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SERDP|SustainableForwardOperatingBases

May2010 i


StrategicEnvironmental
ResearchandDevelopment
Program(SERDP)

SustainableForward
OperatingBases

May21,2010


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May2010 ii

Executive Summary
CurrentUnitedStatesmilitarycontingencyoperationsunderscoreaneedformoresustainableforward
operatingbases(FOBs).FOBshavebeenvitalinsupportingtheexpeditionaryandcampaigncapabilities
oftheU.S.military,butbuildingandsustainingFOBshaveincurredsignificantcostsintermsofboth
dollarsspentandliveslost.
ThisreportwaspreparedfortheStrategicEnvironmentalResearchandDevelopmentProgram(SERDP)
andattemptstocharacterizecurrentFOBdesignandoperationsasafirststeptowardsdevelopingmore
sustainableFOBs(asummarycharacterizationisprovidedinAppendixA).Itisintendedasanoverview
toguideinitialdiscussionsandassistSERDPinidentifyingpotentialresearchinvestments.Thescopeof
thisreportislimitedtoasurveyofprimaryFOBsustainabilityconcernsandincludesdiscussionofFOB
types,elementsofplanningandsustainment,forceprotection,food,water,wastewater,fueland
power,andsolidwaste.Detailedanalysesandresearchrecommendationsarereservedforfuturestudy.
FOBscanvarydependingonsize,mission,duration,typeofunitsupported,areaofoperations,andthe
availability/sophisticationofhostnationinfrastructure.FOBscanrangefromaustere,platoonsized
basesonthetacticaledgetodivisionsizedenduringbases.Theamountofmaterielrequiredandrateof
wastegeneratedwilldifferbetweendifferentFOBtypes,butthefundamentalproblemsremainthe
same.Byreducingtheamountofsupportmaterielneeded,designingmoresustainableFOBswillhavea
directimpactonlogisticscosts,potentialcasualties,andU.S.combatforceeffectiveness.
ImprovingthesustainabilityofFOBswillrequireextensivecoordinationamongmultiplepartiesand
carefulnavigationofcomplextradeoffs.Giventherelevanceofthesubject,teamsacrossthefederal
government,theDepartmentofDefense,andthemilitaryServiceshavestartedinitiativestodesign
moresustainableFOBs.Whilesomeinitiativesfocusoncurrentcommercialsolutionsandothers
emphasizelongtermresearch,collaborationandknowledgesharingacrossallpartieswillbecriticalto
developingsolutionsinatimelymanner.



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May2010 iii


Table of Contents
Executive Summary 2
1 Introduction 1
1.1 Overview 1
1.2 Relevance 1
1.3 Definitions 1
1.4 Approach 2
2 Forward Operating Bases 3
2.1 Role of FOBs 3
2.2 Types of FOBs 4
3 Planning Process 6
3.1 Characteristics of the Process 6
3.2 Process Tradeoffs 7
4 Supply of FOBs 9
4.1 What Needs to be Shipped 9
4.2 Transportation 10
4.3 Containers 11
5 Facilities, Structures, and Construction 13
5.1 Types of Buildings 13
5.2 Types of Structures, Infrastructure 13
5.3 FOB Footprint 15
5.4 Construction 17
5.5 Sets (Force Provider, Harvest Falcon, Harvest Eagle) 17
6 Force Protection 19
6.1 Anti-Personnel / Vehicle Barriers 19
6.2 Other Force Protection Measures 20
7 Food 21
7.1 Rations 21
7.2 Requirements 22
7.3 Distribution 22
7.4 Structures 23
8 Water and Wastewater 24
8.1 Water Consumption 24
8.2 Water Source and Treatment 25
8.3 Wastewater Source and Quantity 27

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8.4 Wastewater Treatment 28
9 Fuel, Power, and Energy 30
9.1 General Statistics 30
9.2 Distribution and Cost 31
9.3 FOB Fuel Usage 32
9.4 Power and Electricity Generation 34
9.5 Individual Soldier 35
10 Solid Waste 36
10.1 Select Sources of Solid Waste 36
10.2 Characterization Studies 37
10.3 Treatment and Disposal 39
11 Going Forward 41
11.1 Key Findings 41
11.2 Areas of Potential Future Research 42
11.3 Parallel Research 43
11.4 Next Steps 44
Acronyms 46
Appendix A Summary FOB Characterization 48
Appendix B U.S. Army Field Manual 3-34 Standards 53
Appendix C U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Standards 59
Appendix D Red Book Standards 61
Appendix E USACE General Land Use Planning Factors 64
Appendix F Life Support Area Planning Factors 65
Appendix G Construction Estimates - USACE 67
Appendix H Rations 68
Appendix I USAREUR Contingency Menu 69
Appendix J Class I Distribution Iraq and Afghanistan 70
Appendix K FOB Fuel Consumