I; J>; <EBBEM?D= ?D<EHC7J?ED JE 7DIM;H J>; D;NJ <EKH ;N;H9?I;I. 2;<F? 3.15 RGNVR @ Q@MCNL R@LOKD NE LTRHBH@MR @MC GNV
SGDX KD@QMDC SN OK@X SGDHQ HMRSQTLDMSR.
226 "'/3$1 3 W /1.!!(+(38 3./("2
3DEO ?KJPAJP EO =R=EH=>HA BKN BNAA =P DPPL://?JT.KNC/?KJPAJP/?KH11562/1.11
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%?H>?L 1?F@-N;OABN 1NO>C?> CH 1=BIIF .LCP;N? 'HMNLO=NCIH 2IN;F
%AI=HA 12 38 22 72
,=HA 19 24 15 58
3KP=H 31 62 37 130
2;<F? 3.15
54. 'HMC )(LTRHBH@M HR @ EDL@KD).
55. 'HMC )(LTRHBH@M HR @ L@KD "/% G@C OQHU@SD HMRSQTBSHNM).
56. 'HMC )(LTRHBH@M HR @ EDL@KD 03 HR RDKE S@TFGS).
57. "QD SGD DUDMSR oADHMF @ EDL@KD LTRHBH@Mp @MC oKD@QMHMF LTRHB HM RBGNNKp LTST@KKX DWBKTRHUD DUDMSR
"M @QSHBKD HM SGD ';M ED=B7D: #EKHD7B E< &;:?9?D;, QDONQSDC @ANTS @ RSTCX NE RLNJDQR HM $@KHENQMH@ @MC )@V@HH.
*M NMD O@QS NE SGD QDONQS, SGD RDKE-QDONQSDC DSGMHBHSX @MC RLNJHMF KDUDKR ODQ C@X VDQD FHUDM. 0E SGD ODNOKD RLNJHMF @S
LNRS SDM BHF@QDSSDR ODQ C@X, SGDQD VDQD 9,886 "EQHB@M "LDQHB@MR, 2,745 /@SHUD )@V@HH@MR, 12,831 -@SHMNR, 8,378 +@O@MDRD
"LDQHB@MR, @MC 7,650 8GHSDR. 0E SGD ODNOKD RLNJHMF 11 SN 20 BHF@QDSSDR ODQ C@X, SGDQD VDQD 6,514 "EQHB@M "LDQHB@MR,
3,062 /@SHUD )@V@HH@MR, 4,932 -@SHMNR, 10,680 +@O@MDRD "LDQHB@MR, @MC 9,877 8GHSDR. 0E SGD ODNOKD RLNJHMF 21 SN 30
BHF@QDSSDR ODQ C@X, SGDQD VDQD 1,671 "EQHB@M "LDQHB@MR, 1,419 /@SHUD )@V@HH@MR, 1,406 -@SHMNR, 4,715 +@O@MDRD "LDQHB@MR,
@MC 6,062 8GHSDR. 0E SGD ODNOKD RLNJHMF @S KD@RS 31 BHF@QDSSDR ODQ C@X, SGDQD VDQD 759 "EQHB@M "LDQHB@MR, 788 /@SHUD
)@V@HH@MR, 800 -@SHMNR, 2,305 +@O@MDRD "LDQHB@MR, @MC 3,970 8GHSDR.
58. $NLOKDSD SGD S@AKD ADKNV TRHMF SGD C@S@ OQNUHCDC. 4TOONRD SG@S NMD ODQRNM EQNL SGD RSTCX HR Q@MCNLKX RDKDBSDC. 'HMC
SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S ODQRNM RLNJDC 11 SN 20 BHF@QDSSDR ODQ C@X.
1GIECHA
*?P?F
A@LC=;H
AG?LC=;H
,;NCP?
&;Q;CC;H
*;NCHI
(;J;H?M?
AG?LC=;HM
5BCN? 2-2A*1
1_10
11_20
21_30
31+
3.3+2
2;<F? 3.16 1GIECHA *?P?FM <S #NBHC=CNS
59. 4TOONRD SG@S NMD ODQRNM EQNLSGD RSTCX HR Q@MCNLKX RDKDBSDC. 'HMC SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S ODQRNM RLNJDC 11 SN 20 BHF@QDSSDR
ODQ C@X.
60. 'HMC SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S SGD ODQRNM V@R -@SHMN.
61. *M VNQCR, DWOK@HM VG@S HS LD@MR SN OHBJ NMD ODQRNM EQNL SGD RSTCX VGN HR o+@O@MDRD "LDQHB@M A+! RLNJDR 21 SN 30
BHF@QDSSDR ODQ C@X.p "KRN, EHMC SGD OQNA@AHKHSX.
62. *M VNQCR, DWOK@HM VG@S HS LD@MR SN OHBJ NMD ODQRNM EQNL SGD RSTCX VGN HR o+@O@MDRD "LDQHB@M ,/ RLNJDR 21 SN 30
BHF@QDSSDR ODQ C@X.p "KRN, EHMC SGD OQNA@AHKHSX.
63. *M VNQCR, DWOK@HM VG@S HS LD@MR SN OHBJ NMD ODQRNM EQNL SGD RSTCX VGN HR o+@O@MDRD "LDQHB@M $&3"+ SG@S ODQRNM
RLNJDR 21 SN 30 BHF@QDSSDR ODQ C@X.p "KRN, EHMC SGD OQNA@AHKHSX.
64. 1QNUD SG@S RLNJHMF KDUDK/C@X @MC DSGMHBHSX @QD CDODMCDMS DUDMSR.
"'/3$1 3 W /1.!!(+(38 3./("2 227
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3.5 2L?? ;H> 4?HH "C;AL;GM
65. 5GD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S @ L@M CDUDKNOR RNLD ENQL NE B@MBDQ HM GHR KHEDSHLD HR 0.4567. 5GD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S @ L@M G@R @S
KD@RS NMD E@KRD ONRHSHUD SDRS QDRTKS (LD@MHMF SGD SDRS BNLDR A@BJ ENQ B@MBDQ VGDM SGD L@M CNDR MNS G@UD HS) HR 0.51. -DS: C =
@ L@M CDUDKNOR B@MBDQ HM GHR KHEDSHLD; ) = L@M G@R @S KD@RS NMD E@KRD ONRHSHUD. $NMRSQTBS @ SQDD CH@FQ@L NE SGD RHST@SHNM.
0',%',% '2 2-%#2&#0 : .0A!2'!#
"M @QSHBKD HM SGD ';M ED=B7D: #EKHD7B E< &;:?9?D;, QDONQSDC @ANTS @ RSTCX NE RLNJDQR HM $@KHENQMH@ @MC )@V@HH. *M NMD O@QS
NE SGD QDONQS, SGD RDKE-QDONQSDC DSGMHBHSX @MC RLNJHMF KDUDKR ODQ C@X VDQD FHUDM. 0E SGD ODNOKD RLNJHMF @S LNRS SDM BHF@QDSSDR
ODQ C@X, SGDQD VDQD 9,886 "EQHB@M "LDQHB@MR, 2,745 /@SHUD )@V@HH@MR, 12,831 -@SHMNR, 8,378 +@O@MDRD "LDQHB@MR, @MC
7,650 8GHSDR. 0E SGD ODNOKD RLNJHMF 11 SN 20 BHF@QDSSDR ODQ C@X, SGDQD VDQD 6,514 "EQHB@M "LDQHB@MR, 3,062 /@SHUD
)@V@HH@MR, 4,932 -@SHMNR, 10,680 +@O@MDRD "LDQHB@MR, @MC 9,877 8GHSDR. 0E SGD ODNOKD RLNJHMF 21 SN 30 BHF@QDSSDR ODQ
C@X, SGDQD VDQD 1,671 "EQHB@M "LDQHB@MR, 1,419 /@SHUD )@V@HH@MR, 1,406 -@SHMNR, 4,715 +@O@MDRD "LDQHB@MR, @MC 6,062
8GHSDR. 0E SGD ODNOKD RLNJHMF @S KD@RS 31 BHF@QDSSDR ODQ C@X, SGDQD VDQD 759 "EQHB@M "LDQHB@MR, 788 /@SHUD )@V@HH@MR,
800 -@SHMNR, 2,305 +@O@MDRD "LDQHB@MR, @MC 3,970 8GHSDR.
66. $NLOKDSD SGD S@AKD ADKNV TRHMF SGD C@S@ OQNUHCDC. 4TOONRD SG@S NMD ODQRNM EQNL SGD RSTCX HR Q@MCNLKX RDKDBSDC. 'HMC
SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S ODQRNM RLNJDC 11 SN 20 BHF@QDSSDR ODQ C@X.
1GIECHA
*?P?F
A@LC=;H
AG?LC=;H
,;NCP?
&;Q;CC;H
*;NCHI
(;J;H?M?
AG?LC=;HM
5BCN? 2-2A*1
1_10
11_20
21_30
31+
3.3+2
2;<F? 3.17 1GIECHA *?P?FM <S #NBHC=CNS
67. 4TOONRD SG@S NMD ODQRNM EQNLSGD RSTCX HR Q@MCNLKX RDKDBSDC. 'HMC SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S ODQRNM RLNJDC 11 SN 20 BHF@QDSSDR
ODQ C@X.
68. 'HMC SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S SGD ODQRNM V@R -@SHMN.
69. *M VNQCR, DWOK@HM VG@S HS LD@MR SN OHBJ NMD ODQRNM EQNL SGD RSTCX VGN HR o+@O@MDRD "LDQHB@M A+! RLNJDR 21 SN 30
BHF@QDSSDR ODQ C@X.p "KRN, EHMC SGD OQNA@AHKHSX.
70. *M VNQCR, DWOK@HM VG@S HS LD@MR SN OHBJ NMD ODQRNM EQNL SGD RSTCX VGN HR o+@O@MDRD "LDQHB@M ,/ RLNJDR 21 SN 30
BHF@QDSSDR ODQ C@X.p "KRN, EHMC SGD OQNA@AHKHSX.
71. *M VNQCR, DWOK@HM VG@S HS LD@MR SN OHBJ NMD ODQRNM EQNL SGD RSTCX VGN HR o+@O@MDRD "LDQHB@M $&3"+ SG@S ODQRNM
RLNJDR 21 SN 30 BHF@QDSSDR ODQ C@X.p "KRN, EHMC SGD OQNA@AHKHSX.
72. 1QNUD SG@S RLNJHMF KDUDK/C@X @MC DSGMHBHSX @QD CDODMCDMS DUDMSR.
&-+#5-0)
228 "'/3$1 3 W /1.!!(+(38 3./("2
3DEO ?KJPAJP EO =R=EH=>HA BKN BNAA =P DPPL://?JT.KNC/?KJPAJP/?KH11562/1.11
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3.1 2?LGCHIFIAS
$CAOL? 3.11
5GD FQ@OG HM $CAOL? 3.11 CHROK@XR SGD R@LOKD RHYDR @MC ODQBDMS@FDR NE ODNOKD HM CHEEDQDMS @FD @MC FDMCDQ FQNTOR VGN VDQD
ONKKDC BNMBDQMHMF SGDHQ @OOQNU@K NE .@XNQ 'NQCnR @BSHNMR HM NEEHBD. 5GD SNS@K MTLADQ HM SGD R@LOKD NE @KK SGD @FD FQNTOR HR
1,045.
73.
=. %DEHMD SGQDD DUDMSR HM SGD FQ@OG.
>. %DRBQHAD HM VNQCR VG@S SGD DMSQX 40 LD@MR.
?. %DRBQHAD HM VNQCR SGD BNLOKDLDMS NE SGD DMSQX HM PTDRSHNM 2.
@. %DRBQHAD HM VNQCR VG@S SGD DMSQX 30 LD@MR.
A. 0TS NE SGD L@KDR @MC EDL@KDR, VG@S ODQBDMS @QD L@KDR
B. 0TS NE SGD EDL@KDR, VG@S ODQBDMS CHR@OOQNUD NE .@XNQ 'NQC
C. 0TS NE @KK SGD @FD FQNTOR, VG@S ODQBDMS @OOQNUD NE .@XNQ 'NQC
D. 'HMC )("OOQNUD[.@KD).
E. 0TS NE SGD @FD FQNTOR, VG@S ODQBDMS @QD LNQD SG@M 44 XD@QR NKC
F. 'HMC )("OOQNUD["FD < 35).
74. &WOK@HM VG@S HR VQNMF VHSG SGD ENKKNVHMF RS@SDLDMSR. 6RD BNLOKDSD RDMSDMBDR.
=. *E SGDQD HR @ 60% BG@MBD NE Q@HM NM 4@STQC@X @MC @ 70% BG@MBD NE Q@HM NM 4TMC@X, SGDM SGDQD HR @ 130% BG@MBD NE
Q@HM NUDQ SGD VDDJDMC.
>. 5GD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S @ A@RDA@KK OK@XDQ GHSR @ GNLD QTM HR FQD@SDQ SG@M SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S GD FDSR @ RTBBDRRETK GHS.
3.2 'H>?J?H>?HN ;H> +ONO;FFS #R=FOMCP? #P?HNM
.I; J>; <EBBEM?D= ?D<EHC7J?ED JE 7DIM;H J>; D;NJ 12 ;N;H9?I;I. 5GD FQ@OG RGNVM HR A@RDC NM LNQD SG@M 170,000 HMSDQUHDVR
CNMD AX (@KKTO SG@S SNNJ OK@BD EQNL+@MT@QX SGQNTFG %DBDLADQ 2012. 5GD R@LOKD BNMRHRSR NE DLOKNXDC "LDQHB@MR 18 XD@QR
NE @FD NQ NKCDQ. 5GD &LNSHNM@K )D@KSG *MCDW 4BNQDR @QD SGD R@LOKD RO@BD. 8D Q@MCNLKX R@LOKD NMD &LNSHNM@K )D@KSG *MCDW
4BNQD.
75. 'HMC SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S @M &LNSHNM@K )D@KSG *MCDW 4BNQD HR 82.7.
76. 'HMC SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S @M &LNSHNM@K )D@KSG *MCDW 4BNQD HR 81.0.
77. 'HMC SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S @M &LNSHNM@K )D@KSG *MCDW 4BNQD HR LNQD SG@M 81
78. 'HMC SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S @M &LNSHNM@K )D@KSG *MCDW 4BNQD HR ADSVDDM 80.5 @MC 82
79. *E VD JMNV @M &LNSHNM@K )D@KSG *MCDW 4BNQD HR 81.5 NQ LNQD, VG@S HR SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S HS HR 82.7
80. 8G@S HR SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S @M &LNSHNM@K )D@KSG *MCDW 4BNQD HR 80.7 NQ 82.7
81. 8G@S HR SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S @M &LNSHNM@K )D@KSG *MCDW 4BNQD HR KDRR SG@M 80.2 FHUDM SG@S HS HR @KQD@CX KDRR SG@M 81.
82. 8G@S NBBTO@SHNM G@R SGD GHFGDRS DLNSHNM@K HMCDW RBNQD
83. 8G@S NBBTO@SHNM G@R SGD KNVDRS DLNSHNM@K HMCDW RBNQD
84. 8G@S HR SGD Q@MFD NE SGD C@S@
85. $NLOTSD SGD @UDQ@FD &)*4.
86. *E @KK NBBTO@SHNMR @QD DPT@KKX KHJDKX ENQ @ BDQS@HM HMCHUHCT@K, VG@S HR SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S GD NQ RGD VHKK G@UD @M NBBTO@SHNM
VHSG KNVDQ SG@M @UDQ@FD &)*4
"'/3$1 3 W /1.!!(+(38 3./("2 229
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3.3 2QI ;MC= 0OF?M I@ .LI<;<CFCNS
0M 'DAQT@QX 28, 2013, @ 'HDKC 1NKK 4TQUDX QDONQSDC SG@S 61% NE $@KHENQMH@ QDFHRSDQDC UNSDQR @OOQNUDC NE @KKNVHMF SVN
ODNOKD NE SGD R@LD FDMCDQ SN L@QQX @MC G@UD QDFTK@Q L@QQH@FD K@VR @OOKX SN SGDL. "LNMF 18 SN 39 XD@Q NKCR ($@KHENQMH@
QDFHRSDQDC UNSDQR), SGD @OOQNU@K Q@SHMF V@R 78%. 4HW HM SDM $@KHENQMH@ QDFHRSDQDC UNSDQR R@HC SG@S SGD TOBNLHMF 4TOQDLD
$NTQSnR QTKHMF @ANTS SGD BNMRSHSTSHNM@KHSX NE $@KHENQMH@nR 1QNONRHSHNM 8 V@R DHSGDQ UDQX NQ RNLDVG@S HLONQS@MS SN SGDL. 0TS
NE SGNRD $" QDFHRSDQDC UNSDQR VGN RTOONQS R@LD-RDW L@QQH@FD, 75% R@X SGD QTKHMF HR HLONQS@MS SN SGDL.
*M SGHR OQNAKDL, KDS:
c C = $@KHENQMH@ QDFHRSDQDC UNSDQR VGN RTOONQS R@LD-RDW L@QQH@FD.
c B = $@KHENQMH@ QDFHRSDQDC UNSDQR VGN R@X SGD 4TOQDLD $NTQSnR QTKHMF @ANTS SGD BNMRSHSTSHNM@KHSX NE $@KHENQMH@nR
1QNONRHSHNM 8 HR UDQX NQ RNLDVG@S HLONQS@MS SN SGDL
c A = $@KHENQMH@ QDFHRSDQDC UNSDQR VGN @QD 18 SN 39 XD@QR NKC.
87.
=. 'HMC )(C).
>. 'HMC )(B).
?. 'HMC )(C[A).
@. 'HMC )(B[C).
A. *M VNQCR, VG@S HR C[A
B. *M VNQCR, VG@S HR B[C
C. 'HMC )(C "/% B).
D. *M VNQCR, VG@S HR C "/% B
E. 'HMC )(C 03 B).
F. "QD C @MC B LTST@KKX DWBKTRHUD DUDMSR 4GNV VGX NQ VGX MNS.
88. "ESDQ 3NA 'NQC, SGD L@XNQ NE 5NQNMSN, @MMNTMBDC GHR OK@MR SN BTS ATCFDS BNRSR HM K@SD 2011, SGD 'NQTL 3DRD@QBG ONKKDC
1,046 ODNOKD SN LD@RTQD SGD L@XNQnR ONOTK@QHSX. &UDQXNMD ONKKDC DWOQDRRDC DHSGDQ @OOQNU@K NQ CHR@OOQNU@K. 5GDRD @QD SGD
QDRTKSR SGDHQ ONKK OQNCTBDC:
c *M D@QKX 2011, 60 ODQBDMS NE SGD ONOTK@SHNM @OOQNUDC NE .@XNQ 'NQCnR @BSHNMR HM NEEHBD.
c *M LHC-2011, 57 ODQBDMS NE SGD ONOTK@SHNM @OOQNUDC NE GHR @BSHNMR.
c *M K@SD 2011, SGD ODQBDMS@FD NE ONOTK@Q @OOQNU@K V@R LD@RTQDC @S 42 ODQBDMS.
=. 8G@S HR SGD R@LOKD RHYD ENQ SGHR RSTCX
>. 8G@S OQNONQSHNM HM SGD ONKK CHR@OOQNUDC NE .@XNQ 'NQC, @BBNQCHMF SN SGD QDRTKSR EQNL K@SD 2011
?. )NV L@MX ODNOKD ONKKDC QDRONMCDC SG@S SGDX @OOQNUDC NE .@XNQ 'NQC HM K@SD 2011
@. 8G@S HR SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S @ ODQRNM RTOONQSDC .@XNQ 'NQC, A@RDC NM SGD C@S@ BNKKDBSDC HM LHC-2011
A. 8G@S HR SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S @ ODQRNM RTOONQSDC .@XNQ 'NQC, A@RDC NM SGD C@S@ BNKKDBSDC HM D@QKX 2011
.I; J>; <EBBEM?D= ?D<EHC7J?ED JE 7DIM;H J>; D;NJ J>H;; ;N;H9?I;I. 5GD B@RHMN F@LD, QNTKDSSD, @KKNVR SGD F@LAKDQ SN ADS NM
SGD OQNA@AHKHSX NE @ A@KK, VGHBG ROHMR HM SGD QNTKDSSD VGDDK, K@MCHMF NM @ O@QSHBTK@Q BNKNQ, MTLADQ, NQ Q@MFD NE MTLADQR. 5GD
S@AKD TRDC SN OK@BD ADSR BNMS@HMR NE 38 MTLADQR, @MC D@BG MTLADQ HR @RRHFMDC SN @ BNKNQ @MC @ Q@MFD.
$CAOL? 3.12 (?NA@EP: BEHI8GAN/SEGE>KKGO)
89.
=. -HRS SGD R@LOKD RO@BD NE SGD 38 ONRRHAKD NTSBNLDR HM QNTKDSSD.
>. :NT ADS NM QDC. 'HMC )(QDC).
230 "'/3$1 3 W /1.!!(+(38 3./("2
3DEO ?KJPAJP EO =R=EH=>HA BKN BNAA =P DPPL://?JT.KNC/?KJPAJP/?KH11562/1.11
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?. :NT ADS NM -1RS 12- (1RS %NYDM). 'HMC )(-1RS 12-).
@. :NT ADS NM @M DUDM MTLADQ. 'HMC )(DUDM MTLADQ).
A. *R FDSSHMF @M NCC MTLADQ SGD BNLOKDLDMS NE FDSSHMF @M DUDM MTLADQ 8GX
B. 'HMC SVN LTST@KKX DWBKTRHUD DUDMSR.
C. "QD SGD DUDMSR &UDM @MC 1RS %NYDM HMCDODMCDMS
90. $NLOTSD SGD OQNA@AHKHSX NE VHMMHMF SGD ENKKNVHMF SXODR NE ADSR:
=. #DSSHMF NM SVN KHMDR SG@S SNTBG D@BG NSGDQ NM SGD S@AKD @R HM 1-2-3-4-5-6
>. #DSSHMF NM SGQDD MTLADQR HM @ KHMD, @R HM 1-2-3
?. #DSSHMF NM NMD MTLADQ
@. #DSSHMF NM ENTQ MTLADQR SG@S SNTBG D@BG NSGDQ SN ENQL @ RPT@QD, @R HM 10-11-13-14
A. #DSSHMF NM SVN MTLADQR SG@S SNTBG D@BG NSGDQ NM SGD S@AKD, @R HM 10-11 NQ 10-13
B. #DSSHMF NM 0-00-1-2-3
C. #DSSHMF NM 0-1-2; NQ 0-00-2; NQ 00-2-3
91. $NLOTSD SGD OQNA@AHKHSX NE VHMMHMF SGD ENKKNVHMF SXODR NE ADSR:
=. #DSSHMF NM @ BNKNQ
>. #DSSHMF NM NMD NE SGD CNYDM FQNTOR
?. #DSSHMF NM SGD Q@MFD NE MTLADQR EQNL 1 SN 18
@. #DSSHMF NM SGD Q@MFD NE MTLADQR 19k36
A. #DSSHMF NM NMD NE SGD BNKTLMR
B. #DSSHMF NM @M DUDM NQ NCC MTLADQ (DWBKTCHMF YDQN)
92. 4TOONRD SG@S XNT G@UD DHFGS B@QCR. 'HUD @QD FQDDM @MC SGQDD @QD XDKKNV. 5GD EHUD FQDDM B@QCR @QD MTLADQDC 1, 2, 3, 4,
@MC 5. 5GD SGQDD XDKKNV B@QCR @QD MTLADQDC 1, 2, @MC 3. 5GD B@QCR @QD VDKK RGTEEKDC. :NT Q@MCNLKX CQ@V NMD B@QC.
c = B@QC CQ@VM HR FQDDM
c E = B@QC CQ@VM HR DUDM-MTLADQDC
=. -HRS SGD R@LOKD RO@BD.
>. )() = ?????
?. )([E) = ?????
@. )( "/% E) = ?????
A. )( 03 E) = ?????
B. "QD @MC E LTST@KKX DWBKTRHUD +TRSHEX XNTQ @MRVDQ MTLDQHB@KKX.
93. 3NKK SVN E@HQ CHBD. &@BG CHD G@R RHW E@BDR.
=. -HRS SGD R@LOKD RO@BD.
>. -DS A AD SGD DUDMS SG@S DHSGDQ @ SGQDD NQ ENTQ HR QNKKDC EHQRS, ENKKNVDC AX @M DUDM MTLADQ. 'HMC )(A).
?. -DS B AD SGD DUDMS SG@S SGD RTL NE SGD SVN QNKKR HR @S LNRS RDUDM. 'HMC )(B).
@. *M VNQCR, DWOK@HM VG@S o)(A[B)p QDOQDRDMSR. 'HMC )(A[B).
A. "QD A @MC B LTST@KKX DWBKTRHUD DUDMSR &WOK@HM XNTQ @MRVDQ HM NMD SN SGQDD BNLOKDSD RDMSDMBDR, HMBKTCHMF
MTLDQHB@K ITRSHEHB@SHNM.
B. "QD A @MC B HMCDODMCDMS DUDMSR &WOK@HM XNTQ @MRVDQ HM NMD SN SGQDD BNLOKDSD RDMSDMBDR, HMBKTCHMF MTLDQHB@K
ITRSHEHB@SHNM.
94. " RODBH@K CDBJ NE B@QCR G@R SDM B@QCR. 'NTQ @QD FQDDM, SGQDD @QD AKTD, @MC SGQDD @QD QDC. 8GDM @ B@QC HR OHBJDC, HSR BNKNQ
NE HS HR QDBNQCDC. "M DWODQHLDMS BNMRHRSR NE EHQRS OHBJHMF @ B@QC @MC SGDM SNRRHMF @ BNHM.
=. -HRS SGD R@LOKD RO@BD.
>. -DS A AD SGD DUDMS SG@S @ AKTD B@QC HR OHBJDC EHQRS, ENKKNVDC AX K@MCHMF @ GD@C NM SGD BNHM SNRR. 'HMC )(A).
?. -DS B AD SGD DUDMS SG@S @ QDC NQ FQDDM HR OHBJDC, ENKKNVDC AX K@MCHMF @ GD@C NM SGD BNHM SNRR. "QD SGD DUDMSR A @MC
B LTST@KKX DWBKTRHUD &WOK@HM XNTQ @MRVDQ HM NMD SN SGQDD BNLOKDSD RDMSDMBDR, HMBKTCHMF MTLDQHB@K ITRSHEHB@SHNM.
@. -DS C AD SGD DUDMS SG@S @ QDC NQ AKTD HR OHBJDC, ENKKNVDC AX K@MCHMF @ GD@C NM SGD BNHM SNRR. "QD SGD DUDMSR A @MC
C LTST@KKX DWBKTRHUD &WOK@HM XNTQ @MRVDQ HM NMD SN SGQDD BNLOKDSD RDMSDMBDR, HMBKTCHMF MTLDQHB@K ITRSHEHB@SHNM.
95. "M DWODQHLDMS BNMRHRSR NE EHQRS QNKKHMF @ CHD @MC SGDM SNRRHMF @ BNHM.
=. -HRS SGD R@LOKD RO@BD.
>. -DS A AD SGD DUDMS SG@S DHSGDQ @ SGQDD NQ @ ENTQ HR QNKKDC EHQRS, ENKKNVDC AX K@MCHMF @ GD@C NM SGD BNHM SNRR. 'HMC
)(A).
?. -DS B AD SGD DUDMS SG@S SGD EHQRS @MC RDBNMC SNRRDR K@MC NM GD@CR. "QD SGD DUDMSR A @MC B LTST@KKX DWBKTRHUD
&WOK@HM XNTQ @MRVDQ HM NMD SN SGQDD BNLOKDSD RDMSDMBDR, HMBKTCHMF MTLDQHB@K ITRSHEHB@SHNM.
96. "M DWODQHLDMS BNMRHRSR NE SNRRHMF @ MHBJDK, @ CHLD, @MC @ PT@QSDQ. 0E HMSDQDRS HR SGD RHCD SGD BNHM K@MCR NM.
=. -HRS SGD R@LOKD RO@BD.
>. -DS A AD SGD DUDMS SG@S SGDQD @QD @S KD@RS SVN S@HKR. 'HMC )(A).
?. -DS B AD SGD DUDMS SG@S SGD EHQRS @MC RDBNMC SNRRDR K@MC NM GD@CR. "QD SGD DUDMSR A @MC B LTST@KKX DWBKTRHUD
&WOK@HM XNTQ @MRVDQ HM NMD SN SGQDD BNLOKDSD RDMSDMBDR, HMBKTCHMF ITRSHEHB@SHNM.
"'/3$1 3 W /1.!!(+(38 3./("2 231
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97. $NMRHCDQ SGD ENKKNVHMF RBDM@QHN:
-DS )(C) = 0.4.
-DS )(D) = 0.5.
-DS )(C[D) = 0.6.
=. 'HMC )(C "/% D).
>. "QD C @MC D LTST@KKX DWBKTRHUD 8GX NQ VGX MNS
?. "QD C @MC D HMCDODMCDMS DUDMSR 8GX NQ VGX MNS
@. 'HMC )(C 03 D).
A. 'HMC )(D[C).
98. 2 @MC 3 @QD HMCDODMCDMS DUDMSR.
=. 3DVQHSD SGD A@RHB "CCHSHNM 3TKD )(2 03 3) = )(2) + )(3) - )(2 "/% 3) TRHMF SGD HMENQL@SHNM SG@S 2 @MC 3 @QD
HMCDODMCDMS DUDMSR.
>. 6RD SGD QDVQHSSDM QTKD SN EHMC )(3) HE )(2 03 3) = 0.71 @MC )(2) = 0.42.
99. @MC ! @QD LTST@KKX DWBKTRHUD DUDMSR. )() = 0.5 )(!) = 0.3
=. &WOK@HM VGX SGD ENKKNVHMF RS@SDLDMS .645 AD E@KRD: )(![) = 0.4.
>. 'HMC )(! 03 ).
?. "QD @MC ! HMCDODMCDMS NQ CDODMCDMS DUDMSR &WOK@HM HM @ BNLOKDSD RDMSDMBD.
100. "OOQNWHL@SDKX 281,000,000 ODNOKD NUDQ @FD EHUD KHUD HM SGD 6MHSDC 4S@SDR. 0E SGDRD ODNOKD, 55,000,000 ROD@J @
K@MFT@FD NSGDQ SG@M &MFKHRG @S GNLD. 0E SGNRD VGN ROD@J @MNSGDQ K@MFT@FD @S GNLD, 62.3% ROD@J 4O@MHRG.
-DS: E = ROD@JR &MFKHRG @S GNLD; Ec = ROD@JR @MNSGDQ K@MFT@FD @S GNLD; , = ROD@JR 4O@MHRG;
'HMHRG D@BG OQNA@AHKHSX RS@SDLDMS AX L@SBGHMF SGD BNQQDBS @MRVDQ.
.LI<;<CFCNS 1N;N?G?HNM AHMQ?LM
=. P(E8) = E. 0.8043
>. P(E) = EE. 0.623
?. P(S =J@ E8) = EEE. 0.1957
@. P(SWE8) = ER. 0.1219
2;<F? 3.18
101. 1994, SGD 6.4. FNUDQMLDMS GDKC @ KNSSDQX SN HRRTD 55,000 (QDDM $@QCR (ODQLHSR ENQ MNM-BHSHYDMR SN VNQJ KDF@KKX HM SGD
6.4.). 3DM@SD %DTSRBG, EQNL (DQL@MX, V@R NMD NE @OOQNWHL@SDKX 6.5 LHKKHNM ODNOKD VGN DMSDQDC SGHR KNSSDQX. -DS = VNM
FQDDM B@QC.
=. 8G@S V@R 3DM@SDnR BG@MBD NE VHMMHMF @ (QDDM $@QC 8QHSD XNTQ @MRVDQ @R @ OQNA@AHKHSX RS@SDLDMS.
>. *M SGD RTLLDQ NE 1994, 3DM@SD QDBDHUDC @ KDSSDQ RS@SHMF RGD V@R NMD NE 110,000 EHM@KHRSR BGNRDM. 0MBD SGD EHM@KHRSR
VDQD BGNRDM, @RRTLHMF SG@S D@BG EHM@KHRS G@C @M DPT@K BG@MBD SN VHM, VG@S V@R 3DM@SDnR BG@MBD NE VHMMHMF @
(QDDM $@QC 8QHSD XNTQ @MRVDQ @R @ BNMCHSHNM@K OQNA@AHKHSX RS@SDLDMS. -DS F = V@R @ EHM@KHRS.
?. "QD @MC F HMCDODMCDMS NQ CDODMCDMS DUDMSR +TRSHEX XNTQ @MRVDQ MTLDQHB@KKX @MC @KRN DWOK@HM VGX.
@. "QD @MC F LTST@KKX DWBKTRHUD DUDMSR +TRSHEX XNTQ @MRVDQ MTLDQHB@KKX @MC DWOK@HM VGX.
102. 5GQDD OQNEDRRNQR @S (DNQFD 8@RGHMFSNM 6MHUDQRHSX CHC @M DWODQHLDMS SN CDSDQLHMD HE DBNMNLHRSR @QD LNQD RDKEHRG
SG@M NSGDQ ODNOKD. 5GDX CQNOODC 64 RS@LODC, @CCQDRRDC DMUDKNODR VHSG $10 B@RG HM CHEEDQDMS BK@RRQNNLR NM SGD (DNQFD
8@RGHMFSNM B@LOTR. 44% VDQD QDSTQMDC NUDQ@KK. 'QNL SGD DBNMNLHBR BK@RRDR 56% NE SGD DMUDKNODR VDQD QDSTQMDC. 'QNL
SGD ATRHMDRR, ORXBGNKNFX, @MC GHRSNQX BK@RRDR 31% VDQD QDSTQMDC.
-DS: + = LNMDX QDSTQMDC; E = DBNMNLHBR BK@RRDR; ( = NSGDQ BK@RRDR
=. 8QHSD @ OQNA@AHKHSX RS@SDLDMS ENQ SGD NUDQ@KK ODQBDMS NE LNMDX QDSTQMDC.
>. 8QHSD @ OQNA@AHKHSX RS@SDLDMS ENQ SGD ODQBDMS NE LNMDX QDSTQMDC NTS NE SGD DBNMNLHBR BK@RRDR.
?. 8QHSD @ OQNA@AHKHSX RS@SDLDMS ENQ SGD ODQBDMS NE LNMDX QDSTQMDC NTS NE SGD NSGDQ BK@RRDR.
@. *R LNMDX ADHMF QDSTQMDC HMCDODMCDMS NE SGD BK@RR +TRSHEX XNTQ @MRVDQ MTLDQHB@KKX @MC DWOK@HM HS.
A. #@RDC TONM SGHR RSTCX, CN XNT SGHMJ SG@S DBNMNLHRSR @QD LNQD RDKEHRG SG@M NSGDQ ODNOKD &WOK@HM VGX NQ VGX MNS.
*MBKTCD MTLADQR SN ITRSHEX XNTQ @MRVDQ.
232 "'/3$1 3 W /1.!!(+(38 3./("2
3DEO ?KJPAJP EO =R=EH=>HA BKN BNAA =P DPPL://?JT.KNC/?KJPAJP/?KH11562/1.11
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103. 5GD ENKKNVHMF S@AKD NE C@S@ NAS@HMDC EQNL VVV.A@RDA@KK-@KL@M@B.BNL RGNVR HS HMENQL@SHNM ENQ ENTQ VDKK JMNVM
OK@XDQR. 4TOONRD SG@S NMD GHS EQNL SGD S@AKD HR Q@MCNLKX RDKDBSDC.
,;G? 1CHAF? "IO<F? 2LCJF? &IG? 0OH 2IN;F &CNM
!=>A 1QPD 1,517 506 136 714 2,873
)=?GEA 1K>EJOKJ 1,054 273 54 137 1,518
3U "K>> 3,603 174 295 114 4,189
'=JG =NKJ 2,294 624 98 755 3,771
3KP=H 8,471 1,577 583 1,720 12,351
2;<F? 3.19
"QD SGD GHS ADHMF L@CD AX )@MJ "@QNM @MC SGD GHS ADHMF @ CNTAKD HMCDODMCDMS DUDMSR
=. :DR, ADB@TRD )(GHS AX )@MJ "@QNM[GHS HR @ CNTAKD) = )(GHS AX )@MJ "@QNM)
>. /N, ADB@TRD )(GHS AX )@MJ "@QNM[GHS HR @ CNTAKD) w )(GHS HR @ CNTAKD)
?. /N, ADB@TRD )(GHS HR AX )@MJ "@QNM[GHS HR @ CNTAKD) w )(GHS AX )@MJ "@QNM)
@. :DR, ADB@TRD )(GHS HR AX )@MJ "@QNM[GHS HR @ CNTAKD) = )(GHS HR @ CNTAKD)
104. 6MHSDC #KNNC 4DQUHBDR HR @ AKNNC A@MJ SG@S RDQUDR LNQD SG@M 500 GNROHS@KR HM 18 RS@SDR. "BBNQCHMF SN SGDHQ VDARHSD,
@ ODQRNM VHSG SXOD 0 AKNNC @MC @ MDF@SHUD 3G E@BSNQ (3G-) B@M CNM@SD AKNNC SN @MX ODQRNM VHSG @MX AKNNCSXOD. 5GDHQ C@S@
RGNV SG@S 43% NE ODNOKD G@UD SXOD 0 AKNNC @MC 15% NE ODNOKD G@UD 3G- E@BSNQ; 52% NE ODNOKD G@UD SXOD 0 NQ 3G- E@BSNQ.
=. 'HMC SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S @ ODQRNM G@R ANSG SXOD 0 AKNNC @MC SGD 3G- E@BSNQ.
>. 'HMC SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S @ ODQRNM CNDR /05 G@UD ANSG SXOD 0 AKNNC @MC SGD 3G- E@BSNQ.
105. "S @ BNKKDFD, 72% NE BNTQRDR G@UD EHM@K DW@LR @MC 46% NE BNTQRDR QDPTHQD QDRD@QBG O@ODQR. 4TOONRD SG@S 32% NE
BNTQRDR G@UD @ QDRD@QBG O@ODQ @MC @ EHM@K DW@L. -DS F AD SGD DUDMS SG@S @ BNTQRD G@R @ EHM@K DW@L. -DS + AD SGD DUDMS SG@S @
BNTQRD QDPTHQDR @ QDRD@QBG O@ODQ.
=. 'HMC SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S @ BNTQRD G@R @ EHM@K DW@L NQ @ QDRD@QBG OQNIDBS.
>. 'HMC SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S @ BNTQRD G@R /&*5)&3 NE SGDRD SVN QDPTHQDLDMSR.
106. *M @ ANW NE @RRNQSDC BNNJHDR, 36% BNMS@HM BGNBNK@SD @MC 12% BNMS@HM MTSR. 0E SGNRD, 8% BNMS@HM ANSG BGNBNK@SD @MC
MTSR. 4D@M HR @KKDQFHB SN ANSG BGNBNK@SD @MC MTSR.
=. 'HMC SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S @ BNNJHD BNMS@HMR BGNBNK@SD NQ MTSR (GD B@M'S D@S HS).
>. 'HMC SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S @ BNNJHD CNDR MNS BNMS@HM BGNBNK@SD NQ MTSR (GD B@M D@S HS).
107. " BNKKDFD EHMCR SG@S 10% NE RSTCDMSR G@UD S@JDM @ CHRS@MBD KD@QMHMF BK@RR @MC SG@S 40% NE RSTCDMSR @QD O@QS SHLD
RSTCDMSR. 0E SGD O@QS SHLD RSTCDMSR, 20% G@UD S@JDM @ CHRS@MBD KD@QMHMF BK@RR. -DS D = DUDMS SG@S @ RSTCDMS S@JDR @ CHRS@MBD
KD@QMHMF BK@RR @MC E = DUDMS SG@S @ RSTCDMS HR @ O@QS SHLD RSTCDMS
=. 'HMC )(D "/% E).
>. 'HMC )(E[D).
?. 'HMC )(D 03 E).
@. 6RHMF @M @OOQNOQH@SD SDRS, RGNV VGDSGDQ D @MC E @QD HMCDODMCDMS.
A. 6RHMF @M @OOQNOQH@SD SDRS, RGNV VGDSGDQ D @MC E @QD LTST@KKX DWBKTRHUD.
3.4 !IHNCHA?H=S 2;<F?M
.I; J>; ?D<EHC7J?ED ?D J>; %&/) 3.20 JE 7DIM;H J>; D;NJ ;?=>J ;N;H9?I;I. 5GD S@AKD RGNVR SGD ONKHSHB@K O@QSX @EEHKH@SHNM NE
D@BG NE 67 LDLADQR NE SGD 64 4DM@SD HM +TMD 2012, @MC VGDM SGDX @QD TO ENQ QDDKDBSHNM.
"'/3$1 3 W /1.!!(+(38 3./("2 233
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3J @IL L??F?=NCIH: "?GI=L;NC= .;LNS 0?JO<FC=;H .;LNS -NB?L 2IN;F
-KRAI>AN 2014 20 13 0
-KRAI>AN 2016 10 24 0
3KP=H
2;<F? 3.20
108. 8G@S HR SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S @ Q@MCNLKX RDKDBSDC RDM@SNQ G@R @M o0SGDQp @EEHKH@SHNM
109. 8G@S HR SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S @ Q@MCNLKX RDKDBSDC RDM@SNQ HR TO ENQ QDDKDBSHNM HM /NUDLADQ 2016
110. 8G@S HR SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S @ Q@MCNLKX RDKDBSDC RDM@SNQ HR @ %DLNBQ@S @MC TO ENQ QDDKDBSHNM HM /NUDLADQ 2016
111. 8G@S HR SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S @ Q@MCNLKX RDKDBSDC RDM@SNQ HR @ 3DOTAKHB@M NQ HR TO ENQ QDDKDBSHNM HM /NUDLADQ 2014
112. 4TOONRD SG@S @ LDLADQ NE SGD 64 4DM@SD HR Q@MCNLKX RDKDBSDC. (HUDM SG@S SGD Q@MCNLKX RDKDBSDC RDM@SNQ HR TO ENQ
QDDKDBSHNM HM /NUDLADQ 2016, VG@S HR SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S SGHR RDM@SNQ HR @ %DLNBQ@S
113. 4TOONRD SG@S @ LDLADQ NE SGD 64 4DM@SD HR Q@MCNLKX RDKDBSDC. 8G@S HR SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S SGD RDM@SNQ HR TO ENQ
QDDKDBSHNM HM /NUDLADQ 2014, JMNVHMF SG@S SGHR RDM@SNQ HR @ 3DOTAKHB@M
114. 5GD DUDMSR o3DOTAKHB@Mp @MC o6O ENQ QDDKDBSHNM HM 2016p @QD ????????
=. LTST@KKX DWBKTRHUD.
>. HMCDODMCDMS.
?. ANSG LTST@KKX DWBKTRHUD @MC HMCDODMCDMS.
@. MDHSGDQ LTST@KKX DWBKTRHUD MNQ HMCDODMCDMS.
115. 5GD DUDMSR o0SGDQp @MC o6O ENQ QDDKDBSHNM HM /NUDLADQ 2016p @QD ????????
=. LTST@KKX DWBKTRHUD.
>. HMCDODMCDMS.
?. ANSG LTST@KKX DWBKTRHUD @MC HMCDODMCDMS.
@. MDHSGDQ LTST@KKX DWBKTRHUD MNQ HMCDODMCDMS.
116. 2;<F? 3.21 FHUDR SGD MTLADQ NE RTHBHCDR DRSHL@SDC HM SGD 6.4. ENQ @ QDBDMS XD@Q AX @FD, Q@BD (AK@BJ NQ VGHSD), @MC RDW.
8D @QD HMSDQDRSDC HM ONRRHAKD QDK@SHNMRGHOR ADSVDDM @FD, Q@BD, @MC RDW. 8D VHKK KDS RTHBHCD UHBSHLR AD NTQ ONOTK@SHNM.
0;=? ;H> 1?R 1X14 15X24 25X64 IP?L 64 2-2A*1
SDEPA, I=HA 210 3,360 13,610 22,050
SDEPA, BAI=HA 80 580 3,380 4,930
>H=?G, I=HA 10 460 1,060 1,670
>H=?G, BAI=HA 0 40 270 330
=HH KPDANO
3.3+2 310 4,650 18,780 29,760
2;<F? 3.21
%N MNS HMBKTCD "@KK NSGDQR" ENQ O@QSR E @MC F.
=. 'HKK HM SGD BNKTLM ENQ SGD RTHBHCDR ENQ HMCHUHCT@KR NUDQ @FD 64.
234 "'/3$1 3 W /1.!!(+(38 3./("2
3DEO ?KJPAJP EO =R=EH=>HA BKN BNAA =P DPPL://?JT.KNC/?KJPAJP/?KH11562/1.11
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>. 'HKK HM SGD QNV ENQ @KK NSGDQ Q@BDR.
?. 'HMC SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S @ Q@MCNLKX RDKDBSDC HMCHUHCT@K V@R @ VGHSD L@KD.
@. 'HMC SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S @ Q@MCNLKX RDKDBSDC HMCHUHCT@K V@R @ AK@BJ EDL@KD.
A. 'HMC SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S @ Q@MCNLKX RDKDBSDC HMCHUHCT@K V@R AK@BJ
B. 'HMC SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S @ Q@MCNLKX RDKDBSDC HMCHUHCT@K V@R L@KD.
C. 0TS NE SGD HMCHUHCT@KR NUDQ @FD 64, EHMC SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S @ Q@MCNLKX RDKDBSDC HMCHUHCT@K V@R @ AK@BJ NQ VGHSD
L@KD.
.I; J>; <EBBEM?D= ?D<EHC7J?ED JE 7DIM;H J>; D;NJ JME ;N;H9?I;I. 5GD S@AKD NE C@S@ NAS@HMDC EQNL MMM.87I;87BB-7BC7D79.9EC
RGNVR GHS HMENQL@SHNM ENQ ENTQ VDKK JMNVM A@RDA@KK OK@XDQR. 4TOONRD SG@S NMD GHS EQNL SGD S@AKD HR Q@MCNLKX RDKDBSDC.
,A+# 1CHAF? "IO<F? 2LCJF? &IG? 0OH 2-2A* &'21
!=>A 1QPD 1,517 506 136 714 2,873
)=?GEA 1K>EJOKJ 1,054 273 54 137 1,518
3U "K>> 3,603 174 295 114 4,189
'=JG =NKJ 2,294 624 98 755 3,771
3.3+ 8,471 1,577 583 1,720 12,351
2;<F? 3.22
117. 'HMC )(GHS V@R L@CD AX #@AD 3TSG).
=.
1518
2873
>.
2873
12351
?.
583
12351
@.
4189
12351
118. 'HMC )(GHS V@R L@CD AX 5X $NAA[5GD GHS V@R @ )NLD 3TM).
=.
4189
12351
>.
114
1720
?.
1720
4189
@.
114
12351
119. 2;<F? 3.23 HCDMSHEHDR @ FQNTO NE BGHKCQDM AX NMD NE ENTQ G@HQ BNKNQR, @MC AX SXOD NE G@HQ.
&;CL 2SJ? LIQH FIH> F;=E 0?> 2IN;FM
6=RU 20 15 3 43
2PN=ECDP 80 15 12
3KP=HO 20 215
2;<F? 3.23
"'/3$1 3 W /1.!!(+(38 3./("2 235
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=. $NLOKDSD SGD S@AKD.
>. 8G@S HR SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S @ Q@MCNLKX RDKDBSDC BGHKC VHKK G@UD V@UX G@HQ
?. 8G@S HR SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S @ Q@MCNLKX RDKDBSDC BGHKC VHKK G@UD DHSGDQ AQNVM NQ AKNMC G@HQ
@. 8G@S HR SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S @ Q@MCNLKX RDKDBSDC BGHKC VHKK G@UD V@UX AQNVM G@HQ
A. 8G@S HR SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S @ Q@MCNLKX RDKDBSDC BGHKC VHKK G@UD QDC G@HQ, FHUDM SG@S GD NQ RGD G@R RSQ@HFGS G@HQ
B. *E B HR SGD DUDMS NE @ BGHKC G@UHMF AQNVM G@HQ, EHMC SGD OQNA@AHKHSX NE SGD BNLOKDLDMS NE B.
C. *M VNQCR, VG@S CNDR SGD BNLOKDLDMS NE B QDOQDRDMS
120. *M @ OQDUHNTR XD@Q, SGD VDHFGSR NE SGD LDLADQR NE SGD 06C #G6C8>H8D 49:GH @MC SGD !6AA6H DL7DNH VDQD OTAKHRGDC
HM SGD ,7D #EI; &;H9KHO ';MI. 5GD E@BST@K C@S@ VDQD BNLOHKDC HMSN SGD ENKKNVHMF S@AKD.
1BCLN# \ 210 211X250 251X290 > 290
1_33 21 5 0 0
34_66 6 18 7 4
66_99 6 12 22 5
2;<F? 3.24
'NQ SGD ENKKNVHMF, RTOONRD SG@S XNT Q@MCNLKX RDKDBS NMD OK@XDQ EQNL SGD 49DQR NQ $NVANXR.
=. 'HMC SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S GHR RGHQS MTLADQ HR EQNL 1 SN 33.
>. 'HMC SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S GD VDHFGR @S LNRS 210 ONTMCR.
?. 'HMC SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S GHR RGHQS MTLADQ HR EQNL 1 SN 33 "/% GD VDHFGR @S LNRS 210 ONTMCR.
@. 'HMC SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S GHR RGHQS MTLADQ HR EQNL 1 SN 33 03 GD VDHFGR @S LNRS 210 ONTMCR.
A. 'HMC SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S GHR RGHQS MTLADQ HR EQNL 1 SN 33 (*7&/ SG@S GD VDHFGR @S LNRS 210 ONTMCR.
3.5 2L?? ;H> 4?HH "C;AL;GM
.I; J>; <EBBEM?D= ?D<EHC7J?ED JE 7DIM;H J>; D;NJ JME ;N;H9?I;I. 5GHR SQDD CH@FQ@L RGNVR SGD SNRRHMF NE @M TME@HQ BNHM
ENKKNVDC AX CQ@VHMF NMD AD@C EQNL @ BTO BNMS@HMHMF SGQDD QDC (+), ENTQ XDKKNV (2) @MC EHUD AKTD (B) AD@CR. 'NQ SGD BNHM,
)(!) =
2
3
@MC )(-) =
1
3
VGDQD ! HR GD@CR @MC - HR S@HKR.
$CAOL? 3.13
121. 'HMC )(SNRRHMF @ )D@C NM SGD BNHM "/% @ 3DC AD@C)
=.
2
3
236 "'/3$1 3 W /1.!!(+(38 3./("2
3DEO ?KJPAJP EO =R=EH=>HA BKN BNAA =P DPPL://?JT.KNC/?KJPAJP/?KH11562/1.11
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6
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122. 'HMC )(#KTD AD@C).
=.
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36
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10
36
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10
12
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6
36
123. " ANW NE BNNJHDR BNMS@HMR SGQDD BGNBNK@SD @MC RDUDM ATSSDQ BNNJHDR. .HFTDK Q@MCNLKX RDKDBSR @ BNNJHD @MC D@SR HS.
5GDM GD Q@MCNLKX RDKDBSR @MNSGDQ BNNJHD @MC D@SR HS. ()NV L@MX BNNJHDR CHC GD S@JD)
=. %Q@V SGD SQDD SG@S QDOQDRDMSR SGD ONRRHAHKHSHDR ENQ SGD BNNJHD RDKDBSHNMR. 8QHSD SGD OQNA@AHKHSHDR @KNMF D@BG AQ@MBG
NE SGD SQDD.
>. "QD SGD OQNA@AHKHSHDR ENQ SGD EK@UNQ NE SGD 4&$0/% BNNJHD SG@S .HFTDK RDKDBSR HMCDODMCDMS NE GHR EHQRS RDKDBSHNM
&WOK@HM.
?. 'NQ D@BG BNLOKDSD O@SG SGQNTFG SGD SQDD, VQHSD SGD DUDMS HS QDOQDRDMSR @MC EHMC SGD OQNA@AHKHSHDR.
@. -DS 4 AD SGD DUDMS SG@S ANSG BNNJHDR RDKDBSDC VDQD SGD R@LD EK@UNQ. 'HMC )(,).
A. -DS - AD SGD DUDMS SG@S SGD BNNJHDR RDKDBSDC VDQD CHEEDQDMS EK@UNQR. 'HMC )(-) AX SVN CHEEDQDMS LDSGNCR: AX TRHMF
SGD BNLOKDLDMS QTKD @MC AX TRHMF SGD AQ@MBGDR NE SGD SQDD. :NTQ @MRVDQR RGNTKC AD SGD R@LD VHSG ANSG LDSGNCR.
B. -DS . AD SGD DUDMS SG@S SGD RDBNMC BNNJHD RDKDBSDC HR @ ATSSDQ BNNJHD. 'HMC )(.).
0',%',% '2 2-%#2&#0 : &-+#5-0)
124. " OQDUHNTR XD@Q, SGD VDHFGSR NE SGD LDLADQR NE SGD 06C #G6C8>H8D 49:GH @MC SGD !6AA6H DL7DNH VDQD OTAKHRGDC HM
SGD ,7D #EI; &;H9KHO ';MI. 5GD E@BST@K C@S@ @QD BNLOHKDC HMSN 2;<F? 3.25.
1BCLN# \ 210 211X250 251X290 290\
1_33 21 5 0 0
34_66 6 18 7 4
66_99 6 12 22 5
2;<F? 3.25
'NQ SGD ENKKNVHMF, RTOONRD SG@S XNT Q@MCNLKX RDKDBS NMD OK@XDQ EQNL SGD 49DQR NQ $NVANXR.
*E G@UHMF @ RGHQS MTLADQ EQNL NMD SN 33 @MC VDHFGHMF @S LNRS 210 ONTMCR VDQD HMCDODMCDMS DUDMSR, SGDM VG@S RGNTKC
AD SQTD @ANTS )(4GHQS# 1k33[x 210 ONTMCR)
125. 5GD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S @ L@KD CDUDKNOR RNLD ENQL NE B@MBDQ HM GHR KHEDSHLD HR 0.4567. 5GD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S @ L@KD G@R @S
KD@RS NMD E@KRD ONRHSHUD SDRS QDRTKS (LD@MHMF SGD SDRS BNLDR A@BJ ENQ B@MBDQ VGDM SGD L@M CNDR MNS G@UD HS) HR 0.51. 4NLD NE
SGD ENKKNVHMF PTDRSHNMR CN MNS G@UD DMNTFG HMENQL@SHNM ENQ XNT SN @MRVDQ SGDL. 8QHSD oMNS DMNTFG HMENQL@SHNMp ENQ SGNRD
@MRVDQR. -DS C = @ L@M CDUDKNOR B@MBDQ HM GHR KHEDSHLD @MC ) = L@M G@R @S KD@RS NMD E@KRD ONRHSHUD.
=. )(C) = ??????
>. )()[C) = ??????
?. )()[C') = ??????
@. *E @ SDRS BNLDR TO ONRHSHUD, A@RDC TONM MTLDQHB@K U@KTDR, B@M XNT @RRTLD SG@S L@M G@R B@MBDQ +TRSHEX MTLDQHB@KKX
@MC DWOK@HM VGX NQ VGX MNS.
126. (HUDM DUDMSR @MC !: )() = 0.43; )(!) = 0.26; )(! "/% ) = 0.14
=. 'HMC )(! 03 ).
>. 'HMC SGD OQNA@AHKHSX NE SGD BNLOKDLDMS NE DUDMS (! "/% ).
"'/3$1 3 W /1.!!(+(38 3./("2 237
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127. (HUDM DUDMSR # @MC $: )(#) = 0.18; )($) = 0.37; )(# 03 $) = 0.45
=. 'HMC )(# "/% $).
>. 'HMC SGD OQNA@AHKHSX NE SGD BNLOKDLDMS NE DUDMS (# "/% $).
?. 'HMC SGD OQNA@AHKHSX NE SGD BNLOKDLDMS NE DUDMS (# "/% $).
.I; J>; <EBBEM?D= ?D<EHC7J?ED JE 7DIM;H J>; D;NJ JME ;N;H9?I;I. 4TOONRD SG@S XNT G@UD DHFGS B@QCR. 'HUD @QD FQDDM @MC SGQDD
@QD XDKKNV. 5GD B@QCR @QD VDKK RGTEEKDC.
128. 4TOONRD SG@S XNT Q@MCNLKX CQ@V SVN B@QCR, NMD @S @ SHLD, L>I= G:EA68:B:CI.
-DS
1
= EHQRS B@QC HR FQDDM
-DS
2
= RDBNMC B@QC HR FQDDM
=. %Q@V @ SQDD CH@FQ@L NE SGD RHST@SHNM.
>. 'HMC )(
1
"/%
2
).
?. 'HMC )(@S KD@RS NMD FQDDM).
@. 'HMC )(
2
[
1
).
A. "QD
2
@MC
1
HMCDODMCDMS DUDMSR &WOK@HM VGX NQ VGX MNS.
129. 4TOONRD SG@S XNT Q@MCNLKX CQ@V SVN B@QCR, NMD @S @ SHLD, L>I=DJI G:EA68:B:CI.

1
= EHQRS B@QC HR FQDDM

2
= RDBNMC B@QC HR FQDDM
=. %Q@V @ SQDD CH@FQ@L NE SGD RHST@SHNM.
>. 'HMC )(
1
"/%
2
).
?. 'HMC )(@S KD@RS NMD FQDDM).
@. 'HMC )(
2
[
1
).
A. "QD
2
@MC
1
HMCDODMCDMS DUDMSR &WOK@HM VGX NQ VGX MNS.
.I; J>; <EBBEM?D= ?D<EHC7J?ED JE 7DIM;H J>; D;NJ JME ;N;H9?I;I. 5GD ODQBDMS NE KHBDMRDC 6.4. CQHUDQR (EQNL @ QDBDMS
XD@Q) SG@S @QD EDL@KD HR 48.60. 0E SGD EDL@KDR, 5.03% @QD @FD 19 @MC TMCDQ; 81.36% @QD @FD 20k64; 13.61% @QD @FD 65 NQ
NUDQ. 0E SGD KHBDMRDC 6.4. L@KD CQHUDQR, 5.04% @QD @FD 19 @MC TMCDQ; 81.43% @QD @FD 20k64; 13.53% @QD @FD 65 NQ NUDQ.
130. $NLOKDSD SGD ENKKNVHMF.
=. $NMRSQTBS @ S@AKD NQ @ SQDD CH@FQ@L NE SGD RHST@SHNM.
>. 'HMC )(CQHUDQ HR EDL@KD).
?. 'HMC )(CQHUDQ HR @FD 65 NQ NUDQ[CQHUDQ HR EDL@KD).
@. 'HMC )(CQHUDQ HR @FD 65 NQ NUDQ "/% EDL@KD).
A. *M VNQCR, DWOK@HM SGD CHEEDQDMBD ADSVDDM SGD OQNA@AHKHSHDR HM O@QS B @MC O@QS C.
B. 'HMC )(CQHUDQ HR @FD 65 NQ NUDQ).
C. "QD ADHMF @FD 65 NQ NUDQ @MC ADHMF EDL@KD LTST@KKX DWBKTRHUD DUDMSR )NV CN XNT JMNV
131. 4TOONRD SG@S 10,000 6.4. KHBDMRDC CQHUDQR @QD Q@MCNLKX RDKDBSDC.
=. )NV L@MX VNTKC XNT DWODBS SN AD L@KD
>. 6RHMF SGD S@AKD NQ SQDD CH@FQ@L EQNL SGD OQDUHNTR DWDQBHRD, BNMRSQTBS @ BNMSHMFDMBX S@AKD NE FDMCDQ UDQRTR @FD
FQNTO.
?. 6RHMF SGD BNMSHMFDMBX S@AKD, EHMC SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S NTS NE SGD @FD 20k64 FQNTO, @ Q@MCNLKX RDKDBSDC CQHUDQ HR
EDL@KD.
132. "OOQNWHL@SDKX 86.5% NE "LDQHB@MR BNLLTSD SN VNQJ AX B@Q, SQTBJ, NQ U@M. 0TS NE SG@S FQNTO, 84.6% CQHUD @KNMD @MC
15.4% CQHUD HM @ B@QONNK. "OOQNWHL@SDKX 3.9% V@KJ SN VNQJ @MC @OOQNWHL@SDKX 5.3% S@JD OTAKHB SQ@MRONQS@SHNM.
=. $NMRSQTBS @ S@AKD NQ @ SQDD CH@FQ@L NE SGD RHST@SHNM. *MBKTCD @ AQ@MBG ENQ @KK NSGDQ LNCDR NE SQ@MRONQS@SHNM SN VNQJ.
>. "RRTLHMF SG@S SGD V@KJDQR V@KJ @KNMD, VG@S ODQBDMS NE @KK BNLLTSDQR SQ@UDK @KNMD SN VNQJ
?. 4TOONRD SG@S 1,000 VNQJDQR @QD Q@MCNLKX RDKDBSDC. )NV L@MX VNTKC XNT DWODBS SN SQ@UDK @KNMD SN VNQJ
@. 4TOONRD SG@S 1,000 VNQJDQR @QD Q@MCNLKX RDKDBSDC. )NV L@MX VNTKC XNT DWODBS SN CQHUD HM @ B@QONNK
133. 8GDM SGD &TQN BNHM V@R HMSQNCTBDC HM 2002, SVN L@SG OQNEDRRNQR G@C SGDHQ RS@SHRSHBR RSTCDMSR SDRS VGDSGDQ SGD #DKFH@M
NMD &TQN BNHM V@R @ E@HQ BNHM. 5GDX ROTM SGD BNHM Q@SGDQ SG@M SNRRHMF HS @MC ENTMC SG@S NTS NE 250 ROHMR, 140 RGNVDC @ GD@C
(DUDMS !) VGHKD 110 RGNVDC @ S@HK (DUDMS -). 0M SG@S A@RHR, SGDX BK@HLDC SG@S HS HR MNS @ E@HQ BNHM.
=. #@RDC NM SGD FHUDM C@S@, EHMC )(!) @MC )(-).
>. 6RD @ SQDD SN EHMC SGD OQNA@AHKHSHDR NE D@BG ONRRHAKD NTSBNLD ENQ SGD DWODQHLDMS NE SNRRHMF SGD BNHM SVHBD.
?. 6RD SGD SQDD SN EHMC SGD OQNA@AHKHSX NE NAS@HMHMF DW@BSKX NMD GD@C HM SVN SNRRDR NE SGD BNHM.
@. 6RD SGD SQDD SN EHMC SGD OQNA@AHKHSX NE NAS@HMHMF @S KD@RS NMD GD@C.
134. .I; J>; <EBBEM?D= ?D<EHC7J?ED JE 7DIM;H J>; D;NJ JME ;N;H9?I;I. 5GD ENKKNVHMF @QD QD@K C@S@ EQNL 4@MS@ $K@Q@ $NTMSX,
$". "R NE @ BDQS@HM SHLD, SGDQD G@C ADDM @ SNS@K NE 3,059 CNBTLDMSDC B@RDR NE "*%4 HM SGD BNTMSX. 5GDX VDQD FQNTODC HMSN
SGD ENKKNVHMF B@SDFNQHDR:
238 "'/3$1 3 W /1.!!(+(38 3./("2
3DEO ?KJPAJP EO =R=EH=>HA BKN BNAA =P DPPL://?JT.KNC/?KJPAJP/?KH11562/1.11
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&IGIM?RO;F/CM?RO;F '4 "LOA 3M?L* &?N?LIM?RO;F !IHN;=N -NB?L 2IN;FM
%AI=HA 0 70 136 49 <<<<
,=HA 2,146 463 60 135 <<<<
3KP=HO <<<< <<<< <<<< <<<< <<<<
2;<F? 3.26 * EJ?HQ@AO DKIKOATQ=H/>EOATQ=H (5 @NQC QOANO
4TOONRD @ ODQRNM VHSG "*%4 HM 4@MS@ $K@Q@ $NTMSX HR Q@MCNLKX RDKDBSDC.
=. 'HMC )(1DQRNM HR EDL@KD).
>. 'HMC )(1DQRNM G@R @ QHRJ E@BSNQ GDSDQNRDWT@K BNMS@BS).
?. 'HMC )(1DQRNM HR EDL@KD 03 G@R @ QHRJ E@BSNQ NE *7 CQTF TRDQ).
@. 'HMC )(1DQRNM HR EDL@KD "/% G@R @ QHRJ E@BSNQ NE GNLNRDWT@K/AHRDWT@K).
A. 'HMC )(1DQRNM HR L@KD "/% G@R @ QHRJ E@BSNQ NE *7 CQTF TRDQ).
B. 'HMC )(1DQRNM HR EDL@KD (*7&/ ODQRNM FNS SGD CHRD@RD EQNL GDSDQNRDWT@K BNMS@BS).
C. $NMRSQTBS @ 7DMM CH@FQ@L. .@JD NMD FQNTO EDL@KDR @MC SGD NSGDQ FQNTO GDSDQNRDWT@K BNMS@BS.
135. "MRVDQ SGDRD PTDRSHNMR TRHMF OQNA@AHKHSX QTKDR. %N /05 TRD SGD BNMSHMFDMBX S@AKD. 5GQDD SGNTR@MC EHESX-MHMD B@RDR
NE "*%4 G@C ADDM QDONQSDC HM 4@MS@ $K@Q@ $NTMSX, $", SGQNTFG @ BDQS@HM C@SD. 5GNRD B@RDR VHKK AD NTQ ONOTK@SHNM. 0E SGNRD
B@RDR, 6.4% NAS@HMDC SGD CHRD@RD SGQNTFG GDSDQNRDWT@K BNMS@BS @MC 7.4% @QD EDL@KD. 0TS NE SGD EDL@KDR VHSG SGD CHRD@RD,
53.3% FNS SGD CHRD@RD EQNL GDSDQNRDWT@K BNMS@BS.
=. 'HMC )(1DQRNM HR EDL@KD).
>. 'HMC )(1DQRNM NAS@HMDC SGD CHRD@RD SGQNTFG GDSDQNRDWT@K BNMS@BS).
?. 'HMC )(1DQRNM HR EDL@KD (*7&/ ODQRNM FNS SGD CHRD@RD EQNL GDSDQNRDWT@K BNMS@BS)
@. $NMRSQTBS @ 7DMM CH@FQ@L QDOQDRDMSHMF SGHR RHST@SHNM. .@JD NMD FQNTO EDL@KDR @MC SGD NSGDQ FQNTO GDSDQNRDWT@K
BNMS@BS. 'HKK HM @KK U@KTDR @R OQNA@AHKHSHDR.
0#$#0#,!#1
3.1 2?LGCHIFIAS
o$NTMSQHDR -HRS AX $NMSHMDMS.p 8NQKC@SK@R, 2013. "U@HK@AKD NMKHMD @S GSSO://VVV.VNQKC@SK@R.BNL/BMSXBNMS.GSL (@BBDRRDC
.@X 2, 2013).
3.2 'H>?J?H>?HN ;H> +ONO;FFS #R=FOMCP? #P?HNM
-NODY, 4G@MD, 1QDDSX 4HCGT. o6.4. 5D@BGDQR -NUD 5GDHQ -HUDR, ATS 4SQTFFKD HM SGD 8NQJOK@BD.p (@KKTO 8DKKADHMF, 2013.
GSSO://VVV.F@KKTO.BNL/ONKK/161516/SD@BGDQR-KNUD-KHUDR-RSQTFFKD-VNQJOK@BD.@ROW (@BBDRRDC .@X 2, 2013).
%@S@ EQNL (@KKTO. "U@HK@AKD NMKHMD @S VVV.F@KKTO.BNL/ (@BBDRRDC .@X 2, 2013).
3.3 2QI ;MC= 0OF?M I@ .LI<;<CFCNS
%H$@LHKKN, .@QJ, .DQUHM 'HDKC. o5GD 'HKD 1NKK.p 'HDKC 3DRD@QBG $NQONQ@SHNM. "U@HK@AKD NMKHMD @S GSSO://VVV.EHDKC.BNL/
EHDKCONKKNMKHMD/RTARBQHADQR/3KR2443.OCE (@BBDRRDC .@X 2, 2013).
3HCDQ, %@UHC, o'NQC RTOONQS OKTLLDSHMF, ONKK RTFFDRSR,p 5GD 4S@Q, 4DOSDLADQ 14, 2011. "U@HK@AKD NMKHMD @S
GSSO://VVV.SGDRS@Q.BNL/MDVR/FS@/2011/09/14/ENQC?RTOONQS?OKTLLDSHMF?ONKK?RTFFDRSR.GSLK (@BBDRRDC .@X 2, 2013).
o.@XNQnR "OOQNU@K %NVM.p /DVR 3DKD@RD AX 'NQTL 3DRD@QBG *MB. "U@HK@AKD NMKHMD @S GSSO://VVV.ENQTLQDRD@QBG.BNL/
ENQLR//DVR "QBGHUDR//DVR 3DKD@RDR/74209?50?*RRTDR?-
?.@XNQ@K?"OOQNU@K?%28'NQTL?3DRD@QBG%29%2820130320%29.OCE (@BBDRRDC .@X 2, 2013).
o3NTKDSSD.p 8HJHODCH@. "U@HK@AKD NMKHMD @S GSSO://DM.VHJHODCH@.NQF/VHJH/3NTKDSSD (@BBDRRDC .@X 2, 2013).
4GHM, )XNM #., 3NADQS ". ,NLHMRJH. o-@MFT@FD 6RD HM SGD 6MHSDC 4S@SDR: 2007.p 6MHSDC 4S@SDR $DMRTR #TQD@T. "U@HK@AKD
NMKHMD @S GSSO://VVV.BDMRTR.FNU/GGDR/RNBCDLN/K@MFT@FD/C@S@/@BR/"$4-12.OCE (@BBDRRDC .@X 2, 2013).
%@S@ EQNL SGD #@RDA@KK-"KL@M@B, 2013. "U@HK@AKD NMKHMD @S VVV.A@RDA@KK-@KL@M@B.BNL (@BBDRRDC .@X 2, 2013).
%@S@ EQNL 6.4. $DMRTR #TQD@T.
%@S@ EQNL SGD 8@KK 4SQDDS +NTQM@K.
%@S@ EQNL 5GD 3NODQ $DMSDQ: 1TAKHB 0OHMHNM "QBGHUDR @S SGD 6MHUDQRHSX NE $NMMDBSHBTS. "U@HK@AKD NMKHMD @S
GSSO://VVV.QNODQBDMSDQ.TBNMM.DCT/ (@BBDRRDC .@X 2, 2013).
%@S@ EQNL 'HDKC 3DRD@QBG $NQONQ@SHNM. "U@HK@AKD NMKHMD @S VVV.EHDKC.BNL/EHDKCONKKNMKHMD (@BBDRRDC .@X 2,2 013).
"'/3$1 3 W /1.!!(+(38 3./("2 239
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3.4 !IHNCHA?H=S 2;<F?M
o#KNNC 5XODR.p "LDQHB@M 3DC $QNRR, 2013. "U@HK@AKD NMKHMD @S GSSO://VVV.QDCBQNRRAKNNC.NQF/KD@QM-@ANTS-AKNNC/AKNNC-
SXODR (@BBDRRDC .@X 3, 2013).
%@S@ EQNL SGD /@SHNM@K $DMSDQ ENQ )D@KSG 4S@SHRSHBR, O@QS NE SGD 6MHSDC 4S@SDR %DO@QSLDMS NE )D@KSG @MC )TL@M 4DQUHBDR.
%@S@ EQNL 6MHSDC 4S@SDR 4DM@SD. "U@HK@AKD NMKHMD @S VVV.RDM@SD.FNU (@BBDRRDC .@X 2, 2013).
)@HL@M, $GQHRSNOGDQ "., %@MHDK 0. 4SQ@L, -XMM 3. 8HKJDMR, .@KBNL $. 1HJD, -@TQDMBD /. ,NKNMDK, #QHDM &. )DMCDQRNM,
@MC -NcB -D .@QBG@MC. o&SGMHB @MC 3@BH@K %HEEDQDMBDR HM SGD 4LNJHMF-3DK@SDC 3HRJ NE -TMF $@MBDQ.p 5GD /DV &MFK@MC
+NTQM@K NE .DCHBHMD, 2013. "U@HK@AKD NMKHMD @S GSSO://VVV.MDIL.NQF/CNH/ETKK/10.1056//&+.N@033250 (@BBDRRDC .@X 2,
2013).
o)TL@M #KNNC 5XODR.p 6MHSD #KNNC 4DQUHBDR, 2011. "U@HK@AKD NMKHMD @S GSSO://VVV.TMHSDCAKNNCRDQUHBDR.NQF/
KD@QM.NQD.@ROW (@BBDRRDC .@X 2, 2013).
4@LTDK, 5. .. o4SQ@MFD '@BSR @ANTS 3) /DF@SHUD #KNNC.p D)NV )D@KSG, 2013. "U@HK@AKD NMKHMD @S GSSO://VVV.DGNV.BNL/
E@BSR?5552003?RSQ@MFD-QG-MDF@SHUD-AKNNC.GSLK (@BBDRRDC .@X 2, 2013).
o6MHSDC 4S@SDR: 6MHENQL $QHLD 3DONQS k 4S@SD 4S@SHRSHBR EQNL 1960k2011.p 5GD %HR@RSDQ $DMSDQ. "U@HK@AKD NMKHMD @S
GSSO://VVV.CHR@RSDQBDMSDQ.BNL/BQHLD/ (@BBDRRDC .@X 2, 2013).
3.5 2L?? ;H> 4?HH "C;AL;GM
%@S@ EQNL $K@Q@ $NTMSX 1TAKHB ).%.
%@S@ EQNL SGD "LDQHB@M $@MBDQ 4NBHDSX.
%@S@ EQNL 5GD %@S@ @MC 4SNQX -HAQ@QX, 1996. "U@HK@AKD NMKHMD @S GSSO://KHA.RS@S.BLT.DCT/%"4-/ (@BBDRRDC .@X 2, 2013).
%@S@ EQNL SGD 'DCDQ@K )HFGV@X "CLHMHRSQ@SHNM, O@QS NE SGD 6MHSDC 4S@SDR %DO@QSLDMS NE 5Q@MRONQS@SHNM.
%@S@ EQNL SGD 6MHSDC 4S@SDR $DMRTR #TQD@T, O@QS NE SGD 6MHSDC 4S@SDR %DO@QSLDMS NE $NLLDQBD.
%@S@ EQNL 64" 5NC@X.
o&MUHQNMLDMS.p 5GD 8NQKC #@MJ, 2013. "U@HK@AKD NMKHMD @S GSSO://C@S@.VNQKCA@MJ.NQF/SNOHB/DMUHQNMLDMS (@BBDRRDC .@X 2,
2013).
o4D@QBG ENQ %@S@RDSR.p 3NODQ $DMSDQ: 1TAKHB 0OHMHNM "QBGHUDR, 6MHUDQRHSX NE $NMMDBSHBTS., 2013. "U@HK@AKD NMKHMD @S
GSSO://VVV.QNODQBDMSDQ.TBNMM.DCT/C@S@?@BBDRR/C@S@/RD@QBG?ENQ?C@S@RDSR.GSLK (@BBDRRDC .@X 2, 2013).
1-*32'-,1
1
@. )(%c) = )(,)
A. )(& 03 ,)
B. )(F "/% %)
C. )(&[%)
D. )(%[&)
E. )(,[F)
F. )(F[%)
G. )(F 03 %)
H. )(& "/% ,)
I. )(F)
3 )(') =
15
42
=
5
14
= 0.36
5 )(C) =
5
42
= 0.12
7 )() =
20
150
=
2
15
= 0.13
9 )(+) =
22
150
=
11
75
= 0.15
11 )(() =
150 - 22 - 38 - 20 - 28 - 26
150
=
16
150
=
8
75
= 0.11
13 )(E) =
47
194
= 0.24
240 "'/3$1 3 W /1.!!(+(38 3./("2
3DEO ?KJPAJP EO =R=EH=>HA BKN BNAA =P DPPL://?JT.KNC/?KJPAJP/?KH11562/1.11
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15 )(') =
23
194
= 0.12
17 )(,) =
12
194
=
6
97
= 0.06
19
13
52
=
1
4
= 0.25
21
3
6
=
1
2
= 0.5
23 P(R) =
4
8
= 0.5
25 )(( 03 !)
27 )(![")
29 )('[()
31 )(" 03 ')
33 )(")
35 5GD KHJDKHGNNC SG@S @M DUDMS VHKK NBBTQ FHUDM SG@S @MNSGDQ DUDMS G@R @KQD@CX NBBTQQDC.
37 1
39 SGD OQNA@AHKHSX NE K@MCHMF NM @M DUDM MTLADQ NQ @ LTKSHOKD NE SGQDD
41 )(#) = 0.3
43 )(* "/% +) = )(*))(+) 0.1 = (0.4))(+) )(+) = 0.25
45 0.376
47 C[% LD@MR, FHUDM SGD ODQRNM BGNRDM HR @ -@SHMN $@KHENQMH@M, SGD ODQRNM HR @ QDFHRSDQDC UNSDQ VGN OQDEDQR KHED HM OQHRNM
VHSGNTS O@QNKD ENQ @ ODQRNM BNMUHBSDC NE EHQRS CDFQDD LTQCDQ.
49 % "/% C HR SGD DUDMS SG@S SGD ODQRNM BGNRDM HR @ -@SHMN $@KHENQMH@ QDFHRSDQDC UNSDQ VGN OQDEDQR KHED VHSGNTS O@QNKD NUDQ
SGD CD@SG ODM@KSX ENQ @ ODQRNM BNMUHBSDC NE EHQRS CDFQDD LTQCDQ.
51 0.6492
53 /N, ADB@TRD )(% "/% C) CNDR MNS DPT@K 0.
55 )(LTRHBH@M HR @ L@KD "/% G@C OQHU@SD HMRSQTBSHNM) =
15
130
=
3
26
= 0.12
57 )(ADHMF @ EDL@KD LTRHBH@M "/% KD@QMHMF LTRHB HM RBGNNK) =
38
130
=
19
65
= 0.29 )(ADHMF @ EDL@KD LTRHBH@M))(KD@QMHMF
LTRHB HM RBGNNK) =

72
130

62
130

=
4, 464
16, 900
=
1, 116
4, 225
= 0.26 /N, SGDX @QD MNS HMCDODMCDMS ADB@TRD )(ADHMF @ EDL@KD
LTRHBH@M "/% KD@QMHMF LTRHB HM RBGNNK) HR MNS DPT@K SN )(ADHMF @ EDL@KD LTRHBH@M))(KD@QMHMF LTRHB HM RBGNNK).
59
35,065
100,450
61 5N OHBJ NMD ODQRNM EQNL SGD RSTCX VGN HR +@O@MDRD "LDQHB@M "/% RLNJDR 21 SN 30 BHF@QDSSDR ODQ C@X LD@MR SG@S SGD
ODQRNM G@R SN LDDS ANSG BQHSDQH@: ANSG +@O@MDRD "LDQHB@M @MC RLNJDR 21 SN 30 BHF@QDSSDR. 5GD R@LOKD RO@BD RGNTKC HMBKTCD
DUDQXNMD HM SGD RSTCX. 5GD OQNA@AHKHSX HR
4,715
100,450
.
"'/3$1 3 W /1.!!(+(38 3./("2 241
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63 5N OHBJ NMD ODQRNM EQNL SGD RSTCX VGN HR +@O@MDRD "LDQHB@M FHUDM SG@S ODQRNM RLNJDR 21-30 BHF@QDSSDR ODQ C@X, LD@MR
SG@S SGD ODQRNM LTRS ETKEHKK ANSG BQHSDQH@ @MC SGD R@LOKD RO@BD HR QDCTBDC SN SGNRD VGN RLNJD 21-30 BHF@QDSSDR ODQ C@X. 5GD
OQNA@AHKHSX HR
4715
15,273
.
65
$CAOL? 3.14
5GD ODQBDMS NE KHBDMRDC 6.4. CQHUDQR (EQNL @ QDBDMS XD@Q) SG@S @QD EDL@KD HR 48.60. 0E SGD EDL@KDR, 5.03% @QD @FD 19 @MC
TMCDQ; 81.36% @QD @FD 20k64; 13.61% @QD @FD 65 NQ NUDQ. 0E SGD KHBDMRDC 6.4. L@KD CQHUDQR, 5.04% @QD @FD 19 @MC TMCDQ;
81.43% @QD @FD 20k64; 13.53% @QD @FD 65 NQ NUDQ.
59
35,065
100,450
61 5N OHBJ NMD ODQRNM EQNL SGD RSTCX VGN HR +@O@MDRD "LDQHB@M "/% RLNJDR 21 SN 30 BHF@QDSSDR ODQ C@X LD@MR SG@S SGD
ODQRNM G@R SN LDDS ANSG BQHSDQH@: ANSG +@O@MDRD "LDQHB@M @MC RLNJDR 21 SN 30 BHF@QDSSDR. 5GD R@LOKD RO@BD RGNTKC HMBKTCD
DUDQXNMD HM SGD RSTCX. 5GD OQNA@AHKHSX HR
4,715
100,450
.
63 5N OHBJ NMD ODQRNM EQNL SGD RSTCX VGN HR +@O@MDRD "LDQHB@M FHUDM SG@S ODQRNM RLNJDR 21-30 BHF@QDSSDR ODQ C@X, LD@MR
SG@S SGD ODQRNM LTRS ETKEHKK ANSG BQHSDQH@ @MC SGD R@LOKD RO@BD HR QDCTBDC SN SGNRD VGN RLNJD 21-30 BHF@QDSSDR ODQ C@X. 5GD
OQNA@AHKHSX HR
4715
15,273
.
74
@. :NT B@M'S B@KBTK@SD SGD OQNA@AHKHSX JMNVHMF SGD OQNA@AHKHSX VHSG SGD HMENQL@SHNM FHUDM; SGD OQNA@AHKHSHDR RGNTKC AD
LTKSHOKHDC, MNS @CCDC; @MC OQNA@AHKHSX HR MDUDQ FQD@SDQ SG@M 100%
A. " GNLD QTM AX CDEHMHSHNM HR @ RTBBDRRETK GHS, RN GD G@R SN G@UD @S KD@RS @R L@MX RTBBDRRETK GHSR @R GNLD QTMR.
76 0
78 0.3571
80 0.2142
82 1GXRHBH@M (83.7)
84 83.7 u 79.6 = 4.1
86 )(0BBTO@SHNM < 81.3) = 0.5
242 "'/3$1 3 W /1.!!(+(38 3./("2
3DEO ?KJPAJP EO =R=EH=>HA BKN BNAA =P DPPL://?JT.KNC/?KJPAJP/?KH11562/1.11
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88
@. 5GD 'NQTL 3DRD@QBG RTQUDXDC 1,046 5NQNMSNMH@MR.
A. 58%
B. 42% NE 1,046 = 439 (QNTMCHMF SN SGD MD@QDRS HMSDFDQ)
C. 0.57
D. 0.60.
90
@. )(#DSSHMF NM SVN KHMD SG@S SNTBG D@BG NSGDQ NM SGD S@AKD) =
6
38
A. )(#DSSHMF NM SGQDD MTLADQR HM @ KHMD) =
3
38
B. )(#DSSSHMF NM NMD MTLADQ) =
1
38
C. )(#DSSHMF NM ENTQ MTLADQ SG@S SNTBG D@BG NSGDQ SN ENQL @ RPT@QD) =
4
38
D. )(#DSSHMF NM SVN MTLADQ SG@S SNTBG D@BG NSGDQ NM SGD S@AKD ) =
2
38
E. )(#DSSHMF NM 0-00-1-2-3) =
5
38
F. )(#DSSHMF NM 0-1-2; NQ 0-00-2; NQ 00-2-3) =
3
38
92
@. Z1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 21, 22, 23\
A.
5
8
B.
2
3
C.
2
8
D.
6
8
E. /N, ADB@TRD )( "/% E) CNDR MNS DPT@K 0.
94
,-2#
5GD BNHM SNRR HR HMCDODMCDMS NE SGD B@QC OHBJDC EHQRS.
q Z(,!) (,-) (B,!) (B,-) (+,!) (+,-)\
q )(A) = )(AKTD))(GD@C) =

3
10

1
2

=
3
20
q :DR, A @MC B @QD LTST@KKX DWBKTRHUD ADB@TRD SGDX B@MMNS G@OODM @S SGD R@LD SHLD; XNT B@MMNS OHBJ @ B@QC SG@S HR ANSG
AKTD @MC @KRN (QDC NQ FQDDM). )(A "/% B) = 0
q /N, A @MC C @QD MNS LTST@KKX DWBKTRHUD ADB@TRD SGDX B@M NBBTQ @S SGD R@LD SHLD. *M E@BS, C HMBKTCDR @KK NE SGD NTSBNLDR
NE A; HE SGD B@QC BGNRDM HR AKTD HS HR @KRN (QDC NQ AKTD). )(A "/% C) = )(A) =
3
20
96
@. , = Z(!!!), (!!-), (!-!), (!--), (-!!), (-!-), (--!), (---)\
A.
4
8
B. :DR, A@B@TRD HE A G@R NBBTQDC, HS HR HLONRRHAKD SN NAS@HM SVN S@HKR. *M NSGDQ VNQCR, )(A "/% B) = 0.
98
@. *E 2 @MC 3 @QD HMCDODMCDMS, SGDM )(2 "/% 3) = )(2))(3), RN )(2 03 3) = )(2) + )(3) - )(2))(3).
A. 0.5
"'/3$1 3 W /1.!!(+(38 3./("2 243
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100 HHH; H; HU; HH
102
@. )(+) = 0.44
A. )(+[E) = 0.56
B. )(+[() = 0.31
C. /N, VGDSGDQ SGD LNMDX HR QDSTQMDC HR MNS HMCDODMCDMS NE VGHBG BK@RR SGD LNMDX V@R OK@BDC HM. 5GDQD @QD RDUDQ@K V@XR
SN ITRSHEX SGHR L@SGDL@SHB@KKX, ATS NMD HR SG@S SGD LNMDX OK@BDC HM DBNMNLHBR BK@RRDR HR MNS QDSTQMDC @S SGD R@LD NUDQ@KK
Q@SD; )(+[E) w )(+).
D. /N, SGHR RSTCX CDEHMHSDKX CNDR MNS RTOONQS SG@S MNSHNM; ?D <79J, HS RTFFDRSR SGD NOONRHSD. 5GD LNMDX OK@BDC HM SGD
DBNMNLHBR BK@RRQNNLR V@R QDSTQMDC @S @ GHFGDQ Q@SD SG@M SGD LNMDX OK@BD HM @KK BK@RRDR BNKKDBSHUDKX; )(+[E) > )(+).
104
@. )(SXOD 0 03 3G-) = )(SXOD 0) + )(3G-) - )(SXOD 0 "/% 3G-)
0.52 = 0.43 + 0.15 - )(SXOD 0 "/% 3G-); RNKUD SN EHMC )(SXOD 0 "/% 3G-) = 0.06
6% NE ODNOKD G@UD SXOD 0, 3G- AKNNC
A. )(/05(SXOD 0 "/% 3G-)) = 1 - )(SXOD 0 "/% 3G-) = 1 - 0.06 = 0.94
94% NE ODNOKD CN MNS G@UD SXOD 0, 3G- AKNNC
106
@. -DS C = AD SGD DUDMS SG@S SGD BNNJHD BNMS@HMR BGNBNK@SD. -DS ' = SGD DUDMS SG@S SGD BNNJHD BNMS@HMR MTSR.
A. )(C 03 ') = )(C) + )(') - )(C "/% ') = 0.36 + 0.12 - 0.08 = 0.40
B. )(/&*5)&3 BGNBNK@SD /03 MTSR) = 1 - )(C 03 ') = 1 - 0.40 = 0.60
108 0
110
10
67
112
10
34
114 C
116
@.
/68: 6C9 0:M 1R14 15R24 25R64 DK:G 64 1,1A)0
VGHSD, L@KD 210 3,360 13,610 4,870 22,050
VGHSD, EDL@KD 80 580 3,380 890 4,930
AK@BJ, L@KD 10 460 1,060 140 1,670
AK@BJ, EDL@KD 0 40 270 20 330
@KK NSGDQR 100
505"-4 310 4,650 18,780 6,020 29,760
167A: 3.27
A.
244 "'/3$1 3 W /1.!!(+(38 3./("2
3DEO ?KJPAJP EO =R=EH=>HA BKN BNAA =P DPPL://?JT.KNC/?KJPAJP/?KH11562/1.11
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/68: 6C9 0:M 1R14 15R24 25R64 DK:G 64 1,1A)0
VGHSD, L@KD 210 3,360 13,610 4,870 22,050
VGHSD, EDL@KD 80 580 3,380 890 4,930
AK@BJ, L@KD 10 460 1,060 140 1,670
AK@BJ, EDL@KD 0 40 270 20 330
@KK NSGDQR 10 210 460 100 780
505"-4 310 4,650 18,780 6,020 29,760
167A: 3.28
B.
22,050
29,760
C.
330
29,760
D.
2,000
29,760
E.
23,720
29,760
F.
5,010
6,020
118 A
120
@.
26
106
A.
33
106
B.
21
106
C.

26
106

33
106

21
106

38
106

D.
21
33
122 @
125
@. )(C) = 0.4567
A. MNS DMNTFG HMENQL@SHNM
B. MNS DMNTFG HMENQL@SHNM
C. /N, ADB@TRD NUDQ G@KE (0.51) NE LDM G@UD @S KD@RS NMD E@KRD ONRHSHUD SDWS
127
@. )(# 03 $) = )(#) + )($) u )(# "/% $); 0.45 = 0.18 + 0.37 - )(# "/% $); RNKUD SN EHMC )(# "/% $) = 0.10
A. )(/05 (# "/% $)) = 1 - )(# "/% $) = 1 - 0.10 = 0.90
B. )(/05 (# 03 $)) = 1 - )(# 03 $) = 1 - 0.45 = 0.55
"'/3$1 3 W /1.!!(+(38 3./("2 245
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128
@.
#><JG: 3.15
A. )() =

5
8

5
8

=
25
64
B. )(@S KD@RS NMD FQDDM) = )() + )(2) + )(2) =
25
64
+
15
64
+
15
64
=
55
64
C. )([) =
5
8
D. :DR, SGDX @QD HMCDODMCDMS ADB@TRD SGD EHQRS B@QC HR OK@BDC A@BJ HM SGD A@F ADENQD SGD RDBNMC B@QC HR CQ@VM; SGD
BNLONRHSHNM NE B@QCR HM SGD A@F QDL@HMR SGD R@LD EQNL CQ@V NMD SN CQ@V SVN.
130
@.
<20 20R64 >64 1DI6AH
#:B6A: 0.0244 0.3954 0.0661 0.486
*6A: 0.0259 0.4186 0.0695 0.514
1DI6AH 0.0503 0.8140 0.1356 1
167A: 3.29
A. )(F) = 0.486
B. )(>64[F) = 0.1361
C. )(>64 @MC F) = )(F) )(>64[F) = (0.486)(0.1361) = 0.0661
D. )(>64[F) HR SGD ODQBDMS@FD NE EDL@KD CQHUDQR VGN @QD 65 NQ NKCDQ @MC )(>64 @MC F) HR SGD ODQBDMS@FD NE CQHUDQR VGN
@QD EDL@KD @MC 65 NQ NKCDQ.
E. )(>64) = )(>64 @MC F) + )(>64 @MC &) = 0.1356
F. /N, ADHMF EDL@KD @MC 65 NQ NKCDQ @QD MNS LTST@KKX DWBKTRHUD ADB@TRD SGDX B@M NBBTQ @S SGD R@LD SHLD 1(>64 @MC F) =
0.0661.
132 @.
246 "'/3$1 3 W /1.!!(+(38 3./("2
3DEO ?KJPAJP EO =R=EH=>HA BKN BNAA =P DPPL://?JT.KNC/?KJPAJP/?KH11562/1.11
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6G, 1GJ8@ DG 36C 46A@ -J7A>8 1G6CHEDGI6I>DC ,I=:G 1DI6AH
AADC: 0.7318
+DI AADC: 0.1332
1DI6AH 0.8650 0.0390 0.0530 0.0430 1
167A: 3.30
A. *E VD @RRTLD SG@S @KK V@KJDQR @QD @KNMD @MC SG@S MNMD EQNL SGD NSGDQ SVN FQNTOR SQ@UDK @KNMD (VGHBG HR @ AHF
@RRTLOSHNM) VD G@UD: )("KNMD) = 0.7318 + 0.0390 = 0.7708.
B. .@JD SGD R@LD @RRTLOSHNMR @R HM (A) VD G@UD: (0.7708)(1,000) = 771
C. (0.1332)(1,000) = 133
134 5GD BNLOKDSDC BNMSHMFDMBX S@AKD HR @R ENKKNVR:
%DBDH:MJ6A/B>H:MJ6A &3 !GJ< 2H:G* %:I:GDH:MJ6A DCI68I ,I=:G 1DI6AH
'DL@KD 0 70 136 49 255
.@KD 2,146 463 60 135 2,804
5NS@KR 2,146 533 196 184 3,059
167A: 3.31 * EJ?HQ@AO DKIKOATQ=H/>EOATQ=H (5 @NQC QOANO
@.
255
3059
A.
196
3059
B.
718
3059
C. 0
D.
463
3059
E.
136
196
F.
"'/3$1 3 W /1.!!(+(38 3./("2 247
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#><JG: 3.16
248 "'/3$1 3 W /1.!!(+(38 3./("2
3DEO ?KJPAJP EO =R=EH=>HA BKN BNAA =P DPPL://?JT.KNC/?KJPAJP/?KH11562/1.11
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4 U "'1!0#2# 0A,"-+
4A0'A*#1
$CAOL? 4.1 8KQ ?=J QOA LNK>=>EHEPU =J@ @EO?NAPA N=J@KI R=NE=>HAO PK ?=H?QH=PA PDA HEGAHEDKK@ KB HECDPAJEJC OPNEGEJC PDA
CNKQJ@ BERA PEIAO @QNEJC = D=HB-DKQN PDQJ@ANOPKNI.
'HNLI>O=NCIH
!B;JN?L -<D?=NCP?M
#X SGD DMC NE SGHR BG@OSDQ, SGD RSTCDMS RGNTKC AD @AKD SN:
c 3DBNFMHYD @MC TMCDQRS@MC CHRBQDSD OQNA@AHKHSX CHRSQHATSHNM ETMBSHNMR, HM FDMDQ@K.
c $@KBTK@SD @MC HMSDQOQDS DWODBSDC U@KTDR.
c 3DBNFMHYD SGD AHMNLH@K OQNA@AHKHSX CHRSQHATSHNM @MC @OOKX HS @OOQNOQH@SDKX.
c 3DBNFMHYD SGD 1NHRRNM OQNA@AHKHSX CHRSQHATSHNM @MC @OOKX HS @OOQNOQH@SDKX.
c 3DBNFMHYD SGD FDNLDSQHB OQNA@AHKHSX CHRSQHATSHNM @MC @OOKX HS @OOQNOQH@SDKX.
c 3DBNFMHYD SGD GXODQFDNLDSQHB OQNA@AHKHSX CHRSQHATSHNM @MC @OOKX HS @OOQNOQH@SDKX.
c $K@RRHEX CHRBQDSD VNQC OQNAKDLR AX SGDHQ CHRSQHATSHNMR.
" RSTCDMS S@JDR @ SDM-PTDRSHNM, SQTD-E@KRD PTHY. #DB@TRD SGD RSTCDMS G@C RTBG @ ATRX RBGDCTKD, GD NQ RGD BNTKC MNS RSTCX @MC
FTDRRDR Q@MCNLKX @S D@BG @MRVDQ. 8G@S HR SGD OQNA@AHKHSX NE SGD RSTCDMS O@RRHMF SGD SDRS VHSG @S KD@RS @ 70%
4L@KK BNLO@MHDR LHFGS AD HMSDQDRSDC HM SGD MTLADQ NE KNMF-CHRS@MBD OGNMD B@KKR SGDHQ DLOKNXDDR L@JD CTQHMF SGD OD@J
SHLD NE SGD C@X. 4TOONRD SGD @UDQ@FD HR 20 B@KKR. 8G@S HR SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S SGD DLOKNXDDR L@JD LNQD SG@M 20 KNMF-CHRS@MBD
OGNMD B@KKR CTQHMF SGD OD@J SHLD
"'/3$1 4 W #(2"1$3$ 1-#., 51(!+$2 249
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5GDRD SVN DW@LOKDR HKKTRSQ@SD SVN CHEEDQDMS SXODR NE OQNA@AHKHSX OQNAKDLR HMUNKUHMF CHRBQDSD Q@MCNL U@QH@AKDR. 3DB@KK
SG@S CHRBQDSD C@S@ @QD C@S@ SG@S XNT B@M BNTMS. " G6C9DB K6G>67A: CDRBQHADR SGD NTSBNLDR NE @ RS@SHRSHB@K DWODQHLDMS HM
VNQCR. 5GD U@KTDR NE @ Q@MCNL U@QH@AKD B@M U@QX VHSG D@BG QDODSHSHNM NE @M DWODQHLDMS.
0;H>IG 4;LC;<F? ,IN;NCIH
6OODQ B@RD KDSSDQR RTBG @R 1 NQ 2 CDMNSD @ Q@MCNL U@QH@AKD. -NVDQ B@RD KDSSDQR KHJD N NQ O CDMNSD SGD U@KTD NE @ Q@MCNL
U@QH@AKD. *E X >H 6 G6C9DB K6G>67A:, I=:C X >H LG>II:C >C LDG9H, 6C9 & >H <>K:C 6H 6 CJB7:G.
'NQ DW@LOKD, KDS 1 = SGD MTLADQ NE GD@CR XNT FDS VGDM XNT SNRR SGQDD E@HQ BNHMR. 5GD R@LOKD RO@BD ENQ SGD SNRR NE SGQDD
E@HQ BNHMR HR ---; -!!; !-!; !!-; !--; -!-; --!; !!!. 5GDM, N = 0, 1, 2, 3. 1 HR HM VNQCR @MC N HR @ MTLADQ. /NSHBD
SG@S ENQ SGHR DW@LOKD, SGD N U@KTDR @QD BNTMS@AKD NTSBNLDR. #DB@TRD XNT B@M BNTMS SGD ONRRHAKD U@KTDR SG@S 1 B@M S@JD NM
@MC SGD NTSBNLDR @QD Q@MCNL (SGD N U@KTDR 0, 1, 2, 3), 1 HR @ CHRBQDSD Q@MCNL U@QH@AKD.
5NRR @ BNHM SDM SHLDR @MC QDBNQC SGD MTLADQ NE GD@CR. "ESDQ @KK LDLADQR NE SGD BK@RR G@UD BNLOKDSDC SGD DWODQHLDMS
(SNRRDC @ BNHM SDM SHLDR @MC BNTMSDC SGD MTLADQ NE GD@CR), EHKK HM 2;<F? 4.1. -DS 1 = SGD MTLADQ NE GD@CR HM SDM SNRRDR
NE SGD BNHM.
: $L?KO?H=S I@ : 0?F;NCP? $L?KO?H=S I@ :
2;<F? 4.1
=. 8GHBG U@KTD(R) NE N NBBTQQDC LNRS EQDPTDMSKX
>. *E XNT SNRRDC SGD BNHM 1,000 SHLDR, VG@S U@KTDR BNTKC N S@JD NM 8GHBG U@KTD(R) NE N CN XNT SGHMJ VNTKC NBBTQ
LNRS EQDPTDMSKX
?. 8G@S CNDR SGD QDK@SHUD EQDPTDMBX BNKTLM RTL SN
4.1 U .LI<;<CFCNS "CMNLC<ONCIH $OH=NCIH (."$) @IL ; "CM=L?N?
0;H>IG 4;LC;<F?
" CHRBQDSD EGD767>A>IN 9>HIG>7JI>DC ;JC8I>DC G@R SVN BG@Q@BSDQHRSHBR:
250 "'/3$1 4 W #(2"1$3$ 1-#., 51(!+$2
3DEO ?KJPAJP EO =R=EH=>HA BKN BNAA =P DPPL://?JT.KNC/?KJPAJP/?KH11562/1.11
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1. &@BG OQNA@AHKHSX HR ADSVDDM YDQN @MC NMD, HMBKTRHUD.
2. 5GD RTL NE SGD OQNA@AHKHSHDR HR NMD.
$T=ILHA 4.1
"BGHKC ORXBGNKNFHRS HR HMSDQDRSDC HM SGD MTLADQ NE SHLDR @ MDVANQM A@AX'R BQXHMF V@JDR HSR LNSGDQ @ESDQ LHCMHFGS.
'NQ @ Q@MCNL R@LOKD NE 50 LNSGDQR, SGD ENKKNVHMF HMENQL@SHNM V@R NAS@HMDC. -DS 1 = SGD MTLADQ NE SHLDR ODQ
VDDJ @ MDVANQM A@AX'R BQXHMF V@JDR HSR LNSGDQ @ESDQ LHCMHFGS. 'NQ SGHR DW@LOKD, N = 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5.
)(N) = OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S 1 S@JDR NM @ U@KTD N.
: P(:)
0
P(/ = 0) =
2
50
1
P(/ = 1) =
11
50
2
P(/ = 2) =
23
50
3
P(/ = 3) =
9
50
4
P(/ = 4) =
4
50
5
P(/ = 5) =
1
50
2;<F? 4.2
1 S@JDR NM SGD U@KTDR 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5. 5GHR HR @ CHRBQDSD 1%' ADB@TRD:
=. &@BG )(N) HR ADSVDDM YDQN @MC NMD, HMBKTRHUD.
>. 5GD RTL NE SGD OQNA@AHKHSHDR HR NMD, SG@S HR,
2
50
+
11
50
+
23
50
+
9
50
+
4
50
+
1
50
= 1
"'/3$1 4 W #(2"1$3$ 1-#., 51(!+$2 251
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4.1 " GNROHS@K QDRD@QBGDQ HR HMSDQDRSDC HM SGD MTLADQ NE SHLDR SGD @UDQ@FD ONRS-NO O@SHDMS VHKK QHMF SGD MTQRD CTQHMF
@ 12-GNTQ RGHES. 'NQ @ Q@MCNL R@LOKD NE 50 O@SHDMSR, SGD ENKKNVHMF HMENQL@SHNM V@R NAS@HMDC. -DS 1 = SGD MTLADQ NE
SHLDR @ O@SHDMS QHMFR SGD MTQRD CTQHMF @ 12-GNTQ RGHES. 'NQ SGHR DWDQBHRD, N = 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5. )(N) = SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S 1
S@JDR NM U@KTD N. 8GX HR SGHR @ CHRBQDSD OQNA@AHKHSX CHRSQHATSHNM ETMBSHNM (SVN QD@RNMR)
" P(:)
0
P(/ = 0) =
4
50
1
P(/ = 1) =
8
50
2
P(/ = 2) =
16
50
3
P(/ = 3) =
14
50
4
P(/ = 4) =
6
50
5
P(/ = 5) =
2
50
2;<F? 4.3
$T=ILHA 4.2
4TOONRD /@MBX G@R BK@RRDR I=G:: 96NH @ VDDJ. 4GD @SSDMCR BK@RRDR SGQDD C@XR @ VDDJ 80%NE SGD SHLD, ILD 96NH
15%NE SGD SHLD, DC: 96N 4%NE SGD SHLD, @MC CD 96NH 1%NE SGD SHLD. 4TOONRD NMD VDDJ HR Q@MCNLKX RDKDBSDC.
@. -DS 1 = SGD MTLADQ NE C@XR /@MBX ????????????????????.
1IFONCIH 4.2
=. +AP X = PDA JQI>AN KB @=UO -=J?U =PPAJ@O ?H=OO LAN SAAG.
A. 1 S@JDR NM VG@S U@KTDR
1IFONCIH 4.2
>. 0, 1, 2, =J@ 3
B. 4TOONRD NMD VDDJ HR Q@MCNLKX BGNRDM. $NMRSQTBS @ OQNA@AHKHSX CHRSQHATSHNM S@AKD (B@KKDC @ 1%' S@AKD) KHJD SGD
NMD HM #R;GJF? 4.1. 5GD S@AKD RGNTKC G@UD SVN BNKTLMR K@ADKDC N @MC )(N). 8G@S CNDR SGD )(N) BNKTLM RTLSN
1IFONCIH 4.2
252 "'/3$1 4 W #(2"1$3$ 1-#., 51(!+$2
3DEO ?KJPAJP EO =R=EH=>HA BKN BNAA =P DPPL://?JT.KNC/?KJPAJP/?KH11562/1.11
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?.
: P(:)
0 0.01
1 0.04
2 0.15
3 0.80
2;<F? 4.4
4.2 +DQDLH@G G@R A@RJDSA@KK OQ@BSHBD SVN C@XR @ VDDJ. /HMDSX ODQBDMS NE SGD SHLD, GD @SSDMCR ANSG OQ@BSHBDR. &HFGS
ODQBDMS NE SGD SHLD, GD @SSDMCR NMD OQ@BSHBD. 5VN ODQBDMS NE SGD SHLD, GD CNDR MNS @SSDMC DHSGDQ OQ@BSHBD. 8G@S HR 1 @MC
VG@S U@KTDR CNDR HS S@JD NM
4.2 U +?;H IL #RJ?=N?> 4;FO? ;H> 1N;H>;L> "?PC;NCIH
5GD :ME:8I:9 K6AJ: HR NESDM QDEDQQDC SN @R SGD "ADC<-I:GB" 6K:G6<: DG B:6C. 5GHR LD@MR SG@S NUDQ SGD KNMF SDQL NE CNHMF
@M DWODQHLDMS NUDQ @MC NUDQ, XNT VNTKC :ME:8I SGHR @UDQ@FD.
:NT SNRR @ BNHM @MC QDBNQC SGD QDRTKS. 8G@S HR SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S SGD QDRTKS HR GD@CR *E XNT EKHO @ BNHM SVN SHLDR, CNDR
OQNA@AHKHSX SDKK XNT SG@S SGDRD EKHOR VHKK QDRTKS HM NMD GD@CR @MC NMD S@HK :NT LHFGS SNRR @ E@HQ BNHM SDM SHLDR @MC QDBNQC
MHMD GD@CR. "R XNT KD@QMDC HM 1?=NCIH 3., OQNA@AHKHSX CNDR MNS CDRBQHAD SGD RGNQS-SDQL QDRTKSR NE @M DWODQHLDMS. *S FHUDR
HMENQL@SHNM @ANTS VG@S B@M AD DWODBSDC HM SGD KNMF SDQL. 5N CDLNMRSQ@SD SGHR, ,@QK 1D@QRNM NMBD SNRRDC @ E@HQ BNHM 24,000
SHLDR! )D QDBNQCDC SGD QDRTKSR NE D@BG SNRR, NAS@HMHMF GD@CR 12,012 SHLDR. &C =>H :ME:G>B:CI, -:6GHDC >AAJHIG6I:9 I=: )6L
D; )6G<: +JB7:GH.
1=: )6L D; )6G<: +JB7:GH RS@SDR SG@S, @R SGD MTLADQ NE SQH@KR HM @ OQNA@AHKHSX DWODQHLDMS HMBQD@RDR, SGD CHEEDQDMBD
ADSVDDM SGD SGDNQDSHB@K OQNA@AHKHSX NE @M DUDMS @MC SGD QDK@SHUD EQDPTDMBX @OOQN@BGDR YDQN (I=: I=:DG:I>86A EGD767>A>IN 6C9
I=: G:A6I>K: ;G:FJ:C8N <:I 8ADH:G 6C9 8ADH:G ID<:I=:G). 8GDM DU@KT@SHMF SGD KNMF-SDQL QDRTKSR NE RS@SHRSHB@K DWODQHLDMSR,
VD NESDM V@MS SN JMNV SGD o@UDQ@FDp NTSBNLD. 5GHR oKNMF-SDQL @UDQ@FDp HR JMNVM @R SGD B:6C NQ :ME:8I:9 K6AJ: NE SGD
DWODQHLDMS @MC HR CDMNSDC AX SGD (QDDJ KDSSDQ Z. *M NSGDQ VNQCR, @ESDQ BNMCTBSHMF L@MX SQH@KR NE @M DWODQHLDMS, XNT VNTKC
DWODBS SGHR @UDQ@FD U@KTD.
,-2#
5N EHMC SGD DWODBSDC U@KTD NQ KNMF SDQL@UDQ@FD, Z, RHLOKX LTKSHOKX D@BG U@KTD NE SGD Q@MCNLU@QH@AKD AX HSR OQNA@AHKHSX
@MC @CC SGD OQNCTBSR.
$T=ILHA 4.3
" LDM'R RNBBDQ SD@L OK@XR RNBBDQ YDQN, NMD, NQ SVN C@XR @ VDDJ. 5GD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S SGDX OK@X YDQN C@XR HR 0.2,
SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S SGDX OK@X NMD C@X HR 0.5, @MC SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S SGDX OK@X SVN C@XR HR 0.3. 'HMC SGD KNMF-SDQL
@UDQ@FD NQ DWODBSDC U@KTD, Z, NE SGD MTLADQ NE C@XR ODQ VDDJ SGD LDM'R RNBBDQ SD@L OK@XR RNBBDQ.
"'/3$1 4 W #(2"1$3$ 1-#., 51(!+$2 253
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5N CN SGD OQNAKDL, EHQRS KDS SGD Q@MCNL U@QH@AKD 1 = SGD MTLADQ NE C@XR SGD LDM'R RNBBDQ SD@L OK@XR RNBBDQ
ODQ VDDJ. 1 S@JDR NM SGD U@KTDR 0, 1, 2. $NMRSQTBS @ 1%' S@AKD @CCHMF @ BNKTLM N*)(N). *M SGHR BNKTLM, XNT VHKK
LTKSHOKX D@BG N U@KTD AX HSR OQNA@AHKHSX.
: P(:) :*P(:)
0 0.2 (0)(0.2) = 0
1 0.5 (1)(0.5) = 0.5
2 0.3 (2)(0.3) = 0.6
2;<F? 4.5 #RJ?=N?> 4;FO?
2;<F? 3DEO P=>HA EO ?=HHA@ =J
ATLA?PA@ R=HQA P=>HA. 3DA P=>HA
DAHLO UKQ ?=H?QH=PA PDA
ATLA?PA@ R=HQA KN HKJC-PANI
=RAN=CA.
"CC SGD K@RS BNKTLM N*)(N) SN EHMC SGD KNMF SDQL @UDQ@FD NQ DWODBSDC U@KTD: (0)(0.2) + (1)(0.5) + (2)(0.3) =
0 + 0.5 + 0.6 = 1.1.
5GD DWODBSDC U@KTD HR 1.1. 5GD LDM'R RNBBDQ SD@L VNTKC, NM SGD @UDQ@FD, DWODBS SN OK@X RNBBDQ 1.1 C@XR ODQ
VDDJ. 5GD MTLADQ 1.1 HR SGD KNMF-SDQL@UDQ@FD NQ DWODBSDC U@KTD HE SGD LDM'R RNBBDQ SD@LOK@XR RNBBDQ VDDJ @ESDQ
VDDJ @ESDQ VDDJ. 8D R@X Z = 1.1.
$T=ILHA 4.4
'HMC SGD DWODBSDC U@KTD SGD MTLADQ NE SHLDR @ MDVANQM A@AX'R BQXHMF V@JDR HSR LNSGDQ @ESDQ LHCMHFGS. 5GD
DWODBSDC U@KTD HR SGD DWODBSDC MTLADQ NE SHLDR ODQ VDDJ @ MDVANQM A@AX'R BQXHMF V@JDR HSR LNSGDQ @ESDQ
LHCMHFGS. $@KBTK@SD SGD RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNM NE SGD U@QH@AKD @R VDKK.
: P(:) :*P(:)
(: X >)
2
P(:)
0
P(/ = 0) =
2
50
(0)

2
50

= 0
(0 _ 2.1)
2
0.04 = 0.1764
1
P(/ = 1) =

11
50

(1)

11
50

=
11
50
(1 _ 2.1)
2
0.22 = 0.2662
2
P(/ = 2) =
23
50
(2)

23
50

=
46
50
(2 _ 2.1)
2
0.46 = 0.0046
3
P(/ = 3) =
27
50
(3)

9
50

=
27
50
(3 _ 2.1)
2
0.18 = 0.1458
4
P(/ = 4) =
4
50
(4)

4
50

=
16
50
(4 _ 2.1)
2
0.08 = 0.2888
2;<F? 4.6 8KQ ATLA?P = JAS>KNJ PK S=GA EO IKPDAN =BPAN IE@JECDP 2.1 PEIAO
LAN SAAG, KJ PDA =RAN=CA.
254 "'/3$1 4 W #(2"1$3$ 1-#., 51(!+$2
3DEO ?KJPAJP EO =R=EH=>HA BKN BNAA =P DPPL://?JT.KNC/?KJPAJP/?KH11562/1.11
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: P(:) :*P(:)
(: X >)
2
P(:)
5
P(/ = 5) =
1
50
(5)

1
50

=
5
50
(5 _ 2.1)
2
0.02 = 0.1682
2;<F? 4.6 8KQ ATLA?P = JAS>KNJ PK S=GA EO IKPDAN =BPAN IE@JECDP 2.1 PEIAO
LAN SAAG, KJ PDA =RAN=CA.
"CC SGD U@KTDR HM SGD SGHQC BNKTLM NE SGD S@AKD SN EHMC SGD DWODBSDC U@KTD NE 1:
Z = &WODBSDC 7@KTD =
105
50
= 2.1
6RD Z SN BNLOKDSD SGD S@AKD. 5GD ENTQSG BNKTLM NE SGHR S@AKD VHKK OQNUHCD SGD U@KTDR XNT MDDC SN B@KBTK@SD SGD
RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNM. 'NQ D@BG U@KTD N, LTKSHOKX SGD RPT@QD NE HSR CDUH@SHNM AX HSR OQNA@AHKHSX. (&@BG CDUH@SHNM G@R
SGD ENQL@S N k Z).
"CC SGD U@KTDR HM SGD ENTQSG BNKTLM NE SGD S@AKD:
0.1764 + 0.2662 + 0.0046 + 0.1458 + 0.2888 + 0.1682 = 1.05
5GD RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNM NE 1 HR SGD RPT@QD QNNS NE SGHR RTL: \ = 1.0454 v 1.0247
"'/3$1 4 W #(2"1$3$ 1-#., 51(!+$2 255
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4.4 " GNROHS@K QDRD@QBGDQ HR HMSDQDRSDC HM SGD MTLADQ NE SHLDR SGD @UDQ@FD ONRS-NO O@SHDMS VHKK QHMF SGD MTQRD CTQHMF
@ 12-GNTQ RGHES. 'NQ @ Q@MCNL R@LOKD NE 50 O@SHDMSR, SGD ENKKNVHMF HMENQL@SHNM V@R NAS@HMDC. 8G@S HR SGD DWODBSDC
U@KTD
: P(:)
0
P(/ = 0) =
4
50
1
P(/ = 1) =
4
50
2
P(/ = 2) =
16
50
3
P(/ = 3) =
14
50
4
P(/ = 4) =
6
50
5
P(/ = 5) =
2
50
2;<F? 4.7
$T=ILHA 4.5
4TOONRD XNT OK@X @ F@LD NE BG@MBD HM VGHBG EHUD MTLADQR @QD BGNRDM EQNL 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9. " BNLOTSDQ
Q@MCNLKX RDKDBSR EHUD MTLADQR EQNL YDQN SN MHMD VHSG QDOK@BDLDMS. :NT O@X $2 SN OK@X @MC BNTKC OQNEHS $100,000
HE XNT L@SBG @KK EHUD MTLADQR HM NQCDQ (XNT FDS XNTQ $2 A@BJ OKTR $100,000). 0UDQ SGD KNMF SDQL, VG@S HR XNTQ
:ME:8I:9 OQNEHS NE OK@XHMF SGD F@LD
5N CN SGHR OQNAKDL, RDS TO @M DWODBSDC U@KTD S@AKD ENQ SGD @LNTMS NE LNMDX XNT B@M OQNEHS.
-DS 1 = SGD @LNTMS NE LNMDX XNT OQNEHS. 5GD U@KTDR NE N @QD MNS 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9. 4HMBD XNT @QD
HMSDQDRSDC HM XNTQ OQNEHS (NQ KNRR), SGD U@KTDR NE N @QD 100,000 CNKK@QR @MC u2 CNKK@QR.
5N VHM, XNT LTRS FDS @KK EHUD MTLADQR BNQQDBS, HM NQCDQ. 5GD OQNA@AHKHSX NE BGNNRHMF NMD BNQQDBS MTLADQ HR
1
10
ADB@TRD SGDQD @QD SDM MTLADQR. :NT L@X BGNNRD @ MTLADQ LNQD SG@M NMBD. 5GD OQNA@AHKHSX NE BGNNRHMF @KK
EHUD MTLADQR BNQQDBSKX @MC HM NQCDQ HR

1
10

1
10

1
10

1
10

1
10

= (1)(10
5
) = 0.00001.
5GDQDENQD, SGD OQNA@AHKHSX NE VHMMHMF HR 0.00001 @MC SGD OQNA@AHKHSX NE KNRHMF HR
1 0.00001 = 0.99999.
256 "'/3$1 4 W #(2"1$3$ 1-#., 51(!+$2
3DEO ?KJPAJP EO =R=EH=>HA BKN BNAA =P DPPL://?JT.KNC/?KJPAJP/?KH11562/1.11
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5GD DWODBSDC U@KTD S@AKD HR @R ENKKNVR:
: P(:) :*P(:)
+KOO _2 0.99999 (_2)(0.99999) = _1.99998
/NKBEP 100,000 0.00001 (100000)(0.00001) = 1
2;<F? 4.8 \@@ PDA H=OP ?KHQIJ. _1.99998 + 1 = _0.99998
4HMBD k0.99998 HR @ANTS k1, XNT VNTKC, NM @UDQ@FD, DWODBS SN KNRD @OOQNWHL@SDKX $1 ENQ D@BG F@LD XNT OK@X.
)NVDUDQ, D@BG SHLD XNT OK@X, XNT DHSGDQ KNRD $2 NQ OQNEHS $100,000. 5GD $1 HR SGD @UDQ@FD NQ DWODBSDC -044 ODQ
F@LD @ESDQ OK@XHMF SGHR F@LD NUDQ @MC NUDQ.
4.5 :NT @QD OK@XHMF @ F@LD NE BG@MBD HM VGHBG ENTQ B@QCR @QD CQ@VM EQNL @ RS@MC@QC CDBJ. :NT FTDRR SGD RTHS NE D@BG
B@QC ADENQD HS HR CQ@VM. 5GD B@QCR @QD QDOK@BDC HM SGD CDBJ NM D@BG CQ@V. :NT O@X $1 SN OK@X. *E XNT FTDRR SGD QHFGS RTHS
DUDQX SHLD, XNT FDS XNTQ LNMDX A@BJ @MC $256. 8G@S HR XNTQ DWODBSDC OQNEHS NE OK@XHMF SGD F@LD NUDQ SGD KNMF SDQL
$T=ILHA 4.6
4TOONRD XNT OK@X @ F@LD VHSG @ AH@RDC BNHM. :NT OK@X D@BG F@LD AX SNRRHMF SGD BNHM NMBD. )(GD@CR) =
2
3
@MC
)(S@HKR) =
1
3
. *E XNT SNRR @ GD@C, XNT O@X $6. *E XNT SNRR @ S@HK, XNT VHM $10. *E XNT OK@X SGHR F@LD L@MX SHLDR,
VHKK XNT BNLD NTS @GD@C
@. %DEHMD @ Q@MCNL U@QH@AKD 1.
1IFONCIH 4.6
=. X = =IKQJP KB LNKBEP
A. $NLOKDSD SGD ENKKNVHMF DWODBSDC U@KTD S@AKD.
: :::: ::::
6(- 10
1
3
<<<<
+.2$ <<<< <<<<
12
3
2;<F? 4.9
1IFONCIH 4.6
"'/3$1 4 W #(2"1$3$ 1-#., 51(!+$2 257
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>.
: P(:) :P(:)
6(- 10
1
3
10
3
+.2$ _6
2
3
12
3
2;<F? 4.10
B. 8G@S HR SGD DWODBSDC U@KTD, Z %N XNT BNLD NTS @GD@C
1IFONCIH 4.6
?. @@ PDA H=OP ?KHQIJ KB PDA P=>HA. 3DA ATLA?PA@ R=HQA 4 =
2
3
. 8KQ HKOA, KJ =RAN=CA, =>KQP 67 ?AJPO
A=?D PEIA UKQ LH=U PDA C=IA OK UKQ @K JKP ?KIA KQP =DA=@.
4.6 4TOONRD XNT OK@X @ F@LD VHSG @ ROHMMDQ. :NT OK@X D@BG F@LD AX ROHMMHMF SGD ROHMMDQ NMBD. )(QDC) =
2
5
, )(AKTD)
=
2
5
, @MC )(FQDDM) =
1
5
. *E XNT K@MC NM QDC, XNT O@X $10. *E XNT K@MC NM AKTD, XNT CNM'S O@X NQ VHM @MXSGHMF. *E XNT
K@MC NM FQDDM, XNT VHM $10. $NLOKDSD SGD ENKKNVHMF DWODBSDC U@KTD S@AKD.
: P(:)
1A@

20
5
!HQA
2
5
20
2;<F? 4.11
-HJD C@S@, OQNA@AHKHSX CHRSQHATSHNMR G@UD RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNMR. 5N B@KBTK@SD SGD RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNM (\) NE @ OQNA@AHKHSX
CHRSQHATSHNM, EHMC D@BG CDUH@SHNM EQNL HSR DWODBSDC U@KTD, RPT@QD HS, LTKSHOKX HS AX HSR OQNA@AHKHSX, @CC SGD OQNCTBSR, @MC S@JD
SGD RPT@QD QNNS. 5N TMCDQRS@MC GNV SN CN SGD B@KBTK@SHNM, KNNJ @S SGD S@AKD ENQ SGD MTLADQ NE C@XR ODQ VDDJ @ LDM'R RNBBDQ
SD@LOK@XR RNBBDQ. 5N EHMC SGD RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNM, @CC SGD DMSQHDR HM SGD BNKTLM K@ADKDC (N k Z)
2
)(N) @MC S@JD SGD RPT@QD QNNS.
258 "'/3$1 4 W #(2"1$3$ 1-#., 51(!+$2
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: P(:) :*P(:)
(: X >)
2
P(:)
0 0.2 (0)(0.2) = 0
(0 _ 1.1)
2
(0.2) = 0.242
1 0.5 (1)(0.5) = 0.5
(1 _ 1.1)
2
(0.5) = 0.005
2 0.3 (2)(0.3) = 0.6
(2 _ 1.1)
2
(0.3) = 0.243
2;<F? 4.12
"CC SGD K@RS BNKTLM HM SGD S@AKD. 0.242 + 0.005 + 0.243 = 0.490. 5GD RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNM HR SGD RPT@QD QNNS NE 0.49, NQ \
= 0.49 = 0.7
(DMDQ@KKX ENQ OQNA@AHKHSX CHRSQHATSHNMR, VD TRD @ B@KBTK@SNQ NQ @ BNLOTSDQ SN B@KBTK@SD Z @MC \ SN QDCTBD QNTMCNEE DQQNQ.
'NQ RNLD OQNA@AHKHSX CHRSQHATSHNMR, SGDQD @QD RGNQS-BTS ENQLTK@R SG@S ENQ B@KBTK@SHMF Z @MC \.
$T=ILHA 4.7
5NRR @ E@HQ, RHW-RHCDC CHD SVHBD. -DS 1 = SGD MTLADQ NE E@BDR SG@S RGNV @M DUDM MTLADQ. $NMRSQTBS @ S@AKD KHJD
2;<F? 4.11 @MC B@KBTK@SD SGD LD@M Z @MC RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNM \ NE 1.
1IFONCIH 4.7
5NRRHMF NMD E@HQ RHW-RHCDC CHD SVHBD G@R SGD R@LD R@LOKD RO@BD @R SNRRHMF SVN E@HQ RHW-RHCDC CHBD. 5GD R@LOKD
RO@BD G@R 36 NTSBNLDR:
(1, 1) (1, 2) (1, 3) (1, 4) (1, 5) (1, 6)
(2, 1) (2, 2) (2, 3) (2, 4) (2, 5) (2, 6)
(3, 1) (3, 2) (3, 3) (3, 4) (3, 5) (3, 6)
(4, 1) (4, 2) (4, 3) (4, 4) (4, 5) (4, 6)
(5, 1) (5, 2) (5, 3) (5, 4) (5, 5) (5, 6)
(6, 1) (6, 2) (6, 3) (6, 4) (6, 5) (6, 6)
2;<F? 4.13
6RD SGD R@LOKD RO@BD SN BNLOKDSD SGD ENKKNVHMF S@AKD:
: P(:) :P(:) (: X >)
2
P(:)
0
9
36
0
(0 _ 1)
2

9
36
=
9
36
2;<F? 4.14 "=H?QH=PEJC 4 =J@ 6.
"'/3$1 4 W #(2"1$3$ 1-#., 51(!+$2 259
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: P(:) :P(:) (: X >)
2
P(:)
1
18
36
18
36
(1 _ 1)
2

18
36
= 0
2
9
36
18
36
(1 _ 1)
2

9
36
=
9
36
2;<F? 4.14 "=H?QH=PEJC 4 =J@ 6.
"CC SGD U@KTDR HM SGD SGHQC BNKTLM SN EHMC SGD DWODBSDC U@KTD: Z =
36
36
= 1. 6RD SGHR U@KTD SN BNLOKDSD SGD
ENTQSG BNKTLM.
"CC SGD U@KTDR HM SGD ENTQSG BNKTLM @MC S@JD SGD RPT@QD QNNS NE SGD RTL: j =
18
36
v 0.7071.
$T=ILHA 4.8
0M .@X 11, 2013 @S 9:30 1., SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S LNCDQ@SD RDHRLHB @BSHUHSX (NMD LNCDQ@SD D@QSGPT@JD) VNTKC
NBBTQ HM SGD MDWS 48 GNTQR HM *Q@M V@R @ANTS 21.42%. 4TOONRD XNT L@JD @ ADS SG@S @ LNCDQ@SD D@QSGPT@JD VHKK
NBBTQ HM *Q@M CTQHMF SGHR ODQHNC. *E XNT VHM SGD ADS, XNT VHM $50. *E XNT KNRD SGD ADS, XNT O@X $20. -DS 1 = SGD
@LNTMS NE OQNEHS EQNL @ ADS.
)(VHM) = )(NMD LNCDQ@SD D@QSGPT@JD VHKK NBBTQ) = 21.42%
)(KNRR) = )(NMD LNCDQ@SD D@QSGPT@JD VHKK DEJ NBBTQ) = 100% k 21.42%
*E XNT ADS L@MX SHLDR, VHKK XNT BNLD NTS @GD@C &WOK@HM XNTQ @MRVDQ HM @ BNLOKDSD RDMSDMBD TRHMF MTLADQR.
8G@S HR SGD RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNM NE 1 $NMRSQTBS @ S@AKD RHLHK@Q SN 2;<F? 4.12 @MC 2;<F? 4.12 SN GDKO XNT @MRVDQ
SGDRD PTDRSHNMR.
1IFONCIH 4.8
: P(:) :(P:)
(: X >)
2
P(:)
SEJ 50 0.2142 10.71
:50 _ (_5.006);
2
(0.2142) = 648.0964
HKOO _20 0.7858 _15.716
:_20 _ (_5.006);
2
(0.7858) = 176.6636
2;<F? 4.15
.D@M = &WODBSDC 7@KTD = 10.71 + (k15.716) = k5.006.
*E XNT L@JD SGHR ADS L@MX SHLDR TMCDQ SGD R@LD BNMCHSHNMR, XNTQ KNMF SDQL NTSBNLD VHKK AD @M @UDQ@FD BEII
NE $5.01 ODQ ADS.
Standard Deviation = 648.0964 + 176.6636 28.7186
260 "'/3$1 4 W #(2"1$3$ 1-#., 51(!+$2
3DEO ?KJPAJP EO =R=EH=>HA BKN BNAA =P DPPL://?JT.KNC/?KJPAJP/?KH11562/1.11
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4.8 0M .@X 11, 2013 @S 9:30 1., SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S LNCDQ@SD RDHRLHB @BSHUHSX (NMD LNCDQ@SD D@QSGPT@JD) VNTKC
NBBTQ HM SGD MDWS 48 GNTQR HM +@O@M V@R @ANTS 1.08%. "R HM #R;GJF? 4.8, XNT ADS SG@S @ LNCDQ@SD D@QSGPT@JD VHKK
NBBTQ HM +@O@M CTQHMF SGHR ODQHNC. *E XNT VHM SGD ADS, XNT VHM $100. *E XNT KNRD SGD ADS, XNT O@X $10. -DS 1 = SGD
@LNTMS NE OQNEHS EQNL @ ADS. 'HMC SGD LD@M @MC RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNM NE 1.
4NLD NE SGD LNQD BNLLNM CHRBQDSD OQNA@AHKHSX ETMBSHNMR @QD AHMNLH@K, FDNLDSQHB, GXODQFDNLDSQHB, @MC 1NHRRNM. .NRS
DKDLDMS@QX BNTQRDR CN MNS BNUDQ SGD FDNLDSQHB, GXODQFDNLDSQHB, @MC 1NHRRNM. :NTQ HMRSQTBSNQ VHKK KDS XNT JMNV HE GD NQ RGD
VHRGDR SN BNUDQ SGDRD CHRSQHATSHNMR.
" OQNA@AHKHSX CHRSQHATSHNM ETMBSHNM HR @ O@SSDQM. :NT SQX SN EHS @ OQNA@AHKHSX OQNAKDL HMSN @ E6II:GC NQ CHRSQHATSHNM HM
NQCDQ SN ODQENQL SGD MDBDRR@QX B@KBTK@SHNMR. 5GDRD CHRSQHATSHNMR @QD SNNKR SN L@JD RNKUHMF OQNA@AHKHSX OQNAKDLR D@RHDQ. &@BG
CHRSQHATSHNM G@R HSR NVM RODBH@K BG@Q@BSDQHRSHBR. -D@QMHMF SGD BG@Q@BSDQHRSHBR DM@AKDR XNT SN CHRSHMFTHRG @LNMF SGD CHEEDQDMS
CHRSQHATSHNMR.
4.3 U CHIGC;F "CMNLC<ONCIH
5GD @QD ENTQ BG@Q@BSDQHRSHBR NE @ AHMNLH@K DWODQHLDMS.
1. 5GDQD @QD @ EHWDC MTLADQ NE SQH@KR. 5GHMJ NE SQH@KR @R QDODSHSHNMR NE @M DWODQHLDMS. 5GD KDSSDQ D CDMNSDR SGD MTLADQ NE
SQH@KR.
2. 5GDQD @QD NMKX SVN ONRRHAKD NTSBNLDR, B@KKDC "RTBBDRR" @MC, "E@HKTQD," ENQ D@BG SQH@K. 5GD KDSSDQ F CDMNSDR SGD OQNA@AHKHSX
NE @ RTBBDRR NM NMD SQH@K, @MC G CDMNSDR SGD OQNA@AHKHSX NE @ E@HKTQD NM NMD SQH@K. F + G = 1.
3. 5GD D SQH@KR @QD HMCDODMCDMS @MC @QD QDOD@SDC TRHMF HCDMSHB@K BNMCHSHNMR. #DB@TRD SGD D SQH@KR @QD HMCDODMCDMS, SGD
NTSBNLD NE NMD SQH@K CNDR MNS GDKO HM OQDCHBSHMF SGD NTSBNLD NE @MNSGDQ SQH@K. "MNSGDQ V@X NE R@XHMF SGHR HR SG@S ENQ D@BG
HMCHUHCT@K SQH@K, SGD OQNA@AHKHSX, F, NE @ RTBBDRR @MC OQNA@AHKHSX, G, NE @ E@HKTQD QDL@HM SGD R@LD. 'NQ DW@LOKD, Q@MCNLKX
FTDRRHMF @S @ SQTD-E@KRD RS@SHRSHBR PTDRSHNM G@R NMKX SVN NTSBNLDR. *E @ RTBBDRR HR FTDRRHMF BNQQDBSKX, SGDM @ E@HKTQD HR
FTDRRHMF HMBNQQDBSKX. 4TOONRD +ND @KV@XR FTDRRDR BNQQDBSKX NM @MX RS@SHRSHBR SQTD-E@KRD PTDRSHNM VHSG OQNA@AHKHSX F =
0.6. 5GDM, G = 0.4. 5GHR LD@MR SG@S ENQ DUDQX SQTD-E@KRD RS@SHRSHBR PTDRSHNM +ND @MRVDQR, GHR OQNA@AHKHSX NE RTBBDRR (F =
0.6) @MC GHR OQNA@AHKHSX NE E@HKTQD (G = 0.4) QDL@HM SGD R@LD.
5GD NTSBNLDR NE @ AHMNLH@K DWODQHLDMS EHS @ 7>CDB>6A EGD767>A>IN 9>HIG>7JI>DC. 5GD Q@MCNL U@QH@AKD 1 = SGD MTLADQ
NE RTBBDRRDR NAS@HMDC HM SGD D HMCDODMCDMS SQH@KR.
5GD LD@M, Z, @MC U@QH@MBD, \
2
, ENQ SGD AHMNLH@K OQNA@AHKHSX CHRSQHATSHNM HR Z = DF @MC \
2
= DFG. 5GD RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNM,
\, HR SGDM \ = npq .
"MX DWODQHLDMS SG@S G@R BG@Q@BSDQHRSHBR SVN @MC SGQDD @MC VGDQD D = 1 HR B@KKDC @ B:GCDJAA> 1G>6A (M@LDC @ESDQ
+@BNA #DQMNTKKH VGN, HM SGD K@SD 1600R, RSTCHDC SGDL DWSDMRHUDKX). " AHMNLH@K DWODQHLDMS S@JDR OK@BD VGDM SGD MTLADQ NE
RTBBDRRDR HR BNTMSDC HM NMD NQ LNQD #DQMNTKKH 5QH@KR.
$T=ILHA 4.9
"S "#$ $NKKDFD, SGD VHSGCQ@V@K Q@SD EQNL @M DKDLDMS@QX OGXRHBR BNTQRD HR 30%ENQ @MX FHUDM SDQL. 5GHR HLOKHDR
SG@S, ENQ @MX FHUDM SDQL, 70% NE SGD RSTCDMSR RS@X HM SGD BK@RR ENQ SGD DMSHQD SDQL. " "RTBBDRR" BNTKC AD CDEHMDC @R
@M HMCHUHCT@K VGN VHSGCQDV. 5GD Q@MCNL U@QH@AKD 1 = SGD MTLADQ NE RSTCDMSR VGN VHSGCQ@V EQNL SGD Q@MCNLKX
RDKDBSDC DKDLDMS@QX OGXRHBR BK@RR.
"'/3$1 4 W #(2"1$3$ 1-#., 51(!+$2 261
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4.9 5GD RS@SD GD@KSG AN@QC HR BNMBDQMDC @ANTS SGD @LNTMS NE EQTHS @U@HK@AKD HM RBGNNK KTMBGDR. 'NQSX-DHFGS ODQBDMS NE
RBGNNKR HM SGD RS@SD NEEDQ EQTHS HM SGDHQ KTMBGDR DUDQX C@X. 5GHR HLOKHDR SG@S 52% CN MNS. 8G@S VNTKC @ "RTBBDRR" AD HM
SGHR B@RD
$T=ILHA 4.10
4TOONRD XNT OK@X @ F@LD SG@S XNT B@M NMKX DHSGDQ VHM NQ KNRD. 5GD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S XNT VHM @MX F@LD HR 55%,
@MC SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S XNT KNRD HR 45%. &@BG F@LD XNT OK@X HR HMCDODMCDMS. *E XNT OK@X SGD F@LD 20 SHLDR, VQHSD
SGD ETMBSHNM SG@S CDRBQHADR SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S XNT VHM 15 NE SGD 20 SHLDR. )DQD, HE XNT CDEHMD 1 @R SGD MTLADQ NE
VHMR, SGDM 1 S@JDR NM SGD U@KTDR 0, 1, 2, 3, ..., 20. 5GD OQNA@AHKHSX NE @ RTBBDRR HR F = 0.55. 5GD OQNA@AHKHSX NE @
E@HKTQD HR G = 0.45. 5GD MTLADQ NE SQH@KR HR D = 20. 5GD OQNA@AHKHSX PTDRSHNM B@M AD RS@SDC L@SGDL@SHB@KKX @R )(N =
15).
4.10 " SQ@HMDQ HR SD@BGHMF @ CNKOGHM SN CN SQHBJR. 5GD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S SGD CNKOGHM RTBBDRRETKKX ODQENQLR SGD SQHBJ HR
35%, @MC SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S SGD CNKOGHM CNDR MNS RTBBDRRETKKX ODQENQL SGD SQHBJ HR 65%. 0TS NE 20 @SSDLOSR, XNT V@MS
SN EHMC SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S SGD CNKOGHM RTBBDDCR 12 SHLDR. 4S@SD SGD OQNA@AHKHSX PTDRSHNM L@SGDL@SHB@KKX.
$T=ILHA 4.11
" E@HQ BNHM HR EKHOODC 15 SHLDR. &@BG EKHO HR HMCDODMCDMS. 8G@S HR SGD OQNA@AHKHSX NE FDSSHMF LNQD SG@M SDM GD@CR
-DS 1 = SGD MTLADQ NE GD@CR HM 15 EKHOR NE SGD E@HQ BNHM. 1 S@JDR NM SGD U@KTDR 0, 1, 2, 3, ..., 15. 4HMBD SGD BNHM HR
E@HQ, F = 0.5 @MC G = 0.5. 5GD MTLADQ NE SQH@KR HR D = 15. 4S@SD SGD OQNA@AHKHSX PTDRSHNM L@SGDL@SHB@KKX.
1IFONCIH 4.11
P(/ > 10)
262 "'/3$1 4 W #(2"1$3$ 1-#., 51(!+$2
3DEO ?KJPAJP EO =R=EH=>HA BKN BNAA =P DPPL://?JT.KNC/?KJPAJP/?KH11562/1.11
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4.11 " E@HQ, RHW-RHCDC CHD HR QNKKDC SDM SHLDR. &@BG QNKK HR HMCDODMCDMS. :NT V@MS SN EHMC SGD OQNA@AHKHSX NE QNKKHMF @ NMD
LNQD SG@M SGQDD SHLDR. 4S@SD SGD OQNA@AHKHSX PTDRSHNM L@SGDL@SHB@KKX.
$T=ILHA 4.12
"OOQNWHL@SDKX 70% NE RS@SHRSHBR RSTCDMSR CN SGDHQ GNLDVNQJ HM SHLD ENQ HS SN AD BNKKDBSDC @MC FQ@CDC. &@BG
RSTCDMS CNDR GNLDVNQJ HMCDODMCDMSKX. *M @ RS@SHRSHBR BK@RR NE 50 RSTCDMSR, VG@S HR SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S @S KD@RS 40
VHKK CN SGDHQ GNLDVNQJ NM SHLD 4STCDMSR @QD RDKDBSDC Q@MCNLKX.
@. 5GHR HR @ AHMNLH@K OQNAKDL ADB@TRD SGDQD HR NMKX @ RTBBDRR NQ @ ??????????, SGDQD @QD @ EHWDC MTLADQ NE SQH@KR,
@MC SGD OQNA@AHKHSX NE @ RTBBDRR HR 0.70 ENQ D@BG SQH@K.
1IFONCIH 4.12
=. B=EHQNA
A. *E VD @QD HMSDQDRSDC HM SGD MTLADQ NE RSTCDMSR VGN CN SGDHQ GNLDVNQJ NM SHLD, SGDM GNV CN VD CDEHMD 1
1IFONCIH 4.12
>. X = PDA JQI>AN KB OP=PEOPE?O OPQ@AJPO SDK @K PDAEN DKIASKNG KJ PEIA
B. 8G@S U@KTDR CNDR N S@JD NM
1IFONCIH 4.12
?. 0, 1, 2, d, 50
C. 8G@S HR @ "E@HKTQD," HM VNQCR
1IFONCIH 4.12
C. '@HKTQD HR CDEHMDC @R @ RSTCDMS VGN CNDR MNS BNLOKDSD GHR NQ GDQ GNLDVNQJ NM SHLD.
5GD OQNA@AHKHSX NE @ RTBBDRR HR F = 0.70. 5GD MTLADQ NE SQH@KR HR D = 50.
D. *E F + G = 1, SGDM VG@S HR G
1IFONCIH 4.12
A. ) = 0.30
E. 5GD VNQCR "@S KD@RS" SQ@MRK@SD @R VG@S JHMC NE HMDPT@KHSX ENQ SGD OQNA@AHKHSX PTDRSHNM )(N ???? 40).
1IFONCIH 4.12
B. CNA=PAN PD=J KN AMQ=H PK (h)
3DA LNK>=>EHEPU MQAOPEKJ EO P(/ h 40).
4.12 4HWSX-EHUD ODQBDMS NE ODNOKD O@RR SGD RS@SD CQHUDQnR DW@L NM SGD EHQRS SQX. " FQNTO NE 50 HMCHUHCT@KR VGN G@UD
S@JDM SGD CQHUDQnR DW@L HR Q@MCNLKX RDKDBSDC. (HUD SVN QD@RNMR VGX SGHR HR @ AHMNLH@K OQNAKDL.
"'/3$1 4 W #(2"1$3$ 1-#., 51(!+$2 263
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,IN;NCIH @IL NB? CHIGC;F: B = CHIGC;F .LI<;<CFCNS "CMNLC<ONCIH $OH=NCIH
1 ] B(D, F)
3D@C SGHR @R "1 HR @ Q@MCNL U@QH@AKD VHSG @ AHMNLH@K CHRSQHATSHNM." 5GD O@Q@LDSDQR @QD D @MC F; D = MTLADQ NE SQH@KR, F
= OQNA@AHKHSX NE @ RTBBDRR NM D@BG SQH@K.
$T=ILHA 4.13
*S G@R ADDM RS@SDC SG@S @ANTS 41% NE @CTKS VNQJDQR G@UD @ GHFG RBGNNK CHOKNL@ ATS CN MNS OTQRTD @MX ETQSGDQ
DCTB@SHNM. *E 20 @CTKS VNQJDQR @QD Q@MCNLKX RDKDBSDC, EHMC SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S @S LNRS 12 NE SGDL G@UD @ GHFG
RBGNNK CHOKNL@ ATS CN MNS OTQRTD @MX ETQSGDQ DCTB@SHNM. )NV L@MX @CTKS VNQJDQR CN XNT DWODBS SN G@UD @ GHFG
RBGNNK CHOKNL@ ATS CN MNS OTQRTD @MX ETQSGDQ DCTB@SHNM
-DS 1 = SGD MTLADQ NE VNQJDQR VGN G@UD @ GHFG RBGNNK CHOKNL@ ATS CN MNS OTQRTD @MX ETQSGDQ DCTB@SHNM.
1 S@JDR NM SGD U@KTDR 0, 1, 2, ..., 20 VGDQD D = 20, F = 0.41, @MC G = 1 k 0.41 = 0.59. 1 ] B(20, 0.41)
'HMC )(N x 12). )(N x 12) = 0.9738. (B@KBTK@SNQ NQ BNLOTSDQ)
(N HMSN 2
MC
%*453. 5GD RXMS@W ENQ SGD HMRSQTBSHNMR @QD @R ENKKNVR:
1D 86A8JA6I: (& = K6AJ:): 7>CDBE9;(n, !, CJB7:G) HE "MTLADQ" HR KDES NTS, SGD QDRTKS HR SGD AHMNLH@K
OQNA@AHKHSX S@AKD.
1D 86A8JA6I: P(& U K6AJ:): 7>CDB89;(n, !, CJB7:G) HE "MTLADQ" HR KDES NTS, SGD QDRTKS HR SGD BTLTK@SHUD
AHMNLH@K OQNA@AHKHSX S@AKD.
#DG I=>H EGD7A:B: A;I:G NDJ 6G: >C 2
C9
!&01/, 6GGDL 9DLC ID 7>CDB89;. -G:HH "+1"/. "CI:G
20,0.41,12). 1=: G:HJAI >H P(& U 12) = 0.9738.
,-2#
*E XNT V@MS SN EHMC )(N = 12), TRD SGD OCE (AHMNLOCE). *E XNT V@MS SN EHMC )(N > 12), TRD
AHMNLBCE(20,0.41,12).
5GD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S @S LNRS 12 VNQJDQR G@UD @ GHFG RBGNNK CHOKNL@ ATS CN MNS OTQRTD @MX ETQSGDQ DCTB@SHNM
HR 0.9738.
5GD FQ@OG NE 1 ] B(20, 0.41) HR @R ENKKNVR:
$CAOL? 4.2
264 "'/3$1 4 W #(2"1$3$ 1-#., 51(!+$2
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5GD O-@WHR BNMS@HMR SGD OQNA@AHKHSX NE N, VGDQD 1 = SGD MTLADQ NE VNQJDQR VGN G@UD NMKX @ GHFG RBGNNK
CHOKNL@.
5GD MTLADQ NE @CTKS VNQJDQR SG@S XNT DWODBS SN G@UD @ GHFG RBGNNK CHOKNL@ ATS MNS OTQRTD @MX ETQSGDQ
DCTB@SHNM HR SGD LD@M, Z = DF = (20)(0.41) = 8.2.
5GD ENQLTK@ ENQ SGD U@QH@MBD HR j
2
= DFG. 5GD RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNM HR \ = npq .
\ = (20)(0.41)(0.59) = 2.20.
4.13 "ANTS 32% NE RSTCDMSR O@QSHBHO@SD HM @ BNLLTMHSX UNKTMSDDQ OQNFQ@L NTSRHCD NE RBGNNK. *E 30 RSTCDMSR @QD
RDKDBSDC @S Q@MCNL, EHMC SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S @S LNRS 14 NE SGDL O@QSHBHO@SD HM @ BNLLTMHSX UNKTMSDDQ OQNFQ@L NTSRHCD
NE RBGNNK. 6RD SGD 5*-83+ NQ 5*-84 B@KBTK@SNQ SN EHMC SGD @MRVDQ.
$T=ILHA 4.14
*M SGD 2013 #;HHO`I AHJ7H7C7 @QS RTOOKHDR B@S@KNF, SGDQD @QD 560 O@FDR. &HFGS NE SGD O@FDR ED@STQD RHFM@STQD @QSHRSR.
4TOONRD VD Q@MCNLKX R@LOKD 100 O@FDR. -DS 1 = SGD MTLADQ NE O@FDR SG@S ED@STQD RHFM@STQD @QSHRSR.
=. 8G@S U@KTDR CNDR N S@JD NM
>. 8G@S HR SGD OQNA@AHKHSX CHRSQHATSHNM 'HMC SGD ENKKNVHMF OQNA@AHKHSHDR:
E. SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S SVN O@FDR ED@STQD RHFM@STQD @QSHRSR
EE. SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S @S LNRS RHW O@FDR ED@STQD RHFM@STQD @QSHRSR
EEE. SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S LNQD SG@M SGQDD O@FDR ED@STQD RHFM@STQD @QSHRSR.
?. 6RHMF SGD ENQLTK@R, B@KBTK@SD SGD (H) LD@M @MC (HH) RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNM.
1IFONCIH 4.14
=. N = 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8
>. 1 ] B

100,
8
560

E. )(N = 2) = AHMNLOCE

100,
8
560
, 2

= 0.2466
EE. )(N x 6) = AHMNLBCE

100,
8
560
, 6

= 0.9994
EEE. )(N > 3) = 1 k )(N x 3) = 1 k AHMNLBCE

100,
8
560
, 3

= 1 k 0.9443 = 0.0557
?. E. .D@M = DF = (100)

8
560

=
800
560
v 1.4286
EE. 4S@MC@QC %DUH@SHNM = npq = (100)

8
560

552
560

v 1.1867
"'/3$1 4 W #(2"1$3$ 1-#., 51(!+$2 265
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4.14 "BBNQCHMF SN @ (@KKTO ONKK, 60% NE "LDQHB@M @CTKSR OQDEDQ R@UHMF NUDQ RODMCHMF. -DS 1 = SGD MTLADQ NE
"LDQHB@M @CTKSR NTS NE @ Q@MCNL R@LOKD NE 50 VGN OQDEDQ R@UHMF SN RODMCHMF.
=. 8G@S HR SGD OQNA@AHKHSX CHRSQHATSHNM ENQ 1
>. 6RD XNTQ B@KBTK@SNQ SN EHMC SGD ENKKNVHMF OQNA@AHKHSHDR:
E. SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S 25 @CTKSR HM SGD R@LOKD OQDEDQ R@UHMF NUDQ RODMCHMF
EE. SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S @S LNRS 20 @CTKSR OQDEDQ R@UHMF
EEE. SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S LNQD SG@M 30 @CTKSR OQDEDQ R@UHMF
?. 6RHMF SGD ENQLTK@R, B@KBTK@SD SGD (H) LD@M @MC (HH) RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNM NE 1.
$T=ILHA 4.15
5GD KHEDSHLD QHRJ NE CDUDKNOHMF O@MBQD@SHB B@MBDQ HR @ANTS NMD HM 78 (1.28%). 4TOONRD VD Q@MCNLKX R@LOKD 200
ODNOKD. -DS 1 = SGD MTLADQ NE ODNOKD VGN VHKK CDUDKNO O@MBQD@SHB B@MBDQ.
=. 8G@S HR SGD OQNA@AHKHSX CHRSQHATSHNM ENQ 1
>. 6RHMF SGD ENQLTK@R, B@KBTK@SD SGD (H) LD@M @MC (HH) RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNM NE 1.
?. 6RD XNTQ B@KBTK@SNQ SN EHMC SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S @S LNRS DHFGS ODNOKD CDUDKNO O@MBQD@SHB B@MBDQ
@. *R HS LNQD KHJDKX SG@S EHUD NQ RHW ODNOKD VHKK CDUDKNO O@MBQD@SHB B@MBDQ +TRSHEX XNTQ @MRVDQ MTLDQHB@KKX.
1IFONCIH 4.15
=. 1 B(200, 0.0128)
>. E. .D@M = DF = 200(0.0128) = 2.56
EE. 4S@MC@QC %DUH@SHNM = npq = (200)(0.0128)(0.9853) 1.5897
?. 6RHMF SGD 5*-83, 83+, 84 B@KBTK@SNQ VHSG HMRSQTBSHNMR @R OQNUHCDC HM #R;GJF? 4.13:
)(N x 8) = AHMNLBCE(200, 0.0128, 8) = 0.9988
@. )(N = 5) = AHMNLOCE(200, 0.0128, 5) = 0.0707
)(N = 6) = AHMNLOCE(200, 0.0128, 6) = 0.0298
4N )(N = 5) > )(N = 6); HS HR LNQD KHJDKX SG@S EHUD ODNOKD VHKK CDUDKNO B@MBDQ SG@M RHW.
4.15 %TQHMF SGD 2013 QDFTK@Q /#" RD@RNM, %D"MCQD +NQC@M NE SGD -NR "MFDKDR $KHOODQR G@C SGD GHFGDRS EHDKC FN@K
BNLOKDSHNM Q@SD HM SGD KD@FTD. %D"MCQD RBNQDC VHSG 61.3% NE GHR RGNSR. 4TOONRD XNT BGNNRD @ Q@MCNL R@LOKD NE 80
RGNSR L@CD AX %D"MCQD CTQHMF SGD 2013 RD@RNM. -DS 1 = SGD MTLADQ NE RGNSR SG@S RBNQDC ONHMSR.
=. 8G@S HR SGD OQNA@AHKHSX CHRSQHATSHNM ENQ 1
>. 6RHMF SGD ENQLTK@R, B@KBTK@SD SGD (H) LD@M @MC (HH) RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNM NE 1.
?. 6RD XNTQ B@KBTK@SNQ SN EHMC SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S %D"MCQD RBNQDC VHSG 60 NE SGDRD RGNSR.
@. 'HMC SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S %D"MCQD RBNQDC VHSG LNQD SG@M 50 NE SGDRD RGNSR.
$T=ILHA 4.16
5GD ENKKNVHMF DW@LOKD HKKTRSQ@SDR @ OQNAKDL SG@S HR CDI AHMNLH@K. *S UHNK@SDR SGD BNMCHSHNM NE HMCDODMCDMBD. "#$
$NKKDFD G@R @ RSTCDMS @CUHRNQX BNLLHSSDD L@CD TO NE SDM RS@EE LDLADQR @MC RHW RSTCDMSR. 5GD BNLLHSSDD VHRGDR
SN BGNNRD @ BG@HQODQRNM @MC @ QDBNQCDQ. 8G@S HR SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S SGD BG@HQODQRNM @MC QDBNQCDQ @QD ANSG RSTCDMSR
5GD M@LDR NE @KK BNLLHSSDD LDLADQR @QD OTS HMSN @ ANW, @MC SVN M@LDR @QD CQ@VM L>I=DJI G:EA68:B:CI. 5GD
EHQRS M@LD CQ@VM CDSDQLHMDR SGD BG@HQODQRNM @MC SGD RDBNMC M@LD SGD QDBNQCDQ. 5GDQD @QD SVN SQH@KR. )NVDUDQ,
SGD SQH@KR @QD MNS HMCDODMCDMS ADB@TRD SGD NTSBNLD NE SGD EHQRS SQH@K @EEDBSR SGD NTSBNLD NE SGD RDBNMC SQH@K. 5GD
OQNA@AHKHSX NE @ RSTCDMS NM SGD EHQRS CQ@V HR
6
16
. 5GD OQNA@AHKHSX NE @ RSTCDMS NM SGD RDBNMC CQ@V HR
5
15
, VGDM SGD
266 "'/3$1 4 W #(2"1$3$ 1-#., 51(!+$2
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EHQRS CQ@V RDKDBSR @ RSTCDMS. 5GD OQNA@AHKHSX HR
6
15
, VGDM SGD EHQRS CQ@V RDKDBSR @ RS@EE LDLADQ. 5GD OQNA@AHKHSX NE
CQ@VHMF @ RSTCDMS'R M@LD BG@MFDR ENQ D@BG NE SGD SQH@KR @MC, SGDQDENQD, UHNK@SDR SGD BNMCHSHNM NE HMCDODMCDMBD.
4.16 " K@BQNRRD SD@L HR RDKDBSHMF @ B@OS@HM. 5GD M@LDR NE @KK SGD RDMHNQR @QD OTS HMSN @ G@S, @MC SGD EHQRS SGQDD SG@S @QD
CQ@VM VHKK AD SGD B@OS@HMR. 5GD M@LDR @QD MNS QDOK@BDC NMBD SGDX @QD CQ@VM (NMD ODQRNM B@MMNS AD SVN B@OS@HMR). :NT
V@MS SN RDD HE SGD B@OS@HMR @KK OK@X SGD R@LD ONRHSHNM. 4S@SD VGDSGDQ SGHR HR AHMNLH@K NQ MNS @MC RS@SD VGX.
4.4 U %?IG?NLC= "CMNLC<ONCIH
5GDQD @QD SGQDD L@HM BG@Q@BSDQHRSHBR NE @ FDNLDSQHB DWODQHLDMS.
1. 5GDQD @QD NMD NQ LNQD #DQMNTKKH SQH@KR VHSG @KK E@HKTQDR DWBDOS SGD K@RS NMD, VGHBG HR @ RTBBDRR. *M NSGDQ VNQCR, XNT JDDO
QDOD@SHMF VG@S XNT @QD CNHMF TMSHK SGD EHQRS RTBBDRR. 5GDM XNT RSNO. 'NQ DW@LOKD, XNT SGQNV @ C@QS @S @ ATKKRDXD TMSHK
XNT GHS SGD ATKKRDXD. 5GD EHQRS SHLD XNT GHS SGD ATKKRDXD HR @ "RTBBDRR" RN XNT RSNO SGQNVHMF SGD C@QS. *S LHFGS S@JD RHW
SQHDR TMSHK XNT GHS SGD ATKKRDXD. :NT B@M SGHMJ NE SGD SQH@KR @R E@HKTQD, E@HKTQD, E@HKTQD, E@HKTQD, E@HKTQD, RTBBDRR, 4501.
2. *M SGDNQX, SGD MTLADQ NE SQH@KR BNTKC FN NM ENQDUDQ. 5GDQD LTRS AD @S KD@RS NMD SQH@K.
3. 5GD OQNA@AHKHSX, F, NE @ RTBBDRR @MC SGD OQNA@AHKHSX, G, NE @ E@HKTQD HR SGD R@LD ENQ D@BG SQH@K. F + G = 1 @MC G = 1 u F.
'NQ DW@LOKD, SGD OQNA@AHKHSX NE QNKKHMF @ SGQDD VGDM XNT SGQNV NMD E@HQ CHD HR
1
6
. 5GHR HR SQTD MN L@SSDQ GNV L@MX
SHLDR XNT QNKK SGD CHD. 4TOONRD XNT V@MS SN JMNV SGD OQNA@AHKHSX NE FDSSHMF SGD EHQRS SGQDD NM SGD EHESG QNKK. 0M QNKKR NMD
SGQNTFG ENTQ, XNT CN MNS FDS @ E@BD VHSG @ SGQDD. 5GD OQNA@AHKHSX ENQ D@BG NE QNKKR HR G =
5
6
, SGD OQNA@AHKHSX NE @ E@HKTQD.
5GD OQNA@AHKHSX NE FDSSHMF @ SGQDD NM SGD EHESG QNKK HR

5
6

5
6

5
6

5
6

1
6

= 0.0804
1 = SGD MTLADQ NE HMCDODMCDMS SQH@KR TMSHK SGD EHQRS RTBBDRR.
$T=ILHA 4.17
:NT OK@X @ F@LD NE BG@MBD SG@S XNT B@M DHSGDQ VHM NQ KNRD (SGDQD @QD MN NSGDQ ONRRHAHKHSHDR) JCI>A XNT KNRD. :NTQ
OQNA@AHKHSX NE KNRHMF HR F = 0.57. 8G@S HR SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S HS S@JDR EHUD F@LDR TMSHK XNT KNRD -DS 1 = SGD MTLADQ
NE F@LDR XNT OK@X TMSHK XNT KNRD (HMBKTCDR SGD KNRHMF F@LD). 5GDM 1 S@JDR NM SGD U@KTDR 1, 2, 3, ... (BNTKC FN NM
HMCDEHMHSDKX). 5GD OQNA@AHKHSX PTDRSHNM HR )(N = 5).
4.17 :NT SGQNV C@QSR @S @ AN@QC TMSHK XNT GHS SGD BDMSDQ @QD@. :NTQ OQNA@AHKHSX NE GHSSHMF SGD BDMSDQ @QD@ HR ) = 0.17.
:NT V@MS SN EHMC SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S HS S@JDR DHFGS SGQNVR TMSHK XNT GHS SGD BDMSDQ. 8G@S U@KTDR CNDR 1 S@JD NM
$T=ILHA 4.18
" R@EDSX DMFHMDDQ EDDKR SG@S 35% NE @KK HMCTRSQH@K @BBHCDMSR HM GDQ OK@MS @QD B@TRDC AX E@HKTQD NE DLOKNXDDR SN
ENKKNV HMRSQTBSHNMR. 4GD CDBHCDR SN KNNJ @S SGD @BBHCDMS QDONQSR (RDKDBSDC Q@MCNLKX @MC QDOK@BDC HM SGD OHKD @ESDQ
QD@CHMF) JCI>A RGD EHMCR NMD SG@S RGNVR @M @BBHCDMS B@TRDC AX E@HKTQD NE DLOKNXDDR SN ENKKNV HMRSQTBSHNMR. 0M
@UDQ@FD, GNV L@MX QDONQSR VNTKC SGD R@EDSX DMFHMDDQ :ME:8I SN KNNJ @S TMSHK RGD EHMCR @ QDONQS RGNVHMF @M
@BBHCDMS B@TRDC AX DLOKNXDD E@HKTQD SN ENKKNV HMRSQTBSHNMR 8G@S HR SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S SGD R@EDSX DMFHMDDQ VHKK
G@UD SN DW@LHMD @S KD@RS SGQDD QDONQSR TMSHK RGD EHMCR @ QDONQS RGNVHMF @M @BBHCDMS B@TRDC AX DLOKNXDD E@HKTQD SN
ENKKNV HMRSQTBSHNMR
"'/3$1 4 W #(2"1$3$ 1-#., 51(!+$2 267
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-DS 1 = SGD MTLADQ NE @BBHCDMSR SGD R@EDSX DMFHMDDQ LTRS DW@LHMD JCI>A RGD EHMCR @ QDONQS RGNVHMF @M
@BBHCDMS B@TRDC AX DLOKNXDD E@HKTQD SN ENKKNV HMRSQTBSHNMR. 1 S@JDR NM SGD U@KTDR 1, 2, 3, .... 5GD EHQRS PTDRSHNM
@RJR XNT SN EHMC SGD :ME:8I:9 K6AJ: NQ SGD LD@M. 5GD RDBNMC PTDRSHNM @RJR XNT SN EHMC @R )(N y 3). (""S KD@RS"
SQ@MRK@SDR SN @ "FQD@SDQ SG@M NQ DPT@K SN" RXLANK).
4.18 "M HMRSQTBSNQ EDDKR SG@S 15% NE RSTCDMSR FDS ADKNV @ $ NM SGDHQ EHM@K DW@L. 4GD CDBHCDR SN KNNJ @S EHM@K DW@LR
(RDKDBSDC Q@MCNLKX @MC QDOK@BDC HM SGD OHKD @ESDQ QD@CHMF) TMSHK RGD EHMCR NMD SG@S RGNVR @ FQ@CD ADKNV @ $. 8D V@MS SN
JMNV SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S SGD HMRSQTBSNQ VHKK G@UD SN DW@LHMD @S KD@RS SDM DW@LR TMSHK RGD EHMCR NMD VHSG @ FQ@CD ADKNV
@ $. 8G@S HR SGD OQNA@AHKHSX PTDRSHNM RS@SDC L@SGDL@SHB@KKX
$T=ILHA 4.19
4TOONRD SG@S XNT @QD KNNJHMF ENQ @ RSTCDMS @S XNTQ BNKKDFD VGN KHUDR VHSGHM EHUD LHKDR NE XNT. :NT JMNV SG@S 55%
NE SGD 25,000 RSTCDMSR CN KHUD VHSGHM EHUD LHKDR NE XNT. :NT Q@MCNLKX BNMS@BS RSTCDMSR EQNL SGD BNKKDFD JCI>A NMD
R@XR GD NQ RGD KHUDR VHSGHM EHUD LHKDR NE XNT. 8G@S HR SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S XNT MDDC SN BNMS@BS ENTQ ODNOKD
5GHR HR @ FDNLDSQHB OQNAKDL ADB@TRD XNT L@X G@UD @ MTLADQ NE E@HKTQDR ADENQD XNT G@UD SGD NMD RTBBDRR
XNT CDRHQD. "KRN, SGD OQNA@AHKHSX NE @ RTBBDRR RS@XR SGD R@LD D@BG SHLD XNT @RJ @ RSTCDMS HE GD NQ RGD KHUDR VHSGHM
EHUD LHKDR NE XNT. 5GDQD HR MN CDEHMHSD MTLADQ NE SQH@KR (MTLADQ NE SHLDR XNT @RJ @ RSTCDMS).
@. -DS 1 = SGD MTLADQ NE ???????????? XNT LTRS @RJ ???????????? NMD R@XR XDR.
1IFONCIH 4.19
=. +AP X = PDA JQI>AN KB MNO>?HNM UKQ IQOP =OG OHNCF KJA O=UO UAO.
A. 8G@S U@KTDR CNDR 1 S@JD NM
1IFONCIH 4.19
>. 1, 2, 3, d, (PKP=H JQI>AN KB OPQ@AJPO)
B. 8G@S @QD F @MC G
1IFONCIH 4.19
?. ( = 0.55; ) = 0.45
C. 5GD OQNA@AHKHSX PTDRSHNM HR )(???????).
1IFONCIH 4.19
@. P(/ = 4)
4.19 :NT MDDC SN EHMC @ RSNQD SG@S B@QQHDR @ RODBH@K OQHMSDQ HMJ. :NT JMNV SG@S NE SGD RSNQDR SG@S B@QQX OQHMSDQ HMJ, 10%
NE SGDL B@QQX SGD RODBH@K HMJ. :NT Q@MCNLKX B@KK D@BG RSNQD TMSHK NMD G@R SGD HMJ XNT MDDC. 8G@S @QD F @MC G
,IN;NCIH @IL NB? %?IG?NLC=: % = %?IG?NLC= .LI<;<CFCNS "CMNLC<ONCIH $OH=NCIH
1 ] (F)
268 "'/3$1 4 W #(2"1$3$ 1-#., 51(!+$2
3DEO ?KJPAJP EO =R=EH=>HA BKN BNAA =P DPPL://?JT.KNC/?KJPAJP/?KH11562/1.11
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3D@C SGHR @R "1 HR @ Q@MCNL U@QH@AKD VHSG @ <:DB:IG>8 9>HIG>7JI>DC." 5GD O@Q@LDSDQ HR F; F = SGD OQNA@AHKHSX NE @
RTBBDRR ENQ D@BG SQH@K.
$T=ILHA 4.20
"RRTLD SG@S SGD OQNA@AHKHSX NE @ CDEDBSHUD BNLOTSDQ BNLONMDMS HR 0.02. $NLONMDMSR @QD Q@MCNLKX RDKDBSDC. 'HMC
SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S SGD EHQRS CDEDBS HR B@TRDC AX SGD RDUDMSG BNLONMDMS SDRSDC. )NV L@MX BNLONMDMSR CN XNT
DWODBS SN SDRS TMSHK NMD HR ENTMC SN AD CDEDBSHUD
-DS 1 = SGD MTLADQ NE BNLOTSDQ BNLONMDMSR SDRSDC TMSHK SGD EHQRS CDEDBS HR ENTMC.
1 S@JDR NM SGD U@KTDR 1, 2, 3, ... VGDQD F = 0.02. 1 ] ((0.02)
'HMC )(N = 7). )(N = 7) = 0.0177.
5N EHMC SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S N = 7,
c &MSDQ 2
MC
, %*453
c 4BQNKK CNVM @MC RDKDBS FDNLDSOCE(
c 1QDRR &/5&3
c &MSDQ 0.2, 7); OQDRR &/5&3 SN RDD SGD QDRTKS: )(N = 7) = 0.0177
5N EHMC SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S N x 7, ENKKNV SGD R@LD HMRSQTBSHNMR &9$&15 RDKDBS &:FDNLDSBCE(@R SGD
CHRSQHATSHNM ETMBSHNM.
5GD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S SGD RDUDMSG BNLONMDMS HR SGD EHQRS CDEDBS HR 0.0177.
5GD FQ@OG NE 1 ] ((0.02) HR:
$CAOL? 4.3
5GD O-@WHR BNMS@HMR SGD OQNA@AHKHSX NE N, VGDQD 1 = SGD MTLADQ NE BNLOTSDQ BNLONMDMSR SDRSDC.
5GD MTLADQ NE BNLONMDMSR SG@S XNT VNTKC DWODBS SN SDRS TMSHK XNT EHMC SGD EHQRS CDEDBSHUD NMD HR SGD LD@M,
= 50 .
5GD ENQLTK@ ENQ SGD LD@M HR Z =
1
p
=
1
0.02
= 50
5GD ENQLTK@ ENQ SGD U@QH@MBD HR \
2
=

1
p

1
p
1

1
0.02

1
0.02
1

= 2,450
5GD RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNM HR \ =

1
p

1
p
1

1
0.02

1
0.02
1

= 49.5
"'/3$1 4 W #(2"1$3$ 1-#., 51(!+$2 269
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4.20 5GD OQNA@AHKHSX NE @ CDEDBSHUD RSDDK QNC HR 0.01. 4SDDK QNCR @QD RDKDBSDC @S Q@MCNL. 'HMC SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S
SGD EHQRS CDEDBS NBBTQR NM SGD MHMSG RSDDK QNC. 6RD SGD 5*-83+ NQ 5*-84 B@KBTK@SNQ SN EHMC SGD @MRVDQ.
$T=ILHA 4.21
5GD KHEDSHLD QHRJ NE CDUDKNOHMF O@MBQD@SHB B@MBDQ HR @ANTS NMD HM 78 (1.28%). -DS 1 = SGD MTLADQ NE ODNOKD
XNT @RJ TMSHK NMD R@XR GD NQ RGD G@R O@MBQD@SHB B@MBDQ. 5GDM 1 HR @ CHRBQDSD Q@MCNL U@QH@AKD VHSG @ FDNLDSQHB
CHRSQHATSHNM: 1 ]

1
78

NQ 1 ] (0.0147).
=. 8G@S HR SGD OQNA@AHKHSX NE SG@S XNT @RJ SDM ODNOKD ADENQD NMD R@XR GD NQ RGD G@R O@MBQD@SHB B@MBDQ
>. 8G@S HR SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S XNT LTRS @RJ 20 ODNOKD
?. 'HMC SGD (H) LD@M @MC (HH) RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNM NE 1.
1IFONCIH 4.21
=. )(N = 10) = FDNLDSOCE(0.0128, 10) = 0.0114
>. )(N = 20) = FDNLDSOCE(0.0128, 20) = 0.01
?. E. .D@M = Z =
1
p
=
1
0.0128
= 78
EE. 4S@MC@QC %DUH@SHNM = \ =
1 p
p
2
=
1 0.0128
0.0128
2
v 77.6234
4.21 5GD KHSDQ@BX Q@SD ENQ @ M@SHNM LD@RTQDR SGD OQNONQSHNM NE ODNOKD @FD 15 @MC NUDQ VGN B@M QD@C @MC VQHSD. 5GD
KHSDQ@BX Q@SD ENQ VNLDM HM "EFG@MHRS@M HR 12%. -DS 1 = SGD MTLADQ NE "EFG@MH VNLDM XNT @RJ TMSHK NMD R@XR SG@S RGD
HR KHSDQ@SD.
=. 8G@S HR SGD OQNA@AHKHSX CHRSQHATSHNM NE 1
>. 8G@S HR SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S XNT @RJ EHUD VNLDM ADENQD NMD R@XR RGD HR KHSDQ@SD
?. 8G@S HR SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S XNT LTRS @RJ SDM VNLDM
@. 'HMC SGD (H) LD@M @MC (HH) RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNM NE 1.
4.5 U &SJ?LA?IG?NLC= "CMNLC<ONCIH
5GDQD @QD EHUD BG@Q@BSDQHRSHBR NE @ GXODQFDNLDSQHB DWODQHLDMS.
1. :NT S@JD R@LOKDR EQNL ILD FQNTOR.
2. :NT @QD BNMBDQMDC VHSG @ FQNTO NE HMSDQDRS, B@KKDC SGD EHQRS FQNTO.
3. :NT R@LOKD L>I=DJI G:EA68:B:CI EQNL SGD BNLAHMDC FQNTOR. 'NQ DW@LOKD, XNT V@MS SN BGNNRD @ RNESA@KK SD@L EQNL
@ BNLAHMDC FQNTO NE 11 LDM @MC 13 VNLDM. 5GD SD@L BNMRHRSR NE SDM OK@XDQR.
4. &@BG OHBJ HR CDI HMCDODMCDMS, RHMBD R@LOKHMF HR VHSGNTS QDOK@BDLDMS. *M SGD RNESA@KK DW@LOKD, SGD OQNA@AHKHSX NE
OHBJHMF @ VNL@M EHQRS HR
13
24
. 5GD OQNA@AHKHSX NE OHBJHMF @ L@M RDBNMC HR
11
23
HE @ VNL@M V@R OHBJDC EHQRS. *S HR
10
23
HE
@ L@M V@R OHBJDC EHQRS. 5GD OQNA@AHKHSX NE SGD RDBNMC OHBJ CDODMCR NM VG@S G@OODMDC HM SGD EHQRS OHBJ.
5. :NT @QD CDI CD@KHMF VHSG #DQMNTKKH 5QH@KR.
270 "'/3$1 4 W #(2"1$3$ 1-#., 51(!+$2
3DEO ?KJPAJP EO =R=EH=>HA BKN BNAA =P DPPL://?JT.KNC/?KJPAJP/?KH11562/1.11
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5GD NTSBNLDR NE @ GXODQFDNLDSQHB DWODQHLDMS EHS @ =NE:G<:DB:IG>8 EGD767>A>IN CHRSQHATSHNM. 5GD Q@MCNL U@QH@AKD 1
= SGD MTLADQ NE HSDLR EQNL SGD FQNTO NE HMSDQDRS.
$T=ILHA 4.22
" B@MCX CHRG BNMS@HMR 100 IDKKX AD@MR @MC 80 FTLCQNOR. 'HESX B@MCHDR @QD OHBJDC @S Q@MCNL. 8G@S HR SGD
OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S 35 NE SGD 50 @QD FTLCQNOR 5GD SVN FQNTOR @QD IDKKX AD@MR @MC FTLCQNOR. 4HMBD SGD OQNA@AHKHSX
PTDRSHNM @RJR ENQ SGD OQNA@AHKHSX NE OHBJHMF FTLCQNOR, SGD FQNTO NE HMSDQDRS (EHQRS FQNTO) HR FTLCQNOR. 5GD RHYD NE
SGD FQNTO NE HMSDQDRS (EHQRS FQNTO) HR 80. 5GD RHYD NE SGD RDBNMC FQNTO HR 100. 5GD RHYD NE SGD R@LOKD HR 50 (IDKKX
AD@MR NQ FTLCQNOR). -DS 1 = SGD MTLADQ NE FTLCQNOR HM SGD R@LOKD NE 50. 1 S@JDR NM SGD U@KTDR N = 0, 1, 2, ...,
50. 8G@S HR SGD OQNA@AHKHSX RS@SDLDMS VQHSSDM L@SGDL@SHB@KKX
1IFONCIH 4.22
P(/ = 35)
4.22 " A@F BNMS@HMR KDSSDQ SHKDR. 'NQSX-ENTQ NE SGD SHKDR @QD UNVDKR, @MC 56 @QD BNMRNM@MSR. 4DUDM SHKDR @QD OHBJDC @S
Q@MCNL. :NT V@MS SN JMNV SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S ENTQ NE SGD RDUDM SHKDR @QD UNVDKR. 8G@S HR SGD FQNTO NE HMSDQDRS, SGD RHYD
NE SGD FQNTO NE HMSDQDRS, @MC SGD RHYD NE SGD R@LOKD
$T=ILHA 4.23
4TOONRD @ RGHOLDMS NE 100 %7% OK@XDQR HR JMNVM SN G@UD SDM CDEDBSHUD OK@XDQR. "M HMRODBSNQ Q@MCNLKX BGNNRDR
12 ENQ HMRODBSHNM. )D HR HMSDQDRSDC HM CDSDQLHMHMF SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S, @LNMF SGD 12 OK@XDQR, @S LNRS SVN @QD
CDEDBSHUD. 5GD SVN FQNTOR @QD SGD 90 MNM-CDEDBSHUD %7% OK@XDQR @MC SGD 10 CDEDBSHUD %7% OK@XDQR. 5GD FQNTO
NE HMSDQDRS (EHQRS FQNTO) HR SGD CDEDBSHUD FQNTO ADB@TRD SGD OQNA@AHKHSX PTDRSHNM @RJR ENQ SGD OQNA@AHKHSX NE @S LNRS
SVN CDEDBSHUD %7% OK@XDQR. 5GD RHYD NE SGD R@LOKD HR 12 %7% OK@XDQR. (5GDX L@X AD MNM-CDEDBSHUD NQ CDEDBSHUD.)
-DS 1 = SGD MTLADQ NE CDEDBSHUD %7% OK@XDQR HM SGD R@LOKD NE 12. 1 S@JDR NM SGD U@KTDR 0, 1, 2, ..., 10. 1 L@X
MNS S@JD NM SGD U@KTDR 11 NQ 12. 5GD R@LOKD RHYD HR 12, ATS SGDQD @QD NMKX 10 CDEDBSHUD %7% OK@XDQR. 8QHSD SGD
OQNA@AHKHSX RS@SDLDMS L@SGDL@SHB@KKX.
1IFONCIH 4.23
P(/ g 2)
4.23 " FQNRR NE DFFR BNMS@HMR 144 DFFR. " O@QSHBTK@Q FQNRR HR JMNVM SN G@UD 12 BQ@BJDC DFFR. "M HMRODBSNQ Q@MCNLKX
BGNNRDR 15 ENQ HMRODBSHNM. 4GD V@MSR SN JMNV SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S, @LNMF SGD 15, @S LNRS SGQDD @QD BQ@BJDC. 8G@S HR 1,
@MC VG@S U@KTDR CNDR HS S@JD NM
$T=ILHA 4.24
:NT @QD OQDRHCDMS NE @M NM-B@LOTR RODBH@K DUDMSR NQF@MHY@SHNM. :NT MDDC @ BNLLHSSDD NE RDUDM RSTCDMSR SN OK@M @
RODBH@K AHQSGC@X O@QSX ENQ SGD OQDRHCDMS NE SGD BNKKDFD. :NTQ NQF@MHY@SHNM BNMRHRSR NE 18 VNLDM @MC 15 LDM. :NT
@QD HMSDQDRSDC HM SGD MTLADQ NE LDM NM XNTQ BNLLHSSDD. *E SGD LDLADQR NE SGD BNLLHSSDD @QD Q@MCNLKX RDKDBSDC,
VG@S HR SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S XNTQ BNLLHSSDD G@R LNQD SG@M ENTQ LDM
"'/3$1 4 W #(2"1$3$ 1-#., 51(!+$2 271
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5GHR HR @ GXODQFDNLDSQHB OQNAKDL ADB@TRD XNT @QD BGNNRHMF XNTQ BNLLHSSDD EQNL SVN FQNTOR (LDM @MC
VNLDM).
@. "QD XNT BGNNRHMF VHSG NQ VHSGNTS QDOK@BDLDMS
1IFONCIH 4.24
=. SEPDKQP
A. 8G@S HR SGD FQNTO NE HMSDQDRS
1IFONCIH 4.24
>. PDA IAJ
B. )NV L@MX @QD HM SGD FQNTO NE HMSDQDRS
1IFONCIH 4.24
?. 15 IAJ
C. )NV L@MX @QD HM SGD NSGDQ FQNTO
1IFONCIH 4.24
@. 18 SKIAJ
D. -DS 1 = ????????? NM SGD BNLLHSSDD. 8G@S U@KTDR CNDR 1 S@JD NM
1IFONCIH 4.24
A. +AP X = NB? HOG<?L I@ G?H KJ PDA ?KIIEPPAA. / = 0, 1, 2, d, 7.
E. 5GD OQNA@AHKHSX PTDRSHNM HR )(???????).
1IFONCIH 4.24
B. P(/ > 4)
4.24 " O@KDSSD G@R 200 LHKJ B@QSNMR. 0E SGD 200 B@QSNMR, HS HR JMNVM SG@S SDM NE SGDL G@UD KD@JDC @MC B@MMNS AD RNKC.
" RSNBJ BKDQJ Q@MCNLKX BGNNRDR 18 ENQ HMRODBSHNM. )D V@MSR SN JMNV SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S @LNMF SGD 18, MN LNQD SG@M
SVN @QD KD@JHMF. (HUD EHUD QD@RNMR VGX SGHR HR @ GXODQFDNLDSQHB OQNAKDL.
,IN;NCIH @IL NB? &SJ?LA?IG?NLC=: & = &SJ?LA?IG?NLC= .LI<;<CFCNS
"CMNLC<ONCIH $OH=NCIH
1 ] !(H, 8, D)
3D@C SGHR @R "1 HR @ Q@MCNL U@QH@AKD VHSG @ GXODQFDNLDSQHB CHRSQHATSHNM." 5GD O@Q@LDSDQR @QD H, 8, @MC D; H = SGD RHYD
NE SGD FQNTO NE HMSDQDRS (EHQRS FQNTO), 8 = SGD RHYD NE SGD RDBNMC FQNTO, D = SGD RHYD NE SGD BGNRDM R@LOKD.
$T=ILHA 4.25
" RBGNNK RHSD BNLLHSSDD HR SN AD BGNRDM Q@MCNLKX EQNL RHW LDM @MC EHUD VNLDM. *E SGD BNLLHSSDD BNMRHRSR NE
ENTQ LDLADQR BGNRDM Q@MCNLKX, VG@S HR SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S SVN NE SGDL @QD LDM )NV L@MX LDM CN XNT DWODBS
SN AD NM SGD BNLLHSSDD
-DS 1 = SGD MTLADQ NE LDM NM SGD BNLLHSSDD NE ENTQ. 5GD LDM @QD SGD FQNTO NE HMSDQDRS (EHQRS FQNTO).
272 "'/3$1 4 W #(2"1$3$ 1-#., 51(!+$2
3DEO ?KJPAJP EO =R=EH=>HA BKN BNAA =P DPPL://?JT.KNC/?KJPAJP/?KH11562/1.11
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1 S@JDR NM SGD U@KTDR 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, VGDQD H = 6, 8 = 5, @MC D = 4. 1 Q !(6, 5, 4)
'HMC )(N k 2). )(N = 2) = 0.4545 (B@KBTK@SNQ NQ BNLOTSDQ)
,-2#
$TQQDMSKX, SGD 5*-83+ @MC 5*-84 CN MNS G@UD GXODQFDNLDSQHB OQNA@AHKHSX ETMBSHNMR. 5GDQD @QD @ MTLADQ
NE BNLOTSDQ O@BJ@FDR, HMBKTCHMF .HBQNRNES &WBDK, SG@S CN.
5GD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S SGDQD @QD SVN LDM NM SGD BNLLHSSDD HR @ANTS 0.45.
5GD FQ@OG NE 1 ] !(6, 5, 4) HR:
$CAOL? 4.4
5GD O-@WHR BNMS@HMR SGD OQNA@AHKHSX NE 1, VGDQD 1 = SGD MTLADQ NE LDM NM SGD BNLLHSSDD.
:NT VNTKC DWODBS C = 2.18 (@ANTS SVN) LDM NM SGD BNLLHSSDD.
5GD ENQLTK@ ENQ SGD LD@M HR =
nr
r + b
=
(4)(6)
6 + 5
= 2.18
4.25 "M HMSQ@LTQ@K A@RJDSA@KK SD@L HR SN AD BGNRDM Q@MCNLKX EQNL 15 ANXR @MC 12 FHQKR. 5GD SD@L G@R SDM RKNSR. :NT
V@MS SN JMNV SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S DHFGS NE SGD OK@XDQR VHKK AD ANXR. 8G@S HR SGD FQNTO NE HMSDQDRS @MC SGD R@LOKD
4.6 U .ICMMIH "CMNLC<ONCIH
5GDQD @QD SVN L@HM BG@Q@BSDQHRSHBR NE @ 1NHRRNM DWODQHLDMS.
1. 5GD -D>HHDC EGD767>A>IN 9>HIG>7JI>DC FHUDR SGD OQNA@AHKHSX NE @ MTLADQ NE DUDMSR NBBTQQHMF HM @ ;>M:9 >CI:GK6A NE
SHLD NQ RO@BD HE SGDRD DUDMSR G@OODM VHSG @ JMNVM @UDQ@FD Q@SD @MC HMCDODMCDMSKX NE SGD SHLD RHMBD SGD K@RS DUDMS. 'NQ
DW@LOKD, @ ANNJ DCHSNQ LHFGS AD HMSDQDRSDC HM SGD MTLADQ NE VNQCR RODKKDC HMBNQQDBSKX HM @ O@QSHBTK@Q ANNJ. *S LHFGS AD
SG@S, NM SGD @UDQ@FD, SGDQD @QD EHUD VNQCR RODKKDC HMBNQQDBSKX HM 100 O@FDR. 5GD HMSDQU@K HR SGD 100 O@FDR.
2. 5GD 1NHRRNM CHRSQHATSHNM L@X AD TRDC SN @OOQNWHL@SD SGD AHMNLH@K HE SGD OQNA@AHKHSX NE RTBBDRR HR "RL@KK" (RTBG @R
0.01) @MC SGD MTLADQ NE SQH@KR HR "K@QFD" (RTBG @R 1,000). :NT VHKK UDQHEX SGD QDK@SHNMRGHO HM SGD GNLDVNQJ DWDQBHRDR. D
HR SGD MTLADQ NE SQH@KR, @MC F HR SGD OQNA@AHKHSX NE @ "RTBBDRR."
"'/3$1 4 W #(2"1$3$ 1-#., 51(!+$2 273
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5GD Q@MCNL U@QH@AKD 1 = SGD MTLADQ NE NBBTQQDMBDR HM SGD HMSDQU@K NE HMSDQDRS.
$T=ILHA 4.26
5GD @UDQ@FD MTLADQ NE KN@UDR NE AQD@C OTS NM @ RGDKE HM @ A@JDQX HM @ G@KE-GNTQ ODQHNC HR 12. 0E HMSDQDRS HR SGD
MTLADQ NE KN@UDR NE AQD@C OTS NM SGD RGDKE HM EHUD LHMTSDR. 5GD SHLD HMSDQU@K NE HMSDQDRS HR EHUD LHMTSDR. 8G@S HR
SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S SGD MTLADQ NE KN@UDR, RDKDBSDC Q@MCNLKX, OTS NM SGD RGDKE HM EHUD LHMTSDR HR SGQDD
-DS 1 = SGD MTLADQ NE KN@UDR NE AQD@C OTS NM SGD RGDKE HM EHUD LHMTSDR. *E SGD @UDQ@FD MTLADQ NE KN@UDR OTS
NM SGD RGDKE HM 30 LHMTSDR (G@KE-GNTQ) HR 12, I=:C I=: 6K:G6<: CJB7:G D; AD6K:H EJI DC I=: H=:A; >C ;>K: B>CJI:H
>H

5
30

(12) = 2 KN@UDR NE AQD@C.


5GD OQNA@AHKHSX PTDRSHNM @RJR XNT SN EHMC )(N = 3).
4.26 5GD @UDQ@FD MTLADQ NE EHRG B@TFGS HM @M GNTQ HR DHFGS. 0E HMSDQDRS HR SGD MTLADQ NE EHRG B@TFGS HM 15 LHMTSDR.
5GD SHLD HMSDQU@K NE HMSDQDRS HR 15 LHMTSDR. 8G@S HR SGD @UDQ@FD MTLADQ NE EHRG B@TFGS HM 15 LHMTSDR
$T=ILHA 4.27
" A@MJ DWODBSR SN QDBDHUD RHW A@C BGDBJR ODQ C@X, NM @UDQ@FD. 8G@S HR SGD OQNA@AHKHSX NE SGD A@MJ FDSSHMF EDVDQ
SG@M EHUD A@C BGDBJR NM @MX FHUDM C@X 0E HMSDQDRS HR SGD MTLADQ NE BGDBJR SGD A@MJ QDBDHUDR HM NMD C@X, RN SGD
SHLD HMSDQU@K NE HMSDQDRS HR NMD C@X. -DS 1 = SGD MTLADQ NE A@C BGDBJR SGD A@MJ QDBDHUDR HM NMD C@X. *E SGD A@MJ
DWODBSR SN QDBDHUD RHW A@C BGDBJR ODQ C@X SGDM SGD @UDQ@FD HR RHW BGDBJR ODQ C@X. 8QHSD @ L@SGDL@SHB@K RS@SDLDMS
ENQ SGD OQNA@AHKHSX PTDRSHNM.
1IFONCIH 4.27
P(/ > 5)
4.27 "M DKDBSQNMHBR RSNQD DWODBSR SN G@UD SDM QDSTQMR ODQ C@X NM @UDQ@FD. 5GD L@M@FDQ V@MSR SN JMNV SGD OQNA@AHKHSX
NE SGD RSNQD FDSSHMF EDVDQ SG@M DHFGS QDSTQMR NM @MX FHUDM C@X. 4S@SD SGD OQNA@AHKHSX PTDRSHNM L@SGDL@SHB@KKX.
$T=ILHA 4.28
:NT MNSHBD SG@S @ MDVR QDONQSDQ R@XR "TG," NM @UDQ@FD, SVN SHLDR ODQ AQN@CB@RS. 8G@S HR SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S SGD
MDVR QDONQSDQ R@XR "TG" LNQD SG@M SVN SHLDR ODQ AQN@CB@RS.
5GHR HR @ 1NHRRNM OQNAKDL ADB@TRD XNT @QD HMSDQDRSDC HM JMNVHMF SGD MTLADQ NE SHLDR SGD MDVR QDONQSDQ R@XR
"TG" CTQHMF @ AQN@CB@RS.
@. 8G@S HR SGD HMSDQU@K NE HMSDQDRS
1IFONCIH 4.28
=. KJA >NK=@?=OP
A. 8G@S HR SGD @UDQ@FD MTLADQ NE SHLDR SGD MDVR QDONQSDQ R@XR "TG" CTQHMF NMD AQN@CB@RS
1IFONCIH 4.28
274 "'/3$1 4 W #(2"1$3$ 1-#., 51(!+$2
3DEO ?KJPAJP EO =R=EH=>HA BKN BNAA =P DPPL://?JT.KNC/?KJPAJP/?KH11562/1.11
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>. 2
B. -DS 1 = ????????????. 8G@S U@KTDR CNDR 1 S@JD NM
1IFONCIH 4.28
?. +AP X = PDA JQI>AN KB PEIAO PDA JASO NALKNPAN O=UO "QD" @QNEJC KJA >NK=@?=OP.
/ = 0, 1, 2, 3, ...
C. 5GD OQNA@AHKHSX PTDRSHNM HR )(??????).
1IFONCIH 4.28
@. P(/ > 2)
4.28 "M DLDQFDMBX QNNL@S @ O@QSHBTK@Q GNROHS@K FDSR @M @UDQ@FD NE EHUD O@SHDMSR ODQ GNTQ. " CNBSNQ V@MSR SN JMNV SGD
OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S SGD &3 FDSR LNQD SG@M EHUD O@SHDMSR ODQ GNTQ. (HUD SGD QD@RNM VGX SGHR VNTKC AD @ 1NHRRNM CHRSQHATSHNM.
,IN;NCIH @IL NB? .ICMMIH: . = .ICMMIH .LI<;<CFCNS "CMNLC<ONCIH $OH=NCIH
1 ] )(Z)
3D@C SGHR @R "1 HR @ Q@MCNL U@QH@AKD VHSG @ 1NHRRNM CHRSQHATSHNM." 5GD O@Q@LDSDQ HR Z (NQ Y); Z (NQ Y) = SGD LD@M ENQ SGD
HMSDQU@K NE HMSDQDRS.
$T=ILHA 4.29
-D@G'R @MRVDQHMF L@BGHMD QDBDHUDR @ANTS RHW SDKDOGNMD B@KKR ADSVDDM 8 @.L. @MC 10 @.L. 8G@S HR SGD OQNA@AHKHSX
SG@S -D@G QDBDHUDR LNQD SG@M NMD B@KK >C I=: C:MI 15 B>CJI:H?
-DS 1 = SGD MTLADQ NE B@KKR -D@G QDBDHUDR HM 15 LHMTSDR. (5GD >CI:GK6A D; >CI:G:HI HR 15 LHMTSDR NQ
1
4
GNTQ.)
N = 0, 1, 2, 3, ...
*E -D@G QDBDHUDR, NM SGD @UDQ@FD, RHW SDKDOGNMD B@KKR HM SVN GNTQR, @MC SGDQD @QD DHFGS 15 LHMTSDR HMSDQU@KR HM
SVN GNTQR, SGDM -D@G QDBDHUDR

1
8

(6) = 0.75 B@KKR HM 15 LHMTSDR, NM @UDQ@FD. 4N, Z = 0.75 ENQ SGHR OQNAKDL.
1 ] )(0.75)
'HMC )(N > 1). )(N > 1) = 0.1734 (B@KBTK@SNQ NQ BNLOTSDQ)
c 1QDRR 1 k @MC SGDM OQDRR 2
MC
%*453.
c "QQNV CNVM SN ONHRRNMBCE. 1QDRR &/5&3.
c &MSDQ (.75,1).
c 5GD QDRTKS HR )(N > 1) = 0.1734.
,-2#
5GD 5* B@KBTK@SNQR TRD Y (K@LAC@) ENQ SGD LD@M.
"'/3$1 4 W #(2"1$3$ 1-#., 51(!+$2 275
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5GD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S -D@G QDBDHUDR LNQD SG@M NMD SDKDOGNMD B@KK HM SGD MDWS 15 LHMTSDR HR @ANTS 0.1734:
)(N > 1) = 1 u ONHRRNMBCE(0.75, 1).
5GD FQ@OG NE 1 ] )(0.75) HR:
$CAOL? 4.5
5GD O-@WHR BNMS@HMR SGD OQNA@AHKHSX NE N VGDQD 1 = SGD MTLADQ NE B@KKR HM 15 LHMTSDR.
4.29 " BTRSNLDQ RDQUHBD BDMSDQ QDBDHUDR @ANTS SDM DL@HKR DUDQX G@KE-GNTQ. 8G@S HR SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S SGD
BTRSNLDQ RDQUHBD BDMSDQ QDBDHUDR LNQD SG@M ENTQ DL@HKR HM SGD MDWS RHW LHMTSDR 6RD SGD 5*-83+ NQ 5*-84 B@KBTK@SNQ SN
EHMC SGD @MRVDQ.
$T=ILHA 4.30
"BBNQCHMF SN #@XCHM, @M DL@HK L@M@FDLDMS BNLO@MX, @M DL@HK TRDQ FDSR, NM @UDQ@FD, 147 DL@HKR ODQ C@X. -DS 1
= SGD MTLADQ NE DL@HKR @M DL@HK TRDQ QDBDHUDR ODQ C@X. 5GD CHRBQDSD Q@MCNL U@QH@AKD 1 S@JDR NM SGD U@KTDR N = 0,
1, 2 r. 5GD Q@MCNL U@QH@AKD 1 G@R @ 1NHRRNM CHRSQHATSHNM: 1 ] )(147). 5GD LD@M HR 147 DL@HKR.
=. 8G@S HR SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S @M DL@HK TRDQ QDBDHUDR DW@BSKX 160 DL@HKR ODQ C@X
>. 8G@S HR SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S @M DL@HK TRDQ QDBDHUDR @S LNRS 160 DL@HKR ODQ C@X
?. 8G@S HR SGD RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNM
1IFONCIH 4.30
=. )(N = 160) = ONHRRNMOCE(147, 160) v 0.0180
>. )(N x 160) = ONHRRNMBCE(147, 160) v 0.8666
?. 4S@MC@QC %DUH@SHNM = = = 147 12.1244
4.30 "BBNQCHMF SN @ QDBDMS ONKK AX SGD 1DV *MSDQMDS 1QNIDBS, FHQKR ADSVDDM SGD @FDR NE 14 @MC 17 RDMC @M @UDQ@FD NE
187 SDWS LDRR@FDR D@BG C@X. -DS 1 = SGD MTLADQ NE SDWSR SG@S @ FHQK @FDC 14 SN 17 RDMCR ODQ C@X. 5GD CHRBQDSD Q@MCNL
U@QH@AKD 1 S@JDR NM SGD U@KTDR N = 0, 1, 2 r. 5GD Q@MCNL U@QH@AKD 1 G@R @ 1NHRRNM CHRSQHATSHNM: 1 ] )(187). 5GD LD@M
HR 187 SDWS LDRR@FDR.
=. 8G@S HR SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S @ SDDM FHQK RDMCR DW@BSKX 175 SDWSR ODQ C@X
>. 8G@S HR SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S @ SDDM FHQK RDMCR @S LNRS 150 SDWSR ODQ C@X
276 "'/3$1 4 W #(2"1$3$ 1-#., 51(!+$2
3DEO ?KJPAJP EO =R=EH=>HA BKN BNAA =P DPPL://?JT.KNC/?KJPAJP/?KH11562/1.11
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?. 8G@S HR SGD RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNM
$T=ILHA 4.31
5DWS LDRR@FD TRDQR QDBDHUD NQ RDMC @M @UDQ@FD NE 41.5 SDWS LDRR@FDR ODQ C@X.
=. )NV L@MX SDWS LDRR@FDR CNDR @ SDWS LDRR@FD TRDQ QDBDHUD NQ RDMC ODQ GNTQ
>. 8G@S HR SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S @ SDWS LDRR@FD TRDQ QDBDHUDR NQ RDMCR SVN LDRR@FDR ODQ GNTQ
?. 8G@S HR SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S @ SDWS LDRR@FD TRDQ QDBDHUDR NQ RDMCR LNQD SG@M SVN LDRR@FDR ODQ GNTQ
1IFONCIH 4.31
=. -DS 1 = SGD MTLADQ NE SDWSR SG@S @ TRDQ RDMCR NQ QDBDHUDR HM NMD GNTQ. 5GD @UDQ@FD MTLADQ NE SDWSR QDBDHUDC
ODQ GNTQ HR
41.5
24
v 1.7292.
>. 1 ] )(1.7292), RN )(N = 2) = ONHRRNMOCE(1.7292, 2) v 0.2653
?. )(N > 2) = 1 k )(N x 2) = 1 k ONHRRNMBCE(1.7292, 2) v 1 k 0.7495 = 0.2505
4.31 "SK@MS@nR )@QSREHDKC-+@BJRNM *MSDQM@SHNM@K "HQONQS HR SGD ATRHDRS @HQONQS HM SGD VNQKC. 0M @UDQ@FD SGDQD @QD 2,500
@QQHU@KR @MC CDO@QSTQDR D@BG C@X.
=. )NV L@MX @HQOK@MDR @QQHUD @MC CDO@QS SGD @HQONQS ODQ GNTQ
>. 8G@S HR SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S SGDQD @QD DW@BSKX 100 @QQHU@KR @MC CDO@QSTQDR HM NMD GNTQ
?. 8G@S HR SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S SGDQD @QD @S LNRS 100 @QQHU@KR @MC CDO@QSTQDR HM NMD GNTQ
$T=ILHA 4.32
0M .@X 13, 2013, RS@QSHMF @S 4:30 1., SGD OQNA@AHKHSX NE KNV RDHRLHB @BSHUHSX ENQ SGD MDWS 48 GNTQR HM "K@RJ@
V@R QDONQSDC @R @ANTS 1.02%. 6RD SGHR HMENQL@SHNM ENQ SGD MDWS 200 C@XR SN EHMC SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S SGDQD VHKK AD
KNV RDHRLHB @BSHUHSX HM SDM NE SGD MDWS 200 C@XR. 6RD ANSG SGD AHMNLH@K @MC 1NHRRNM CHRSQHATSHNMR SN B@KBTK@SD SGD
OQNA@AHKHSHDR. "QD SGDX BKNRD
1IFONCIH 4.32
-DS 1 = SGD MTLADQ NE C@XR VHSG KNV RDHRLHB @BSHUHSX.
6RHMF SGD AHMNLH@K CHRSQHATSHNM:
c )(N = 10) = AHMNLOCE(200, .0102, 10) v 0.000039
6RHMF SGD 1NHRRNM CHRSQHATSHNM:
c $@KBTK@SD Z = DF = 200(0.0102) v 2.04
c )(N = 10) = ONHRRNMOCE(2.04, 10) v 0.000045
8D DWODBS SGD @OOQNWHL@SHNM SN AD FNNC ADB@TRD D HR K@QFD (FQD@SDQ SG@M 20) @MC F HR RL@KK (KDRR SG@M 0.05).
5GD QDRTKSR @QD BKNRDlANSG OQNA@AHKHSHDR QDONQSDC @QD @KLNRS 0.
4.32 0M .@X 13, 2013, RS@QSHMF @S 4:30 1., SGD OQNA@AHKHSX NE LNCDQ@SD RDHRLHB @BSHUHSX ENQ SGD MDWS 48 GNTQR HM SGD
,TQHK *RK@MCR NEE SGD BN@RS NE +@O@M V@R QDONQSDC @S @ANTS 1.43%. 6RD SGHR HMENQL@SHNM ENQ SGD MDWS 100 C@XR SN EHMC
SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S SGDQD VHKK AD KNV RDHRLHB @BSHUHSX HM EHUD NE SGD MDWS 100 C@XR. 6RD ANSG SGD AHMNLH@K @MC 1NHRRNM
CHRSQHATSHNMR SN B@KBTK@SD SGD OQNA@AHKHSHDR. "QD SGDX BKNRD
"'/3$1 4 W #(2"1$3$ 1-#., 51(!+$2 277
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4.1 "CM=L?N? "CMNLC<ONCIH (.F;SCHA !;L> #RJ?LCG?HN)
$K@RR 5HLD:
/@LDR:
1NO>?HN *?;LHCHA -ON=IG?M
c 5GD RSTCDMS VHKK BNLO@QD DLOHQHB@K C@S@ @MC @ SGDNQDSHB@K CHRSQHATSHNM SN CDSDQLHMD HE @M DUDQXC@X DWODQHLDMS EHSR
@ CHRBQDSD CHRSQHATSHNM.
c 5GD RSTCDMS VHKK CDLNMRSQ@SD @M TMCDQRS@MCHMF NE KNMF-SDQL OQNA@AHKHSHDR.
1OJJFC?M
c 0MD ETKK CDBJ NE OK@XHMF B@QCR
.LI=?>OL?
5GD DWODQHLDMS@K OQNBDCTQD HR SN OHBJ NMD B@QC EQNL @ CDBJ NE RGTEEKDC B@QCR.
1. 5GD SGDNQDBSHB@K OQNA@AHKHSX NE OHBJHMF @ CH@LNMC EQNL @ CDBJ HR ?????????.
2. 4GTEEKD @ CDBJ NE B@QCR.
3. 1HBJ NMD B@QC EQNL HS.
4. 3DBNQC VGDSGDQ HS V@R @ CH@LNMC NQ MNS @ CH@LNMC.
5. 1TS SGD B@QC A@BJ @MC QDRGTEEKD.
6. %N SGHR @ SNS@K NE SDM SHLDR.
7. 3DBNQC SGD MTLADQ NE CH@LNMCR OHBJDC.
8. -DS 1 = MTLADQ NE CH@LNMCR. 5GDNQDSHB@KKX, 1 ] B(?????,?????)
-LA;HCT? NB? ";N;
1. 3DBNQC SGD MTLADQ NE CH@LNMCR OHBJDC ENQ XNTQ BK@RR HM 2;<F? 4.16. 5GDM B@KBTK@SD SGD QDK@SHUD EQDPTDMBX.
: $L?KO?H=S 0?F;NCP? $L?KO?H=S
0 <<<<<<<<<< <<<<<<<<<<
1 <<<<<<<<<< <<<<<<<<<<
2 <<<<<<<<<< <<<<<<<<<<
3 <<<<<<<<<< <<<<<<<<<<
4 <<<<<<<<<< <<<<<<<<<<
5 <<<<<<<<<< <<<<<<<<<<
6 <<<<<<<<<< <<<<<<<<<<
7 <<<<<<<<<< <<<<<<<<<<
8 <<<<<<<<<< <<<<<<<<<<
2;<F? 4.16
278 "'/3$1 4 W #(2"1$3$ 1-#., 51(!+$2
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: $L?KO?H=S 0?F;NCP? $L?KO?H=S
9 <<<<<<<<<< <<<<<<<<<<
10 <<<<<<<<<< <<<<<<<<<<
2;<F? 4.16
2. $@KBTK@SD SGD ENKKNVHMF:
=. x

= ????????
>. I = ????????
3. $NMRSQTBS @ GHRSNFQ@L NE SGD DLOHQHB@K C@S@.
$CAOL? 4.6
2B?IL?NC=;F "CMNLC<ONCIH
=. #THKC SGD SGDNQDSHB@K 1%' BG@QS A@RDC NM SGD CHRSQHATSHNM HM SGD JLI=?>OL? M?=NCIH.
: P(:)
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
"'/3$1 4 W #(2"1$3$ 1-#., 51(!+$2 279
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: P(:)
7
8
9
10
2;<F? 4.17
>. $@KBTK@SD SGD ENKKNVHMF:
=. Z = ????????????
>. \ = ????????????
?. $NMRSQTBS @ GHRSNFQ@L NE SGD SGDNQDSHB@K CHRSQHATSHNM.
$CAOL? 4.7
3MCHA NB? ";N;
,-2#
+F = QDK@SHUD EQDPTDMBX
6RD SGD S@AKD EQNL SGD 2B?IL?NC=;F "CMNLC<ONCIH RDBSHNM SN B@KBTK@SD SGD ENKKNVHMF @MRVDQR. 3NTMC XNTQ
@MRVDQR SN ENTQ CDBHL@K OK@BDR.
c )(N = 3) = ???????????????????????
c )(1 < N < 4) = ???????????????????????
c )(N y 8) = ???????????????????????
6RD SGD C@S@ EQNL SGD -LA;HCT? NB? ";N; RDBSHNM SN B@KBTK@SD SGD ENKKNVHMF @MRVDQR. 3NTMC XNTQ @MRVDQR SN
ENTQ CDBHL@K OK@BDR.
c +F(N = 3) = ???????????????????????
c +F(1 < N < 4) = ???????????????????????
c +F(N y 8) = ???????????????????????
"CM=OMMCIH /O?MNCIHM
280 "'/3$1 4 W #(2"1$3$ 1-#., 51(!+$2
3DEO ?KJPAJP EO =R=EH=>HA BKN BNAA =P DPPL://?JT.KNC/?KJPAJP/?KH11562/1.11
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'NQ PTDRSHNMR 1 @MC 2, SGHMJ @ANTS SGD RG@ODR NE SGD SVN FQ@OGR, SGD OQNA@AHKHSHDR, @MC SGD QDK@SHUD EQDPTDMBHDR, SGD
LD@MR, @MC SGD RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNMR.
1. ,MNVHMF SG@S C@S@ U@QX, CDRBQHAD SGQDD RHLHK@QHSHDR ADSVDDM SGD FQ@OGR @MC CHRSQHATSHNMR NE SGD SGDNQDSHB@K @MC
DLOHQHB@K CHRSQHATSHNMR. 6RD BNLOKDSD RDMSDMBDR.
2. %DRBQHAD SGD SGQDD LNRS RHFMHEHB@MS CHEEDQDMBDR ADSVDDM SGD FQ@OGR NQ CHRSQHATSHNMR NE SGD SGDNQDSHB@K @MC DLOHQHB@K
CHRSQHATSHNMR.
3. 6RHMF XNTQ @MRVDQR EQNL SGD PTDRSHNMR 1 @MC 2, CNDR HS @OOD@Q SG@S SGD C@S@ EHS SGD SGDNQDSHB@K CHRSQHATSHNM *M
BNLOKDSD RDMSDMBDR, DWOK@HM VGX NQ VGX MNS.
4. 4TOONRD SG@S SGD DWODQHLDMS G@C ADDM QDOD@SDC 500 SHLDR. 8NTKC XNT DWODBS 2;<F? 4.16 NQ 2;<F? 4.17 SN
BG@MFD, @MC GNV VNTKC HS BG@MFD 8GX 8GX VNTKCMnS SGD NSGDQ S@AKD BG@MFD
"'/3$1 4 W #(2"1$3$ 1-#., 51(!+$2 281
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4.2 "CM=L?N? "CMNLC<ONCIH (*O=ES "C=? #RJ?LCG?HN)
$K@RR 5HLD:
/@LDR:
1NO>?HN *?;LHCHA -ON=IG?M
c 5GD RSTCDMS VHKK BNLO@QD DLOHQHB@K C@S@ @MC @ SGDNQDSHB@K CHRSQHATSHNM SN CDSDQLHMD HE @ 5DS F@LAKHMF F@LD EHSR @
CHRBQDSD CHRSQHATSHNM.
c 5GD RSTCDMS VHKK CDLNMRSQ@SD @M TMCDQRS@MCHMF NE KNMF-SDQL OQNA@AHKHSHDR.
1OJJFC?M
c NMD o-TBJX %HBDp F@LD NQ SGQDD QDFTK@Q CHBD
.LI=?>OL?
3NTMC @MRVDQR SN QDK@SHUD EQDPTDMBX @MC OQNA@AHKHSX OQNAKDLR SN ENTQ CDBHL@K OK@BDR.
1. 5GD DWODQHLDMS@K OQNBDCTQD HR SN ADS NM NMD NAIDBS. 5GDM, QNKK SGQDD -TBJX %HBD @MC BNTMS SGD MTLADQ NE L@SBGDR.
5GD MTLADQ NE L@SBGDR VHKK CDBHCD XNTQ OQNEHS.
2. 8G@S HR SGD SGDNQDSHB@K OQNA@AHKHSX NE NMD CHD L@SBGHMF SGD NAIDBS
3. $GNNRD NMD NAIDBS SN OK@BD @ ADS NM. 3NKK SGD SGQDD -TBJX %HBD. $NTMS SGD MTLADQ NE L@SBGDR.
4. -DS 1 = MTLADQ NE L@SBGDR. 5GDNQDSHB@KKX, 1 ] B(??????,??????)
5. -DS 2 = OQNEHS ODQ F@LD.
-LA;HCT? NB? ";N;
*M 2;<F? 4.18, EHKK HM SGD O U@KTD SG@S BNQQDRONMCR SN D@BG N U@KTD. /DWS, QDBNQC SGD MTLADQ NE L@SBGDR OHBJDC ENQ
XNTQ BK@RR. 5GDM, B@KBTK@SD SGD QDK@SHUD EQDPTDMBX.
1. $NLOKDSD SGD S@AKD.
R S $L?KO?H=S 0?F;NCP? $L?KO?H=S
0
1
2
3
2;<F? 4.18
2. $@KBTK@SD SGD ENKKNVHMF:
=. x

= ???????
>. I
N
= ????????
?. y

= ???????
@. I
O
= ???????
3. &WOK@HM VG@S x

QDOQDRDMSR.
4. &WOK@HM VG@S y

QDOQDRDMSR.
5. #@RDC TONM SGD DWODQHLDMS:
=. 8G@S V@R SGD @UDQ@FD OQNEHS ODQ F@LD
282 "'/3$1 4 W #(2"1$3$ 1-#., 51(!+$2
3DEO ?KJPAJP EO =R=EH=>HA BKN BNAA =P DPPL://?JT.KNC/?KJPAJP/?KH11562/1.11
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>. %HC SGHR QDOQDRDMS @M @UDQ@FD VHM NQ KNRR ODQ F@LD
?. )NV CN XNT JMNV "MRVDQ HM BNLOKDSD RDMSDMBDR.
6. $NMRSQTBS @ GHRSNFQ@L NE SGD DLOHQHB@K C@S@.
$CAOL? 4.8
2B?IL?NC=;F "CMNLC<ONCIH
#THKC SGD SGDNQDSHB@K 1%' BG@QS ENQ N @MC O A@RDC NM SGD CHRSQHATSHNM EQNL SGD "JLI=?>OL? M?=NCIH".
1.
: ; P(:) = P(;)
0
1
2
3
2;<F? 4.19
2. $@KBTK@SD SGD ENKKNVHMF:
=. Z
N
= ???????
>. \
N
= ???????
?. Z
N
= ???????
3. &WOK@HM VG@S Z
N
QDOQDRDMSR.
4. &WOK@HM VG@S Z
O
QDOQDRDMSR.
5. #@RDC TONM SGDNQX:
=. 8G@S V@R SGD DWODBSDC OQNEHS ODQ F@LD
>. %HC SGD DWODBSDC OQNEHS QDOQDRDMS @M @UDQ@FD VHM NQ KNRR ODQ F@LD
?. )NV CN XNT JMNV "MRVDQ HM BNLOKDSD RDMSDMBDR.
6. $NMRSQTBS @ GHRSNFQ@L NE SGD SGDNQDSHB@K CHRSQHATSHNM.
"'/3$1 4 W #(2"1$3$ 1-#., 51(!+$2 283
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$CAOL? 4.9
3M? NB? ";N;
,-2#
+F = QDK@SHUD EQDPTDMBX
6RD SGD C@S@ EQNLSGD 2B?IL?NC=;F "CMNLC<ONCIH RDBSHNM SN B@KBTK@SD SGD ENKKNVHMF @MRVDQR. 3NTMC XNTQ @MRVDQR
SN ENTQ CDBHL@K OK@BDR.
1. )(N = 3) = ?????????????????
2. )(0 < N < 3) = ?????????????????
3. )(N y 2) = ?????????????????
6RD SGD C@S@ EQNL SGD -LA;HCT? NB? ";N; RDBSHNM SN B@KBTK@SD SGD ENKKNVHMF @MRVDQR. 3NTMC XNTQ @MRVDQR SN
ENTQ CDBHL@K OK@BDR.
1. +F(W = 3) = ?????????????????
2. +F(0 < N < 3) = ?????????????????
3. +F(N y 2) = ?????????????????
"CM=OMMCIH /O?MNCIH
'NQ PTDRSHNMR 1 @MC 2, BNMRHCDQ SGD FQ@OGR, SGD OQNA@AHKHSHDR, SGD QDK@SHUD EQDPTDMBHDR, SGD LD@MR, @MC SGD RS@MC@QC
CDUH@SHNMR.
1. ,MNVHMF SG@S C@S@ U@QX, CDRBQHAD SGQDD RHLHK@QHSHDR ADSVDDM SGD FQ@OGR @MC CHRSQHATSHNMR NE SGD SGDNQDSHB@K @MC
DLOHQHB@K CHRSQHATSHNMR. 6RD BNLOKDSD RDMSDMBDR.
2. %DRBQHAD SGD SGQDD LNRS RHFMHEHB@MS CHEEDQDMBDR ADSVDDM SGD FQ@OGR NQ CHRSQHATSHNMR NE SGD SGDNQDSHB@K @MC DLOHQHB@K
CHRSQHATSHNMR.
3. 5GHMJHMF @ANTS XNTQ @MRVDQR SN PTDRSHNMR 1 @MC 2, CNDR HS @OOD@Q SG@S SGD C@S@ EHS SGD SGDNQDSHB@K CHRSQHATSHNM *M
BNLOKDSD RDMSDMBDR, DWOK@HM VGX NQ VGX MNS.
4. 4TOONRD SG@S SGD DWODQHLDMS G@C ADDM QDOD@SDC 500 SHLDR. 8NTKC XNT DWODBS 2;<F? 4.18 NQ 2;<F? 4.19 SN
BG@MFD, @MC GNV VNTKC HS BG@MFD 8GX 8GX VNTKCMnS SGD NSGDQ S@AKD BG@MFD
284 "'/3$1 4 W #(2"1$3$ 1-#., 51(!+$2
3DEO ?KJPAJP EO =R=EH=>HA BKN BNAA =P DPPL://?JT.KNC/?KJPAJP/?KH11562/1.11
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?LHIOFFC 2LC;FM
CHIGC;F #RJ?LCG?HN
CHIGC;F .LI<;<CFCNS "CMNLC<ONCIH
#RJ?=N?> 4;FO?
%?IG?NLC= "CMNLC<ONCIH
%?IG?NLC= #RJ?LCG?HN
&SJ?LA?IG?NLC= #RJ?LCG?HN
&SJ?LA?IG?NLC= .LI<;<CFCNS
+?;H I@ ; .LI<;<CFCNS "CMNLC<ONCIH
+?;H
)#7 2#0+1
@M DWODQHLDMS VHSG SGD ENKKNVHMF BG@Q@BSDQHRSHBR:
1. 5GDQD @QD NMKX SVN ONRRHAKD NTSBNLDR B@KKDC oRTBBDRRp @MC oE@HKTQDp ENQ D@BG SQH@K.
2. 5GD OQNA@AHKHSX F NE @ RTBBDRR HR SGD R@LD ENQ @MX SQH@K (RN SGD OQNA@AHKHSX G = 1 u F NE @ E@HKTQD HR SGD R@LD ENQ
@MX SQH@K).
@ RS@SHRSHB@K DWODQHLDMS SG@S R@SHREHDR SGD ENKKNVHMF SGQDD BNMCHSHNMR:
1. 5GDQD @QD @ EHWDC MTLADQ NE SQH@KR, D.
2. 5GDQD @QD NMKX SVN ONRRHAKD NTSBNLDR, B@KKDC "RTBBDRR" @MC, "E@HKTQD," ENQ D@BG SQH@K. 5GD KDSSDQ F CDMNSDR SGD
OQNA@AHKHSX NE @ RTBBDRR NM NMD SQH@K, @MC G CDMNSDR SGD OQNA@AHKHSX NE @ E@HKTQD NM NMD SQH@K.
3. 5GD D SQH@KR @QD HMCDODMCDMS @MC @QD QDOD@SDC TRHMF HCDMSHB@K BNMCHSHNMR.
@ CHRBQDSD Q@MCNLU@QH@AKD (37) SG@S @QHRDR EQNL#DQMNTKKH SQH@KR; SGDQD @QD @ EHWDC
MTLADQ, D, NE HMCDODMCDMS SQH@KR. o*MCDODMCDMSp LD@MR SG@S SGD QDRTKS NE @MX SQH@K (ENQ DW@LOKD, SQH@K NMD) CNDR MNS
@EEDBS SGD QDRTKSR NE SGD ENKKNVHMF SQH@KR, @MC @KK SQH@KR @QD BNMCTBSDC TMCDQ SGD R@LD BNMCHSHNMR. 6MCDQ SGDRD
BHQBTLRS@MBDR SGD AHMNLH@K 37 1 HR CDEHMDC @R SGD MTLADQ NE RTBBDRRDR HM D SQH@KR. 5GD MNS@SHNM HR: 1 ] B(D, F). 5GD
LD@M HR Z = DF @MC SGD RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNM HR \ = npq . 5GD OQNA@AHKHSX NE DW@BSKX N RTBBDRRDR HM D SQH@KR HR
)(1 = N) =

n
x

F
W
G
M u W
.
DWODBSDC @QHSGLDSHB @UDQ@FD VGDM @M DWODQHLDMS HR QDOD@SDC L@MX SHLDR; @KRN B@KKDC SGD LD@M.
/NS@SHNMR: Z. 'NQ @ CHRBQDSD Q@MCNL U@QH@AKD (37) VHSG OQNA@AHKHSX CHRSQHATSHNM ETMBSHNM )(N),SGD CDEHMHSHNM B@M @KRN
AD VQHSSDM HM SGD ENQL Z = N)(N).
@ CHRBQDSD Q@MCNL U@QH@AKD (37) SG@S @QHRDR EQNL SGD #DQMNTKKH SQH@KR; SGD SQH@KR @QD QDOD@SDC
TMSHK SGD EHQRS RTBBDRR. 5GD FDNLDSQHB U@QH@AKD 1 HR CDEHMDC @R SGD MTLADQ NE SQH@KR TMSHK SGD EHQRS RTBBDRR. /NS@SHNM: 1
] (F). 5GD LD@M HR Z =
1
p
@MC SGD RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNM HR \ =
1
p

1
p
1

. 5GD OQNA@AHKHSX NE DW@BSKX N E@HKTQDR


ADENQD SGD EHQRS RTBBDRR HR FHUDM AX SGD ENQLTK@: )(1 = N) = F(1 k F)
N k 1
.
@ RS@SHRSHB@K DWODQHLDMS VHSG SGD ENKKNVHMF OQNODQSHDR:
1. 5GDQD @QD NMD NQ LNQD #DQMNTKKH SQH@KR VHSG @KK E@HKTQDR DWBDOS SGD K@RS NMD, VGHBG HR @ RTBBDRR.
2. *M SGDNQX, SGD MTLADQ NE SQH@KR BNTKC FN NM ENQDUDQ. 5GDQD LTRS AD @S KD@RS NMD SQH@K.
3. 5GD OQNA@AHKHSX, F, NE @ RTBBDRR @MC SGD OQNA@AHKHSX, G, NE @ E@HKTQD CN MNS BG@MFD EQNL SQH@K SN SQH@K.
@ RS@SHRSHB@K DWODQHLDMS VHSG SGD ENKKNVHMF OQNODQSHDR:
1. :NT S@JD R@LOKDR EQNL SVN FQNTOR.
2. :NT @QD BNMBDQMDC VHSG @ FQNTO NE HMSDQDRS, B@KKDC SGD EHQRS FQNTO.
3. :NT R@LOKD VHSGNTS QDOK@BDLDMS EQNL SGD BNLAHMDC FQNTOR.
4. &@BG OHBJ HR MNS HMCDODMCDMS, RHMBD R@LOKHMF HR VHSGNTS QDOK@BDLDMS.
5. :NT @QD MNS CD@KHMF VHSG #DQMNTKKH 5QH@KR.
@ CHRBQDSD Q@MCNL U@QH@AKD (37) SG@S HR BG@Q@BSDQHYDC AX:
1. " EHWDC MTLADQ NE SQH@KR.
2. 5GD OQNA@AHKHSX NE RTBBDRR HR MNS SGD R@LD EQNL SQH@K SN SQH@K.
8D R@LOKD EQNL SVN FQNTOR NE HSDLR VGDM VD @QD HMSDQDRSDC HM NMKX NMD FQNTO. 1 HR CDEHMDC @R SGD MTLADQ NE
RTBBDRRDR NTS NE SGD SNS@K MTLADQ NE HSDLR BGNRDM. /NS@SHNM: 1 ] !(H, 8, D), VGDQD H = SGD MTLADQ NE HSDLR HM SGD
FQNTO NE HMSDQDRS, 8 = SGD MTLADQ NE HSDLR HM SGD FQNTO MNS NE HMSDQDRS, @MC D = SGD MTLADQ NE HSDLR BGNRDM.
SGD KNMF-SDQL @UDQ@FD NE L@MX SQH@KR NE @ RS@SHRSHB@K DWODQHLDMS
@ MTLADQ SG@S LD@RTQDR SGD BDMSQ@K SDMCDMBX; @ BNLLNM M@LD ENQ LD@M HR m@UDQ@FD.n 5GD SDQL mLD@Mn HR @
RGNQSDMDC ENQL NE m@QHSGLDSHB LD@M.n #X CDEHMHSHNM, SGD LD@M ENQ @ R@LOKD (CDSNM@SDC AX x

) HR
x

=
Sum of all values in the sample
Number of values in the sample
@MC SGD LD@M ENQ @ ONOTK@SHNM (CDMNSDC AX Z) HR Z =
Sum of all values in the sample
Number of values in the sample
.
"'/3$1 4 W #(2"1$3$ 1-#., 51(!+$2 285
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.ICMMIH .LI<;<CFCNS "CMNLC<ONCIH
.LI<;<CFCNS "CMNLC<ONCIH $OH=NCIH (."$)
0;H>IG 4;LC;<F? (04)
1N;H>;L> "?PC;NCIH I@ ; .LI<;<CFCNS "CMNLC<ONCIH
2B? *;Q I@ *;LA? ,OG<?LM
@ CHRBQDSD Q@MCNL U@QH@AKD (37) SG@S BNTMSR SGD MTLADQ NE SHLDR @ BDQS@HM DUDMS
VHKK NBBTQ HM @ RODBHEHB HMSDQU@K; BG@Q@BSDQHRSHBR NE SGD U@QH@AKD:
c 5GD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S SGD DUDMS NBBTQR HM @ FHUDM HMSDQU@K HR SGD R@LD ENQ @KK HMSDQU@KR.
c 5GD DUDMSR NBBTQ VHSG @ JMNVM LD@M @MC HMCDODMCDMSKX NE SGD SHLD RHMBD SGD K@RS DUDMS.
5GD CHRSQHATSHNM HR CDEHMDC AX SGD LD@M Z NE SGD DUDMS HM SGD HMSDQU@K. /NS@SHNM: 1 ] )(Z). 5GD LD@M HR Z = DF.
5GD RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNM HR = . 5GD OQNA@AHKHSX NE G@UHMF DW@BSKX N RTBBDRRDR HM H SQH@KR HR )(1 = W ) = (e

x
x!
. 5GD 1NHRRNM CHRSQHATSHNM HR NESDM TRDC SN @OOQNWHL@SD SGD AHMNLH@K CHRSQHATSHNM, VGDM D HR oK@QFDp @MC F HR oRL@KKp
(@ FDMDQ@K QTKD HR SG@S D RGNTKC AD FQD@SDQ SG@M NQ DPT@K SN 20 @MC F RGNTKC AD KDRR SG@M NQ DPT@K SN 0.05).
@ L@SGDL@SHB@K CDRBQHOSHNM NE @ CHRBQDSD Q@MCNL U@QH@AKD (+/), FHUDM
DHSGDQ HM SGD ENQL NE @M DPT@SHNM (ENQLTK@) NQ HM SGD ENQL NE @ S@AKD KHRSHMF @KK SGD ONRRHAKD NTSBNLDR NE @M
DWODQHLDMS @MC SGD OQNA@AHKHSX @RRNBH@SDC VHSG D@BG NTSBNLD.
@ BG@Q@BSDQHRSHB NE HMSDQDRS HM @ ONOTK@SHNM ADHMF RSTCHDC; BNLLNM MNS@SHNM ENQ U@QH@AKDR @QD
TOODQ B@RD -@SHM KDSSDQR 1, 2, 3,...; BNLLNM MNS@SHNM ENQ @ RODBHEHB U@KTD EQNL SGD CNL@HM (RDS NE @KK ONRRHAKD U@KTDR
NE @ U@QH@AKD) @QD KNVDQ B@RD -@SHM KDSSDQR N, O, @MC P. 'NQ DW@LOKD, HE 1 HR SGD MTLADQ NE BGHKCQDM HM @ E@LHKX, SGDM N
QDOQDRDMSR @ RODBHEHB HMSDFDQ 0, 1, 2, 3,.... 7@QH@AKDR HM RS@SHRSHBR CHEEDQ EQNL U@QH@AKDR HM HMSDQLDCH@SD @KFDAQ@ HM SGD
SVN ENKKNVHMF V@XR.
c 5GD CNL@HM NE SGD Q@MCNL U@QH@AKD (37) HR MNS MDBDRR@QHKX @ MTLDQHB@K RDS; SGD CNL@HM L@X AD DWOQDRRDC HM
VNQCR; ENQ DW@LOKD, HE 1 = G@HQ BNKNQ SGDM SGD CNL@HM HR ZAK@BJ, AKNMC, FQ@X, FQDDM, NQ@MFD\.
c 8D B@M SDKK VG@S RODBHEHB U@KTD N NE Q@MCNL U@QH@AKD 1 S@JDR NMKX @ESDQ ODQENQLHMF SGD DWODQHLDMS.
@ MTLADQ SG@S LD@RTQDR GNV E@Q SGD NTSBNLDR NE @ RS@SHRSHB@K
DWODQHLDMS @QD EQNL SGD LD@M NE SGD CHRSQHATSHNM
"R SGD MTLADQ NE SQH@KR HM @ OQNA@AHKHSX DWODQHLDMS HMBQD@RDR, SGD CHEEDQDMBD ADSVDDM SGD
SGDNQDSHB@K OQNA@AHKHSX NE @M DUDMS @MC SGD QDK@SHUD EQDPTDMBX OQNA@AHKHSX @OOQN@BGDR YDQN.
!&A.2#0 0#4'#5
4.1 .LI<;<CFCNS "CMNLC<ONCIH $OH=NCIH (."$) @IL ; "CM=L?N? 0;H>IG 4;LC;<F?
5GD BG@Q@BSDQHRSHBR NE @ OQNA@AHKHSX CHRSQHATSHNM ETMBSHNM (1%') ENQ @ CHRBQDSD Q@MCNL U@QH@AKD @QD @R ENKKNVR:
1. &@BG OQNA@AHKHSX HR ADSVDDM YDQN @MC NMD, HMBKTRHUD (?D9BKI?L; LD@MR SN HMBKTCD YDQN @MC NMD).
2. 5GD RTL NE SGD OQNA@AHKHSHDR HR NMD.
4.2 +?;H IL #RJ?=N?> 4;FO? ;H> 1N;H>;L> "?PC;NCIH
5GD DWODBSDC U@KTD, NQ LD@M, NE @ CHRBQDSD Q@MCNL U@QH@AKD OQDCHBSR SGD KNMF-SDQL QDRTKSR NE @ RS@SHRSHB@K DWODQHLDMS SG@S G@R
ADDM QDOD@SDC L@MX SHLDR. 5GD RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNM NE @ OQNA@AHKHSX CHRSQHATSHNM HR TRDC SN LD@RTQD SGD U@QH@AHKHSX NE ONRRHAKD
NTSBNLDR.
4.3 CHIGC;F "CMNLC<ONCIH
" RS@SHRSHB@K DWODQHLDMS B@M AD BK@RRHEHDC @R @ AHMNLH@K DWODQHLDMS HE SGD ENKKNVHMF BNMCHSHNMR @QD LDS:
1. 5GDQD @QD @ EHWDC MTLADQ NE SQH@KR, D.
2. 5GDQD @QD NMKX SVN ONRRHAKD NTSBNLDR, B@KKDC "RTBBDRR" @MC, "E@HKTQD" ENQ D@BG SQH@K. 5GD KDSSDQ F CDMNSDR SGD OQNA@AHKHSX
NE @ RTBBDRR NM NMD SQH@K @MC G CDMNSDR SGD OQNA@AHKHSX NE @ E@HKTQD NM NMD SQH@K.
3. 5GD D SQH@KR @QD HMCDODMCDMS @MC @QD QDOD@SDC TRHMF HCDMSHB@K BNMCHSHNMR.
5GD NTSBNLDR NE @ AHMNLH@K DWODQHLDMS EHS @ AHMNLH@K OQNA@AHKHSX CHRSQHATSHNM. 5GD Q@MCNL U@QH@AKD 1 = SGD MTLADQ NE
RTBBDRRDR NAS@HMDC HM SGD D HMCDODMCDMS SQH@KR. 5GD LD@M NE 1 B@M AD B@KBTK@SDC TRHMF SGD ENQLTK@ Z = DF, @MC SGD RS@MC@QC
CDUH@SHNM HR FHUDM AX SGD ENQLTK@ j = npq .
4.4 %?IG?NLC= "CMNLC<ONCIH
5GD @QD SGQDD BG@Q@BSDQHRSHBR NE @ FDNLDSQHB DWODQHLDMS:
1. 5GDQD @QD NMD NQ LNQD #DQMNTKKH SQH@KR VHSG @KK E@HKTQDR DWBDOS SGD K@RS NMD, VGHBG HR @ RTBBDRR.
286 "'/3$1 4 W #(2"1$3$ 1-#., 51(!+$2
3DEO ?KJPAJP EO =R=EH=>HA BKN BNAA =P DPPL://?JT.KNC/?KJPAJP/?KH11562/1.11
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2. *M SGDNQX, SGD MTLADQ NE SQH@KR BNTKC FN NM ENQDUDQ. 5GDQD LTRS AD @S KD@RS NMD SQH@K.
3. 5GD OQNA@AHKHSX, F, NE @ RTBBDRR @MC SGD OQNA@AHKHSX, G, NE @ E@HKTQD @QD SGD R@LD ENQ D@BG SQH@K.
*M @ FDNLDSQHB DWODQHLDMS, CDEHMD SGD CHRBQDSD Q@MCNL U@QH@AKD 1 @R SGD MTLADQ NE HMCDODMCDMS SQH@KR TMSHK SGD EHQRS
RTBBDRR. 8D R@X SG@S 9 G@R @ FDNLDSQHB CHRSQHATSHNM @MC VQHSD 1 ] (F) VGDQD F HR SGD OQNA@AHKHSX NE RTBBDRR HM @ RHMFKD SQH@K.
5GD LD@M NE SGD FDNLDSQHB CHRSQHATSHNM 1 ] (F) HR Z =
1 p
p
2
=
1
p

1
p
1

.
4.5 &SJ?LA?IG?NLC= "CMNLC<ONCIH
" =NE:G<:DB:IG>8 :ME:G>B:CI HR @ RS@SHRSHB@K DWODQHLDMS VHSG SGD ENKKNVHMF OQNODQSHDR:
1. :NT S@JD R@LOKDR EQNL SVN FQNTOR.
2. :NT @QD BNMBDQMDC VHSG @ FQNTO NE HMSDQDRS, B@KKDC SGD EHQRS FQNTO.
3. :NT R@LOKD VHSGNTS QDOK@BDLDMS EQNL SGD BNLAHMDC FQNTOR.
4. &@BG OHBJ HR MNS HMCDODMCDMS, RHMBD R@LOKHMF HR VHSGNTS QDOK@BDLDMS.
5. :NT @QD MNS CD@KHMF VHSG #DQMNTKKH 5QH@KR.
5GD NTSBNLDR NE @ GXODQFDNLDSQHB DWODQHLDMS EHS @ GXODQFDNLDSQHB OQNA@AHKHSX CHRSQHATSHNM. 5GD Q@MCNL U@QH@AKD 1 =
SGD MTLADQ NE HSDLR EQNL SGD FQNTO NE HMSDQDRS. 5GD CHRSQHATSHNM NE 1 HR CDMNSDC 1 ] !(H, 8, D), VGDQD H = SGD RHYD NE SGD
FQNTO NE HMSDQDRS (EHQRS FQNTO), 8 = SGD RHYD NE SGD RDBNMC FQNTO, @MC D = SGD RHYD NE SGD BGNRDM R@LOKD. *S ENKKNVR SG@S
D x H + 8. 5GD LD@M NE 1 HR Z =
nr
r + b
@MC SGD RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNM HR \ =
rbn(r + b + n)
(r + b)
2
(r + b 1)
.
4.6 .ICMMIH "CMNLC<ONCIH
" -D>HHDC EGD767>A>IN 9>HIG>7JI>DC NE @ CHRBQDSD Q@MCNL U@QH@AKD FHUDR SGD OQNA@AHKHSX NE @ MTLADQ NE DUDMSR NBBTQQHMF HM
@ EHWDC HMSDQU@K NE SHLD NQ RO@BD, HE SGDRD DUDMSR G@OODM @S @ JMNVM @UDQ@FD Q@SD @MC HMCDODMCDMSKX NE SGD SHLD RHMBD SGD K@RS
DUDMS. 5GD 1NHRRNM CHRSQHATSHNM L@X AD TRDC SN @OOQNWHL@SD SGD AHMNLH@K, HE SGD OQNA@AHKHSX NE RTBBDRR HR "RL@KK" (KDRR SG@M
NQ DPT@K SN 0.05) @MC SGD MTLADQ NE SQH@KR HR "K@QFD" (FQD@SDQ SG@M NQ DPT@K SN 20).
$-0+3*A 0#4'#5
4.2 +?;H IL #RJ?=N?> 4;FO? ;H> 1N;H>;L>
"?PC;NCIH
.D@M NQ &WODBSDC 7@KTD: =
x X
x(0.2142)P(x)
4S@MC@QC %DUH@SHNM: =
x X
(x )
2
(0.2142)P(x)
4.3 CHIGC;F "CMNLC<ONCIH
1 ] B(D, F) LD@MR SG@S SGD CHRBQDSD Q@MCNL U@QH@AKD 1 G@R @
AHMNLH@K OQNA@AHKHSX CHRSQHATSHNM VHSG D SQH@KR @MC OQNA@AHKHSX
NE RTBBDRR F.
1 = SGD MTLADQ NE RTBBDRRDR HM D HMCDODMCDMS SQH@KR
D = SGD MTLADQ NE HMCDODMCDMS SQH@KR
1 S@JDR NM SGD U@KTDR N = 0, 1, 2, 3, ..., D
F = SGD OQNA@AHKHSX NE @ RTBBDRR ENQ @MX SQH@K
G = SGD OQNA@AHKHSX NE @ E@HKTQD ENQ @MX SQH@K
F + G = 1
G = 1 k F
5GD LD@M NE 1 HR Z = DF. 5GD RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNM NE 1 HR \ =
npq .
4.4 %?IG?NLC= "CMNLC<ONCIH
1 ] ((F) LD@MR SG@S SGD CHRBQDSD Q@MCNL U@QH@AKD 1 G@R
@ FDNLDSQHB OQNA@AHKHSX CHRSQHATSHNM VHSG OQNA@AHKHSX NE
RTBBDRR HM @ RHMFKD SQH@K F.
1 = SGD MTLADQ NE HMCDODMCDMS SQH@KR TMSHK SGD EHQRS RTBBDRR.
1 S@JDR NM SGD U@KTDR N = 1, 2, 3, ...
F = SGD OQNA@AHKHSX NE @ RTBBDRR ENQ @MX SQH@K
G = SGD OQNA@AHKHSX NE @ E@HKTQD ENQ @MX SQH@K F + G = 1
G = 1 k F
5GD LD@M HR Z =
1
p
.
5GD RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNM HR \ =
1 p
p
2
=
1
p

1
p
1

.
4.5 &SJ?LA?IG?NLC= "CMNLC<ONCIH
1 ] !(H, 8, D) LD@MR SG@S SGD CHRBQDSD Q@MCNL U@QH@AKD 1 G@R
@ GXODQFDNLDSQHB OQNA@AHKHSX CHRSQHATSHNM VHSG H = SGD RHYD NE
SGD FQNTO NE HMSDQDRS (EHQRS FQNTO), 8 = SGD RHYD NE SGD RDBNMC
FQNTO, @MC D = SGD RHYD NE SGD BGNRDM R@LOKD.
1 = SGD MTLADQ NE HSDLR EQNLSGD FQNTO NE HMSDQDRS SG@S @QD HM
SGD BGNRDM R@LOKD, @MC 1 L@X S@JD NM SGD U@KTDR N = 0, 1, ...,
TO SN SGD RHYD NE SGD FQNTO NE HMSDQDRS. (5GD LHMHLTL U@KTD
ENQ 1 L@X AD K@QFDQ SG@M YDQN HM RNLD HMRS@MBDR.)
D x H + 8
"'/3$1 4 W #(2"1$3$ 1-#., 51(!+$2 287
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5GD LD@M NE 1 HR FHUDM AX SGD ENQLTK@ Z =
nr
r + b
@MC SGD
RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNM HR =
rbn(r + b n)
(r + b)
2
(r + b 1)
.
4.6 .ICMMIH "CMNLC<ONCIH
1 ] )(Z) LD@MR SG@S 1 G@R @ 1NHRRNM OQNA@AHKHSX CHRSQHATSHNM
VGDQD 1 = SGD MTLADQ NE NBBTQQDMBDR HM SGD HMSDQU@K NE
HMSDQDRS.
1 S@JDR NM SGD U@KTDR N = 0, 1, 2, 3, ...
5GD LD@M Z HR SXOHB@KKX FHUDM.
5GD U@QH@MBD HR \
2
= Z, @MC SGD RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNM HR
= .
8GDM )(Z) HR TRDC SN @OOQNWHL@SD @ AHMNLH@K CHRSQHATSHNM,
Z = DF VGDQD D QDOQDRDMSR SGD MTLADQ NE HMCDODMCDMS SQH@KR
@MC F QDOQDRDMSR SGD OQNA@AHKHSX NE RTBBDRR HM @ RHMFKD SQH@K.
.0A!2'!#
4.1 .LI<;<CFCNS "CMNLC<ONCIH $OH=NCIH (."$) @IL ; "CM=L?N? 0;H>IG 4;LC;<F?
.I; J>; <EBBEM?D= ?D<EHC7J?ED JE 7DIM;H J>; D;NJ <?L; ;N;H9?I;I: " BNLO@MX V@MSR SN DU@KT@SD HSR @SSQHSHNM Q@SD, HM NSGDQ
VNQCR, GNV KNMF MDV GHQDR RS@X VHSG SGD BNLO@MX. 0UDQ SGD XD@QR, SGDX G@UD DRS@AKHRGDC SGD ENKKNVHMF OQNA@AHKHSX
CHRSQHATSHNM.
-DS 1 = SGD MTLADQ NE XD@QR @ MDV GHQD VHKK RS@X VHSG SGD BNLO@MX.
-DS )(N) = SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S @ MDV GHQD VHKK RS@X VHSG SGD BNLO@MX N XD@QR.
1. $NLOKDSD 2;<F? 4.20 TRHMF SGD C@S@ OQNUHCDC.
: P(:)
0 0.12
1 0.18
2 0.30
3 0.15
4
5 0.10
6 0.05
2;<F? 4.20
2. )(N = 4) = ???????
3. )(N y 5) = ???????
4. 0M @UDQ@FD, GNV KNMF VNTKC XNT DWODBS @ MDV GHQD SN RS@X VHSG SGD BNLO@MX
5. 8G@S CNDR SGD BNKTLM o)(N)p RTL SN
.I; J>; <EBBEM?D= ?D<EHC7J?ED JE 7DIM;H J>; D;NJ I?N ;N;H9?I;I: " A@JDQ HR CDBHCHMF GNV L@MX A@SBGDR NE LTEEHMR SN L@JD
SN RDKK HM GHR A@JDQX. )D V@MSR SN L@JD DMNTFG SN RDKK DUDQX NMD @MC MN KDRR. 5GQNTFG NARDQU@SHNM, SGD A@JDQ G@R DRS@AKHRGDC
@ OQNA@AHKHSX CHRSQHATSHNM.
288 "'/3$1 4 W #(2"1$3$ 1-#., 51(!+$2
3DEO ?KJPAJP EO =R=EH=>HA BKN BNAA =P DPPL://?JT.KNC/?KJPAJP/?KH11562/1.11
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: P(:)
1 0.15
2 0.35
3 0.40
4 0.10
2;<F? 4.21
6. %DEHMD SGD Q@MCNL U@QH@AKD 1.
7. 8G@S HR SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SGD A@JDQ VHKK RDKK LNQD SG@M NMD A@SBG )(N > 1) = ???????
8. 8G@S HR SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SGD A@JDQ VHKK RDKK DW@BSKX NMD A@SBG )(N = 1) = ???????
9. 0M @UDQ@FD, GNV L@MX A@SBGDR RGNTKC SGD A@JDQ L@JD
.I; J>; <EBBEM?D= ?D<EHC7J?ED JE 7DIM;H J>; D;NJ <EKH ;N;H9?I;I: &KKDM G@R LTRHB OQ@BSHBD SGQDD C@XR @ VDDJ. 4GD OQ@BSHBDR
ENQ @KK NE SGD SGQDD C@XR 85%NE SGD SHLD, SVN C@XR 8%NE SGD SHLD, NMD C@X 4%NE SGD SHLD, @MC MN C@XR 3%NE SGD SHLD. 0MD
VDDJ HR RDKDBSDC @S Q@MCNL.
10. %DEHMD SGD Q@MCNL U@QH@AKD 1.
11. $NMRSQTBS @ OQNA@AHKHSX CHRSQHATSHNM S@AKD ENQ SGD C@S@.
12. 8D JMNV SG@S ENQ @ OQNA@AHKHSX CHRSQHATSHNM ETMBSHNM SN AD CHRBQDSD, HS LTRS G@UD SVN BG@Q@BSDQHRSHBR. 0MD HR SG@S SGD RTL
NE SGD OQNA@AHKHSHDR HR NMD. 8G@S HR SGD NSGDQ BG@Q@BSDQHRSHB
.I; J>; <EBBEM?D= ?D<EHC7J?ED JE 7DIM;H J>; D;NJ <?L; ;N;H9?I;I: +@UHDQ UNKTMSDDQR HM BNLLTMHSX DUDMSR D@BG LNMSG. )D
CNDR MNS CN LNQD SG@M EHUD DUDMSR HM @ LNMSG. )D @SSDMCR DW@BSKX EHUD DUDMSR 35% NE SGD SHLD, ENTQ DUDMSR 25% NE SGD SHLD,
SGQDD DUDMSR 20% NE SGD SHLD, SVN DUDMSR 10% NE SGD SHLD, NMD DUDMS 5% NE SGD SHLD, @MC MN DUDMSR 5% NE SGD SHLD.
13. %DEHMD SGD Q@MCNL U@QH@AKD 1.
14. 8G@S U@KTDR CNDR N S@JD NM
15. $NMRSQTBS @ 1%' S@AKD.
16. 'HMC SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S +@UHDQ UNKTMSDDQR ENQ KDRR SG@M SGQDD DUDMSR D@BG LNMSG. )(N < 3) = ???????
17. 'HMC SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S +@UHDQ UNKTMSDDQR ENQ @S KD@RS NMD DUDMS D@BG LNMSG. )(N > 0) = ???????
4.2 +?;H IL #RJ?=N?> 4;FO? ;H> 1N;H>;L> "?PC;NCIH
18. $NLOKDSD SGD DWODBSDC U@KTD S@AKD.
: P(:) :*P(:)
0 0.2
1 0.2
2 0.4
3 0.2
2;<F? 4.22
"'/3$1 4 W #(2"1$3$ 1-#., 51(!+$2 289
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19. 'HMC SGD DWODBSDC U@KTD EQNL SGD DWODBSDC U@KTD S@AKD.
: P(:) :*P(:)
2 0.1 2(0.1) = 0.2
4 0.3 4(0.3) = 1.2
6 0.4 6(0.4) = 2.4
8 0.2 8(0.2) = 1.6
2;<F? 4.23
20. 'HMC SGD RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNM.
: P(:) :*P(:)
(: X >)
2
P(:)
2 0.1 2(0.1) = 0.2
(2_5.4)
2
(0.1) = 1.156
4 0.3 4(0.3) = 1.2
(4_5.4)
2
(0.3) = 0.588
6 0.4 6(0.4) = 2.4
(6_5.4)
2
(0.4) = 0.144
8 0.2 8(0.2) = 1.6
(8_5.4)
2
(0.2) = 1.352
2;<F? 4.24
21. *CDMSHEX SGD LHRS@JD HM SGD OQNA@AHKHSX CHRSQHATSHNM S@AKD.
: P(:) :*P(:)
1 0.15 0.15
2 0.25 0.50
3 0.30 0.90
4 0.20 0.80
5 0.15 0.75
2;<F? 4.25
22. *CDMSHEX SGD LHRS@JD HM SGD OQNA@AHKHSX CHRSQHATSHNM S@AKD.
290 "'/3$1 4 W #(2"1$3$ 1-#., 51(!+$2
3DEO ?KJPAJP EO =R=EH=>HA BKN BNAA =P DPPL://?JT.KNC/?KJPAJP/?KH11562/1.11
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: P(:) :*P(:)
1 0.15 0.15
2 0.25 0.40
3 0.25 0.65
4 0.20 0.85
5 0.15 1
2;<F? 4.26
.I; J>; <EBBEM?D= ?D<EHC7J?ED JE 7DIM;H J>; D;NJ <?L; ;N;H9?I;I: " OGXRHBR OQNEDRRNQ V@MSR SN JMNV VG@S ODQBDMS NE OGXRHBR
L@INQR VHKK RODMC SGD MDWS RDUDQ@K XD@QR CNHMF ONRS-FQ@CT@SD QDRD@QBG. )D G@R SGD ENKKNVHMF OQNA@AHKHSX CHRSQHATSHNM.
: P(:) :*P(:)
1 0.35
2 0.20
3 0.15
4
5 0.10
6 0.05
2;<F? 4.27
23. %DEHMD SGD Q@MCNL U@QH@AKD 1.
24. %DEHMD )(N), NQ SGD OQNA@AHKHSX NE N.
25. 'HMC SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S @ OGXRHBR L@INQ VHKK CN ONRS-FQ@CT@SDC QDRD@QBG ENQ ENTQ XD@QR. )(N = 4) = ???????
26. '*MC SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S @ OGXRHBR L@INQ VHKK CN ONRS-FQ@CT@SD QDRD@QBG ENQ @S LNRS SGQDD XD@QR. )(N x 3) = ???????
27. 0M @UDQ@FD, GNV L@MX XD@QR VNTKC XNT DWODBS @ OGXRHBR L@INQ SN RODMC CNHMF ONRS-FQ@CT@SD QDRD@QBG
.I; J>; <EBBEM?D= ?D<EHC7J?ED JE 7DIM;H J>; D;NJ I;L;D ;N;H9?I;I: " A@KKDS HMRSQTBSNQ HR HMSDQDRSDC HM JMNVHMF VG@S ODQBDMS
NE D@BG XD@Q'R BK@RR VHKK BNMSHMTD NM SN SGD MDWS, RN SG@S RGD B@M OK@M VG@S BK@RRDR SN NEEDQ. 0UDQ SGD XD@QR, RGD G@R DRS@AKHRGDC
SGD ENKKNVHMF OQNA@AHKHSX CHRSQHATSHNM.
c -DS 1 = SGD MTLADQ NE XD@QR @ RSTCDMS VHKK RSTCX A@KKDS VHSG SGD SD@BGDQ.
c -DS )(N) = SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S @ RSTCDMS VHKK RSTCX A@KKDS N XD@QR.
28. $NLOKDSD 2;<F? 4.28 TRHMF SGD C@S@ OQNUHCDC.
"'/3$1 4 W #(2"1$3$ 1-#., 51(!+$2 291
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: P(:) :*P(:)
1 0.10
2 0.05
3 0.10
4
5 0.30
6 0.20
7 0.10
2;<F? 4.28
29. *M VNQCR, CDEHMD SGD Q@MCNL U@QH@AKD 1.
30. )(N = 4) = ???????
31. )(N < 4) = ???????
32. 0M @UDQ@FD, GNV L@MX XD@QR VNTKC XNT DWODBS @ BGHKC SN RSTCX A@KKDS VHSG SGHR SD@BGDQ
33. 8G@S CNDR SGD BNKTLM ")(N)" RTL SN @MC VGX
34. 8G@S CNDR SGD BNKTLM "N*)(N)" RTL SN @MC VGX
35. :NT @QD OK@XHMF @ F@LD AX CQ@VHMF @ B@QC EQNL @ RS@MC@QC CDBJ @MC QDOK@BHMF HS. *E SGD B@QC HR @ E@BD B@QC, XNT VHM $30.
*E HS HR MNS @ E@BD B@QC, XNT O@X $2. 5GDQD @QD 12 E@BD B@QCR HM @ CDBJ NE 52 B@QCR. 8G@S HR SGD DWODBSDC U@KTD NE OK@XHMF SGD
F@LD
36. :NT @QD OK@XHMF @ F@LD AX CQ@VHMF @ B@QC EQNL @ RS@MC@QC CDBJ @MC QDOK@BHMF HS. *E SGD B@QC HR @ E@BD B@QC, XNT VHM $30.
*E HS HR MNS @ E@BD B@QC, XNT O@X $2. 5GDQD @QD 12 E@BD B@QCR HM @ CDBJ NE 52 B@QCR. 4GNTKC XNT OK@X SGD F@LD
4.3 CHIGC;F "CMNLC<ONCIH
.I; J>; <EBBEM?D= ?D<EHC7J?ED JE 7DIM;H J>; D;NJ D?D; ;N;H9?I;I: 5GD )HFGDQ &CTB@SHNM 3DRD@QBG *MRSHSTSD @S 6$-"
BNKKDBSDC C@S@ EQNL203,967 HMBNLHMF EHQRS-SHLD, ETKK-SHLD EQDRGLDM EQNL270 ENTQ-XD@Q BNKKDFDR @MC TMHUDQRHSHDR HM SGD 6.4.
71.3% NE SGNRD RSTCDMSR QDOKHDC SG@S, XDR, SGDX ADKHDUD SG@S R@LD-RDW BNTOKDR RGNTKC G@UD SGD QHFGS SN KDF@K L@QHS@K RS@STR.
4TOONRD SG@S XNT Q@MCNLKX OHBJ DHFGS EHQRS-SHLD, ETKK-SHLD EQDRGLDM EQNL SGD RTQUDX. :NT @QD HMSDQDRSDC HM SGD MTLADQ SG@S
ADKHDUDR SG@S R@LD RDW-BNTOKDR RGNTKC G@UD SGD QHFGS SN KDF@K L@QHS@K RS@STR.
37. *M VNQCR, CDEHMD SGD Q@MCNL U@QH@AKD 1.
38. 1 ] ?????(?????,?????)
39. 8G@S U@KTDR CNDR SGD Q@MCNL U@QH@AKD 1 S@JD NM
40. $NMRSQTBS SGD OQNA@AHKHSX CHRSQHATSHNM ETMBSHNM (1%').
: P(:)
2;<F? 4.29
292 "'/3$1 4 W #(2"1$3$ 1-#., 51(!+$2
3DEO ?KJPAJP EO =R=EH=>HA BKN BNAA =P DPPL://?JT.KNC/?KJPAJP/?KH11562/1.11
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: P(:)
2;<F? 4.29
41. 0M @UDQ@FD (Z), GNV L@MX VNTKC XNT DWODBS SN @MRVDQ XDR
42. 8G@S HR SGD RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNM (\)
43. 8G@S HR SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S @S LNRS EHUD NE SGD EQDRGLDM QDOKX oXDRp
44. 8G@S HR SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S @S KD@RS SVN NE SGD EQDRGLDM QDOKX oXDRp
4.4 %?IG?NLC= "CMNLC<ONCIH
.I; J>; <EBBEM?D= ?D<EHC7J?ED JE 7DIM;H J>; D;NJ I;L;D ;N;H9?I;I: 5GD )HFGDQ &CTB@SHNM 3DRD@QBG *MRSHSTSD @S 6$-"
BNKKDBSDC C@S@ EQNL203,967 HMBNLHMF EHQRS-SHLD, ETKK-SHLD EQDRGLDM EQNL270 ENTQ-XD@Q BNKKDFDR @MC TMHUDQRHSHDR HM SGD 6.4.
71.3% NE SGNRD RSTCDMSR QDOKHDC SG@S, XDR, SGDX ADKHDUD SG@S R@LD-RDW BNTOKDR RGNTKC G@UD SGD QHFGS SN KDF@K L@QHS@K RS@STR.
4TOONRD SG@S XNT Q@MCNLKX RDKDBS EQDRGL@M EQNL SGD RSTCX TMSHK XNT EHMC NMD VGN QDOKHDR oXDR.p :NT @QD HMSDQDRSDC HM SGD
MTLADQ NE EQDRGLDM XNT LTRS @RJ.
45. *M VNQCR, CDEHMD SGD Q@MCNL U@QH@AKD 1.
46. 1 ] ?????(?????,?????)
47. 8G@S U@KTDR CNDR SGD Q@MCNL U@QH@AKD 1 S@JD NM
48. $NMRSQTBS SGD OQNA@AHKHSX CHRSQHATSHNM ETMBSHNM (1%'). 4SNO @S N = 6.
: P(:)
1
2
3
4
5
2;<F? 4.30
"'/3$1 4 W #(2"1$3$ 1-#., 51(!+$2 293
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: P(:)
6
2;<F? 4.30
49. 0M @UDQ@FD (Z), GNV L@MX EQDRGLDM VNTKC XNT DWODBS SN G@UD SN @RJ TMSHK XNT ENTMC NMD VGN QDOKHDR "XDR"
50. 8G@S HR SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S XNT VHKK MDDC SN @RJ EDVDQ SG@M SGQDD EQDRGLDM
4.5 &SJ?LA?IG?NLC= "CMNLC<ONCIH
.I; J>; <EBBEM?D= ?D<EHC7J?ED JE 7DIM;H J>; D;NJ <?L; ;N;H9?I;I: 4TOONRD SG@S @ FQNTO NE RS@SHRSHBR RSTCDMSR HR CHUHCDC HMSN
SVN FQNTOR: ATRHMDRR L@INQR @MC MNM-ATRHMDRR L@INQR. 5GDQD @QD 16 ATRHMDRR L@INQR HM SGD FQNTO @MC RDUDM MNM-ATRHMDRR
L@INQR HM SGD FQNTO. " Q@MCNL R@LOKD NE MHMD RSTCDMSR HR S@JDM. 8D @QD HMSDQDRSDC HM SGD MTLADQ NE ATRHMDRR L@INQR HM SGD
R@LOKD.
51. *M VNQCR, CDEHMD SGD Q@MCNL U@QH@AKD 1.
52. 1 ] ?????(?????,?????)
53. 8G@S U@KTDR CNDR 1 S@JD NM
54. $NMRSQTBS SGD OQNA@AHKHSX CHRSQHATSHNM ETMBSHNM (1%') ENQ 1.
55. 0M @UDQ@FD (Z), GNV L@MX VNTKC XNT DWODBS SN AD ATRHMDRR L@INQR
4.6 .ICMMIH "CMNLC<ONCIH
.I; J>; <EBBEM?D= ?D<EHC7J?ED JE 7DIM;H J>; D;NJ I?N ;N;H9?I;I: 0M @UDQ@FD, @ BKNSGHMF RSNQD FDSR 120 BTRSNLDQR ODQ C@X.
56. "RRTLD SGD DUDMS NBBTQR HMCDODMCDMSKX HM @MX FHUDM C@X. %DEHMD SGD Q@MCNL U@QH@AKD 1.
57. 8G@S U@KTDR CNDR 1 S@JD NM
58. 8G@S HR SGD OQNA@AHKHSX NE FDSSHMF 150 BTRSNLDQR HM NMD C@X
59. 8G@S HR SGD OQNA@AHKHSX NE FDSSHMF 35 BTRSNLDQR HM SGD EHQRS ENTQ GNTQR "RRTLD SGD RSNQD HR NODM 12 GNTQR D@BG C@X.
60. 8G@S HR SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S SGD RSNQD VHKK G@UD LNQD SG@M 12 BTRSNLDQR HM SGD EHQRS GNTQ
61. 8G@S HR SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S SGD RSNQD VHKK G@UD EDVDQ SG@M 12 BTRSNLDQR HM SGD EHQRS SVN GNTQR
62. 8GHBG SXOD NE CHRSQHATSHNM B@M SGD 1NHRRNM LNCDK AD TRDC SN @OOQNWHL@SD 8GDM VNTKC XNT CN SGHR
.I; J>; <EBBEM?D= ?D<EHC7J?ED JE 7DIM;H J>; D;NJ I?N ;N;H9?I;I: 0M @UDQ@FD, DHFGS SDDMR HM SGD 6.4. CHD EQNL LNSNQ UDGHBKD
HMITQHDR ODQ C@X. "R @ QDRTKS, RS@SDR @BQNRR SGD BNTMSQX @QD CDA@SHMF Q@HRHMF SGD CQHUHMF @FD.
63. "RRTLD SGD DUDMS NBBTQR HMCDODMCDMSKX HM @MX FHUDM C@X. *M VNQCR, CDEHMD SGD Q@MCNL U@QH@AKD 1.
64. 1 ] ?????(?????,?????)
65. 8G@S U@KTDR CNDR 1 S@JD NM
66. 'NQ SGD FHUDM U@KTDR NE SGD Q@MCNL U@QH@AKD 1, EHKK HM SGD BNQQDRONMCHMF OQNA@AHKHSHDR.
67. *R HS KHJDKX SG@S SGDQD VHKK AD MN SDDMR JHKKDC EQNLLNSNQ UDGHBKD HMITQHDR NM @MX FHUDM C@X HM SGD 6.4 +TRSHEX XNTQ @MRVDQ
MTLDQHB@KKX.
68. *R HS KHJDKX SG@S SGDQD VHKK AD LNQD SG@M 20 SDDMR JHKKDC EQNL LNSNQ UDGHBKD HMITQHDR NM @MX FHUDM C@X HM SGD 6.4. +TRSHEX
XNTQ @MRVDQ MTLDQHB@KKX.
&-+#5-0)
4.1 .LI<;<CFCNS "CMNLC<ONCIH $OH=NCIH (."$) @IL ; "CM=L?N? 0;H>IG 4;LC;<F?
69. 4TOONRD SG@S SGD 1%' ENQ SGD MTLADQ NE XD@QR HS S@JDR SN D@QM @ #@BGDKNQ NE 4BHDMBD (#.4.) CDFQDD HR FHUDM HM 2;<F?
4.31.
294 "'/3$1 4 W #(2"1$3$ 1-#., 51(!+$2
3DEO ?KJPAJP EO =R=EH=>HA BKN BNAA =P DPPL://?JT.KNC/?KJPAJP/?KH11562/1.11
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: P(:)
3 0.05
4 0.40
5 0.30
6 0.15
7 0.10
2;<F? 4.31
=. *M VNQCR, CDEHMD SGD Q@MCNL U@QH@AKD 1.
>. 8G@S CNDR HS LD@M SG@S SGD U@KTDR YDQN, NMD, @MC SVN @QD MNS HMBKTCDC ENQ N HM SGD 1%'
4.2 +?;H IL #RJ?=N?> 4;FO? ;H> 1N;H>;L> "?PC;NCIH
70. " SGD@SDQ FQNTO GNKCR @ ETMC-Q@HRDQ. *S RDKKR 100 Q@EEKD SHBJDSR ENQ $5 @OHDBD. 4TOONRD XNT OTQBG@RD ENTQ SHBJDSR. 5GD OQHYD
HR SVN O@RRDR SN @ #QN@CV@X RGNV, VNQSG @ SNS@K NE $150.
=. 8G@S @QD XNT HMSDQDRSDC HM GDQD
>. *M VNQCR, CDEHMD SGD Q@MCNL U@QH@AKD 1.
?. -HRS SGD U@KTDR SG@S 1 L@X S@JD NM.
@. $NMRSQTBS @ 1%'.
A. *E SGHR ETMC-Q@HRDQ HR QDOD@SDC NESDM @MC XNT @KV@XR OTQBG@RD ENTQ SHBJDSR, VG@S VNTKC AD XNTQ DWODBSDC @UDQ@FD
VHMMHMFR ODQ Q@EEKD
71. " F@LD HMUNKUDR RDKDBSHMF @ B@QC EQNL @ QDFTK@Q 52-B@QC CDBJ @MC SNRRHMF @ BNHM. 5GD BNHM HR @ E@HQ BNHM @MC HR DPT@KKX
KHJDKX SN K@MC NM GD@CR NQ S@HKR.
c *E SGD B@QC HR @ E@BD B@QC, @MC SGD BNHM K@MCR NM )D@CR, XNT VHM $6
c *E SGD B@QC HR @ E@BD B@QC, @MC SGD BNHM K@MCR NM 5@HKR, XNT VHM $2
c *E SGD B@QC HR MNS @ E@BD B@QC, XNT KNRD $2, MN L@SSDQ VG@S SGD BNHM RGNVR.
=. 'HMC SGD DWODBSDC U@KTD ENQ SGHR F@LD (DWODBSDC MDS F@HM NQ KNRR).
>. &WOK@HM VG@S XNTQ B@KBTK@SHNMR HMCHB@SD @ANTS XNTQ KNMF-SDQL @UDQ@FD OQNEHSR @MC KNRRDR NM SGHR F@LD.
?. 4GNTKC XNT OK@X SGHR F@LD SN VHM LNMDX
72. :NT ATX @ KNSSDQX SHBJDS SN @ KNSSDQX SG@S BNRSR $10 ODQ SHBJDS. 5GDQD @QD NMKX 100 SHBJDSR @U@HK@AKD AD RNKC HM SGHR KNSSDQX.
*M SGHR KNSSDQX SGDQD HR NMD $500 OQHYD SVN $100 OQHYDR, @MC ENTQ $25 OQHYDR. 'HMC XNTQ DWODBSDC F@HM NQ KNRR.
73. $NLOKDSD SGD 1%' @MC @MRVDQ SGD PTDRSHNMR.
: P(:) :P(:)
0 0.3
1 0.2
2
3 0.4
2;<F? 4.32
"'/3$1 4 W #(2"1$3$ 1-#., 51(!+$2 295
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=. 'HMC SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S N = 2.
>. 'HMC SGD DWODBSDC U@KTD.
74. 4TOONRD SG@S XNT @QD NEEDQDC SGD ENKKNVHMF oCD@K.p :NT QNKK @ CHD. *E XNT QNKK @ RHW, XNT VHM $10. *E XNT QNKK @ ENTQ NQ
EHUD, XNT VHM $5. *E XNT QNKK @ NMD, SVN, NQ SGQDD, XNT O@X $6.
=. 8G@S @QD XNT TKSHL@SDKX HMSDQDRSDC HM GDQD (SGD U@KTD NE SGD QNKK NQ SGD LNMDX XNT VHM)
>. *M VNQCR, CDEHMD SGD 3@MCNL 7@QH@AKD 1.
?. -HRS SGD U@KTDR SG@S 1 L@X S@JD NM.
@. $NMRSQTBS @ 1%'.
A. 0UDQ SGD KNMF QTM NE OK@XHMF SGHR F@LD, VG@S @QD XNTQ DWODBSDC @UDQ@FD VHMMHMFR ODQ F@LD
B. #@RDC NM MTLDQHB@K U@KTDR, RGNTKC XNT S@JD SGD CD@K &WOK@HM XNTQ CDBHRHNM HM BNLOKDSD RDMSDMBDR.
75. " UDMSTQD B@OHS@KHRS, VHKKHMF SN HMUDRS $1,000,000, G@R SGQDD HMUDRSLDMSR SN BGNNRD EQNL. 5GD EHQRS HMUDRSLDMS, @ RNESV@QD
BNLO@MX, G@R @ 10%BG@MBD NE QDSTQMHMF $5,000,000 OQNEHS, @ 30%BG@MBD NE QDSTQMHMF $1,000,000 OQNEHS, @MC @ 60%BG@MBD
NE KNRHMF SGD LHKKHNM CNKK@QR. 5GD RDBNMC BNLO@MX, @ G@QCV@QD BNLO@MX, G@R @ 20% BG@MBD NE QDSTQMHMF $3,000,000 OQNEHS,
@ 40% BG@MBD NE QDSTQMHMF $1,000,000 OQNEHS, @MC @ 40% BG@MBD NE KNRHMF SGD LHKKHNM CNKK@QR. 5GD SGHQC BNLO@MX, @ AHNSDBG
EHQL, G@R @ 10% BG@MBD NE QDSTQMHMF $6,000,000 OQNEHS, @ 70% NE MN OQNEHS NQ KNRR, @MC @ 20% BG@MBD NE KNRHMF SGD LHKKHNM
CNKK@QR.
=. $NMRSQTBS @ 1%' ENQ D@BG HMUDRSLDMS.
>. 'HMC SGD DWODBSDC U@KTD ENQ D@BG HMUDRSLDMS.
?. 8GHBG HR SGD R@EDRS HMUDRSLDMS 8GX CN XNT SGHMJ RN
@. 8GHBG HR SGD QHRJHDRS HMUDRSLDMS 8GX CN XNT SGHMJ RN
A. 8GHBG HMUDRSLDMS G@R SGD GHFGDRS DWODBSDC QDSTQM, NM @UDQ@FD
76. 4TOONRD SG@S 20,000 L@QQHDC @CTKSR HM SGD 6MHSDC 4S@SDR VDQD Q@MCNLKX RTQUDXDC @R SN SGD MTLADQ NE BGHKCQDM SGDX G@UD.
5GD QDRTKSR @QD BNLOHKDC @MC @QD TRDC @R SGDNQDSHB@K OQNA@AHKHSHDR. -DS 1 = SGD MTLADQ NE BGHKCQDM L@QQHDC ODNOKD G@UD.
: P(:) :P(:)
0 0.10
1 0.20
2 0.30
3
4 0.10
5 0.05
6 (KN IKNA) 0.05
2;<F? 4.33
=. 'HMC SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S @ L@QQHDC @CTKS G@R SGQDD BGHKCQDM.
>. *M VNQCR, VG@S CNDR SGD DWODBSDC U@KTD HM SGHR DW@LOKD QDOQDRDMS
?. 'HMC SGD DWODBSDC U@KTD.
@. *R HS LNQD KHJDKX SG@S @ L@QQHDC @CTKS VHKK G@UD SVN SN SGQDD BGHKCQDM NQ ENTQ SN RHW BGHKCQDM )NV CN XNT JMNV
77. 4TOONRD SG@S SGD 1%' ENQ SGD MTLADQ NE XD@QR HS S@JDR SN D@QM @ #@BGDKNQ NE 4BHDMBD (#.4.) CDFQDD HR FHUDM @R HM 2;<F?
4.34.
296 "'/3$1 4 W #(2"1$3$ 1-#., 51(!+$2
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: P(:)
3 0.05
4 0.40
5 0.30
6 0.15
7 0.10
2;<F? 4.34
0M @UDQ@FD, GNV L@MX XD@QR CN XNT DWODBS HS SN S@JD ENQ @M HMCHUHCT@K SN D@QM @ #.4.
78. 1DNOKD UHRHSHMF UHCDN QDMS@K RSNQDR NESDM QDMS LNQD SG@M NMD %7% @S @ SHLD. 5GD OQNA@AHKHSX CHRSQHATSHNM ENQ %7% QDMS@KR
ODQ BTRSNLDQ @S 7HCDN 5N (N HR FHUDM HM SGD ENKKNVHMF S@AKD. 5GDQD HR @ EHUD-UHCDN KHLHS ODQ BTRSNLDQ @S SGHR RSNQD, RN MNANCX
DUDQ QDMSR LNQD SG@M EHUD %7%R.
: P(:)
0 0.03
1 0.50
2 0.24
3
4 0.70
5 0.04
2;<F? 4.35
=. %DRBQHAD SGD Q@MCNL U@QH@AKD 1 HM VNQCR.
>. 'HMC SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S @ BTRSNLDQ QDMSR SGQDD %7%R.
?. 'HMC SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S @ BTRSNLDQ QDMSR @S KD@RS ENTQ %7%R.
@. 'HMC SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S @ BTRSNLDQ QDMSR @S LNRS SVN %7%R.
"MNSGDQ RGNO, &MSDQS@HMLDMS )D@CPT@QSDQR, QDMSR %7%R @MC UHCDNF@LDR. 5GD OQNA@AHKHSX CHRSQHATSHNM ENQ %7%
QDMS@KR ODQ BTRSNLDQ @S SGHR RGNO HR FHUDM @R ENKKNVR. 5GDX @KRN G@UD @ EHUD-%7% KHLHS ODQ BTRSNLDQ.
: P(:)
0 0.35
2;<F? 4.36
"'/3$1 4 W #(2"1$3$ 1-#., 51(!+$2 297
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: P(:)
1 0.25
2 0.20
3 0.10
4 0.05
5 0.05
2;<F? 4.36
A. "S VGHBG RSNQD HR SGD DWODBSDC MTLADQ NE %7%R QDMSDC ODQ BTRSNLDQ GHFGDQ
B. *E 7HCDN SN (N DRSHL@SDR SG@S SGDX VHKK G@UD 300 BTRSNLDQR MDWS VDDJ, GNV L@MX %7%R CN SGDX DWODBS SN QDMS
MDWS VDDJ "MRVDQ HM RDMSDMBD ENQL.
C. *E 7HCDN SN (N DWODBSR 300 BTRSNLDQR MDWS VDDJ, @MC &MSDQS@HMLDMS )2 OQNIDBSR SG@S SGDX VHKK G@UD 420
BTRSNLDQR, ENQ VGHBG RSNQD HR SGD DWODBSDC MTLADQ NE %7% QDMS@KR ENQ MDWS VDDJ GHFGDQ &WOK@HM.
D. 8GHBG NE SGD SVN UHCDN RSNQDR DWODQHDMBDR LNQD U@QH@SHNM HM SGD MTLADQ NE %7% QDMS@KR ODQ BTRSNLDQ )NV CN
XNT JMNV SG@S
79. " oEQHDMCp NEEDQR XNT SGD ENKKNVHMF oCD@K.p 'NQ @ $10 EDD, XNT L@X OHBJ @M DMUDKNOD EQNL @ ANW BNMS@HMHMF 100
RDDLHMFKX HCDMSHB@K DMUDKNODR. )NVDUDQ, D@BG DMUDKNOD BNMS@HMR @ BNTONM ENQ @ EQDD FHES.
c 5DM NE SGD BNTONMR @QD ENQ @ EQDD FHES VNQSG $6.
c &HFGSX NE SGD BNTONMR @QD ENQ @ EQDD FHES VNQSG $8.
c 4HW NE SGD BNTONMR @QD ENQ @ EQDD FHES VNQSG $12.
c 'NTQ NE SGD BNTONMR @QD ENQ @ EQDD FHES VNQSG $40.
#@RDC TONM SGD EHM@MBH@K F@HM NQ KNRR NUDQ SGD KNMF QTM, RGNTKC XNT OK@X SGD F@LD
=. :DR, * DWODBS SN BNLD NTS @GD@C HM LNMDX.
>. /N, * DWODBS SN BNLD NTS ADGHMC HM LNMDX.
?. *S CNDRMnS L@SSDQ. * DWODBS SN AQD@J DUDM.
80. 'KNQHC@ 4S@SD 6MHUDQRHSX G@R 14 RS@SHRSHBR BK@RRDR RBGDCTKDC ENQ HSR 4TLLDQ 2013 SDQL. 0MD BK@RR G@R RO@BD @U@HK@AKD ENQ
30 RSTCDMSR, DHFGS BK@RRDR G@UD RO@BD ENQ 60 RSTCDMSR, NMD BK@RR G@R RO@BD ENQ 70 RSTCDMSR, @MC ENTQ BK@RRDR G@UD RO@BD ENQ
100 RSTCDMSR.
=. 8G@S HR SGD @UDQ@FD BK@RR RHYD @RRTLHMF D@BG BK@RR HR EHKKDC SN B@O@BHSX
>. 4O@BD HR @U@HK@AKD ENQ 980 RSTCDMSR. 4TOONRD SG@S D@BG BK@RR HR EHKKDC SN B@O@BHSX @MC RDKDBS @ RS@SHRSHBR RSTCDMS @S
Q@MCNL. -DS SGD Q@MCNL U@QH@AKD 1 DPT@K SGD RHYD NE SGD RSTCDMSnR BK@RR. %DEHMD SGD 1%' ENQ 1.
?. 'HMC SGD LD@M NE 1.
@. 'HMC SGD RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNM NE 1.
81. *M @ KNSSDQX, SGDQD @QD 250 OQHYDR NE $5, 50 OQHYDR NE $25, @MC SDM OQHYDR NE $100. "RRTLHMF SG@S 10,000 SHBJDSR @QD SN AD
HRRTDC @MC RNKC, VG@S HR @ E@HQ OQHBD SN BG@QFD SN AQD@J DUDM
4.3 CHIGC;F "CMNLC<ONCIH
82. "BBNQCHMF SN @ QDBDMS @QSHBKD SGD @UDQ@FD MTLADQ NE A@AHDR ANQM VHSG RHFMHEHB@MS GD@QHMF KNRR (CD@EMDRR) HR @OOQNWHL@SDKX
SVN ODQ 1,000 A@AHDR HM @ GD@KSGX A@AX MTQRDQX. 5GD MTLADQ BKHLAR SN @M @UDQ@FD NE 30 ODQ 1,000 A@AHDR HM @M HMSDMRHUD B@QD
MTQRDQX.
4TOONRD SG@S 1,000 A@AHDR EQNLGD@KSGX A@AX MTQRDQHDR VDQD Q@MCNLKX RTQUDXDC. 'HMC SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S DW@BSKX SVN A@AHDR
VDQD ANQM CD@E.
83. 3DBDMSKX, @ MTQRD BNLLDMSDC SG@S VGDM @ O@SHDMS B@KKR SGD LDCHB@K @CUHBD KHMD BK@HLHMF SN G@UD SGD EKT, SGD BG@MBD SG@S
GD NQ RGD SQTKX G@R SGD EKT (@MC MNS ITRS @ M@RSX BNKC) HR NMKX @ANTS 4%. 0E SGD MDWS 25 O@SHDMSR B@KKHMF HM BK@HLHMF SN G@UD
SGD EKT, VD @QD HMSDQDRSDC HM GNV L@MX @BST@KKX G@UD SGD EKT.
%DEHMD SGD Q@MCNL U@QH@AKD @MC KHRS HSR ONRRHAKD U@KTDR.
84. 4S@SD SGD CHRSQHATSHNM NE 1.
85. 'HMC SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S @S KD@RS ENTQ NE SGD 25 O@SHDMSR @BST@KKX G@UD SGD EKT.
298 "'/3$1 4 W #(2"1$3$ 1-#., 51(!+$2
3DEO ?KJPAJP EO =R=EH=>HA BKN BNAA =P DPPL://?JT.KNC/?KJPAJP/?KH11562/1.11
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86. 0M @UDQ@FD, ENQ DUDQX 25 O@SHDMSR B@KKHMF HM, GNV L@MX CN XNT DWODBS SN G@UD SGD EKT
87. 1DNOKD UHRHSHMF UHCDN QDMS@K RSNQDR NESDM QDMS LNQD SG@M NMD %7% @S @ SHLD. 5GD OQNA@AHKHSX CHRSQHATSHNM ENQ %7% QDMS@KR
ODQ BTRSNLDQ @S 7HCDN 5N (N HR FHUDM 2;<F? 4.37. 5GDQD HR EHUD-UHCDN KHLHS ODQ BTRSNLDQ @S SGHR RSNQD, RN MNANCX DUDQ QDMSR
LNQD SG@M EHUD %7%R.
: P(:)
0 0.03
1 0.50
2 0.24
3 ?
4 0.07
5 0.04
2;<F? 4.37
=. %DRBQHAD SGD Q@MCNL U@QH@AKD 1 HM VNQCR.
>. 'HMC SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S @ BTRSNLDQ QDMSR SGQDD %7%R.
?. 'HMC SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S @ BTRSNLDQ QDMSR @S KD@RS ENTQ %7%R.
@. 'HMC SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S @ BTRSNLDQ QDMSR @S LNRS SVN %7%R.
88. " RBGNNK MDVRO@ODQ QDONQSDQ CDBHCDR SN Q@MCNLKX RTQUDX 12 RSTCDMSR SN RDD HE SGDX VHKK @SSDMC 5DS (7HDSM@LDRD /DV
:D@Q) EDRSHUHSHDR SGHR XD@Q. #@RDC NM O@RS XD@QR, RGD JMNVR SG@S 18% NE RSTCDMSR @SSDMC 5DS EDRSHUHSHDR. 8D @QD HMSDQDRSDC HM
SGD MTLADQ NE RSTCDMSR VGN VHKK @SSDMC SGD EDRSHUHSHDR.
=. *M VNQCR, CDEHMD SGD Q@MCNL U@QH@AKD 1.
>. -HRS SGD U@KTDR SG@S 1 L@X S@JD NM.
?. (HUD SGD CHRSQHATSHNM NE 1. 1 Q 66666(66666,66666)
@. )NV L@MX NE SGD 12 RSTCDMSR CN VD DWODBS SN @SSDMC SGD EDRSHUHSHDR
A. 'HMC SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S @S LNRS ENTQ RSTCDMSR VHKK @SSDMC.
B. 'HMC SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S LNQD SG@M SVN RSTCDMSR VHKK @SSDMC.
.I; J>; <EBBEM?D= ?D<EHC7J?ED JE 7DIM;H J>; D;NJ JME ;N;H9?I;I: 5GD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S SGD 4@M +NRD 4G@QJR VHKK VHM @MX FHUDM
F@LD HR 0.3694 A@RDC NM @ 13-XD@Q VHM GHRSNQX NE 382 VHMR NTS NE 1,034 F@LDR OK@XDC (@R NE @ BDQS@HM C@SD). "M TOBNLHMF
LNMSGKX RBGDCTKD BNMS@HMR 12 F@LDR.
89. 5GD DWODBSDC MTLADQ NE VHMR ENQ SG@S TOBNLHMF LNMSG HR:
=. 1.67
>. 12
?.
382
1043
@. 4.43
-DS 1 = SGD MTLADQ NE F@LDR VNM HM SG@S TOBNLHMF LNMSG.
90. 8G@S HR SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S SGD 4@M +NRD 4G@QJR VHM RHW F@LDR HM SG@S TOBNLHMF LNMSG
=. 0.1476
>. 0.2336
?. 0.7664
@. 0.8903
91. 8G@S HR SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S SGD 4@M +NRD 4G@QJR VHM @S KD@RS EHUD F@LDR HM SG@S TOBNLHMF LNMSG
=. 0.3694
>. 0.5266
?. 0.4734
"'/3$1 4 W #(2"1$3$ 1-#., 51(!+$2 299
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@. 0.2305
92. " RSTCDMS S@JDR @ SDM-PTDRSHNM SQTD-E@KRD PTHY, ATS CHC MNS RSTCX @MC Q@MCNLKX FTDRRDR D@BG @MRVDQ. 'HMC SGD OQNA@AHKHSX
SG@S SGD RSTCDMS O@RRDR SGD PTHY VHSG @ FQ@CD NE @S KD@RS 70% NE SGD PTDRSHNMR BNQQDBS.
93. "RSTCDMS S@JDR @ 32-PTDRSHNM LTKSHOKD BGNHBD DW@L, ATS CHC MNS RSTCX @MC Q@MCNLKX FTDRRDR D@BG @MRVDQ. &@BG PTDRSHNM
G@R SGQDD ONRRHAKD BGNHBDR ENQ SGD @MRVDQ. 'HMC SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S SGD RSTCDMS FTDRRDR BDG: I=6C 75% NE SGD PTDRSHNMR
BNQQDBSKX.
94. 4HW CHEEDQDMS BNKNQDC CHBD @QD QNKKDC. 0E HMSDQDRS HR SGD MTLADQ NE CHBD SG@S RGNV @ NMD.
=. *M VNQCR, CDEHMD SGD Q@MCNL U@QH@AKD 1.
>. -HRS SGD U@KTDR SG@S 1 L@X S@JD NM.
?. (HUD SGD CHRSQHATSHNM NE 1. 1 ] ?????(?????,?????)
@. 0M @UDQ@FD, GNV L@MX CHBD VNTKC XNT DWODBS SN RGNV @ NMD
A. 'HMC SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S @KK RHW CHBD RGNV @ NMD.
B. *R HS LNQD KHJDKX SG@S SGQDD NQ SG@S ENTQ CHBD VHKK RGNV @ NMD 6RD MTLADQR SN ITRSHEX XNTQ @MRVDQ MTLDQHB@KKX.
95. .NQD SG@M 96 ODQBDMS NE SGD UDQX K@QFDRS BNKKDFDR @MC TMHUDQRHSHDR (LNQD SG@M 15,000 SNS@K DMQNKKLDMSR) G@UD RNLD NMKHMD
NEEDQHMFR. 4TOONRD XNT Q@MCNLKX OHBJ 13 RTBG HMRSHSTSHNMR. 8D @QD HMSDQDRSDC HM SGD MTLADQ SG@S NEEDQ CHRS@MBD KD@QMHMF
BNTQRDR.
=. *M VNQCR, CDEHMD SGD Q@MCNL U@QH@AKD 1.
>. -HRS SGD U@KTDR SG@S 1 L@X S@JD NM.
?. (HUD SGD CHRSQHATSHNM NE 1. 1 ] ?????(?????,?????)
@. 0M @UDQ@FD, GNV L@MX RBGNNKR VNTKC XNT DWODBS SN NEEDQ RTBG BNTQRDR
A. 'HMC SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S @S LNRS SDM NEEDQ RTBG BNTQRDR.
B. *R HS LNQD KHJDKX SG@S 12 NQ SG@S 13 VHKK NEEDQ RTBG BNTQRDR 6RD MTLADQR SN ITRSHEX XNTQ @MRVDQ MTLDQHB@KKX @MC
@MRVDQ HM @ BNLOKDSD RDMSDMBD.
96. 4TOONRD SG@S @ANTS 85% NE FQ@CT@SHMF RSTCDMSR @SSDMC SGDHQ FQ@CT@SHNM. " FQNTO NE 22 FQ@CT@SHMF RSTCDMSR HR Q@MCNLKX
BGNRDM.
=. *M VNQCR, CDEHMD SGD Q@MCNL U@QH@AKD 1.
>. -HRS SGD U@KTDR SG@S 1 L@X S@JD NM.
?. (HUD SGD CHRSQHATSHNM NE 1. 1 ] ?????(?????,?????)
@. )NV L@MX @QD DWODBSDC SN @SSDMC SGDHQ FQ@CT@SHNM
A. 'HMC SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S 17 NQ 18 @SSDMC.
B. #@RDC NM MTLDQHB@K U@KTDR, VNTKC XNT AD RTQOQHRDC HE @KK 22 @SSDMCDC FQ@CT@SHNM +TRSHEX XNTQ @MRVDQ MTLDQHB@KKX.
97. "S 5GD 'DMBHMF $DMSDQ, 60% NE SGD EDMBDQR TRD SGD ENHK @R SGDHQ L@HM VD@ONM. 8D Q@MCNLKX RTQUDX 25 EDMBDQR @S 5GD
'DMBHMF $DMSDQ. 8D @QD HMSDQDRSDC HM SGD MTLADQ NE EDMBDQR VGN CN CDI TRD SGD ENHK @R SGDHQ L@HM VD@ONM.
=. *M VNQCR, CDEHMD SGD Q@MCNL U@QH@AKD 1.
>. -HRS SGD U@KTDR SG@S 1 L@X S@JD NM.
?. (HUD SGD CHRSQHATSHNM NE 1. 1 ] ?????(?????,?????)
@. )NV L@MX @QD DWODBSDC SN CDI SN TRD SGD ENHK @R SGDHQ L@HM VD@ONM
A. 'HMC SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S RHW CN CDI TRD SGD ENHK @R SGDHQ L@HM VD@ONM.
B. #@RDC NM MTLDQHB@K U@KTDR, VNTKC XNT AD RTQOQHRDC HE @KK 25 CHC CDI TRD ENHK @R SGDHQ L@HM VD@ONM +TRSHEX XNTQ
@MRVDQ MTLDQHB@KKX.
98. "OOQNWHL@SDKX 8% NE RSTCDMSR @S @ KNB@K GHFG RBGNNK O@QSHBHO@SD HM @ESDQ-RBGNNK RONQSR @KK ENTQ XD@QR NE GHFG RBGNNK. "
FQNTO NE 60 RDMHNQR HR Q@MCNLKX BGNRDM. 0E HMSDQDRS HR SGD MTLADQ VGN O@QSHBHO@SDC HM @ESDQ-RBGNNK RONQSR @KK ENTQ XD@QR NE
GHFG RBGNNK.
=. *M VNQCR, CDEHMD SGD Q@MCNL U@QH@AKD 1.
>. -HRS SGD U@KTDR SG@S 1 L@X S@JD NM.
?. (HUD SGD CHRSQHATSHNM NE 1. 1 ] ?????(?????,?????)
@. )NV L@MX RDMHNQR @QD DWODBSDC SN G@UD O@QSHBHO@SDC HM @ESDQ-RBGNNK RONQSR @KK ENTQ XD@QR NE GHFG RBGNNK
A. #@RDC NM MTLDQHB@K U@KTDR, VNTKC XNT AD RTQOQHRDC HE MNMD NE SGD RDMHNQR O@QSHBHO@SDC HM @ESDQ-RBGNNK RONQSR @KK
ENTQ XD@QR NE GHFG RBGNNK +TRSHEX XNTQ @MRVDQ MTLDQHB@KKX.
B. #@RDC TONM MTLDQHB@K U@KTDR, HR HS LNQD KHJDKX SG@S ENTQ NQ SG@S EHUD NE SGD RDMHNQR O@QSHBHO@SDC HM @ESDQ-RBGNNK
RONQSR @KK ENTQ XD@QR NE GHFG RBGNNK +TRSHEX XNTQ @MRVDQ MTLDQHB@KKX.
99. 5GD BG@MBD NE @M *34 @TCHS ENQ @ S@W QDSTQM VHSG NUDQ $25,000 HM HMBNLD HR @ANTS 2% ODQ XD@Q. 8D @QD HMSDQDRSDC HM SGD
DWODBSDC MTLADQ NE @TCHSR @ ODQRNM VHSG SG@S HMBNLD G@R HM @ 20-XD@Q ODQHNC. "RRTLD D@BG XD@Q HR HMCDODMCDMS.
=. *M VNQCR, CDEHMD SGD Q@MCNL U@QH@AKD 1.
>. -HRS SGD U@KTDR SG@S 1 L@X S@JD NM.
?. (HUD SGD CHRSQHATSHNM NE 1. 1 ] ?????(?????,?????)
@. )NV L@MX @TCHSR @QD DWODBSDC HM @ 20-XD@Q ODQHNC
A. 'HMC SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S @ ODQRNM HR MNS @TCHSDC @S @KK.
B. 'HMC SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S @ ODQRNM HR @TCHSDC LNQD SG@M SVHBD.
300 "'/3$1 4 W #(2"1$3$ 1-#., 51(!+$2
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100. *S G@R ADDM DRSHL@SDC SG@S NMKX @ANTS 30% NE $@KHENQMH@ QDRHCDMSR G@UD @CDPT@SD D@QSGPT@JD RTOOKHDR. 4TOONRD XNT
Q@MCNLKX RTQUDX 11 $@KHENQMH@ QDRHCDMSR. 8D @QD HMSDQDRSDC HM SGD MTLADQ VGN G@UD @CDPT@SD D@QSGPT@JD RTOOKHDR.
=. *M VNQCR, CDEHMD SGD Q@MCNL U@QH@AKD 1.
>. -HRS SGD U@KTDR SG@S 1 L@X S@JD NM.
?. (HUD SGD CHRSQHATSHNM NE 1. 1 ] ?????(?????,?????)
@. 8G@S HR SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S @S KD@RS DHFGS G@UD @CDPT@SD D@QSGPT@JD RTOOKHDR
A. *R HS LNQD KHJDKX SG@S MNMD NQ SG@S @KK NE SGD QDRHCDMSR RTQUDXDC VHKK G@UD @CDPT@SD D@QSGPT@JD RTOOKHDR 8GX
B. )NV L@MX QDRHCDMSR CN XNT DWODBS VHKK G@UD @CDPT@SD D@QSGPT@JD RTOOKHDR
101. 5GDQD @QD SVN RHLHK@Q F@LDR OK@XDC ENQ $GHMDRD /DV :D@Q @MC 7HDSM@LDRD /DV :D@Q. *M SGD $GHMDRD UDQRHNM, E@HQ CHBD
VHSG MTLADQR 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, @MC 6 @QD TRDC, @KNMF VHSG @ AN@QC VHSG SGNRD MTLADQR. *M SGD 7HDSM@LDRD UDQRHNM, E@HQ CHBD VHSG
OHBSTQDR NE @ FNTQC, EHRG, QNNRSDQ, BQ@A, BQ@XEHRG, @MC CDDQ @QD TRDC. 5GD AN@QC G@R SGNRD RHW NAIDBSR NM HS, @KRN. 8D VHKK OK@X
VHSG ADSR ADHMF $1. 5GD OK@XDQ OK@BDR @ ADS NM @ MTLADQ NQ NAIDBS. 5GD oGNTRDp QNKKR SGQDD CHBD. *E MNMD NE SGD CHBD RGNV SGD
MTLADQ NQ NAIDBS SG@S V@R ADS, SGD GNTRD JDDOR SGD $1 ADS. *E NMD NE SGD CHBD RGNVR SGD MTLADQ NQ NAIDBS ADS (@MC SGD NSGDQ
SVN CN MNS RGNV HS), SGD OK@XDQ FDSR A@BJ GHR NQ GDQ $1 ADS, OKTR $1 OQNEHS. *E SVN NE SGD CHBD RGNV SGD MTLADQ NQ NAIDBS ADS
(@MC SGD SGHQC CHD CNDR MNS RGNV HS), SGD OK@XDQ FDSR A@BJ GHR NQ GDQ $1 ADS, OKTR $2 OQNEHS. *E @KK SGQDD CHBD RGNV SGD MTLADQ
NQ NAIDBS ADS, SGD OK@XDQ FDSR A@BJ GHR NQ GDQ $1 ADS, OKTR $3 OQNEHS. -DS 1 = MTLADQ NE L@SBGDR @MC 2 = OQNEHS ODQ F@LD.
=. *M VNQCR, CDEHMD SGD Q@MCNL U@QH@AKD 1.
>. -HRS SGD U@KTDR SG@S 1 L@X S@JD NM.
?. (HUD SGD CHRSQHATSHNM NE 1. 1 ] ?????(?????,?????)
@. -HRS SGD U@KTDR SG@S 2 L@X S@JD NM. 5GDM, BNMRSQTBS NMD 1%' S@AKD SG@S HMBKTCDR ANSG 1 @MC 2 @MC SGDHQ
OQNA@AHKHSHDR.
A. $@KBTK@SD SGD @UDQ@FD DWODBSDC L@SBGDR NUDQ SGD KNMF QTM NE OK@XHMF SGHR F@LD ENQ SGD OK@XDQ.
B. $@KBTK@SD SGD @UDQ@FD DWODBSDC D@QMHMFR NUDQ SGD KNMF QTM NE OK@XHMF SGHR F@LD ENQ SGD OK@XDQ.
C. %DSDQLHMD VGN G@R SGD @CU@MS@FD, SGD OK@XDQ NQ SGD GNTRD.
102. "BBNQCHMF SN 5GD 8NQKC #@MJ, NMKX 9% NE SGD ONOTK@SHNM NE 6F@MC@ G@C @BBDRR SN DKDBSQHBHSX @R NE 2009. 4TOONRD VD
Q@MCNLKX R@LOKD 150 ODNOKD HM 6F@MC@. -DS 1 = SGD MTLADQ NE ODNOKD VGN G@UD @BBDRR SN DKDBSQHBHSX.
=. 8G@S HR SGD OQNA@AHKHSX CHRSQHATSHNM ENQ 1
>. 6RHMF SGD ENQLTK@R, B@KBTK@SD SGD LD@M @MC RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNM NE 1.
?. 6RD XNTQ B@KBTK@SNQ SN EHMC SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S 15 ODNOKD HM SGD R@LOKD G@UD @BBDRR SN DKDBSQHBHSX.
@. 'HMC SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S @S LNRS SDM ODNOKD HM SGD R@LOKD G@UD @BBDRR SN DKDBSQHBHSX.
A. 'HMC SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S LNQD SG@M 25 ODNOKD HM SGD R@LOKD G@UD @BBDRR SN DKDBSQHBHSX.
103. 5GD KHSDQ@BX Q@SD ENQ @ M@SHNM LD@RTQDR SGD OQNONQSHNM NE ODNOKD @FD 15 @MC NUDQ SG@S B@M QD@C @MC VQHSD. 5GD KHSDQ@BX
Q@SD HM "EFG@MHRS@M HR 28.1%. 4TOONRD XNT BGNNRD 15 ODNOKD HM "EFG@MHRS@M @S Q@MCNL. -DS 1 = SGD MTLADQ NE ODNOKD VGN
@QD KHSDQ@SD.
=. 4JDSBG @ FQ@OG NE SGD OQNA@AHKHSX CHRSQHATSHNM NE 1.
>. 6RHMF SGD ENQLTK@R, B@KBTK@SD SGD (H) LD@M @MC (HH) RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNM NE 1.
?. 'HMC SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S LNQD SG@M EHUD ODNOKD HM SGD R@LOKD @QD KHSDQ@SD. *R HS HR LNQD KHJDKX SG@S SGQDD ODNOKD NQ
ENTQ ODNOKD @QD KHSDQ@SD.
4.4 %?IG?NLC= "CMNLC<ONCIH
104. " BNMRTLDQ KNNJHMF SN ATX @ TRDC QDC .H@S@ B@Q VHKK B@KK CD@KDQRGHOR TMSHK RGD EHMCR @ CD@KDQRGHO SG@S B@QQHDR SGD B@Q.
4GD DRSHL@SDR SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S @MX HMCDODMCDMS CD@KDQRGHO VHKK G@UD SGD B@Q VHKK AD 28%. 8D @QD HMSDQDRSDC HM SGD MTLADQ
NE CD@KDQRGHOR RGD LTRS B@KK.
=. *M VNQCR, CDEHMD SGD Q@MCNL U@QH@AKD 1.
>. -HRS SGD U@KTDR SG@S 1 L@X S@JD NM.
?. (HUD SGD CHRSQHATSHNM NE 1. 1 ] ?????(?????,?????)
@. 0M @UDQ@FD, GNV L@MX CD@KDQRGHOR VNTKC VD DWODBS GDQ SN G@UD SN B@KK TMSHK RGD EHMCR NMD SG@S G@R SGD B@Q
A. 'HMC SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S RGD LTRS B@KK @S LNRS ENTQ CD@KDQRGHOR.
B. 'HMC SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S RGD LTRS B@KK SGQDD NQ ENTQ CD@KDQRGHOR.
105. 4TOONRD SG@S SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S @M @CTKS HM "LDQHB@ VHKK V@SBG SGD 4TODQ #NVK HR 40%. &@BG ODQRNM HR BNMRHCDQDC
HMCDODMCDMS. 8D @QD HMSDQDRSDC HM SGD MTLADQ NE @CTKSR HM "LDQHB@ VD LTRS RTQUDX TMSHK VD EHMC NMD VGN VHKK V@SBG SGD
4TODQ #NVK.
=. *M VNQCR, CDEHMD SGD Q@MCNL U@QH@AKD 1.
>. -HRS SGD U@KTDR SG@S 1 L@X S@JD NM.
?. (HUD SGD CHRSQHATSHNM NE 1. 1 ] ?????(?????,?????)
@. )NV L@MX @CTKSR HM "LDQHB@ CN XNT DWODBS SN RTQUDX TMSHK XNT EHMC NMD VGN VHKK V@SBG SGD 4TODQ #NVK
A. 'HMC SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S XNT LTRS @RJ RDUDM ODNOKD.
B. 'HMC SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S XNT LTRS @RJ SGQDD NQ ENTQ ODNOKD.
"'/3$1 4 W #(2"1$3$ 1-#., 51(!+$2 301
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106. *S G@R ADDM DRSHL@SDC SG@S NMKX @ANTS 30% NE $@KHENQMH@ QDRHCDMSR G@UD @CDPT@SD D@QSGPT@JD RTOOKHDR. 4TOONRD VD
@QD HMSDQDRSDC HM SGD MTLADQ NE $@KHENQMH@ QDRHCDMSR VD LTRS RTQUDX TMSHK VD EHMC @ QDRHCDMS VGN CNDR CDI G@UD @CDPT@SD
D@QSGPT@JD RTOOKHDR.
=. *M VNQCR, CDEHMD SGD Q@MCNL U@QH@AKD 1.
>. -HRS SGD U@KTDR SG@S 1 L@X S@JD NM.
?. (HUD SGD CHRSQHATSHNM NE 1. 1 ] ?????(?????,?????)
@. 8G@S HR SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S VD LTRS RTQUDX ITRS NMD NQ SVN QDRHCDMSR TMSHK VD EHMC @ $@KHENQMH@ QDRHCDMS VGN CNDR
MNS G@UD @CDPT@SD D@QSGPT@JD RTOOKHDR
A. 8G@S HR SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S VD LTRS RTQUDX @S KD@RS SGQDD $@KHENQMH@ QDRHCDMSR TMSHK VD EHMC @ $@KHENQMH@ QDRHCDMS
VGN CNDR MNS G@UD @CDPT@SD D@QSGPT@JD RTOOKHDR
B. )NV L@MX $@KHENQMH@ QDRHCDMSR CN XNT DWODBS SN MDDC SN RTQUDX TMSHK XNT EHMC @ $@KHENQMH@ QDRHCDMS VGN 9D:H CDI
G@UD @CDPT@SD D@QSGPT@JD RTOOKHDR
C. )NV L@MX $@KHENQMH@ QDRHCDMSR CN XNT DWODBS SN MDDC SN RTQUDX TMSHK XNT EHMC @ $@KHENQMH@ QDRHCDMS VGN 9D:H
G@UD @CDPT@SD D@QSGPT@JD RTOOKHDR
107. *M NMD NE HSR 4OQHMF B@S@KNFR, -.-. #D@M_ @CUDQSHRDC ENNSVD@Q NM 29 NE HSR 192 B@S@KNF O@FDR. 4TOONRD VD Q@MCNLKX
RTQUDX 20 O@FDR. 8D @QD HMSDQDRSDC HM SGD MTLADQ NE O@FDR SG@S @CUDQSHRD ENNSVD@Q. &@BG O@FD L@X AD OHBJDC LNQD SG@M
NMBD.
=. *M VNQCR, CDEHMD SGD Q@MCNL U@QH@AKD 1.
>. -HRS SGD U@KTDR SG@S 1 L@X S@JD NM.
?. (HUD SGD CHRSQHATSHNM NE 1. 1 ] ?????(?????,?????)
@. )NV L@MX O@FDR CN XNT DWODBS SN @CUDQSHRD ENNSVD@Q NM SGDL
A. *R HS OQNA@AKD SG@S @KK SVDMSX VHKK @CUDQSHRD ENNSVD@Q NM SGDL 8GX NQ VGX MNS
B. 8G@S HR SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S EDVDQ SG@M SDM VHKK @CUDQSHRD ENNSVD@Q NM SGDL
C. 3DLHMCDQ: " O@FD L@X AD OHBJDC LNQD SG@M NMBD. 8D @QD HMSDQDRSDC HM SGD MTLADQ NE O@FDR SG@S VD LTRS
Q@MCNLKX RTQUDX TMSHK VD EHMC NMD SG@S G@R ENNSVD@Q @CUDQSHRDC NM HS. %DEHMD SGD Q@MCNL U@QH@AKD 1 @MC FHUD HSR
CHRSQHATSHNM.
D. 8G@S HR SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S XNT NMKX MDDC SN RTQUDX @S LNRS SGQDD O@FDR HM NQCDQ SN EHMC NMD SG@S @CUDQSHRDR
ENNSVD@Q NM HS
E. )NV L@MX O@FDR CN XNT DWODBS SN MDDC SN RTQUDX HM NQCDQ SN EHMC NMD SG@S @CUDQSHRDR ENNSVD@Q
108. 4TOONRD SG@S XNT @QD ODQENQLHMF SGD OQNA@AHKHSX DWODQHLDMS NE QNKKHMF NMD E@HQ RHW-RHCDC CHD. -DS F AD SGD DUDMS NE
QNKKHMF @ ENTQ NQ @ EHUD. :NT @QD HMSDQDRSDC HM GNV L@MX SHLDR XNT MDDC SN QNKK SGD CHD HM NQCDQ SN NAS@HM SGD EHQRS ENTQ NQ EHUD
@R SGD NTSBNLD.
c F = OQNA@AHKHSX NE RTBBDRR (DUDMS F NBBTQR)
c G = OQNA@AHKHSX NE E@HKTQD (DUDMS F CNDR MNS NBBTQ)
=. 8QHSD SGD CDRBQHOSHNM NE SGD Q@MCNL U@QH@AKD 1.
>. 8G@S @QD SGD U@KTDR SG@S 1 B@M S@JD NM
?. 'HMC SGD U@KTDR NE F @MC G.
@. 'HMC SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S SGD EHQRS NBBTQQDMBD NE DUDMS F (QNKKHMF @ ENTQ NQ EHUD) HR NM SGD RDBNMC SQH@K.
109. &KKDM G@R LTRHB OQ@BSHBD SGQDD C@X R @ VDDJ. 4GD OQ@BSHBDR ENQ @KK NE SGD SGQDD C@X R 85% NE SGD SHLD, SVN C@X R 8% NE
SGD SHLD, NMD C@X 4% NE SGD SHLD, @MC MN C@X R 3% NE SGD SHLD. 0MD VDDJ HR RDKDBSDC @S Q@MCNL. 8G@S U@KTDR CNDR 1 S@JD
NM
110. 5GD 8NQKC #@MJ QDBNQCR SGD OQDU@KDMBD NE )*7 HM BNTMSQHDR @QNTMC SGD VNQKC. "BBNQCHMF SN SGDHQ C@S@, o1QDU@KDMBD NE
)*7 QDEDQR SN SGD ODQBDMS@FD NE ODNOKD @FDR 15 SN 49 VGN @QD HMEDBSDC VHSG )*7.p
<1=
*M 4NTSG "EQHB@, SGD OQDU@KDMBD NE )*7
HR 17.3%. -DS 1 = SGD MTLADQ NE ODNOKD XNT SDRS TMSHK XNT EHMC @ ODQRNM HMEDBSDC VHSG )*7.
=. 4JDSBG @ FQ@OG NE SGD CHRSQHATSHNM NE SGD CHRBQDSD Q@MCNL U@QH@AKD 1.
>. 8G@S HR SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S XNT LTRS SDRS 30 ODNOKD SN EHMC NMD VHSG )*7
?. 8G@S HR SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S XNT LTRS @RJ SDM ODNOKD
@. 'HMC SGD (H) LD@M @MC (HH) RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNM NE SGD CHRSQHATSHNM NE 1.
111. "BBNQCHMF SN @ QDBDMS 1DV 3DRD@QBG ONKK, 75% NE LHKKDMH@KR (ODNOKD ANQM ADSVDDM 1981 @MC 1995) G@UD @ OQNEHKD NM
@ RNBH@K MDSVNQJHMF RHSD. -DS 1 = SGD MTLADQ NE LHKKDMH@KR XNT @RJ TMSHK XNT EHMC @ ODQRNM VHSGNTS @ OQNEHKD NM @ RNBH@K
MDSVNQJHMF RHSD.
=. %DRBQHAD SGD CHRSQHATSHNM NE 1.
>. 'HMC SGD (H) LD@M @MC (HH) RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNM NE 1.
?. 8G@S HR SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S XNT LTRS @RJ SDM ODNOKD SN EHMC NMD ODQRNM VHSGNTS @ RNBH@K MDSVNQJHMF RHSD
1. p1QDU@KDMBD NE )*7, SNS@K (% NE ONOTK@SHNMR @FDR 15-49),p 5GD 8NQKC #@MJ, 2013. "U@HK@AKD NMKHMD @S
GSSO://C@S@.VNQKCA@MJ.NQF/HMCHB@SNQ/
4).%:/."*%4.;4NQCDQ=VA@OH?C@S@?U@KTD?2011+VA@OH?C@S@?U@KTD+VA@OH?C@S@?U@KTD-K@RS&RNQS=CDRB (@BBDRRDC .@X
15, 2013).
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@. 8G@S HR SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S XNT LTRS @RJ 20 ODNOKD SN EHMC NMD ODQRNM VHSGNTS @ RNBH@K MDSVNQJHMF RHSD
A. 8G@S HR SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S XNT LTRS @RJ 7J CEIJ EHUD ODNOKD
4.5 &SJ?LA?IG?NLC= "CMNLC<ONCIH
112. " FQNTO NE .@QSH@K "QSR RSTCDMSR HR OK@MMHMF NM O@QSHBHO@SHMF HM @M TOBNLHMF CDLNMRSQ@SHNM. 4HW @QD RSTCDMSR NE
5@D ,VNM %N; RDUDM @QD RSTCDMSR NE 4GNSNJ@M ,@Q@SD. 4TOONRD SG@S DHFGS RSTCDMSR @QD Q@MCNLKX OHBJDC SN AD HM SGD EHQRS
CDLNMRSQ@SHNM. 8D @QD HMSDQDRSDC HM SGD MTLADQ NE 4GNSNJ@M ,@Q@SD RSTCDMSR HM SG@S EHQRS CDLNMRSQ@SHNM.
=. *M VNQCR, CDEHMD SGD Q@MCNL U@QH@AKD 1.
>. -HRS SGD U@KTDR SG@S 1 L@X S@JD NM.
?. (HUD SGD CHRSQHATSHNM NE 1. 1 ] ?????(?????,?????)
@. )NV L@MX 4GNSNJ@M ,@Q@SD RSTCDMSR CN VD DWODBS SN AD HM SG@S EHQRS CDLNMRSQ@SHNM
113. *M NMD NE HSR 4OQHMF B@S@KNFR, -.-. #D@M_ @CUDQSHRDC ENNSVD@Q NM 29 NE HSR 192 B@S@KNF O@FDR. 4TOONRD VD Q@MCNLKX
RTQUDX 20 O@FDR. 8D @QD HMSDQDRSDC HM SGD MTLADQ NE O@FDR SG@S @CUDQSHRD ENNSVD@Q. &@BG O@FD L@X AD OHBJDC @S LNRS NMBD.
=. *M VNQCR, CDEHMD SGD Q@MCNL U@QH@AKD 1.
>. -HRS SGD U@KTDR SG@S 1 L@X S@JD NM.
?. (HUD SGD CHRSQHATSHNM NE 1. 1 ] ?????(?????,?????)
@. )NV L@MX O@FDR CN XNT DWODBS SN @CUDQSHRD ENNSVD@Q NM SGDL
A. $@KBTK@SD SGD RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNM.
114. 4TOONRD SG@S @ SDBGMNKNFX S@RJ ENQBD HR ADHMF ENQLDC SN RSTCX SDBGMNKNFX @V@QDMDRR @LNMF HMRSQTBSNQR. "RRTLD SG@S
SDM ODNOKD VHKK AD Q@MCNLKX BGNRDM SN AD NM SGD BNLLHSSDD EQNL @ FQNTO NE 28 UNKTMSDDQR, 20 VGN @QD SDBGMHB@KKX OQNEHBHDMS
@MC DHFGS VGN @QD MNS. 8D @QD HMSDQDRSDC HM SGD MTLADQ NM SGD BNLLHSSDD VGN @QD CDI SDBGMHB@KKX OQNEHBHDMS.
=. *M VNQCR, CDEHMD SGD Q@MCNL U@QH@AKD 1.
>. -HRS SGD U@KTDR SG@S 1 L@X S@JD NM.
?. (HUD SGD CHRSQHATSHNM NE 1. 1 ] ?????(?????,?????)
@. )NV L@MX HMRSQTBSNQR CN XNT DWODBS NM SGD BNLLHSSDD VGN @QD CDI SDBGMHB@KKX OQNEHBHDMS
A. 'HMC SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S @S KD@RS EHUD NM SGD BNLLHSSDD @QD MNS SDBGMHB@KKX OQNEHBHDMS.
B. 'HMC SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S @S LNRS SGQDD NM SGD BNLLHSSDD @QD MNS SDBGMHB@KKX OQNEHBHDMS.
115. 4TOONRD SG@S MHMD .@RR@BGTRDSSR @SGKDSDR @QD RBGDCTKDC SN @OOD@Q @S @ BG@QHSX ADMDEHS. 5GD MHMD @QD Q@MCNLKX BGNRDM
EQNL DHFGS UNKTMSDDQR EQNL SGD #NRSNM $DKSHBR @MC ENTQ UNKTMSDDQR EQNL SGD /DV &MFK@MC 1@SQHNSR. 8D @QD HMSDQDRSDC HM SGD
MTLADQ NE 1@SQHNSR OHBJDC.
=. *M VNQCR, CDEHMD SGD Q@MCNL U@QH@AKD 1.
>. -HRS SGD U@KTDR SG@S 1 L@X S@JD NM.
?. (HUD SGD CHRSQHATSHNM NE 1. 1 ] ?????(?????,?????)
@. "QD XNT BGNNRHMF SGD MHMD @SGKDSDR VHSG NQ VHSGNTS QDOK@BDLDMS
A. 8G@S HR SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S @KK NE SGD UNKTMSDDQR VHKK AD EQNL SGD $DKSHBR.
B. *R HS LNQD KHJDKX SG@S LNQD NE SGD UNKTMSDDQR VHKK AD EQNL SGD 1@SQHNSR NQ EQNL SGD $DKSHBR )NV CN XNT JMNV
116. " AQHCFD G@MC HR CDEHMDC @R 13 B@QCR RDKDBSDC @S Q@MCNL@MC VHSGNTS QDOK@BDLDMS EQNL@ CDBJ NE 52 B@QCR. *M @ RS@MC@QC
CDBJ NE B@QCR, SGDQD @QD 13 B@QCR EQNL D@BG RTHS: GD@QSR, RO@CDR, BKTAR, @MC CH@LNMCR. 8G@S HR SGD OQNA@AHKHSX NE ADHMF CD@KS
@ G@MC SG@S CNDR MNS BNMS@HM @ GD@QS
=. 8G@S HR SGD FQNTO NE HMSDQDRS
>. )NV L@MX @QD HM SGD FQNTO NE HMSDQDRS
?. )NV L@MX @QD HM SGD NSGDQ FQNTO
@. -DS 1 = ?????????. 8G@S U@KTDR CNDR 1 S@JD NM
A. 5GD OQNA@AHKHSX PTDRSHNM HR )(???????).
B. 'HMC SGD OQNA@AHKHSX HM PTDRSHNM.
C. 'HMC SGD (H) LD@M @MC (HH) RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNM NE 1.
4.6 .ICMMIH "CMNLC<ONCIH
117. 5GD RVHSBGAN@QC HM @ .HMMD@ONKHR K@V NEEHBD FDSR @M @UDQ@FD NE 5.5 HMBNLHMF OGNMD B@KKR CTQHMF SGD MNNM GNTQ NM
.NMC@XR. &WODQHDMBD RGNVR SG@S SGD DWHRSHMF RS@EE B@M G@MCKD TO SN RHW B@KKR HM @M GNTQ. -DS 1 = SGD MTLADQ NE B@KKR QDBDHUDC
CTQHMF @S MNNM.
=. 'HMC SGD LD@M @MC RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNM NE 1.
>. 8G@S HR SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S SGD NEEHBD QDBDHUDR @S LNRS RHW B@KKR @S MNNM NM .NMC@X
?. 'HMC SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S SGD K@V NEEHBD QDBDHUDR RHW B@KKR @S MNNM. 8G@S CNDR SGHR LD@M SN SGD K@V NEEHBD RS@EE VGN
FDS, NM @UDQ@FD, 5.5 HMBNLHMF OGNMD B@KKR @S MNNM
@. 8G@S HR SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S SGD NEEHBD QDBDHUDR LNQD SG@M DHFGS B@KKR @S MNNM
118. 5GD L@SDQMHSX V@QC @S %Q. +NRD '@ADKK@ .DLNQH@K )NROHS@K HM .@MHK@ HM SGD 1GHKHOOHMDR HR NMD NE SGD ATRHDRS HM SGD
VNQKC VHSG @M @UDQ@FD NE 60 AHQSGR ODQ C@X. -DS 1 = SGD MTLADQ NE AHQSGR HM @M GNTQ.
=. 'HMC SGD LD@M @MC RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNM NE 1.
"'/3$1 4 W #(2"1$3$ 1-#., 51(!+$2 303
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>. 4JDSBG @ FQ@OG NE SGD OQNA@AHKHSX CHRSQHATSHNM NE 1.
?. 8G@S HR SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S SGD L@SDQMHSX V@QC VHKK CDKHUDQ SGQDD A@AHDR HM NMD GNTQ
@. 8G@S HR SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S SGD L@SDQMHSX V@QC VHKK CDKHUDQ @S LNRS SGQDD A@AHDR HM NMD GNTQ
A. 8G@S HR SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S SGD L@SDQMHSX V@QC VHKK CDKHUDQ LNQD SG@M EHUD A@AHDR HM NMD GNTQ
119. " L@MTE@BSTQDQ NE $GQHRSL@R SQDD KHFGS ATKAR JMNVR SG@S 3%NE HSR ATKAR @QD CDEDBSHUD. 'HMC SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S @ RSQHMF
NE 100 KHFGSR BNMS@HMR @S LNRS ENTQ CDEDBSHUD ATKAR TRHMF ANSG SGD AHMNLH@K @MC 1NHRRNM CHRSQHATSHNMR.
120. 5GD @UDQ@FD MTLADQ NE BGHKCQDM @ +@O@MDRD VNL@M G@R HM GDQ KHEDSHLD HR 1.37. 4TOONRD SG@S NMD +@O@MDRD VNL@M HR
Q@MCNLKX BGNRDM.
=. *M VNQCR, CDEHMD SGD Q@MCNL U@QH@AKD 1.
>. -HRS SGD U@KTDR SG@S 1 L@X S@JD NM.
?. (HUD SGD CHRSQHATSHNM NE 1. 1 ] ?????(?????,?????)
@. 'HMC SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S RGD G@R MN BGHKCQDM.
A. 'HMC SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S RGD G@R EDVDQ BGHKCQDM SG@M SGD +@O@MDRD @UDQ@FD.
B. 'HMC SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S RGD G@R LNQD BGHKCQDM SG@M SGD +@O@MDRD @UDQ@FD.
121. 5GD @UDQ@FD MTLADQ NE BGHKCQDM @ 4O@MHRG VNL@M G@R HM GDQ KHEDSHLD HR 1.47. 4TOONRD SG@S NMD 4O@MHRG VNL@M HR
Q@MCNLKX BGNRDM.
=. *M VNQCR, CDEHMD SGD 3@MCNL 7@QH@AKD 1.
>. -HRS SGD U@KTDR SG@S 1 L@X S@JD NM.
?. (HUD SGD CHRSQHATSHNM NE 1. 1 ] ?????(?????,?????)
@. 'HMC SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S RGD G@R MN BGHKCQDM.
A. 'HMC SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S RGD G@R EDVDQ BGHKCQDM SG@M SGD 4O@MHRG @UDQ@FD.
B. 'HMC SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S RGD G@R LNQD BGHKCQDM SG@M SGD 4O@MHRG @UDQ@FD .
122. 'DQSHKD, EDL@KD B@SR OQNCTBD @M @UDQ@FD NE SGQDD KHSSDQR ODQ XD@Q. 4TOONRD SG@S NMD EDQSHKD, EDL@KD B@S HR Q@MCNLKX BGNRDM.
*M NMD XD@Q, EHMC SGD OQNA@AHKHSX RGD OQNCTBDR:
=. *M VNQCR, CDEHMD SGD Q@MCNL U@QH@AKD 1.
>. -HRS SGD U@KTDR SG@S 1 L@X S@JD NM.
?. (HUD SGD CHRSQHATSHNM NE 1. 1 ] ???????
@. 'HMC SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S RGD G@R MN KHSSDQR HM NMD XD@Q.
A. 'HMC SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S RGD G@R @S KD@RS SVN KHSSDQR HM NMD XD@Q.
B. 'HMC SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S RGD G@R DW@BSKX SGQDD KHSSDQR HM NMD XD@Q.
123. 5GD BG@MBD NE G@UHMF @M DWSQ@ ENQSTMD HM @ ENQSTMD BNNJHD HR @ANTS 3%. (HUDM @ A@F NE 144 ENQSTMD BNNJHDR, VD @QD
HMSDQDRSDC HM SGD MTLADQ NE BNNJHDR VHSG @M DWSQ@ ENQSTMD. 5VN CHRSQHATSHNMR L@X AD TRDC SN RNKUD SGHR OQNAKDL, ATS NMKX TRD
NMD CHRSQHATSHNM SN RNKUD SGD OQNAKDL.
=. *M VNQCR, CDEHMD SGD Q@MCNL U@QH@AKD 1.
>. -HRS SGD U@KTDR SG@S 1 L@X S@JD NM.
?. (HUD SGD CHRSQHATSHNM NE 1. 1 ] ?????(?????,?????)
@. )NV L@MX BNNJHDR CN VD DWODBS SN G@UD @M DWSQ@ ENQSTMD
A. 'HMC SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S MNMD NE SGD BNNJHDR G@UD @M DWSQ@ ENQSTMD.
B. 'HMC SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S LNQD SG@M SGQDD G@UD @M DWSQ@ ENQSTMD.
C. "R D HMBQD@RDR, VG@S G@OODMR HMUNKUHMF SGD OQNA@AHKHSHDR TRHMF SGD SVN CHRSQHATSHNMR &WOK@HM HM BNLOKDSD
RDMSDMBDR.
124. "BBNQCHMF SN SGD 4NTSG $@QNKHM@ %DO@QSLDMS NE .DMS@K )D@KSG VDA RHSD, ENQ DUDQX 200 6.4. VNLDM, SGD @UDQ@FD
MTLADQ VGN RTEEDQ EQNL @MNQDWH@ HR NMD. 0TS NE @ Q@MCNLKX BGNRDM FQNTO NE 600 6.4. VNLDM CDSDQLHMD SGD ENKKNVHMF.
=. *M VNQCR, CDEHMD SGD Q@MCNL U@QH@AKD 1.
>. -HRS SGD U@KTDR SG@S 1 L@X S@JD NM.
?. (HUD SGD CHRSQHATSHNM NE1. 1 ] ?????(?????,?????)
@. )NV L@MX @QD DWODBSDC SN RTEEDQ EQNL @MNQDWH@
A. 'HMC SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S MN NMD RTEEDQR EQNL @MNQDWH@.
B. 'HMC SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S LNQD SG@M ENTQ RTEEDQ EQNL @MNQDWH@.
125. 5GD BG@MBD NE @M *34 @TCHS ENQ @ S@W QDSTQM VHSG NUDQ $25,000 HM HMBNLD HR @ANTS 2%ODQ XD@Q. 4TOONRD SG@S 100 ODNOKD
VHSG S@W QDSTQMR NUDQ $25,000 @QD Q@MCNLKX OHBJDC. 8D @QD HMSDQDRSDC HM SGD MTLADQ NE ODNOKD @TCHSDC HM NMD XD@Q. 6RD @
1NHRRNM CHRSQHATSHNM SN @MVDQ SGD ENKKNVHMF PTDRSHNMR.
=. *M VNQCR, CDEHMD SGD Q@MCNL U@QH@AKD 1.
>. -HRS SGD U@KTDR SG@S 1 L@X S@JD NM.
?. (HUD SGD CHRSQHATSHNM NE 1. 1 ] ?????(?????,?????)
@. )NV L@MX @QD DWODBSDC SN AD @TCHSDC
A. 'HMC SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S MN NMD V@R @TCHSDC.
B. 'HMC SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S @S KD@RS SGQDD VDQD @TCHSDC.
304 "'/3$1 4 W #(2"1$3$ 1-#., 51(!+$2
3DEO ?KJPAJP EO =R=EH=>HA BKN BNAA =P DPPL://?JT.KNC/?KJPAJP/?KH11562/1.11
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126. "OOQNWHL@SDKX 8% NE RSTCDMSR @S @ KNB@K GHFG RBGNNK O@QSHBHO@SD HM @ESDQ-RBGNNK RONQSR @KK ENTQ XD@QR NE GHFG RBGNNK. "
FQNTO NE 60 RDMHNQR HR Q@MCNLKX BGNRDM. 0E HMSDQDRS HR SGD MTLADQ SG@S O@QSHBHO@SDC HM @ESDQ-RBGNNK RONQSR @KK ENTQ XD@QR NE
GHFG RBGNNK.
=. *M VNQCR, CDEHMD SGD Q@MCNL U@QH@AKD 1.
>. -HRS SGD U@KTDR SG@S 1 L@X S@JD NM.
?. (HUD SGD CHRSQHATSHNM NE 1. 1 ] ?????(?????,?????)
@. )NV L@MX RDMHNQR @QD DWODBSDC SN G@UD O@QSHBHO@SDC HM @ESDQ-RBGNNK RONQSR @KK ENTQ XD@QR NE GHFG RBGNNK
A. #@RDC NM MTLDQHB@K U@KTDR, VNTKC XNT AD RTQOQHRDC HE MNMD NE SGD RDMHNQR O@QSHBHO@SDC HM @ESDQ-RBGNNK RONQSR @KK
ENTQ XD@QR NE GHFG RBGNNK +TRSHEX XNTQ @MRVDQ MTLDQHB@KKX.
B. #@RDC NM MTLDQHB@K U@KTDR, HR HS LNQD KHJDKX SG@S ENTQ NQ SG@S EHUD NE SGD RDMHNQR O@QSHBHO@SDC HM @ESDQ-RBGNNK RONQSR
@KK ENTQ XD@QR NE GHFG RBGNNK +TRSHEX XNTQ @MRVDQ MTLDQHB@KKX.
127. 0M @UDQ@FD, 1HDQQD, @M @L@SDTQ BGDE, CQNOR SGQDD OHDBDR NE DFF RGDKK HMSN DUDQX SVN B@JD A@SSDQR GD L@JDR. 4TOONRD
SG@S XNT ATX NMD NE GHR B@JDR.
=. *M VNQCR, CDEHMD SGD Q@MCNL U@QH@AKD 1.
>. -HRS SGD U@KTDR SG@S 1 L@X S@JD NM.
?. (HUD SGD CHRSQHATSHNM NE 1. 1 ] ?????(?????,?????)
@. 0M @UDQ@FD, GNV L@MX OHDBDR NE DFF RGDKK CN XNT DWODBS SN AD HM SGD B@JD
A. 8G@S HR SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S SGDQD VHKK MNS AD @MX OHDBDR NE DFF RGDKK HM SGD B@JD
B. -DSnR R@X SG@S XNT ATX NMD NE 1HDQQDnR B@JDR D@BG VDDJ ENQ RHW VDDJR. 8G@S HR SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S SGDQD VHKK MNS
AD @MX DFF RGDKK HM @MX NE SGD B@JDR
C. #@RDC TONM SGD @UDQ@FD FHUDM ENQ 1HDQQD, HR HS ONRRHAKD ENQ SGDQD SN AD RDUDM OHDBDR NE RGDKK HM SGD B@JD 8GX
.I; J>; <EBBEM?D= ?D<EHC7J?ED JE 7DIM;H J>; D;NJ JME ;N;H9?I;I: 5GD @UDQ@FD MTLADQ NE SHLDR ODQ VDDJ SG@S .QR. 1KTLnR
B@SR V@JD GDQ TO @S MHFGS ADB@TRD SGDX V@MS SN OK@X HR SDM. 8D @QD HMSDQDRSDC HM SGD MTLADQ NE SHLDR GDQ B@SR V@JD GDQ TO
D@BG VDDJ.
128. *M VNQCR, SGD Q@MCNL U@QH@AKD 1 = ?????????????????
=. SGD MTLADQ NE SHLDR .QR. 1KTLnR B@SR V@JD GDQ TO D@BG VDDJ.
>. SGD MTLADQ NE SHLDR .QR. 1KTLnR B@SR V@JD GDQ TO D@BG GNTQ.
?. SGD MTLADQ NE SHLDR .QR. 1KTLnR B@SR V@JD GDQ TO D@BG MHFGS.
@. SGD MTLADQ NE SHLDR .QR. 1KTLnR B@SR V@JD GDQ TO.
129. 'HMC SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S GDQ B@SR VHKK V@JD GDQ TO MN LNQD SG@M EHUD SHLDR MDWS VDDJ.
=. 0.5000
>. 0.9329
?. 0.0378
@. 0.0671
0#$#0#,!#1
4.2 +?;H IL #RJ?=N?> 4;FO? ;H> 1N;H>;L> "?PC;NCIH
$K@RR $@S@KNFTD @S SGD 'KNQHC@ 4S@SD 6MHUDQRHSX. "U@HK@AKD NMKHMD @S GSSOR://@OOR.NSH.ERT.DCT/3DFHRSQ@Q$NTQRD-NNJTO/
4D@QBG'NQL-DF@BX (@BBDRRDC .@X 15, 2013).
o8NQKC &@QSGPT@JDR: -HUD &@QSGPT@JD /DVR @MC )HFGKHFGSR,p 8NQKC &@QSGPT@JDR, 2012. GSSO://VVV.VNQKC-
D@QSGPT@JDR.BNL/HMCDW.OGONOSHNM=DSGP?OQDCHBSHNM (@BBDRRDC .@X 15, 2013).
4.3 CHIGC;F "CMNLC<ONCIH
o"BBDRR SN DKDBSQHBHSX (% NE ONOTK@SHNM),p 5GD 8NQKC #@MJ, 2013. "U@HK@AKD NMKHMD @S GSSO://C@S@.VNQKCA@MJ.NQF/HMCHB@SNQ/
&(.&-$."$$4.;4NQCDQ=VA@OH?C@S@?U@KTD?2009%20VA@OH?C@S@?U@KTD%20VA@OH?C@S@?U@KTD-EHQRS&RNQS=@RB (@BBDRRDC
.@X 15, 2015).
o%HRS@MBD &CTB@SHNM.p 8HJHODCH@. "U@HK@AKD NMKHMD @S GSSO://DM.VHJHODCH@.NQF/VHJH/%HRS@MBD?DCTB@SHNM (@BBDRRDC .@X 15,
2013).
o/#" 4S@SHRSHBR k 2013,p &41/ /#", 2013. "U@HK@AKD NMKHMD @S GSSO://DROM.FN.BNL/MA@/RS@SHRSHBR/?/RD@RNMSXOD/2 (@BBDRRDC
.@X 15, 2013).
/DVONQS, 'Q@MJ. o"LDQHB@MR 4SHKK &MINX 4@UHMF 3@SGDQ SG@M 4ODMCHMF: 'DV CDLNFQ@OGHB CHEEDQDMBDR RDDM HM SGDRD UHDVR
NSGDQ SG@M AX HMBNLD,p ("--61_ &BNMNLX, 2013. "U@HK@AKD NMKHMD @S GSSO://VVV.F@KKTO.BNL/ONKK/162368/@LDQHB@MR-
DMINX-R@UHMF-Q@SGDQ-RODMCHMF.@ROW (@BBDRRDC .@X 15, 2013).
1QXNQ, +NGM )., -HMC@ %D"MFDKN, -@TQ@ 1@KTBJH #K@JD, 4XKUH@ )TQS@CN, 4DQFD 5Q@M. ->; AC;H?97D FH;I>C7D: '7J?ED7B
'EHCI F7BB 2011. -NR "MFDKDR: $NNODQ@SHUD *MRSHSTSHNM@K 3DRD@QBG 1QNFQ@L @S SGD )HFGDQ &CTB@SHNM 3DRD@QBG *MRSHSTSD
@S 6$-", 2011. "KRN @U@HK@AKD NMKHMD @S GSSO://GDQH.TBK@.DCT/1%'R/OTAR/5'4//NQLR/.NMNFQ@OGR/
5GD"LDQHB@M'QDRGL@M2011.OCE (@BBDRRDC .@X 15, 2013).
o5GD 8NQKC '@BS#NNJ,p $DMSQ@K *MSDKKHFDMBD "FDMBX. "U@HK@AKD NMKHMD @S GSSOR://VVV.BH@.FNU/KHAQ@QX/OTAKHB@SHNMR/SGD-
VNQKC-E@BSANNJ/FDNR/@E.GSLK (@BBDRRDC .@X 15, 2013).
"'/3$1 4 W #(2"1$3$ 1-#., 51(!+$2 305
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o8G@S @QD SGD JDX RS@SHRSHBR @ANTS O@MBQD@SHB B@MBDQp "LDQHB@M $@MBDQ 4NBHDSX, 2013. "U@HK@AKD NMKHMD @S
GSSO://VVV.B@MBDQ.NQF/B@MBDQ/O@MBQD@SHBB@MBDQ/CDS@HKDCFTHCD/O@MBQD@SHB-B@MBDQ-JDX-RS@SHRSHBR (@BBDRRDC .@X 15, 2013).
4.4 %?IG?NLC= "CMNLC<ONCIH
o.HKKDMMH@KR: " 1NQSQ@HS NE (DMDQ@SHNM /DWS,p 1DV3DRD@QBG$DMSDQ. "U@HK@AKD NMKHMD @S GSSO://VVV.ODVRNBH@KSQDMCR.NQF/
EHKDR/2010/10/LHKKDMMH@KR-BNMEHCDMS-BNMMDBSDC-NODM-SN-BG@MFD.OCE (@BBDRRDC .@X 15, 2013).
o.HKKDMMH@KR: $NMEHCDMS. $NMMDBSDC. 0ODM SN $G@MFD.p &WDBTSHUD 4TLL@QX AX 1DV3DRD@QBG 4NBH@K & %DLNFQ@OGHB
5QDMCR, 2013. "U@HK@AKD NMKHMD @S GSSO://VVV.ODVRNBH@KSQDMCR.NQF/2010/02/24/LHKKDMMH@KR-BNMEHCDMS-BNMMDBSDC-NODM-SN-
BG@MFD/ (@BBDRRDC .@X 15, 2013).
o1QDU@KDMBD NE )*7, SNS@K (% NE ONOTK@SHNMR @FDR 15-49),p 5GD 8NQKC #@MJ, 2013. "U@HK@AKD NMKHMD @S
GSSO://C@S@.VNQKCA@MJ.NQF/HMCHB@SNQ/
4).%:/."*%4.;4NQCDQ=VA@OH?C@S@?U@KTD?2011+VA@OH?C@S@?U@KTD+VA@OH?C@S@?U@KTD-K@RS&RNQS=CDRB (@BBDRRDC .@X
15, 2013).
1QXNQ, +NGM )., -HMC@ %D"MFDKN, -@TQ@ 1@KTBJH #K@JD, 4XKUH@ )TQS@CN, 4DQFD 5Q@M. ->; AC;H?97D FH;I>C7D: '7J?ED7B
'EHCI F7BB 2011. -NR "MFDKDR: $NNODQ@SHUD *MRSHSTSHNM@K 3DRD@QBG 1QNFQ@L @S SGD )HFGDQ &CTB@SHNM 3DRD@QBG *MRSHSTSD
@S 6$-", 2011. "KRN @U@HK@AKD NMKHMD @S GSSO://GDQH.TBK@.DCT/1%'R/OTAR/5'4//NQLR/.NMNFQ@OGR/
5GD"LDQHB@M'QDRGL@M2011.OCE (@BBDRRDC .@X 15, 2013).
o4TLL@QX NE SGD /@SHNM@K 3HRJ @MC 7TKMDQ@AHKHSX "RRDRRLDMS 2007/8: " OQNEHKD NE "EFG@MHRS@M,p 5GD &TQNOD@M 6MHNM @MC
*$0/-*MRSHSTSD. "U@HK@AKD NMKHMD @S GSSO://DB.DTQNO@.DT/DTQNOD@HC/VGDQD/@RH@/CNBTLDMSR/@EFG?AQNBGTQD?RTLL@QX?DM.OCE
(@BBDRRDC .@X 15, 2013).
o5GD 8NQKC '@BS#NNJ,p $DMSQ@K *MSDKKHFDMBD "FDMBX. "U@HK@AKD NMKHMD @S GSSOR://VVV.BH@.FNU/KHAQ@QX/OTAKHB@SHNMR/SGD-
VNQKC-E@BSANNJ/FDNR/@E.GSLK (@BBDRRDC .@X 15, 2013).
o6/*$&' QDONQSR NM 'DL@KD -HSDQ@BX $DMSDQR HM "EFG@MHRS@M DRS@AKHRGDC SN SD@BG VNLDM @MC FHQKR A@RHB QDR@CHMF <RHB=
@MC VQHSHMF RJHKKR,p 6/*$&' 5DKDUHRHNM. 7HCDN @U@HK@AKD NMKHMD @S GSSO://VVV.TMHBDETR@.NQF/@RRDSR/UHCDN/@EFG@M-EDL@KD-
KHSDQ@BX-BDMSDQR.GSLK (@BBDRRDC .@X 15, 2013).
4.6 .ICMMIH "CMNLC<ONCIH
o"5- '@BS 4GDDS,p %DO@QSLDMS NE "UH@SHNM @S SGD )@QSREHDKC-+@BJRNM "SK@MS@ *MSDQM@SHNM@K "HQONQS, 2013. "U@HK@AKD NMKHMD
@S GSSO://VVV.@SK@MS@-@HQONQS.BNL/"HQONQS/"5-/"5-?'@BS4GDDS.@ROW (@BBDRRDC .@X 15, 2013).
$DMSDQ ENQ %HRD@RD $NMSQNK @MC 1QDUDMSHNM. o5DDM %QHUDQR: '@BS 4GDDS,p *MITQX 1QDUDMSHNM & $NMSQNK: .NSNQ 7DGHBKD 4@EDSX,
0BSNADQ 2, 2012. "U@HK@AKD NMKHMD @S GSSO://VVV.BCB.FNU/.NSNQUDGHBKDR@EDSX/5DDM?%QHUDQR/SDDMCQHUDQR?E@BSRGDDS.GSLK
(@BBDRRDC .@X 15, 2013).
o$GHKCQDM @MC $GHKCQD@QHMF,p .HMHRSQX NE )D@KSG, -@ANTQ, @MC 8DKE@QD. "U@HK@AKD NMKHMD @S GSSO://VVV.LGKV.FN.IO/DMFKHRG/
ONKHBX/BGHKCQDM/BGHKCQDM-BGHKCQD@QHMF/HMCDW.GSLK (@BBDRRDC .@X 15, 2013).
o&@SHMF %HRNQCDQ 4S@SHRSHBR,p 4NTSG $@QNKHM@ %DO@QSLDMS NE .DMS@K )D@KSG, 2006. "U@HK@AKD NMKHMD @S GSSO://VVV.RS@SD.RB.TR/
CLG/@MNQDWH@/RS@SHRSHBR.GSL (@BBDRRDC .@X 15, 2013).
o(HUHMF #HQSG HM .@MHK@: 5GD L@SDQMHSX V@QC @S SGD %Q +NRD '@ADKK@ .DLNQH@K )NROHS@K HM .@MHK@, SGD ATRHDRS HM SGD
1GHKHOOHMDR, VGDQD SGDQD HR @M @UDQ@FD NE 60 AHQSGR @ C@X,p SGDFT@QCH@M, 2013. "U@HK@AKD NMKHMD @S
GSSO://VVV.SGDFT@QCH@M.BNL/VNQKC/F@KKDQX/2011/ITM/08/OGHKHOOHMDR-GD@KSG#/OHBSTQD=375471900&HMCDW=2 (@BBDRRDC .@X
15, 2013).
o)NV "LDQHB@MR 6RD 5DWS .DRR@FHMF,p 1DV *MSDQMDS, 2013. "U@HK@AKD NMKHMD @S GSSO://ODVHMSDQMDS.NQF/3DONQSR/2011/$DKK-
1GNMD-5DWSHMF-2011/.@HM-3DONQS.@ROW (@BBDRRDC .@X 15, 2013).
-DMG@QS, "L@MC@. o5DDMR, 4L@QSOGNMDR &5DRSHMF: 5DWSHMF UNKTLHR TO VGHKD SGD EQDPTDMBX NE UNHBD B@KKHMF HR CNVM. "ANTS
NMD HM ENTQ SDDMR R@X SGDX NVM RL@QSOGNMDR,p 1DV *MSDQMDS, 2012. "U@HK@AKD NMKHMD @S GSSO://VVV.ODVHMSDQMDS.NQF/]/LDCH@/
'HKDR/3DONQSR/2012/1*1?5DDMR?4L@QSOGNMDR?@MC?5DWSHMF.OCE (@BBDRRDC .@X 15, 2013).
o0MD ANQM DUDQX LHMTSD: SGD L@SDQMHSX TMHS VGDQD LNSGDQR @QD 5)3&& SN @ ADC,p .@HK0MKHMD. "U@HK@AKD NMKHMD @S
GSSO://VVV.C@HKXL@HK.BN.TJ/MDVR/@QSHBKD-2001422/#TRHDRS-L@SDQMHSX-V@QC-OK@MDS-@UDQ@FDR-60-A@AHDR-C@X-LNSGDQR-
ADC.GSLK (@BBDRRDC .@X 15, 2013).
7@MCDQJ@L, -@TQ@. o4SNO $GDBJHMF :NTQ &L@HK, /NV.p $//.NMDX, 2013. "U@HK@AKD NMKHMD @S
GSSO://L@M@FDLDMS.ENQSTMD.BMM.BNL/2012/10/08/RSNO-BGDBJHMF-XNTQ-DL@HK-MNV/ (@BBDRRDC .@X 15, 2013).
o8NQKC &@QSGPT@JDR: -HUD &@QSGPT@JD /DVR @MC )HFGKHFGSR,p 8NQKC &@QSGPT@JDR, 2012. GSSO://VVV.VNQKC-
D@QSGPT@JDR.BNL/HMCDW.OGONOSHNM=DSGP?OQDCHBSHNM (@BBDRRDC .@X 15, 2013).
1-*32'-,1
1
306 "'/3$1 4 W #(2"1$3$ 1-#., 51(!+$2
3DEO ?KJPAJP EO =R=EH=>HA BKN BNAA =P DPPL://?JT.KNC/?KJPAJP/?KH11562/1.11
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0 0.12
1 0.18
2 0.30
3 0.15
4 0.10
5 0.10
6 0.05
167A: 4.38
3 0.10 + 0.05 = 0.15
5 1
7 0.35 + 0.40 + 0.10 = 0.85
9 1(0.15) + 2(0.35) + 3(0.40) + 4(0.10) = 0.15 + 0.70 + 1.20 + 0.40 = 2.45
11
: P(:)
0 0.03
1 0.04
2 0.08
3 0.85
167A: 4.39
13 -DS 1 = SGD MTLADQ NE DUDMSR +@UHDQ UNKTMSDDQR ENQ D@BG LNMSG.
15
"'/3$1 4 W #(2"1$3$ 1-#., 51(!+$2 307
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: P(:)
0 0.05
1 0.05
2 0.10
3 0.20
4 0.25
5 0.35
167A: 4.40
17 1 k 0.05 = 0.95
19 0.2 + 1.2 + 2.4 + 1.6 = 5.4
21 5GD U@KTDR NE )(N) CN MNS RTL SN NMD.
23 -DS 1 = SGD MTLADQ NE XD@QR @ OGXRHBR L@INQ VHKK RODMC CNHMF ONRS-FQ@CT@SD QDRD@QBG.
25 1 k 0.35 k 0.20 k 0.15 k 0.10 k 0.05 = 0.15
27 1(0.35) + 2(0.20) + 3(0.15) + 4(0.15) + 5(0.10) + 6(0.05) = 0.35 + 0.40 + 0.45 + 0.60 + 0.50 + 0.30 = 2.6 XD@QR
29 1 HR SGD MTLADQ NE XD@QR @ RSTCDMS RSTCHDR A@KKDS VHSG SGD SD@BGDQ.
31 0.10 + 0.05 + 0.10 = 0.25
33 5GD RTL NE SGD OQNA@AHKHSHDR RTL SN NMD ADB@TRD HS HR @ OQNA@AHKHSX CHRSQHATSHNM.
35 2

40
52

+ 30

12
52

= 1.54 + 6.92 = 5.38


37 1 = SGD MTLADQ SG@S QDOKX oXDRp
39 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8
41 5.7
43 0.4151
45 1 = SGD MTLADQ NE EQDRGLDM RDKDBSDC EQNL SGD RSTCX TMSHK NMD QDOKHDC "XDR" SG@S R@LD-RDW BNTOKDR RGNTKC G@UD SGD QHFGS
SN KDF@K L@QHS@K RS@STR.
47 1,2,r
49 1.4
51 1 = SGD MTLADQ NE ATRHMDRR L@INQR HM SGD R@LOKD.
53 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9
308 "'/3$1 4 W #(2"1$3$ 1-#., 51(!+$2
3DEO ?KJPAJP EO =R=EH=>HA BKN BNAA =P DPPL://?JT.KNC/?KJPAJP/?KH11562/1.11
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55 6.26
57 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, r
59 0.0485
61 0.0214
63 1 = SGD MTLADQ NE 6.4. SDDMR VGN CHD EQNL LNSNQ UDGHBKD HMITQHDR ODQ C@X.
65 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, ...
67 /N
71 5GD U@QH@AKD NE HMSDQDRS HR 1, NQ SGD F@HM NQ KNRR, HM CNKK@QR. 5GD E@BD B@QCR I@BJ, PTDDM, @MC JHMF. 5GDQD @QD(3)(4) = 12
E@BD B@QCR @MC 52 k 12 = 40 B@QCR SG@S @QD MNS E@BD B@QCR. 8D EHQRS MDDC SN BNMRSQTBS SGD OQNA@AHKHSX CHRSQHATSHNM ENQ 1. 8D
TRD SGD B@QC @MC BNHM DUDMSR SN CDSDQLHMD SGD OQNA@AHKHSX ENQ D@BG NTSBNLD, ATS VD TRD SGD LNMDS@QX U@KTD NE 1 SN CDSDQLHMD
SGD DWODBSDC U@KTD.
6G9 "K:CI " C:I <6>C/ADHH P(")
'@BD $@QC @MC )D@CR 6

12
52

1
2

6
52

'@BD $@QC @MC 5@HKR 2


12
52

1
2

6
52

(/NS '@BD $@QC) @MC () NQ 5) k2


40
52

(1) =

40
52

167A: 4.41
q Expected value = (6)

6
52

+ (2)

6
52

+ ( 2)

40
52

=
32
52
q &WODBSDC U@KTD = k$0.62, QNTMCDC SN SGD MD@QDRS BDMS
q *E XNT OK@X SGHR F@LD QDOD@SDCKX, NUDQ @ KNMF MTLADQ NE F@LDR, XNT VNTKC DWODBS SN KNRS 62 BDMSR ODQ F@LD, NM @UDQ@FD.
q :NT RGNTKC MNS OK@X SGHR F@LD SN VHM LNMDX ADB@TRD SGD DWODBSDC U@KTD HMCHB@SDR @M DWODBSDC @UDQ@FD KNRR.
73
@. 0.1
A. 1.6
75
@.
0D;IL6G: DBE6CN
: P(:)
5,000,000 0.10
1,000,000 0.30
167A: 4.42
"'/3$1 4 W #(2"1$3$ 1-#., 51(!+$2 309
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0D;IL6G: DBE6CN
: P(:)
k1,000,000 0.60
167A: 4.42
%6G9L6G: DBE6CN
: P(:)
3,000,000 0.20
1,000,000 0.40
k1,000,00 0.40
167A: 4.43
B>DI:8= #>GB
: P(:)
6,00,000 0.10
0 0.70
k1,000,000 0.20
167A: 4.44
A. $200,000; $600,000; $400,000
B. SGHQC HMUDRSLDMS ADB@TRD HS G@R SGD KNVDRS OQNA@AHKHSX NE KNRR
C. EHQRS HMUDRSLDMS ADB@TRD HS G@R SGD GHFGDRS OQNA@AHKHSX NE KNRR
D. RDBNMC HMUDRSLDMS
77 4.85 XD@QR
79 A
81 -DS 1 = SGD @LNTMS NE LNMDX SN AD VNM NM @ SHBJDS. 5GD ENKKNVHMF S@AKD RGNVR SGD 1%' ENQ 1.
: P(:)
0 0.969
167A: 4.45
310 "'/3$1 4 W #(2"1$3$ 1-#., 51(!+$2
3DEO ?KJPAJP EO =R=EH=>HA BKN BNAA =P DPPL://?JT.KNC/?KJPAJP/?KH11562/1.11
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: P(:)
5
250
10,000
= 0.025
25
50
10,000
= 0.005
100
10
10,000
= 0.001
167A: 4.45
$@KBTK@SD SGD DWODBSDC U@KTD NE 1. 0(0.969) + 5(0.025) + 25(0.005) + 100(0.001) = 0.35 " E@HQ OQHBD ENQ @ SHBJDS HR $0.35.
"MX OQHBD NUDQ $0.35 VHKK DM@AKD SGD KNSSDQX SN Q@HRD LNMDX.
83 1 = SGD MTLADQ NE O@SHDMSR B@KKHMF HM BK@HLHMF SN G@UD SGD EKT, VGN @BST@KKX G@UD SGD EKT. 1 = 0, 1, 2, ...25
85 0.0165
87
@. 1 = SGD MTLADQ NE %7%R @ 7HCDN SN (N BTRSNLDQ QDMSR
A. 0.12
B. 0.11
C. 0.77
89 C. 4.43
91 B
93
q 1 = MTLADQ NE PTDRSHNMR @MRVDQDC BNQQDBSKX
q 1 ] B

32,
1
3

q 8D @QD HMSDQDRSDC HM .03& 5)"/ 75% NE 32 PTDRSHNMR BNQQDBS. 75% NE 32 HR 24. 8D V@MS SN EHMC )(N > 24). 5GD
DUDMS "LNQD SG@M 24" HR SGD BNLOKDLDMS NE "KDRR SG@M NQ DPT@K SN 24."
q 6RHMF XNTQ B@KBTK@SNQ'R CHRSQHATSHNM LDMT: 1 k AHMNLBCE

32,
1
3
, 24

q )(N > 24) = 0


q 5GD OQNA@AHKHSX NE FDSSHMF LNQD SG@M 75% NE SGD 32 PTDRSHNMR BNQQDBS VGDM Q@MCNLKX FTDRRHMF HR UDQX RL@KK @MC
OQ@BSHB@KKX YDQN.
95
@. 1 = SGD MTLADQ NE BNKKDFD @MC TMHUDQRHSHDR SG@S NEEDQ NMKHMD NEEDQHMFR.
A. 0, 1, 2, r, 13
B. 1 ] B(13, 0.96)
C. 12.48
D. 0.0135
E. )(N = 12) = 0.3186 )(N = 13) = 0.5882 .NQD KHJDKX SN FDS 13.
97
@. 1 = SGD MTLADQ NE EDMBDQR VGN CN CDI TRD SGD ENHK @R SGDHQ L@HM VD@ONM
A. 0, 1, 2, 3,... 25
B. 1 ] B(25,0.40)
C. 10
D. 0.0442
"'/3$1 4 W #(2"1$3$ 1-#., 51(!+$2 311
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E. 5GD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S @KK 25 MNS TRD SGD ENHK HR @KLNRS YDQN. 5GDQDENQD, HS VNTKC AD UDQX RTQOQHRHMF.
99
@. 1 = SGD MTLADQ NE @TCHSR HM @ 20-XD@Q ODQHNC
A. 0, 1, 2, r, 20
B. 1 ] B(20, 0.02)
C. 0.4
D. 0.6676
E. 0.0071
101
1. 1 = SGD MTLADQ NE L@SBGDR
2. 0, 1, 2, 3
3. 1 ] B

3,
1
6

4. *M CNKK@QR: u1, 1, 2, 3
5.
1
2
6. .TKSHOKX D@BG 2 U@KTD AX SGD BNQQDRONMCHMF 1 OQNA@AHKHSX EQNL SGD 1%' S@AKD. 5GD @MRVDQ HR u0.0787. :NT KNRD @ANTS
DHFGS BDMSR, NM @UDQ@FD, ODQ F@LD.
7. 5GD GNTRD G@R SGD @CU@MS@FD.
103
@. 1 ] B(15, 0.281)
#><JG: 4.10
A. H. .D@M = Z = DF = 15(0.281) = 4.215
HH. 4S@MC@QC %DUH@SHNM = \ = npq = 15(0.281)(0.719) = 1.7409
B. )(N > 5) = 1 k )(N x 5) = 1 k AHMNLBCE(15, 0.281, 5) = 1 k 0.7754 = 0.2246
)(N = 3) = AHMNLOCE(15, 0.281, 3) = 0.1927
)(N = 4) = AHMNLOCE(15, 0.281, 4) = 0.2259
*S HR LNQD KHJDKX SG@S ENTQ ODNOKD @QD KHSDQ@SD SG@S SGQDD ODNOKD @QD.
105
@. 1 = SGD MTLADQ NE @CTKSR HM "LDQHB@ SG@S @QD RTQUDXDC TMSHK NMD R@XR GD/RGD VHKK V@SBG SGD RTODQ #NVK.
A. 1 ] (0.40)
B. 2.5
C. 0.0187
D. 0.2304
107 @. A. B.
C. 3.02
D. /N
E. 0.9997 F.
312 "'/3$1 4 W #(2"1$3$ 1-#., 51(!+$2
3DEO ?KJPAJP EO =R=EH=>HA BKN BNAA =P DPPL://?JT.KNC/?KJPAJP/?KH11562/1.11
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G. 0.3881
H. 6.6207 O@FDR
109 0, 1, 2, @MC 3
111
@. 1 ] (0.25)
A. H. .D@M = Z =
1
p
=
1
0.25
= 4
HH. 4S@MC@QC %DUH@SHNM = j =
1 p
p
2
=
1 0.25
0.25
2
v 3.4641
B. )(N = 10) = FDNLDSOCE(0.25, 10) = 0.0188
C. )(N = 20) = FDNLDSOCE(0.25, 20) = 0.0011
D. )(N x 5) = FDNLDSBCE(0.25, 5) = 0.7627
113
@. 1 = SGD MTLADQ NE O@FDR SG@S @CUDQSHRD ENNSVD@Q
A. 0, 1, 2, 3, ..., 20
B. 1 ] !(29, 163, 20); H = 29, 8 = 163, D = 20
C. 3.03
D. 1.5197 E.
115
@. 1 = SGD MTLADQ NE 1@SQHNSR OHBJDC
A. 0, 1, 2, 3, 4
B. 1 ] !(4, 8, 9)
C. 8HSGNTS QDOK@BDLDMS D. E.
117
@. 1 ] )(5.5); Z = 5.5; = 5.5 v 2.3452
A. )(N x 6) = ONHRRNMBCE(5.5, 6) v 0.6860
B. 5GDQD HR @ 15.7% OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S SGD K@V RS@EE VHKK QDBDHUD LNQD B@KKR SG@M SGDX B@M G@MCKD.
C. )(N > 8) = 1 k )(N x 8) = 1 k ONHRRNMBCE(5.5, 8) v 1 k 0.8944 = 0.1056
119 -DS 1 = SGD MTLADQ NE CDEDBSHUD ATKAR HM @ RSQHMF. 6RHMF SGD 1NHRRNM CHRSQHATSHNM:
q Z = DF = 100(0.03) = 3
q 1 ] )(3)
q )(N x 4) = ONHRRNMBCE(3, 4) v 0.8153
6RHMF SGD AHMNLH@K CHRSQHATSHNM:
q 1 ] B(100, 0.03)
q )(N x 4) = AHMNLBCE(100, 0.03, 4) v 0.8179
5GD 1NHRRNM @OOQNWHL@SHNM HR UDQX FNNClSGD CHEEDQDMBD ADSVDDM SGD OQNA@AHKHSHDR HR NMKX 0.0026.
121
@. 1 = SGD MTLADQ NE BGHKCQDM ENQ @ 4O@MHRG VNL@M
A. 0, 1, 2, 3,...
B. 1 ] )(1.47)
C. 0.2299
D. 0.5679
E. 0.4321
123
@. 1 = SGD MTLADQ NE ENQSTMD BNNJHDR SG@S G@UD @M DWSQ@ ENQSTMD
A. 0, 1, 2, 3,... 144
B. 1 ] B(144, 0.03) NQ )(4.32)
C. 4.32
D. 0.0124 NQ 0.0133
E. 0.6300 NQ 0.6264
F. "R D FDSR K@QFDQ, SGD OQNA@AHKHSHDR FDS BKNRDQ SNFDSGDQ.
125
"'/3$1 4 W #(2"1$3$ 1-#., 51(!+$2 313
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@. 1 = SGD MTLADQ NE ODNOKD @TCHSDC HM NMD XD@Q
A. 0, 1, 2, ..., 100
B. 1 ] )(2)
C. 2
D. 0.1353
E. 0.3233
127
@. 1 = SGD MTLADQ NE RGDKK OHDBDR HM NMD B@JD
A. 0, 1, 2, 3,...
B. 1 ] )(1.5)
C. 1.5
D. 0.2231
E. 0.0001
F. :DR
129 C
314 "'/3$1 4 W #(2"1$3$ 1-#., 51(!+$2
3DEO ?KJPAJP EO =R=EH=>HA BKN BNAA =P DPPL://?JT.KNC/?KJPAJP/?KH11562/1.11
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5 U !-,2',3-31 0A,"-+
4A0'A*#1
$CAOL? 5.1 3DA DAECDPO KB PDAOA N=@EOD LH=JPO =NA ?KJPEJQKQO N=J@KI R=NE=>HAO.
'HNLI>O=NCIH
!B;JN?L -<D?=NCP?M
#X SGD DMC NE SGHR BG@OSDQ, SGD RSTCDMS RGNTKC AD @AKD SN:
c 3DBNFMHYD @MC TMCDQRS@MC BNMSHMTNTR OQNA@AHKHSX CDMRHSX ETMBSHNMR HM FDMDQ@K.
c 3DBNFMHYD SGD TMHENQL OQNA@AHKHSX CHRSQHATSHNM @MC @OOKX HS @OOQNOQH@SDKX.
c 3DBNFMHYD SGD DWONMDMSH@K OQNA@AHKHSX CHRSQHATSHNM @MC @OOKX HS @OOQNOQH@SDKX.
$NMSHMTNTR Q@MCNL U@QH@AKDR G@UD L@MX @OOKHB@SHNMR. #@RDA@KK A@SSHMF @UDQ@FDR, *2 RBNQDR, SGD KDMFSG NE SHLD @ KNMF
CHRS@MBD SDKDOGNMD B@KK K@RSR, SGD @LNTMS NE LNMDX @ ODQRNM B@QQHDR, SGD KDMFSG NE SHLD @ BNLOTSDQ BGHO K@RSR, @MC 4"5 RBNQDR
@QD ITRS @ EDV. 5GD EHDKC NE QDKH@AHKHSX CDODMCR NM @ U@QHDSX NE BNMSHMTNTR Q@MCNL U@QH@AKDR.
"'/3$1 5 W ".-3(-4.42 1-#., 51(!+$2 315
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,-2#
5GD U@KTDR NE CHRBQDSD @MC BNMSHMTNTR Q@MCNL U@QH@AKDR B@M AD @LAHFTNTR. 'NQ DW@LOKD, HE 1 HR DPT@K SN SGD MTLADQ
NE LHKDR (SN SGD MD@QDRS LHKD) XNT CQHUD SN VNQJ, SGDM 1 HR @ CHRBQDSD Q@MCNL U@QH@AKD. :NT BNTMS SGD LHKDR. *E 1 HR
SGD CHRS@MBD XNT CQHUD SN VNQJ, SGDM XNT LD@RTQD U@KTDR NE 1 @MC 1 HR @ BNMSHMTNTR Q@MCNL U@QH@AKD. 'NQ @ RDBNMC
DW@LOKD, HE 1 HR DPT@K SN SGD MTLADQ NE ANNJR HM @ A@BJO@BJ, SGDM 1 HR @ CHRBQDSD Q@MCNL U@QH@AKD. *E 1 HR SGD VDHFGS NE
@ ANNJ, SGDM 1 HR @ BNMSHMTNTR Q@MCNL U@QH@AKD ADB@TRD VDHFGSR @QD LD@RTQDC. )NV SGD Q@MCNL U@QH@AKD HR CDEHMDC HR
UDQX HLONQS@MS.
.LIJ?LNC?M I@ !IHNCHOIOM .LI<;<CFCNS "CMNLC<ONCIHM
5GD FQ@OG NE @ BNMSHMTNTR OQNA@AHKHSX CHRSQHATSHNM HR @ BTQUD. 1QNA@AHKHSX HR QDOQDRDMSDC AX @QD@ TMCDQ SGD BTQUD.
5GD BTQUD HR B@KKDC SGD EGD767>A>IN 9:CH>IN ;JC8I>DC (@AAQDUH@SDC @R E9;). 8D TRD SGD RXLANK <(N) SN QDOQDRDMS SGD
BTQUD. <(N) HR SGD ETMBSHNM SG@S BNQQDRONMCR SN SGD FQ@OG; VD TRD SGD CDMRHSX ETMBSHNM <(N) SN CQ@V SGD FQ@OG NE SGD OQNA@AHKHSX
CHRSQHATSHNM.
AG:6 JC9:G I=: 8JGK: HR FHUDM AX @ CHEEDQDMS ETMBSHNM B@KKDC SGD 8JBJA6I>K: 9>HIG>7JI>DC ;JC8I>DC (@AAQDUH@SDC @R
89;). 5GD BTLTK@SHUD CHRSQHATSHNM ETMBSHNM HR TRDC SN DU@KT@SD OQNA@AHKHSX @R @QD@.
c 5GD NTSBNLDR @QD LD@RTQDC, MNS BNTMSDC.
c 5GD DMSHQD @QD@ TMCDQ SGD BTQUD @MC @ANUD SGD W-@WHR HR DPT@K SN NMD.
c 1QNA@AHKHSX HR ENTMC ENQ HMSDQU@KR NE N U@KTDR Q@SGDQ SG@M ENQ HMCHUHCT@K N U@KTDR.
c )(9 < N < :) HR SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S SGD Q@MCNL U@QH@AKD 1 HR HM SGD HMSDQU@K ADSVDDM SGD U@KTDR 9 @MC :. )(9 < N < :) HR
SGD @QD@ TMCDQ SGD BTQUD, @ANUD SGD N-@WHR, SN SGD QHFGS NE 9 @MC SGD KDES NE :.
c )(N = 9) = 0 5GD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S N S@JDR NM @MX RHMFKD HMCHUHCT@K U@KTD HR YDQN. 5GD @QD@ ADKNV SGD BTQUD, @ANUD SGD
N-@WHR, @MC ADSVDDM N = 9 @MC N = 9 G@R MN VHCSG, @MC SGDQDENQD MN @QD@ (@QD@ = 0). 4HMBD SGD OQNA@AHKHSX HR DPT@K SN SGD
@QD@, SGD OQNA@AHKHSX HR @KRN YDQN.
c )(9 < N < :) HR SGD R@LD @R )(9 g N g :) ADB@TRD OQNA@AHKHSX HR DPT@K SN @QD@.
8D VHKK EHMC SGD @QD@ SG@S QDOQDRDMSR OQNA@AHKHSX AX TRHMF FDNLDSQX, ENQLTK@R, SDBGMNKNFX, NQ OQNA@AHKHSX S@AKDR. *M
FDMDQ@K, B@KBTKTR HR MDDCDC SN EHMC SGD @QD@ TMCDQ SGD BTQUD ENQ L@MX OQNA@AHKHSX CDMRHSX ETMBSHNMR. 8GDM VD TRD ENQLTK@R
SN EHMC SGD @QD@ HM SGHR SDWSANNJ, SGD ENQLTK@R VDQD ENTMC AX TRHMF SGD SDBGMHPTDR NE HMSDFQ@K B@KBTKTR. )NVDUDQ, ADB@TRD
LNRS RSTCDMSR S@JHMF SGHR BNTQRD G@UD MNS RSTCHDC B@KBTKTR, VD VHKK MNS AD TRHMF B@KBTKTR HM SGHR SDWSANNJ.
5GDQD @QD L@MX BNMSHMTNTR OQNA@AHKHSX CHRSQHATSHNMR. 8GDM TRHMF @ BNMSHMTNTR OQNA@AHKHSX CHRSQHATSHNM SN LNCDK
OQNA@AHKHSX, SGD CHRSQHATSHNM TRDC HR RDKDBSDC SN LNCDK @MC EHS SGD O@QSHBTK@Q RHST@SHNM HM SGD ADRS V@X.
*M SGHR BG@OSDQ @MC SGD MDWS, VD VHKK RSTCX SGD TMHENQL CHRSQHATSHNM, SGD DWONMDMSH@K CHRSQHATSHNM, @MC SGD MNQL@K
CHRSQHATSHNM. 5GD ENKKNVHMF FQ@OGR HKKTRSQ@SD SGDRD CHRSQHATSHNMR.
$CAOL? 5.2 3DA CN=LD ODKSO = 4JEBKNI #EOPNE>QPEKJ SEPD PDA =NA= >APSAAJ / = 3 =J@ / = 6 OD=@A@ PK NALNAOAJP PDA
LNK>=>EHEPU PD=P PDA R=HQA KB PDA N=J@KI R=NE=>HA X EO EJ PDA EJPANR=H >APSAAJ PDNAA =J@ OET.
316 "'/3$1 5 W ".-3(-4.42 1-#., 51(!+$2
3DEO ?KJPAJP EO =R=EH=>HA BKN BNAA =P DPPL://?JT.KNC/?KJPAJP/?KH11562/1.11
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$CAOL? 5.3 3DA CN=LD ODKSO =J $TLKJAJPE=H #EOPNE>QPEKJ SEPD PDA =NA= >APSAAJ / = 2 =J@ / = 4 OD=@A@ PK NALNAOAJP
PDA LNK>=>EHEPU PD=P PDA R=HQA KB PDA N=J@KI R=NE=>HA X EO EJ PDA EJPANR=H >APSAAJ PSK =J@ BKQN.
$CAOL? 5.4 3DA CN=LD ODKSO PDA 2P=J@=N@ -KNI=H #EOPNE>QPEKJ SEPD PDA =NA= >APSAAJ / = 1 =J@ / = 2 OD=@A@ PK
NALNAOAJP PDA LNK>=>EHEPU PD=P PDA R=HQA KB PDA N=J@KI R=NE=>HA X EO EJ PDA EJPANR=H >APSAAJ KJA =J@ PSK.
5.1 U !IHNCHOIOM .LI<;<CFCNS $OH=NCIHM
8D ADFHM AX CDEHMHMF @ BNMSHMTNTR OQNA@AHKHSX CDMRHSX ETMBSHNM. 8D TRD SGD ETMBSHNM MNS@SHNM <(N). *MSDQLDCH@SD @KFDAQ@ L@X
G@UD ADDM XNTQ EHQRS ENQL@K HMSQNCTBSHNM SN ETMBSHNMR. *M SGD RSTCX NE OQNA@AHKHSX, SGD ETMBSHNMR VD RSTCX @QD RODBH@K. 8D
CDEHMD SGD ETMBSHNM <(N) RN SG@S SGD @QD@ ADSVDDM HS @MC SGD W-@WHR HR DPT@K SN @ OQNA@AHKHSX. 4HMBD SGD L@WHLTL OQNA@AHKHSX HR
NMD, SGD L@WHLTL @QD@ HR @KRN NMD. #DG 8DCI>CJDJH EGD767>A>IN 9>HIG>7JI>DCH, -/,BAB&)&15 = A/"A.
$T=ILHA 5.1
$NMRHCDQ SGD ETMBSHNM <(N) =
1
20
ENQ 0 x N x 20. N = @ QD@K MTLADQ. 5GD FQ@OG NE <(N) =
1
20
HR @ GNQHYNMS@K KHMD.
)NVDUDQ, RHMBD 0 x N x 20, <(N) HR QDRSQHBSDC SN SGD ONQSHNM ADSVDDM N = 0 @MC N = 20, HMBKTRHUD.
$CAOL? 5.5
<(N) =
1
20
;DG 0 x N x 20.
"'/3$1 5 W ".-3(-4.42 1-#., 51(!+$2 317
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5GD FQ@OG NE <(N) =
1
20
HR @ GNQHYNMS@K KHMD RDFLDMS VGDM 0 x N x 20.
5GD @QD@ ADSVDDM <(N) =
1
20
VGDQD 0 x N x 20 @MC SGD N-@WHR HR SGD @QD@ NE @ QDBS@MFKD VHSG A@RD = 20 @MC
GDHFGS =
1
20
.
AREA = 20

1
20

= 1
0JEEDH: L: L6CI ID ;>C9 I=: 6G:6 7:IL::C f(&) =
1
20
6C9 I=: &-6M>H L=:G: 0 < & < 2.
$CAOL? 5.6
AREA = (2 0)

1
20

= 0.1
AREA = (2 0)

1
20

= 0.1
(2 0) = 2 = base of a rectangle
0#+',"#0
@QD@ NE @ QDBS@MFKD = (A@RD)(GDHFGS).
5GD @QD@ BNQQDRONMCR SN @ OQNA@AHKHSX. 5GD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S N HR ADSVDDM YDQN @MC SVN HR 0.1, VGHBG B@M AD
VQHSSDM L@SGDL@SHB@KKX @R )(0 < N < 2) = )(N < 2) = 0.1.
0JEEDH: L: L6CI ID ;>C9 I=: 6G:6 7:IL::C f(&) =
1
20
6C9 I=: &-6M>H L=:G: 4 < & < 15.
$CAOL? 5.7
AREA = (15 4)

1
20

= 0.55
AREA = (15 4)

1
20

= 0.55
318 "'/3$1 5 W ".-3(-4.42 1-#., 51(!+$2
3DEO ?KJPAJP EO =R=EH=>HA BKN BNAA =P DPPL://?JT.KNC/?KJPAJP/?KH11562/1.11
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(15 4) = 11 = the base of a rectangle
5GD @QD@ BNQQDRONMCR SN SGD OQNA@AHKHSX )(4 < N < 15) = 0.55.
4TOONRD VD V@MS SN EHMC )(N = 15). 0M @M W-X FQ@OG, N = 15 HR @ UDQSHB@K KHMD. " UDQSHB@K KHMD G@R MN VHCSG
(NQ YDQN VHCSG). 5GDQDENQD, )(N = 15) = (A@RD)(GDHFGS) = (0)

1
20

= 0
$CAOL? 5.8
)(1 x N) (B@M AD VQHSSDM @R )(1 < N) ENQ BNMSHMTNTR CHRSQHATSHNMR) HR B@KKDC SGD BTLTK@SHUD CHRSQHATSHNM
ETMBSHNM NQ $%'. /NSHBD SGD "KDRR SG@M NQ DPT@K SN" RXLANK. 8D B@M TRD SGD $%' SN B@KBTK@SD )(1 > N). 5GD $%'
FHUDR "@QD@ SN SGD KDES" @MC )(1 > N) FHUDR "@QD@ SN SGD QHFGS." 8D B@KBTK@SD )(1 > N) ENQ BNMSHMTNTR CHRSQHATSHNMR
@R ENKKNVR: )(1 > N) = 1 k ) (1 < N).
$CAOL? 5.9
-@ADK SGD FQ@OG VHSG <(N) @MC N. 4B@KD SGD W @MC X @WDR VHSG SGD L@WHLTL N @MC O U@KTDR. <(N) =
1
20
, 0 x N x
20.
5N B@KBTK@SD SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S N HR ADSVDDM SVN U@KTDR, KNNJ @S SGD ENKKNVHMF FQ@OG. 4G@CD SGD QDFHNM
ADSVDDM N = 2.3 @MC N = 12.7. 5GDM B@KBTK@SD SGD RG@CDC @QD@ NE @ QDBS@MFKD.
$CAOL? 5.10
"'/3$1 5 W ".-3(-4.42 1-#., 51(!+$2 319
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P(2.3 < x < 12.7) = (base)(height) = (12.7 2.3)

1
20

= 0.52
5.1 $NMRHCDQ SGD ETMBSHNM <(N) =
1
8
ENQ 0 x N x 8. %Q@V SGD FQ@OG NE <(N) @MC EHMC )(2.5 < N < 7.5).
5.2 U 2B? 3HC@ILG "CMNLC<ONCIH
$T=ILHA 5.2
5GD C@S@ HM 2;<F? 5.1 @QD 55 RLHKHMF SHLDR, HM RDBNMCR, NE @M DHFGS-VDDJ-NKC A@AX.
10.4 19.6 18.8 13.9 17.8 16.8 21.6 17.9 12.5 11.1 4.9
12.8 14.8 22.8 20.0 15.9 16.3 13.4 17.1 14.5 19.0 22.8
1.3 0.7 8.9 11.9 10.9 7.3 5.9 3.7 17.9 19.2 9.8
5.8 6.9 2.6 5.8 21.7 11.8 3.4 2.1 4.5 6.3 10.7
8.9 9.4 9.4 7.6 10.0 3.3 6.7 7.8 11.6 13.8 18.6
2;<F? 5.1
5GD R@LOKD LD@M = 11.49 @MC SGD R@LOKD RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNM = 6.23.
8D VHKK @RRTLD SG@S SGD RLHKHMF SHLDR, HM RDBNMCR, ENKKNV @ TMHENQL CHRSQHATSHNM ADSVDDM YDQN @MC 23
RDBNMCR, HMBKTRHUD. 5GHR LD@MR SG@S @MX RLHKHMF SHLD EQNL YDQN SN @MC HMBKTCHMF 23 RDBNMCR HR :FJ6AAN A>@:AN.
5GD GHRSNFQ@L SG@S BNTKC AD BNMRSQTBSDC EQNL SGD R@LOKD HR @M DLOHQHB@K CHRSQHATSHNM SG@S BKNRDKX L@SBGDR SGD
SGDNQDSHB@K TMHENQL CHRSQHATSHNM.
-DS 1 = KDMFSG, HM RDBNMCR, NE @M DHFGS-VDDJ-NKC A@AX'R RLHKD.
5GD MNS@SHNM ENQ SGD TMHENQL CHRSQHATSHNM HR
1 ] .(7, 8) VGDQD 7 = SGD KNVDRS U@KTD NE N @MC 8 = SGD GHFGDRS U@KTD NE N.
5GD OQNA@AHKHSX CDMRHSX ETMBSHNM HR <(N) =
1
b a
ENQ 7 x N x 8.
'NQ SGHR DW@LOKD, 1 ] .(0, 23) @MC <(N) =
1
23 0
ENQ 0 x 1 x 23.
'NQLTK@R ENQ SGD SGDNQDSHB@K LD@M @MC RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNM @QD
=
a + b
2
@MC =
(b a)
2
12
'NQ SGHR OQNAKDL, SGD SGDNQDSHB@K LD@M @MC RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNM @QD
Z =
0 + 23
2
= 11.50 RDBNMCR @MC \ =
(23 0)
2
12
= 6.64 RDBNMCR.
/NSHBD SG@S SGD SGDNQDSHB@K LD@M @MC RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNM @QD BKNRD SN SGD R@LOKD LD@M @MC RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNM
HM SGHR DW@LOKD.
320 "'/3$1 5 W ".-3(-4.42 1-#., 51(!+$2
3DEO ?KJPAJP EO =R=EH=>HA BKN BNAA =P DPPL://?JT.KNC/?KJPAJP/?KH11562/1.11
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5.2 5GD C@S@ SG@S ENKKNV@QD SGD MTLADQ NE O@RRDMFDQR NM 35 CHEEDQDMS BG@QSDQ EHRGHMF AN@SR. 5GD R@LOKD LD@M = 7.9 @MC
SGD R@LOKD RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNM = 4.33. 5GD C@S@ ENKKNV @ TMHENQL CHRSQHATSHNM VGDQD @KK U@KTDR ADSVDDM @MC HMBKTCHMF
YDQN @MC 14 @QD DPT@KKX KHJDKX. 4S@SD SGD U@KTDR NE 7 @MC 8. 8QHSD SGD CHRSQHATSHNM HM OQNODQ MNS@SHNM, @MC B@KBTK@SD SGD
SGDNQDSHB@K LD@M @MC RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNM.
1 12 4 10 4 14 11
7 11 4 13 2 4 6
3 10 0 12 6 9 10
5 13 4 10 14 12 11
6 10 11 0 11 13 2
2;<F? 5.2
$T=ILHA 5.3
@. 3DEDQ SN #R;GJF? 5.2. 8G@S HR SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S @ Q@MCNLKX BGNRDM DHFGS-VDDJ-NKC A@AX RLHKDR ADSVDDM
SVN @MC 18 RDBNMCR
1IFONCIH 5.3
@. 'HMC )(2 < N < 18).
)(2 < N < 18) = (A@RD)(GDHFGS) = (18 k 2)

1
23

16
23

.
$CAOL? 5.11
A. 'HMC SGD 90
SG
ODQBDMSHKD ENQ @M DHFGS-VDDJ-NKC A@AX'R RLHKHMF SHLD.
1IFONCIH 5.3
A. /HMDSX ODQBDMS NE SGD RLHKHMF SHLDR E@KK ADKNV SGD 90
SG
ODQBDMSHKD, A, RN )(N < A) = 0.90
P(x < k) = 0.90

base

height

= 0.90
"'/3$1 5 W ".-3(-4.42 1-#., 51(!+$2 321
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(k 0)

1
23

= 0.90
k = (23)(0.90) = 20.7
$CAOL? 5.12
B. 'HMC SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S @ Q@MCNLDHFGS-VDDJ-NKC A@AX RLHKDR LNQD SG@M 12 RDBNMCR (+,4&+$SG@S SGD A@AX
RLHKDR *,/" 1%A+ "&$%1 0",+!0.
1IFONCIH 5.3
B. 5GHR OQNA@AHKHSX PTDRSHNM HR @ 8DC9>I>DC6A. :NT @QD @RJDC SN EHMC SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S @M DHFGS-VDDJ-NKC A@AX
RLHKDR LNQD SG@M 12 RDBNMCR VGDM XNT 6AG:69N @CDL SGD A@AX G@R RLHKDC ENQ LNQD SG@M DHFGS RDBNMCR.
'HMC )(N > 12[N > 8) 5GDQD @QD SVN V@XR SN CN SGD OQNAKDL. #DG I=: ;>GHI L6N, TRD SGD E@BS SG@S SGHR HR @
8DC9>I>DC6A @MC BG@MFDR SGD R@LOKD RO@BD. 5GD FQ@OG HKKTRSQ@SDR SGD MDV R@LOKD RO@BD. :NT @KQD@CX JMNV SGD
A@AX RLHKDC LNQD SG@M DHFGS RDBNMCR.
4G>I: 6 C:L <(N): <(N) =
1
23 8
=
1
15
ENQ 8 < N < 23
)(N > 12[N > 8) = (23 u 12)

1
15

11
15

$CAOL? 5.13
#DG I=: H:8DC9 L6N, TRD SGD BNMCHSHNM@K ENQLTK@ EQNL .LI<;<CFCNS 2IJC=M VHSG SGD NQHFHM@K CHRSQHATSHNM 1
] . (0, 23):
)(A[B) =
P(A AND B)
P(B)
'NQ SGHR OQNAKDL, A HR (N > 12) @MC B HR (N > 8).
4N, )(N > 12[N > 8) =
(x > 12 AND x > 8)
P(x > 8)
=
P(x > 12)
P(x > 8)
=
11
23
15
23
= 0.733
322 "'/3$1 5 W ".-3(-4.42 1-#., 51(!+$2
3DEO ?KJPAJP EO =R=EH=>HA BKN BNAA =P DPPL://?JT.KNC/?KJPAJP/?KH11562/1.11
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$CAOL? 5.14
5.3 " CHRSQHATSHNM HR FHUDM @R 1 ] . (0, 20). 8G@S HR )(2 < N < 18) 'HMC SGD 90
SG
ODQBDMSHKD.
$T=ILHA 5.4
5GD @LNTMS NE SHLD, HM LHMTSDR, SG@S @ ODQRNM LTRS V@HS ENQ @ ATR HR TMHENQLKX CHRSQHATSDC ADSVDDM YDQN @MC 15
LHMTSDR, HMBKTRHUD.
@. 8G@S HR SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S @ ODQRNM V@HSR EDVDQ SG@M 12.5 LHMTSDR
1IFONCIH 5.4
@. -DS 1 = SGD MTLADQ NE LHMTSDR @ ODQRNM LTRS V@HS ENQ @ ATR. 7 = 0 @MC 8 = 15. 1 ] .(0, 15). 8QHSD SGD OQNA@AHKHSX
CDMRHSX ETMBSHNM. < (N) =
1
15 0
=
1
15
ENQ 0 x N x 15.
'HMC ) (N < 12.5). %Q@V @ FQ@OG.
P(x < k) = (base)(height) = (12.5 - 0)

1
15

= 0.8333
5GD OQNA@AHKHSX @ ODQRNM V@HSR KDRR SG@M 12.5 LHMTSDR HR 0.8333.
$CAOL? 5.15
A. 0M SGD @UDQ@FD, GNV KNMF LTRS @ ODQRNM V@HS 'HMC SGD LD@M, Z, @MC SGD RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNM, \.
1IFONCIH 5.4
"'/3$1 5 W ".-3(-4.42 1-#., 51(!+$2 323
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>. 4 =
a + b
2
=
15 + 0
2
= 7.5. .J PDA =RAN=CA, = LANOKJ IQOP S=EP 7.5 IEJQPAO.
6 =
(b - a)
2
12
=
(15 - 0)
2
12
= 4.3. 3DA 2P=J@=N@ @ARE=PEKJ EO 4.3 IEJQPAO.
B. /HMDSX ODQBDMS NE SGD SHLD, SGD SHLD @ ODQRNM LTRS V@HS E@KKR ADKNV VG@S U@KTD
,-2#
5GHR @RJR ENQ SGD 90
SG
ODQBDMSHKD.
1IFONCIH 5.4
B. 'HMC SGD 90
SG
ODQBDMSHKD. %Q@V @ FQ@OG. -DS A = SGD 90
SG
ODQBDMSHKD.
P(x < k) = (base)(height) = (k 0)(
1
15
)
0.90 = (k)

1
15

k = (0.90)(15) = 13.5
A HR RNLDSHLDR B@KKDC @ BQHSHB@K U@KTD.
5GD 90
SG
ODQBDMSHKD HR 13.5 LHMTSDR. /HMDSX ODQBDMS NE SGD SHLD, @ ODQRNM LTRS V@HS @S LNRS 13.5 LHMTSDR.
$CAOL? 5.16
324 "'/3$1 5 W ".-3(-4.42 1-#., 51(!+$2
3DEO ?KJPAJP EO =R=EH=>HA BKN BNAA =P DPPL://?JT.KNC/?KJPAJP/?KH11562/1.11
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5.4 5GD SNS@K CTQ@SHNM NE A@RDA@KK F@LDR HM SGD L@INQ KD@FTD HM SGD 2011 RD@RNM HR TMHENQLKX CHRSQHATSDC ADSVDDM 447
GNTQR @MC 521 GNTQR HMBKTRHUD.
=. 'HMC 7 @MC 8 @MC CDRBQHAD VG@S SGDX QDOQDRDMS.
>. 8QHSD SGD CHRSQHATSHNM.
?. 'HMC SGD LD@M @MC SGD RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNM.
@. 8G@S HR SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S SGD CTQ@SHNM NE F@LDR ENQ @ SD@L ENQ SGD 2011 RD@RNM HR ADSVDDM 480 @MC 500 GNTQR
A. 8G@S HR SGD 65
SG
ODQBDMSHKD ENQ SGD CTQ@SHNM NE F@LDR ENQ @ SD@L ENQ SGD 2011 RD@RNM
$T=ILHA 5.5
4TOONRD SGD SHLD HS S@JDR @ MHMD-XD@Q NKC SN D@S @ CNMTS HR ADSVDDM 0.5 @MC 4 LHMTSDR, HMBKTRHUD. -DS 1 = SGD SHLD,
HM LHMTSDR, HS S@JDR @ MHMD-XD@Q NKC BGHKC SN D@S @ CNMTS. 5GDM 1 ] . (0.5, 4).
@. 5GD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S @ Q@MCNLKX RDKDBSDC MHMD-XD@Q NKC BGHKC D@SR @ CNMTS HM @S KD@RS SVN LHMTSDR HR ???????.
1IFONCIH 5.5
=. 0.5714
A. 'HMC SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S @ CHEEDQDMS MHMD-XD@Q NKC BGHKC D@SR @ CNMTS HM LNQD SG@M SVN LHMTSDR FHUDM SG@S SGD
BGHKC G@R @KQD@CX ADDM D@SHMF SGD CNMTS ENQ LNQD SG@M 1.5 LHMTSDR.
5GD RDBNMC PTDRSHNM G@R @ 8DC9>I>DC6A EGD767>A>IN. :NT @QD @RJDC SN EHMC SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S @ MHMD-XD@Q NKC
BGHKC D@SR @ CNMTS HM LNQD SG@M SVN LHMTSDR FHUDM SG@S SGD BGHKC G@R @KQD@CX ADDM D@SHMF SGD CNMTS ENQ LNQD SG@M
1.5 LHMTSDR. 4NKUD SGD OQNAKDL SVN CHEEDQDMS V@XR (RDD #R;GJF? 5.2). :NT LTRS QDCTBD SGD R@LOKD RO@BD. #>GHI
L6N: 4HMBD XNT JMNV SGD BGHKC G@R @KQD@CX ADDM D@SHMF SGD CNMTS ENQ LNQD SG@M 1.5 LHMTSDR, XNT @QD MN KNMFDQ
RS@QSHMF @S 7 = 0.5 LHMTSDR. :NTQ RS@QSHMF ONHMS HR 1.5 LHMTSDR.
4G>I: 6 C:L f(&):
<(N) =
1
4 1.5
=
2
5
ENQ 1.5 x N x 4.
'HMC )(N > 2[N > 1.5). %Q@V @ FQ@OG.
$CAOL? 5.17
)(N > 2[N > 1.5) = (A@RD)(MDV GDHFGS) = (4 u 2)

2
5

=
1IFONCIH 5.5
>.
4
5
5GD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S @ MHMD-XD@Q NKC BGHKC D@SR @ CNMTS HM LNQD SG@M SVN LHMTSDR FHUDM SG@S SGD BGHKC G@R
@KQD@CX ADDM D@SHMF SGD CNMTS ENQ LNQD SG@M 1.5 LHMTSDR HR
4
5
.
0:8DC9 L6N: %Q@V SGD NQHFHM@K FQ@OG ENQ 1 ] . (0.5, 4). 6RD SGD BNMCHSHNM@K ENQLTK@
"'/3$1 5 W ".-3(-4.42 1-#., 51(!+$2 325
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)(N > 2[N > 1.5) =
P(x > 2 AND x > 1.5)
P(x > 1.5)
=
P(x > 2)
P(x > 1.5)
=
2
3.5
2.5
3.5
= 0.8 =
4
5
5.5 4TOONRD SGD SHLD HS S@JDR @ RSTCDMS SN EHMHRG @ PTHY HR TMHENQLKX CHRSQHATSDC ADSVDDM RHW @MC 15 LHMTSDR, HMBKTRHUD.
-DS 1 = SGD SHLD, HM LHMTSDR, HS S@JDR @ RSTCDMS SN EHMHRG @ PTHY. 5GDM 1 ] . (6, 15).
'HMC SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S @ Q@MCNLKX RDKDBSDC RSTCDMS MDDCR @S KD@RS DHFGS LHMTSDR SN BNLOKDSD SGD PTHY. 5GDM EHMC SGD
OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S @ CHEEDQDMS RSTCDMS MDDCR @S KD@RS DHFGS LHMTSDR SN EHMHRG SGD PTHY FHUDM SG@S RGD G@R @KQD@CX S@JDM RDUDM
LHMTSDR.
$T=ILHA 5.6
"BD )D@SHMF @MC "HQ $NMCHSHNMHMF 4DQUHBD EHMCR SG@S SGD @LNTMS NE SHLD @ QDO@HQL@M MDDCR SN EHW @ ETQM@BD HR
TMHENQLKX CHRSQHATSDC ADSVDDM 1.5 @MC ENTQ GNTQR. -DS N = SGD SHLD MDDCDC SN EHW @ ETQM@BD. 5GDM N ] . (1.5, 4).
=. 'HMC SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S @ Q@MCNLKX RDKDBSDC ETQM@BD QDO@HQ QDPTHQDR LNQD SG@M SVN GNTQR.
>. 'HMC SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S @ Q@MCNLKX RDKDBSDC ETQM@BD QDO@HQ QDPTHQDR KDRR SG@M SGQDD GNTQR.
?. 'HMC SGD 30
SG
ODQBDMSHKD NE ETQM@BD QDO@HQ SHLDR.
@. 5GD KNMFDRS 25%NE ETQM@BD QDO@HQ SHLDR S@JD @S KD@RS GNV KNMF (*M NSGDQ VNQCR: EHMC SGD LHMHLTL SHLD ENQ
SGD KNMFDRS 25% NE QDO@HQ SHLDR.) 8G@S ODQBDMSHKD CNDR SGHR QDOQDRDMS
A. 'HMC SGD LD@M @MC RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNM
1IFONCIH 5.6
@. 5N EHMC <(N): < (N) =
1
4 1.5
=
1
2.5
RN <(N) = 0.4
)(N > 2) = (A@RD)(GDHFGS) = (4 k 2)(0.4) = 0.8
$CAOL? 5.18 4JEBKNI #EOPNE>QPEKJ >APSAAJ 1.5 =J@ BKQN SEPD OD=@A@ =NA= >APSAAJ PSK =J@ BKQN NALNAOAJPEJC
PDA LNK>=>EHEPU PD=P PDA NAL=EN PEIA / EO CNA=PAN PD=J PSK
1IFONCIH 5.6
A. )(N < 3) = (A@RD)(GDHFGS) = (3 k 1.5)(0.4) = 0.6
326 "'/3$1 5 W ".-3(-4.42 1-#., 51(!+$2
3DEO ?KJPAJP EO =R=EH=>HA BKN BNAA =P DPPL://?JT.KNC/?KJPAJP/?KH11562/1.11
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5GD FQ@OG NE SGD QDBS@MFKD RGNVHMF SGD DMSHQD CHRSQHATSHNM VNTKC QDL@HM SGD R@LD. )NVDUDQ SGD FQ@OG RGNTKC
AD RG@CDC ADSVDDM N = 1.5 @MC N = 3. /NSD SG@S SGD RG@CDC @QD@ RS@QSR @S N = 1.5 Q@SGDQ SG@M @S N = 0; RHMBD 1 ] .
(1.5, 4), N B@M MNS AD KDRR SG@M 1.5.
$CAOL? 5.19 4JEBKNI #EOPNE>QPEKJ >APSAAJ 1.5 =J@ BKQN SEPD OD=@A@ =NA= >APSAAJ 1.5 =J@ PDNAA
NALNAOAJPEJC PDA LNK>=>EHEPU PD=P PDA NAL=EN PEIA / EO HAOO PD=J PDNAA
1IFONCIH 5.6
B.
$CAOL? 5.20 4JEBKNI #EOPNE>QPEKJ >APSAAJ 1.5 =J@ 4 SEPD =J =NA= KB 0.30 OD=@A@ PK PDA HABP, NALNAOAJPEJC
PDA ODKNPAOP 30% KB NAL=EN PEIAO.
) (N < A) = 0.30
)(N < A) = (A@RD)(GDHFGS) = (A k 1.5)(0.4)
0.3 = (k R 1.5) (0.4); 4NKUD SN EHMC A:
0.75 = A k 1.5, NAS@HMDC AX CHUHCHMF ANSG RHCDR AX 0.4
k = 2.25 , NAS@HMDC AX @CCHMF 1.5 SN ANSG RHCDR
5GD 30
SG
ODQBDMSHKD NE QDO@HQ SHLDR HR 2.25 GNTQR. 30% NE QDO@HQ SHLDR @QD 2.5 GNTQR NQ KDRR.
"'/3$1 5 W ".-3(-4.42 1-#., 51(!+$2 327
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1IFONCIH 5.6
C.
$CAOL? 5.21 4JEBKNI #EOPNE>QPEKJ >APSAAJ 1.5 =J@ 4 SEPD =J =NA= KB 0.25 OD=@A@ PK PDA NECDP NALNAOAJPEJC
PDA HKJCAOP 25% KB NAL=EN PEIAO.
)(N > A) = 0.25
)(N > A) = (A@RD)(GDHFGS) = (4 k A)(0.4)
0.25 = (4 R k)(0.4); 4NKUD ENQ A:
0.625 = 4 u A,
NAS@HMDC AX CHUHCHMF ANSG RHCDR AX 0.4
u3.375 = uA,
NAS@HMDC AX RTASQ@BSHMF ENTQ EQNL ANSG RHCDR k = 3.375
5GD KNMFDRS 25% NE ETQM@BD QDO@HQR S@JD @S KD@RS 3.375 GNTQR (3.375 GNTQR NQ KNMFDQ).
+DI:: 4HMBD 25% NE QDO@HQ SHLDR @QD 3.375 GNTQR NQ KNMFDQ, SG@S LD@MR SG@S 75% NE QDO@HQ SHLDR @QD 3.375 GNTQR
NQ KDRR. 3.375 GNTQR HR SGD 75
I=
E:G8:CI>A: NE ETQM@BD QDO@HQ SHLDR.
1IFONCIH 5.6
A. =
a + b
2
=J@ =
(b a)
2
12
=
1.5 + 4
2
= 2.75 DKQNO =J@ =
(4 1.5)
2
12
= 0.7217 DKQNO
5.6 5GD @LNTMS NE SHLD @ RDQUHBD SDBGMHBH@M MDDCR SN BG@MFD SGD NHK HM @ B@Q HR TMHENQLKX CHRSQHATSDC ADSVDDM 11 @MC
21 LHMTSDR. -DS 1 = SGD SHLD MDDCDC SN BG@MFD SGD NHK NM @ B@Q.
=. 8QHSD SGD Q@MCNL U@QH@AKD 1 HM VNQCR. 1 = ??????????????????.
>. 8QHSD SGD CHRSQHATSHNM.
?. (Q@OG SGD CHRSQHATSHNM.
@. 'HMC ) (N > 19).
A. 'HMC SGD 50
SG
ODQBDMSHKD.
5.3 U 2B? #RJIH?HNC;F "CMNLC<ONCIH
5GD :MEDC:CI>6A 9>HIG>7JI>DC HR NESDM BNMBDQMDC VHSG SGD @LNTMS NE SHLD TMSHK RNLD RODBHEHB DUDMS NBBTQR. 'NQ DW@LOKD,
SGD @LNTMS NE SHLD (ADFHMMHMF MNV) TMSHK @M D@QSGPT@JD NBBTQR G@R @M DWONMDMSH@K CHRSQHATSHNM. 0SGDQ DW@LOKDR HMBKTCD SGD
KDMFSG, HM LHMTSDR, NE KNMF CHRS@MBD ATRHMDRR SDKDOGNMD B@KKR, @MC SGD @LNTMS NE SHLD, HM LNMSGR, @ B@Q A@SSDQX K@RSR. *S B@M
328 "'/3$1 5 W ".-3(-4.42 1-#., 51(!+$2
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AD RGNVM, SNN, SG@S SGD U@KTD NE SGD BG@MFD SG@S XNT G@UD HM XNTQ ONBJDS NQ OTQRD @OOQNWHL@SDKX ENKKNVR @M DWONMDMSH@K
CHRSQHATSHNM.
7@KTDR ENQ @M DWONMDMSH@K Q@MCNL U@QH@AKD NBBTQ HM SGD ENKKNVHMF V@X. 5GDQD @QD EDVDQ K@QFD U@KTDR @MC LNQD
RL@KK U@KTDR. 'NQ DW@LOKD, SGD @LNTMS NE LNMDX BTRSNLDQR RODMC HM NMD SQHO SN SGD RTODQL@QJDS ENKKNVR @M DWONMDMSH@K
CHRSQHATSHNM. 5GDQD @QD LNQD ODNOKD VGN RODMC RL@KK @LNTMSR NE LNMDX @MC EDVDQ ODNOKD VGN RODMC K@QFD @LNTMSR NE
LNMDX.
5GD DWONMDMSH@K CHRSQHATSHNM HR VHCDKX TRDC HM SGD EHDKC NE QDKH@AHKHSX. 3DKH@AHKHSX CD@KR VHSG SGD@LNTMS NE SHLD @ OQNCTBS
K@RSR.
$T=ILHA 5.7
-DS 1 = @LNTMS NE SHLD (HM LHMTSDR) @ ONRS@K BKDQJ RODMCR VHSG GHR NQ GDQ BTRSNLDQ. 5GD SHLD HR JMNVM SN G@UD @M
DWONMDMSH@K CHRSQHATSHNM VHSG SGD @UDQ@FD @LNTMS NE SHLD DPT@K SN ENTQ LHMTSDR.
1 HR @ 8DCI>CJDJH G6C9DB K6G>67A: RHMBD SHLD HR LD@RTQDC. *S HR FHUDM SG@S Z = 4 LHMTSDR. 5N CN @MX
B@KBTK@SHNMR, XNT LTRS JMNV C, SGD CDB@X O@Q@LDSDQ.
m =
1

. 5GDQDENQD, m =
1
4
= 0.25.
5GD RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNM, \, HR SGD R@LD @R SGD LD@M. Z = \
5GD CHRSQHATSHNM MNS@SHNM HR 1 ] ENF(C). 5GDQDENQD, 1 ] ENF(0.25).
5GD OQNA@AHKHSX CDMRHSX ETMBSHNM HR <(N) = C;
-CN
. 5GD MTLADQ ; = 2.71828182846... *S HR @ MTLADQ SG@S HR TRDC
NESDM HM L@SGDL@SHBR. 4BHDMSHEHB B@KBTK@SNQR G@UD SGD JDX ";
N
." *E XNT DMSDQ NMD ENQ N, SGD B@KBTK@SNQ VHKK CHROK@X
SGD U@KTD ;.
5GD BTQUD HR:
<(N) = 0.25;
k0.25N
VGDQD N HR @S KD@RS YDQN @MC C = 0.25.
'NQ DW@LOKD, <(5) = 0.25;
u(0.25)(5)
= 0.072. 5GD ONRS@K BKDQJ RODMCR EHUD LHMTSDR VHSG SGD BTRSNLDQR.
5GD FQ@OG HR @R ENKKNVR:
$CAOL? 5.22
/NSHBD SGD FQ@OG HR @ CDBKHMHMF BTQUD. 8GDM N = 0,
<(N) = 0.25;
(u0.25)(0)
= (0.25)(1) = 0.25 = C. 5GD L@WHLTL U@KTD NM SGD O-@WHR HR C.
"'/3$1 5 W ".-3(-4.42 1-#., 51(!+$2 329
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5.7 5GD @LNTMS NE SHLD RONTRDR RGNO ENQ @MMHUDQR@QX B@QCR B@M AD LNCDKDC AX @M DWONMDMSH@K CHRSQHATSHNM VHSG SGD
@UDQ@FD @LNTMS NE SHLD DPT@K SN DHFGS LHMTSDR. 8QHSD SGD CHRSQHATSHNM, RS@SD SGD OQNA@AHKHSX CDMRHSX ETMBSHNM, @MC FQ@OG
SGD CHRSQHATSHNM.
330 "'/3$1 5 W ".-3(-4.42 1-#., 51(!+$2
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$T=ILHA 5.8
"'/3$1 5 W ".-3(-4.42 1-#., 51(!+$2 331
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@. 'HMC SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S @ BKDQJ RODMCR ENTQ SN EHUD LHMTSDR VHSG @ Q@MCNLKX RDKDBSDC BTRSNLDQ.
1IFONCIH 5.8
@. 'HMC )(4 < N < 5).
5GD 8JBJA6I>K: 9>HIG>7JI>DC ;JC8I>DC (!#) FHUDR SGD @QD@ SN SGD KDES.
)(N < N) = 1 k ;
^CN
)(N < 5) = 1 k ;(k0.25)(5) = 0.7135 @MC )(N < 4) = 1 k ;
(k0.25)(4)
= 0.6321
$CAOL? 5.23
,-2#
:NT B@M CN SGDRD B@KBTK@SHNMR D@RHKX NM @ B@KBTK@SNQ.
5GD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S @ ONRS@K BKDQJ RODMCR ENTQ SN EHUD LHMTSDR VHSG @ Q@MCNLKX RDKDBSDC BTRSNLDQ HR )(4 < N < 5)
= )(N < 5) k )(N < 4) = 0.7135 u 0.6321 = 0.0814.
0M SGD GNLD RBQDDM, DMSDQ (1 k D>(k0.25*5))k(1kD>(k0.25*4)) NQ DMSDQ D>(k0.25*4) k D>(k0.25*5).
A. )@KE NE @KK BTRSNLDQR @QD EHMHRGDC VHSGHM GNV KNMF ('HMC SGD 50
SG
ODQBDMSHKD)
1IFONCIH 5.8
A. 'HMC SGD 50
SG
ODQBDMSHKD.
$CAOL? 5.24
332 "'/3$1 5 W ".-3(-4.42 1-#., 51(!+$2
3DEO ?KJPAJP EO =R=EH=>HA BKN BNAA =P DPPL://?JT.KNC/?KJPAJP/?KH11562/1.11
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)(N < A) = 0.50, A = 2.8 LHMTSDR (B@KBTK@SNQ NQ BNLOTSDQ)
)@KE NE @KK BTRSNLDQR @QD EHMHRGDC VHSGHM 2.8 LHMTSDR.
:NT B@M @KRN CN SGD B@KBTK@SHNM @R ENKKNVR:
)(N < A) = 0.50 @MC )(N < A) = 1 k;
k0.25A
5GDQDENQD, 0.50 = 1 u ;
u0.25A
@MC ;
u0.25A
= 1 u 0.50 = 0.5
5@JD M@STQ@K KNFR: BD(;
k0.25A
) = BD(0.50). 4N, k0.25A = BD(0.50)
4NKUD ENQ A: k =
ln(0.50)
-0.25
= 2.8 LHMTSDR. 5GD B@KBTK@SNQ RHLOKHEHDR SGD B@KBTK@SHNM ENQ ODQBDMSHKD A. 4DD SGD
ENKKNVHMF SVN MNSDR.
,-2#
" ENQLTK@ ENQ SGD ODQBDMSHKD A HR k =
ln(1 AreaToTheLe f t)
m
VGDQD BD HR SGD M@STQ@K KNF.
0M SGD GNLD RBQDDM, DMSDQ KM(1 k 0.50)/k0.25. 1QDRR SGD (-) ENQ SGD MDF@SHUD.
B. 8GHBG HR K@QFDQ, SGD LD@M NQ SGD LDCH@M
1IFONCIH 5.8
?. %NKI L=NP >, PDA IA@E=J KN 50
PD
LAN?AJPEHA EO 2.8 IEJQPAO. 3DA PDAKNAPE?=H IA=J EO BKQN IEJQPAO. 3DA
IA=J EO H=NCAN.
5.8 5GD MTLADQ NE C@XR @GD@C SQ@UDKDQR OTQBG@RD SGDHQ @HQKHMD SHBJDSR B@M AD LNCDKDC AX @M DWONMDMSH@K CHRSQHATSHNM
VHSG SGD @UDQ@FD @LNTMS NE SHLD DPT@K SN 15 C@XR. 'HMC SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S @ SQ@UDKDQ VHKK OTQBG@RD @ SHBJDS EDVDQ SG@M
SDM C@XR HM @CU@MBD. )NV L@MX C@XR CN G@KE NE @KK SQ@UDKDQR V@HS
"'/3$1 5 W ".-3(-4.42 1-#., 51(!+$2 333
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)@UD D@BG BK@RR LDLADQ BNTMS SGD BG@MFD GD NQ RGD G@R HM GHR NQ GDQ ONBJDS NQ OTQRD. :NTQ HMRSQTBSNQ VHKK QDBNQC SGD
@LNTMSR HM CNKK@QR @MC BDMSR. $NMRSQTBS @ GHRSNFQ@L NE SGD C@S@ S@JDM AX SGD BK@RR. 6RD EHUD HMSDQU@KR. %Q@V @ RLNNSG
BTQUD SGQNTFG SGD A@QR. 5GD FQ@OG RGNTKC KNNJ @OOQNWHL@SDKX DWONMDMSH@K. 5GDM B@KBTK@SD SGD LD@M.
-DS 1 = SGD @LNTMS NE LNMDX @ RSTCDMS HM XNTQ BK@RR G@R HM GHR NQ GDQ ONBJDS NQ OTQRD.
5GD CHRSQHATSHNM ENQ 1 HR @OOQNWHL@SDKX DWONMDMSH@K VHSG LD@M, Z = ??????? @MC C = ???????. 5GD RS@MC@QC
CDUH@SHNM, \ = ????????.
%Q@V SGD @OOQNOQH@SD DWONMDMSH@K FQ@OG. :NT RGNTKC K@ADK SGD Wk @MC Xk@WDR, SGD CDB@X Q@SD, @MC SGD LD@M. 4G@CD
SGD @QD@ SG@S QDOQDRDMSR SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S NMD RSTCDMS G@R KDRR SG@M $.40 HM GHR NQ GDQ ONBJDS NQ OTQRD. (4G@CD )(N <
0.40)).
$T=ILHA 5.9
0M SGD @UDQ@FD, @ BDQS@HM BNLOTSDQ O@QS K@RSR SDM XD@QR. 5GD KDMFSG NE SHLD SGD BNLOTSDQ O@QS K@RSR HR DWONMDMSH@KKX
CHRSQHATSDC.
@. 8G@S HR SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S @ BNLOTSDQ O@QS K@RSR LNQD SG@M 7 XD@QR
1IFONCIH 5.9
=. +AP / = PDA =IKQJP KB PEIA (EJ UA=NO) = ?KILQPAN L=NP H=OPO.
4 = 10 OK m =
1

=
1
10
= 0.1
%EJ@ P(/ > 7). #N=S PDA CN=LD.
P(/ > 7) = 1 _ P(/ < 7).
2EJ?A P(X < /) = 1 _
7%/
PDAJ P(X > /) = 1 _(1 _
7%/
) =
-%/
P(/ > 7) =
(_0.1)(7)
= 0.4966. 3DA LNK>=>EHEPU PD=P = ?KILQPAN L=NP H=OPO IKNA PD=J OARAJ UA=NO EO
0.4966.
0M SGD GNLD RBQDDM, DMSDQ D>(-.1*7).
$CAOL? 5.25
A. 0M SGD @UDQ@FD, GNV KNMF VNTKC EHUD BNLOTSDQ O@QSR K@RS HE SGDX @QD TRDC NMD @ESDQ @MNSGDQ
1IFONCIH 5.9
334 "'/3$1 5 W ".-3(-4.42 1-#., 51(!+$2
3DEO ?KJPAJP EO =R=EH=>HA BKN BNAA =P DPPL://?JT.KNC/?KJPAJP/?KH11562/1.11
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>. .J PDA =RAN=CA, KJA ?KILQPAN L=NP H=OPO PAJ UA=NO. 3DANABKNA, BERA ?KILQPAN L=NPO, EB PDAU =NA QOA@
KJA NECDP =BPAN PDA KPDAN SKQH@ H=OP, KJ PDA =RAN=CA, (5)(10) = 50 UA=NO.
B. &HFGSX ODQBDMS NE BNLOTSDQ O@QSR K@RS @S LNRS GNV KNMF
1IFONCIH 5.9
B. 'HMC SGD 80
SG
ODQBDMSHKD. %Q@V SGD FQ@OG. -DS A = SGD 80
SG
ODQBDMSHKD.
$CAOL? 5.26
4NKUD ENQ A: k =
ln(1 0.80)
0.1
= 16.1 XD@QR
&HFGSX ODQBDMS NE SGD BNLOTSDQ O@QSR K@RS @S LNRS 16.1 XD@QR.
0M SGD GNLD RBQDDM, DMSDQ
ln(1 0.80)
0.1
C. 8G@S HR SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S @ BNLOTSDQ O@QS K@RSR ADSVDDM MHMD @MC 11 XD@QR
1IFONCIH 5.9
C. 'HMC )(9 < N < 11). %Q@V SGD FQ@OG.
$CAOL? 5.27
)(9 < N < 11) = )(N < 11) k )(N < 9) = (1 k ;
(k0.1)(11)
) k (1 k ;
(k0.1)(9)
) = 0.6671 k 0.5934 = 0.0737. 5GD
OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S @ BNLOTSDQ O@QS K@RSR ADSVDDM MHMD @MC 11 XD@QR HR 0.0737.
"'/3$1 5 W ".-3(-4.42 1-#., 51(!+$2 335
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0M SGD GNLD RBQDDM, DMSDQ ;>(k0.1*9) k ;>(k0.1*11).
5.9 0M @UDQ@FD, @ O@HQ NE QTMMHMF RGNDR B@M K@RS 18 LNMSGR HE TRDC DUDQX C@X. 5GD KDMFSG NE SHLD QTMMHMF RGNDR K@RS HR
DWONMDMSH@KKX CHRSQHATSDC. 8G@S HR SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S @ O@HQ NE QTMMHMF RGNDR K@RS LNQD SG@M 15 LNMSGR 0M @UDQ@FD,
GNV KNMF VNTKC RHW O@HQR NE QTMMHMF RGNDR K@RS HE SGDX @QD TRDC NMD @ESDQ SGD NSGDQ &HFGSX ODQBDMS NE QTMMHMF RGNDR
K@RS @S LNRS GNV KNMF HE TRDC DUDQX C@X
$T=ILHA 5.10
4TOONRD SG@S SGD KDMFSG NE @ OGNMD B@KK, HM LHMTSDR, HR @M DWONMDMSH@K Q@MCNL U@QH@AKD VHSG CDB@X O@Q@LDSDQ =
1
12
. *E @MNSGDQ ODQRNM @QQHUDR @S @ OTAKHB SDKDOGNMD ITRS ADENQD XNT, EHMC SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S XNT VHKK G@UD SN V@HS
LNQD SG@M EHUD LHMTSDR. -DS 1 = SGD KDMFSG NE @ OGNMD B@KK, HM LHMTSDR.
8G@S HR C, Z, @MC \ 5GD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S XNT LTRS V@HS LNQD SG@M EHUD LHMTSDR HR ??????? .
1IFONCIH 5.10
c C =
1
12
c Z = 12
c \ = 12
)(N > 5) = 0.6592
336 "'/3$1 5 W ".-3(-4.42 1-#., 51(!+$2
3DEO ?KJPAJP EO =R=EH=>HA BKN BNAA =P DPPL://?JT.KNC/?KJPAJP/?KH11562/1.11
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5.10 4TOONRD SG@S SGD CHRS@MBD, HM LHKDR, SG@S ODNOKD @QD VHKKHMF SN BNLLTSD SN VNQJ HR @M DWONMDMSH@K Q@MCNLU@QH@AKD
VHSG @ CDB@X O@Q@LDSDQ
1
20
. -DS 1 = SGD CHRS@MBD ODNOKD @QD VHKKHMF SN BNLLTSD HM LHKDR. 8G@S HR C, Z, @MC \ 8G@S
HR SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S @ ODQRNM HR VHKKHMF SN BNLLTSD LNQD SG@M 25 LHKDR
$T=ILHA 5.11
5GD SHLD RODMS V@HSHMF ADSVDDM DUDMSR HR NESDM LNCDKDC TRHMF SGD DWONMDMSH@K CHRSQHATSHNM. 'NQ DW@LOKD, RTOONRD
SG@S @M @UDQ@FD NE 30 BTRSNLDQR ODQ GNTQ @QQHUD @S @ RSNQD @MC SGD SHLD ADSVDDM @QQHU@KR HR DWONMDMSH@KKX
CHRSQHATSDC.
=. 0M @UDQ@FD, GNV L@MX LHMTSDR DK@ORD ADSVDDM SVN RTBBDRRHUD @QQHU@KR
>. 8GDM SGD RSNQD EHQRS NODMR, GNV KNMF NM @UDQ@FD CNDR HS S@JD ENQ SGQDD BTRSNLDQR SN @QQHUD
?. "ESDQ @ BTRSNLDQ @QQHUDR, EHMC SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S HS S@JDR KDRR SG@M NMD LHMTSD ENQ SGD MDWS BTRSNLDQ SN
@QQHUD.
@. "ESDQ @ BTRSNLDQ @QQHUDR, EHMC SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S HS S@JDR LNQD SG@M EHUD LHMTSDR ENQ SGD MDWS BTRSNLDQ SN
@QQHUD.
A. 4DUDMSX ODQBDMS NE SGD BTRSNLDQR @QQHUD VHSGHM GNV L@MX LHMTSDR NE SGD OQDUHNTR BTRSNLDQ
B. *R @M DWONMDMSH@K CHRSQHATSHNM QD@RNM@AKD ENQ SGHR RHST@SHNM
1IFONCIH 5.11
=. 4HMBD VD DWODBS 30 BTRSNLDQR SN @QQHUD ODQ GNTQ (60 LHMTSDR), VD DWODBS NM @UDQ@FD NMD BTRSNLDQ SN @QQHUD
DUDQX SVN LHMTSDR NM @UDQ@FD.
>. 4HMBD NMD BTRSNLDQ @QQHUDR DUDQX SVN LHMTSDR NM @UDQ@FD, HS VHKK S@JD RHW LHMTSDR NM @UDQ@FD ENQ SGQDD
BTRSNLDQR SN @QQHUD.
?. -DS 1 = SGD SHLD ADSVDDM @QQHU@KR, HM LHMTSDR. #X O@QS @, Z = 2, RN C =
1
2
= 0.5.
5GDQDENQD, 1 ENF(0.5).
5GD BTLTK@SHUD CHRSQHATSHNM ETMBSHNM HR )(1 < N) = 1 k ;(k0.5N).
1=:G:;DG: )(1 < 1) = 1 k D
(k0.5)(1)
v 0.3935.
1 - ;>(k0.5) v 0.3935
$CAOL? 5.28
"'/3$1 5 W ".-3(-4.42 1-#., 51(!+$2 337
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@. )(1 > 5) = 1 k )(1 < 5) = 1 k (1 k ;
(k5)(0.5)
) = D
k2.5
v 0.0821.
$CAOL? 5.29
1 k (1 k D>( k 5*0.5)) NQ D>( k 5*0.5)
A. 8D V@MS SN RNKUD 0.70 = )(1 < N) ENQ N.
4TARSHSTSHMF HM SGD BTLTK@SHUD CHRSQHATSHNM ETMBSHNM FHUDR 0.70 = 1 k ;
k0.5N
, RN SG@S ;
k0.5W
= 0.30. $NMUDQSHMF
SGHR SN KNF@QHSGLHB ENQL FHUDR k0.5N = BD(0.30), NQ x =
ln(0.30)
0.5
2.41 LHMTSDR.
5GTR, RDUDMSX ODQBDMS NE BTRSNLDQR @QQHUD VHSGHM 2.41 LHMTSDR NE SGD OQDUHNTR BTRSNLDQ.
:NT @QD EHMCHMF SGD 70
SG
ODQBDMSHKD A RN XNT B@M TRD SGD ENQLTK@ A =
ln(1 Area_To_The_Le f t _Of _k)
( m)
A =
ln(1 0.70)
( 0.5)
2.41 LHMTSDR
$CAOL? 5.30
B. 5GHR LNCDK @RRTLDR SG@S @ RHMFKD BTRSNLDQ @QQHUDR @S @ SHLD, VGHBG L@X MNS AD QD@RNM@AKD RHMBD ODNOKD
LHFGS RGNO HM FQNTOR, KD@CHMF SN RDUDQ@K BTRSNLDQR @QQHUHMF @S SGD R@LD SHLD. *S @KRN @RRTLDR SG@S SGD EKNV
NE BTRSNLDQR CNDR MNS BG@MFD SGQNTFGNTS SGD C@X, VGHBG HR MNS U@KHC HE RNLD SHLDR NE SGD C@X @QD ATRHDQ SG@M
NSGDQR.
338 "'/3$1 5 W ".-3(-4.42 1-#., 51(!+$2
3DEO ?KJPAJP EO =R=EH=>HA BKN BNAA =P DPPL://?JT.KNC/?KJPAJP/?KH11562/1.11
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5.11 4TOONRD SG@S NM @ BDQS@HM RSQDSBG NE GHFGV@X, B@QR O@RR @S @M @UDQ@FD Q@SD NE EHUD B@QR ODQ LHMTSD. "RRTLD SG@S
SGD CTQ@SHNM NE SHLD ADSVDDM RTBBDRRHUD B@QR ENKKNVR SGD DWONMDMSH@K CHRSQHATSHNM.
=. 0M @UDQ@FD, GNV L@MX RDBNMCR DK@ORD ADSVDDM SVN RTBBDRRHUD B@QR
>. "ESDQ @ B@Q O@RRDR AX, GNV KNMF NM @UDQ@FD VHKK HS S@JD ENQ @MNSGDQ RDUDM B@QR SN O@RR AX
?. 'HMC SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S @ESDQ @ B@Q O@RRDR AX, SGD MDWS B@Q VHKK O@RR VHSGHM SGD MDWS 20 RDBNMCR.
@. 'HMC SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S @ESDQ @ B@Q O@RRDR AX, SGD MDWS B@Q VHKK MNS O@RR ENQ @S KD@RS @MNSGDQ 15 RDBNMCR.
+?GILSF?MMH?MM I@ NB? #RJIH?HNC;F "CMNLC<ONCIH
*M #R;GJF? 5.7 QDB@KK SG@S SGD @LNTMS NE SHLD ADSVDDM BTRSNLDQR HR DWONMDMSH@KKX CHRSQHATSDC VHSG @ LD@M NE SVN LHMTSDR
(1 ] ENF (0.5)). 4TOONRD SG@S EHUD LHMTSDR G@UD DK@ORDC RHMBD SGD K@RS BTRSNLDQ @QQHUDC. 4HMBD @M TMTRT@KKX KNMF @LNTMS NE
SHLD G@R MNV DK@ORDC, HS VNTKC RDDL SN AD LNQD KHJDKX ENQ @ BTRSNLDQ SN @QQHUD VHSGHM SGD MDWS LHMTSD. 8HSG SGD DWONMDMSH@K
CHRSQHATSHNM, SGHR HR MNS SGD B@RDkSGD @CCHSHNM@K SHLD RODMS V@HSHMF ENQ SGD MDWS BTRSNLDQ CNDR MNS CDODMC NM GNV LTBG SHLD
G@R @KQD@CX DK@ORDC RHMBD SGD K@RS BTRSNLDQ. 5GHR HR QDEDQQDC SN @R SGD B:BDGNA:HH EGDE:GIN. 4ODBHEHB@KKX, SGD B:BDGNA:HH
EGDE:GIN R@XR SG@S
) (1 > H + J [ 1 > H) = ) (1 > J) ENQ @KK H y 0 @MC J y 0
'NQ DW@LOKD, HE EHUD LHMTSDR G@R DK@ORDC RHMBD SGD K@RS BTRSNLDQ @QQHUDC, SGDM SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S LNQD SG@M NMD LHMTSD
VHKK DK@ORD ADENQD SGD MDWS BTRSNLDQ @QQHUDR HR BNLOTSDC AX TRHMF H = 5 @MC J = 1 HM SGD ENQDFNHMF DPT@SHNM.
)(1 > 5 + 1 [ 1 > 5) = )(1 > 1) = e
( 0.5)(1)
v 0.6065.
->?I ?I J>; I7C; OQNA@AHKHSX @R SG@S NE V@HSHMF LNQD SG@M NMD LHMTSD ENQ @ BTRSNLDQ SN @QQHUD @ESDQ SGD OQDUHNTR @QQHU@K.
5GD DWONMDMSH@K CHRSQHATSHNM HR NESDM TRDC SN LNCDK SGD KNMFDUHSX NE @M DKDBSQHB@K NQ LDBG@MHB@K CDUHBD. *M #R;GJF?
5.9, SGD KHEDSHLD NE @ BDQS@HM BNLOTSDQ O@QS G@R SGD DWONMDMSH@K CHRSQHATSHNM VHSG @ LD@M NE SDM XD@QR (1 ] ENF(0.1)). 5GD
B:BDGNA:HH EGDE:GIN R@XR SG@S JMNVKDCFD NE VG@S G@R NBBTQQDC HM SGD O@RS G@R MN DEEDBS NM ETSTQD OQNA@AHKHSHDR. *M SGHR
B@RD HS LD@MR SG@S @M NKC O@QS HR MNS @MX LNQD KHJDKX SN AQD@J CNVM @S @MX O@QSHBTK@Q SHLD SG@M @ AQ@MC MDV O@QS. *M NSGDQ
VNQCR, SGD O@QS RS@XR @R FNNC @R MDV TMSHK HS RTCCDMKX AQD@JR. 'NQ DW@LOKD, HE SGD O@QS G@R @KQD@CX K@RSDC SDM XD@QR, SGDM SGD
OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S HS K@RSR @MNSGDQ RDUDM XD@QR HR )(1 > 17[1 > 10) = )(1 > 7) = 0.4966.
$T=ILHA 5.12
3DEDQ SN #R;GJF? 5.7 VGDQD SGD SHLD @ ONRS@K BKDQJ RODMCR VHSG GHR NQ GDQ BTRSNLDQ G@R @M DWONMDMSH@K
CHRSQHATSHNM VHSG @ LD@M NE ENTQ LHMTSDR. 4TOONRD @ BTRSNLDQ G@R RODMS ENTQ LHMTSDR VHSG @ ONRS@K BKDQJ. 8G@S HR
SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S GD NQ RGD VHKK RODMC @S KD@RS @M @CCHSHNM@K SGQDD LHMTSDR VHSG SGD ONRS@K BKDQJ
5GD CDB@X O@Q@LDSDQ NE 1 HR C =
1
4
= 0.25, RN 1 ENF(0.25).
5GD BTLTK@SHUD CHRSQHATSHNM ETMBSHNM HR )(1 < N) = 1 k ;
k0.25N
.
8D V@MS SN EHMC )(1 > 7[1 > 4). 5GD B:BDGNA:HH EGDE:GIN R@XR SG@S )(1 > 7[1 > 4) = ) (1 > 3), RN VD ITRS
MDDC SN EHMC SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S @ BTRSNLDQ RODMCR LNQD SG@M SGQDD LHMTSDR VHSG @ ONRS@K BKDQJ.
"'/3$1 5 W ".-3(-4.42 1-#., 51(!+$2 339
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5GHR HR )(1 > 3) = 1 k ) (1 < 3) = 1 k (1 k ;
k0.253
) = ;
k0.75
v 0.4724.
$CAOL? 5.31
1k(1kD>(k0.25*2)) = D>(k0.25*2).
5.12 4TOONRD SG@S SGD KNMFDUHSX NE @ KHFGS ATKA HR DWONMDMSH@K VHSG @ LD@M KHEDSHLD NE DHFGS XD@QR. *E @ ATKA G@R @KQD@CX
K@RSDC 12 XD@QR, EHMC SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S HS VHKK K@RS @ SNS@K NE NUDQ 19 XD@QR.
0?F;NCIHMBCJ <?NQ??H NB? .ICMMIH ;H> NB? #RJIH?HNC;F "CMNLC<ONCIH
5GDQD HR @M HMSDQDRSHMF QDK@SHNMRGHO ADSVDDM SGD DWONMDMSH@K CHRSQHATSHNM @MC SGD 1NHRRNM CHRSQHATSHNM. 4TOONRD SG@S SGD
SHLD SG@S DK@ORDR ADSVDDM SVN RTBBDRRHUD DUDMSR ENKKNVR SGD DWONMDMSH@K CHRSQHATSHNM VHSG @ LD@M NE Z TMHSR NE SHLD. "KRN
@RRTLD SG@S SGDRD SHLDR @QD HMCDODMCDMS, LD@MHMF SG@S SGD SHLD ADSVDDM DUDMSR HR MNS @EEDBSDC AX SGD SHLDR ADSVDDM OQDUHNTR
DUDMSR. *E SGDRD @RRTLOSHNMR GNKC, SGDM SGD MTLADQ NE DUDMSR ODQ TMHS SHLD ENKKNVR @ 1NHRRNM CHRSQHATSHNM VHSG LD@M Y =
1/i. 3DB@KK EQNL SGD BG@OSDQ NM "CM=L?N? 0;H>IG 4;LC;<F?M SG@S HE 1 G@R SGD 1NHRRNM CHRSQHATSHNM VHSG LD@M Y, SGDM
P(X = k) =

k
e

k!
. $NMUDQRDKX, HE SGD MTLADQ NE DUDMSR ODQ TMHS SHLD ENKKNVR @ 1NHRRNM CHRSQHATSHNM, SGDM SGD @LNTMS NE
SHLD ADSVDDM DUDMSR ENKKNVR SGD DWONMDMSH@K CHRSQHATSHNM. (A! = A*(A-1*)(Ak2)*(A-3)r3*2*1)
4TOONRD 1 G@R SGD 1NHRRNM CHRSQHATSHNM VHSG LD@M Y. $NLOTSD )(1 = A) AX DMSDQHMF 2
MC
, 7"34(%*453), $:
ONHRRNMOCE(Y, A). 5N BNLOTSD )(1 x A), DMSDQ 2
MC
, 7"34 (%*453), %:ONHRRNMBCE(Y, A).
$T=ILHA 5.13
"S @ ONKHBD RS@SHNM HM @ K@QFD BHSX, B@KKR BNLD HM @S @M @UDQ@FD Q@SD NE ENTQ B@KKR ODQ LHMTSD. "RRTLD SG@S SGD SHLD
SG@S DK@ORDR EQNL NMD B@KK SN SGD MDWS G@R SGD DWONMDMSH@K CHRSQHATSHNM. 5@JD MNSD SG@S VD @QD BNMBDQMDC NMKX VHSG
SGD Q@SD @S VGHBG B@KKR BNLD HM, @MC VD @QD HFMNQHMF SGD SHLD RODMS NM SGD OGNMD. 8D LTRS @KRN @RRTLD SG@S SGD
SHLDR RODMS ADSVDDM B@KKR @QD HMCDODMCDMS. 5GHR LD@MR SG@S @ O@QSHBTK@QKX KNMF CDK@X ADSVDDM SVN B@KKR CNDR MNS
340 "'/3$1 5 W ".-3(-4.42 1-#., 51(!+$2
3DEO ?KJPAJP EO =R=EH=>HA BKN BNAA =P DPPL://?JT.KNC/?KJPAJP/?KH11562/1.11
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LD@M SG@S SGDQD VHKK AD @ RGNQSDQ V@HSHMF ODQHNC ENQ SGD MDWS B@KK. 8D L@X SGDM CDCTBD SG@S SGD SNS@K MTLADQ NE
B@KKR QDBDHUDC CTQHMF @ SHLD ODQHNC G@R SGD 1NHRRNM CHRSQHATSHNM.
=. 'HMC SGD @UDQ@FD SHLD ADSVDDM SVN RTBBDRRHUD B@KKR.
>. 'HMC SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S @ESDQ @ B@KK HR QDBDHUDC, SGD MDWS B@KK NBBTQR HM KDRR SG@M SDM RDBNMCR.
?. 'HMC SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S DW@BSKX EHUD B@KKR NBBTQ VHSGHM @ LHMTSD.
@. 'HMC SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S KDRR SG@M EHUD B@KKR NBBTQ VHSGHM @ LHMTSD.
A. 'HMC SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S LNQD SG@M 40 B@KKR NBBTQ HM @M DHFGS-LHMTSD ODQHNC.
1IFONCIH 5.13
=. 0M @UDQ@FD SGDQD @QD ENTQ B@KKR NBBTQ ODQ LHMTSD, RN 15 RDBNMCR, NQ
15
60
= 0.25 LHMTSDR NBBTQ ADSVDDM
RTBBDRRHUD B@KKR NM @UDQ@FD.
>. -DS - = SHLD DK@ORDC ADSVDDM B@KKR. 'QNL O@QS @, Z = 0.25, RN C =
1
0.25
= 4. 5GTR, - ENF(4).
5GD BTLTK@SHUD CHRSQHATSHNM ETMBSHNM HR )(- < J) = 1 k ;
k4J
.
5GD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S SGD MDWS B@KK NBBTQR HM KDRR SG@M SDM RDBNMCR HR P

T <
1
6

= 1 e
4
1
6
0.4866.
$CAOL? 5.32
?. -DS 1 = SGD MTLADQ NE B@KKR ODQ LHMTSD. "R OQDUHNTRKX RS@SDC, SGD MTLADQ NE B@KKR ODQ LHMTSD G@R @ 1NHRRNM
CHRSQHATSHNM, VHSG @ LD@M NE ENTQ B@KKR ODQ LHMTSD.
5GDQDENQD, 1 )E?IIED(4), @MC RN )(1 = 5) =
4
5
e
4
5!
v 0.1563. (5! = (5)(4)(3)(2)(1))
ONHRRNMOCE(4, 5)
@. ,DDO HM LHMC SG@S 1 LTRS AD @ VGNKD MTLADQ, RN )(1 < 5) = )(1 x 4).
5N BNLOTSD SGHR, VD BNTKC S@JD )(1 = 0) + )(1 = 1) + )(1 = 2) + )(1 = 3) + )(1 = 4).
6RHMF SDBGMNKNFX, VD RDD SG@S )(1 x 4) = 0.6288.
ONHRRRNMBCE(4, 4)
"'/3$1 5 W ".-3(-4.42 1-#., 51(!+$2 341
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A. -DS 2 = SGD MTLADQ NE B@KKR SG@S NBBTQ CTQHMF @M DHFGS LHMTSD ODQHNC.
4HMBD SGDQD HR @M @UDQ@FD NE ENTQ B@KKR ODQ LHMTSD, SGDQD HR @M @UDQ@FD NE (8)(4) = 32 B@KKR CTQHMF D@BG DHFGS
LHMTSD ODQHNC.
)DMBD, 2 )E?IIED(32). 5GDQDENQD, )(2 > 40) = 1 k ) (2 x 40) = 1 k 0.9294 = 0.0707.
1 k ONHRRNMBCE(32, 40).
5.13 *M @ RL@KK BHSX, SGD MTLADQ NE @TSNLNAHKD @BBHCDMSR NBBTQ VHSG @ 1NHRRNM CHRSQHATSHNM @S @M @UDQ@FD NE SGQDD ODQ
VDDJ.
=. $@KBTK@SD SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S SGDQD @QD @S LNRS 2 @BBHCDMSR NBBTQ HM @MX FHUDM VDDJ.
>. 8G@S HR SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S SGDQD HR @S KD@RS SVN VDDJR ADSVDDM @MX 2 @BBHCDMSR
342 "'/3$1 5 W ".-3(-4.42 1-#., 51(!+$2
3DEO ?KJPAJP EO =R=EH=>HA BKN BNAA =P DPPL://?JT.KNC/?KJPAJP/?KH11562/1.11
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5.1 !IHNCHOIOM "CMNLC<ONCIH
$K@RR 5HLD:
/@LDR:
1NO>?HN *?;LHCHA -ON=IG?M
c 5GD RSTCDMS VHKK BNLO@QD @MC BNMSQ@RS DLOHQHB@K C@S@ EQNL @ Q@MCNL MTLADQ FDMDQ@SNQ VHSG SGD TMHENQL
CHRSQHATSHNM.
!IFF?=N NB? ";N;
6RD @ Q@MCNL MTLADQ FDMDQ@SNQ SN FDMDQ@SD 50 U@KTDR ADSVDDM YDQN @MC NMD (HMBKTRHUD). -HRS SGDL HM 2;<F? 5.3.
3NTMC SGD MTLADQR SN ENTQ CDBHL@K OK@BDR NQ RDS SGD B@KBTK@SNQ .0%& SN ENTQ OK@BDR.
1. $NLOKDSD SGD S@AKD.
<<<<<<<<<< <<<<<<<<<< <<<<<<<<<< <<<<<<<<<< <<<<<<<<<<
<<<<<<<<<< <<<<<<<<<< <<<<<<<<<< <<<<<<<<<< <<<<<<<<<<
<<<<<<<<<< <<<<<<<<<< <<<<<<<<<< <<<<<<<<<< <<<<<<<<<<
<<<<<<<<<< <<<<<<<<<< <<<<<<<<<< <<<<<<<<<< <<<<<<<<<<
<<<<<<<<<< <<<<<<<<<< <<<<<<<<<< <<<<<<<<<< <<<<<<<<<<
<<<<<<<<<< <<<<<<<<<< <<<<<<<<<< <<<<<<<<<< <<<<<<<<<<
<<<<<<<<<< <<<<<<<<<< <<<<<<<<<< <<<<<<<<<< <<<<<<<<<<
<<<<<<<<<< <<<<<<<<<< <<<<<<<<<< <<<<<<<<<< <<<<<<<<<<
<<<<<<<<<< <<<<<<<<<< <<<<<<<<<< <<<<<<<<<< <<<<<<<<<<
<<<<<<<<<< <<<<<<<<<< <<<<<<<<<< <<<<<<<<<< <<<<<<<<<<
2;<F? 5.3
2. $@KBTK@SD SGD ENKKNVHMF:
=. x

= ???????
>. I = ???????
?. EHQRS PT@QSHKD = ???????
@. SGHQC PT@QSHKD = ???????
A. LDCH@M = ???????
-LA;HCT? NB? ";N;
1. $NMRSQTBS @ GHRSNFQ@L NE SGD DLOHQHB@K C@S@. .@JD DHFGS A@QR.
"'/3$1 5 W ".-3(-4.42 1-#., 51(!+$2 343
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$CAOL? 5.33
2. $NMRSQTBS @ GHRSNFQ@L NE SGD DLOHQHB@K C@S@. .@JD EHUD A@QR.
$CAOL? 5.34
"?M=LC<? NB? ";N;
1. *M SVN SN SGQDD BNLOKDSD RDMSDMBDR, CDRBQHAD SGD RG@OD NE D@BG FQ@OG. (,DDO HS RHLOKD. %NDR SGD FQ@OG FN RSQ@HFGS
@BQNRR, CNDR HS G@UD @ 7 RG@OD, CNDR HS G@UD @ GTLO HM SGD LHCCKD NQ @S DHSGDQ DMC, @MC RN NM. 0MD V@X SN GDKO XNT
CDSDQLHMD @ RG@OD HR SN CQ@V @ RLNNSG BTQUD QNTFGKX SGQNTFG SGD SNO NE SGD A@QR.)
2. %DRBQHAD GNV BG@MFHMF SGD MTLADQ NE A@QR LHFGS BG@MFD SGD RG@OD.
2B?IL?NC=;F "CMNLC<ONCIH
1. *M VNQCR, 1 = ?????????????????????????????????????.
2. 5GD SGDNQDSHB@K CHRSQHATSHNM NE 1 HR 1 ] .(0,1).
3. *M SGDNQX, A@RDC TONM SGD CHRSQHATSHNM 1 ] .(0,1), BNLOKDSD SGD ENKKNVHMF.
=. Z = ??????
>. \ = ??????
?. EHQRS PT@QSHKD = ??????
@. SGHQC PT@QSHKD = ??????
A. LDCH@M = ??????????
4. "QD SGD DLOHQHB@K U@KTDR (SGD C@S@) HM SGD RDBSHNM SHSKDC "!IFF?=N NB? ";N;" BKNRD SN SGD BNQQDRONMCHMF SGDNQDSHB@K
U@KTDR 8GX NQ VGX MNS
.FIN NB? ";N;
1. $NMRSQTBS @ ANW OKNS NE SGD C@S@. #D RTQD SN TRD @ QTKDQ SN RB@KD @BBTQ@SDKX @MC CQ@V RSQ@HFGS DCFDR.
2. %N XNT MNSHBD @MX ONSDMSH@K NTSKHDQR *E RN, VGHBG U@KTDR @QD SGDX &HSGDQ V@X, ITRSHEX XNTQ @MRVDQ MTLDQHB@KKX.
(3DB@KK SG@S @MX %"5" SG@S @QD KDRR SG@M *
1
k 1.5("*+) NQ LNQD SG@M *
3
+ 1.5("*+) @QD ONSDMSH@K NTSKHDQR. "*+
LD@MR HMSDQPT@QSHKD Q@MFD.)
!IGJ;L? NB? ";N;
344 "'/3$1 5 W ".-3(-4.42 1-#., 51(!+$2
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1. 'NQ D@BG NE SGD ENKKNVHMF O@QSR, TRD @ BNLOKDSD RDMSDMBD SN BNLLDMS NM GNV SGD U@KTD NAS@HMDC EQNL SGD
C@S@ BNLO@QDR SN SGD SGDNQDSHB@K U@KTD XNT DWODBSDC EQNL SGD CHRSQHATSHNM HM SGD RDBSHNM SHSKDC "2B?IL?NC=;F
"CMNLC<ONCIH."
=. LHMHLTL U@KTD: ???????
>. EHQRS PT@QSHKD: ???????
?. LDCH@M: ???????
@. SGHQC PT@QSHKD: ???????
A. L@WHLTL U@KTD: ???????
B. VHCSG NE "*+: ???????
C. NUDQ@KK RG@OD: ???????
2. #@RDC NM XNTQ BNLLDMSR HM SGD RDBSHNM SHSKDC "!IFF?=N NB? ";N;", GNV CNDR SGD ANW OKNS EHS NQ MNS EHS VG@S XNT
VNTKC DWODBS NE SGD CHRSQHATSHNM HM SGD RDBSHNM SHSKDC "2B?IL?NC=;F "CMNLC<ONCIH"
"CM=OMMCIH /O?MNCIH
1. 4TOONRD SG@S SGD MTLADQ NE U@KTDR FDMDQ@SDC V@R 500, MNS 50. )NV VNTKC SG@S @EEDBS VG@S XNT VNTKC DWODBS SGD
DLOHQHB@K C@S@ SN AD @MC SGD RG@OD NE HSR FQ@OG SN KNNJ KHJD
"'/3$1 5 W ".-3(-4.42 1-#., 51(!+$2 345
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!IH>CNCIH;F .LI<;<CFCNS
>?=;S J;L;G?N?L
#RJIH?HNC;F "CMNLC<ONCIH
G?GILSF?MM JLIJ?LNS
.ICMMIH >CMNLC<ONCIH
3HC@ILG "CMNLC<ONCIH
)#7 2#0+1
SGD KHJDKHGNNC SG@S @M DUDMS VHKK NBBTQ FHUDM SG@S @MNSGDQ DUDMS G@R @KQD@CX NBBTQQDC.
5GD CDB@X O@Q@LDSDQ CDRBQHADR SGD Q@SD @S VGHBG OQNA@AHKHSHDR CDB@X SN YDQN ENQ HMBQD@RHMF U@KTDR NE
N. *S HR SGD U@KTD C HM SGD OQNA@AHKHSX CDMRHSX ETMBSHNM <(N) = C;
(-CN)
NE @M DWONMDMSH@K Q@MCNL U@QH@AKD. *S HR @KRN
DPT@K SN C =
1

, VGDQD Z HR SGD LD@M NE SGD Q@MCNL U@QH@AKD.


@ BNMSHMTNTR Q@MCNL U@QH@AKD (37) SG@S @OOD@QR VGDM VD @QD HMSDQDRSDC HM SGD HMSDQU@KR NE
SHLD ADSVDDM RNLD Q@MCNL DUDMSR, ENQ DW@LOKD, SGD KDMFSG NE SHLD ADSVDDM DLDQFDMBX @QQHU@KR @S @ GNROHS@K; SGD
MNS@SHNM HR 1 ] ENF(C). 5GD LD@M HR Z =
1
m
@MC SGD RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNM HR j =
1
m
. 5GD OQNA@AHKHSX CDMRHSX ETMBSHNM HR
<(N) = C;
eCN
, N y 0 @MC SGD BTLTK@SHUD CHRSQHATSHNM ETMBSHNM HR )(1 x N) = 1 u ;
eCN
.
'NQ @M DWONMDMSH@K Q@MCNL U@QH@AKD 1, SGD LDLNQXKDRR OQNODQSX HR SGD RS@SDLDMS SG@S
JMNVKDCFD NE VG@S G@R NBBTQQDC HM SGD O@RS G@R MN DEEDBS NM ETSTQD OQNA@AHKHSHDR. 5GHR LD@MR SG@S SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S
1 DWBDDCR N + A, FHUDM SG@S HS G@R DWBDDCDC N, HR SGD R@LD @R SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S 1 VNTKC DWBDDC A HE VD G@C MN
JMNVKDCFD @ANTS HS. *M RXLANKR VD R@X SG@S )(1 > N + A[1 > N) = )(1 > A).
*E SGDQD HR @ JMNVM @UDQ@FD NE Y DUDMSR NBBTQQHMF ODQ TMHS SHLD, @MC SGDRD DUDMSR @QD HMCDODMCDMS
NE D@BG NSGDQ, SGDM SGD MTLADQ NE DUDMSR 1 NBBTQQHMF HM NMD TMHS NE SHLD G@R SGD 1NHRRNM CHRSQHATSHNM. 5GD OQNA@AHKHSX
NE A DUDMSR NBBTQQHMF HM NMD TMHS SHLD HR DPT@K SN P(X = k) =

k
e

k!
.
@ BNMSHMTNTR Q@MCNL U@QH@AKD (37) SG@S G@R DPT@KKX KHJDKX NTSBNLDR NUDQ SGD CNL@HM, 7 < N < 8;
HS HR NESDM QDEDQQDC @R SGD G:8I6C<JA6G 9>HIG>7JI>DC ADB@TRD SGD FQ@OG NE SGD OCE G@R SGD ENQL NE @ QDBS@MFKD.
/NS@SHNM: 1 ] .(7,8). 5GD LD@M HR Z =
a + b
2
@MC SGD RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNM HR =
(b a)
2
12
. 5GD OQNA@AHKHSX CDMRHSX
ETMBSHNM HR <(N) =
1
b a
ENQ 7 < N < 8 NQ 7 x N x 8. 5GD BTLTK@SHUD CHRSQHATSHNM HR )(1 x N) =
x a
b a
.
!&A.2#0 0#4'#5
5.1 !IHNCHOIOM .LI<;<CFCNS $OH=NCIHM
5GD OQNA@AHKHSX CDMRHSX ETMBSHNM (OCE) HR TRDC SN CDRBQHAD OQNA@AHKHSHDR ENQ BNMSHMTNTR Q@MCNL U@QH@AKDR. 5GD @QD@ TMCDQ SGD
CDMRHSX BTQUD ADSVDDM SVN ONHMSR BNQQDRONMCR SN SGD OQNA@AHKHSX SG@S SGD U@QH@AKD E@KKR ADSVDDM SGNRD SVN U@KTDR. *M NSGDQ
VNQCR, SGD @QD@ TMCDQ SGD CDMRHSX BTQUD ADSVDDM ONHMSR 7 @MC 8 HR DPT@K SN )(7 < N < 8). 5GD BTLTK@SHUD CHRSQHATSHNM ETMBSHNM
(BCE) FHUDR SGD OQNA@AHKHSX @R @M @QD@. *E 1 HR @ BNMSHMTNTR Q@MCNL U@QH@AKD, SGD OQNA@AHKHSX CDMRHSX ETMBSHNM (OCE), <(N), HR
TRDC SN CQ@V SGD FQ@OG NE SGD OQNA@AHKHSX CHRSQHATSHNM. 5GD SNS@K @QD@ TMCDQ SGD FQ@OG NE <(N) HR NMD. 5GD @QD@ TMCDQ SGD FQ@OG
NE <(N) @MC ADSVDDM U@KTDR 7 @MC 8 FHUDR SGD OQNA@AHKHSX )(7 < N < 8).
$CAOL? 5.35
5GD BTLTK@SHUD CHRSQHATSHNM ETMBSHNM (BCE) NE 1 HR CDEHMDC AX ) (1 x N). *S HR @ ETMBSHNM NE N SG@S FHUDR SGD OQNA@AHKHSX
SG@S SGD Q@MCNL U@QH@AKD HR KDRR SG@M NQ DPT@K SN N.
346 "'/3$1 5 W ".-3(-4.42 1-#., 51(!+$2
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5.2 2B? 3HC@ILG "CMNLC<ONCIH
*E 1 G@R @ TMHENQL CHRSQHATSHNM VGDQD 7 < N < 8 NQ 7 x N x 8, SGDM 1 S@JDR NM U@KTDR ADSVDDM 7 @MC 8 (L@X HMBKTCD 7 @MC
8). "KK U@KTDR N @QD DPT@KKX KHJDKX. 8D VQHSD 1 .(7, 8). 5GD LD@M NE 1 HR =
a + b
2
. 5GD RS@MC@QC CDUH@SHNM NE 1 HR
=
(b a)
2
12
. 5GD OQNA@AHKHSX CDMRHSX ETMBSHNM NE 1 HR f (x) =
1
b a
ENQ 7 x N x 8. 5GD BTLTK@SHUD CHRSQHATSHNM ETMBSHNM
NE 1 HR )(1 x N) =
x a
b a
. 1 HR BNMSHMTNTR.
$CAOL? 5.36
5GD OQNA@AHKHSX )(9 < 1 < :) L@X AD ENTMC AX BNLOTSHMF SGD @QD@ TMCDQ <(N), ADSVDDM 9 @MC :. 4HMBD SGD BNQQDRONMCHMF
@QD@ HR @ QDBS@MFKD, SGD @QD@ L@X AD ENTMC RHLOKX AX LTKSHOKXHMF SGD VHCSG @MC SGD GDHFGS.
5.3 2B? #RJIH?HNC;F "CMNLC<ONCIH
*E 1 G@R @M :MEDC:CI>6A 9>HIG>7JI>DC VHSG LD@M Z, SGDM SGD 9:86N E6G6B:I:G HR C =
1

, @MC VD VQHSD 1 ENF(C) VGDQD


N y 0 @MC C > 0 . 5GD OQNA@AHKHSX CDMRHSX ETMBSHNM NE 1 HR <(N) = C;
-CN
(NQ DPTHU@KDMSKX f (x) =
1

e
x /
. 5GD BTLTK@SHUD
CHRSQHATSHNM ETMBSHNM NE 1 HR )(1 x N) = 1 k ;
kCN
.
5GD DWONMDMSH@K CHRSQHATSHNM G@R SGD B:BDGNA:HH EGDE:GIN, VGHBG R@XR SG@S ETSTQD OQNA@AHKHSHDR CN MNS CDODMC NM @MX
O@RS HMENQL@SHNM. .@SGDL@SHB@KKX, HS R@XR SG@S )(1 > N + A[1 > N) = )(1 > A).
*E - QDOQDRDMSR SGD V@HSHMF SHLD ADSVDDM DUDMSR, @MC HE - ENF(Y), SGDM SGD MTLADQ NE DUDMSR 1 ODQ TMHS SHLD ENKKNVR
SGD 1NHRRNM CHRSQHATSHNM VHSG LD@M Y. 5GD OQNA@AHKHSX CDMRHSX ETMBSHNM NE 1 HR (X = k) =

k
e
k
k!
. 5GHR L@X AD BNLOTSDC
TRHMF @ 5*-83, 83+, 84, 84+ B@KBTK@S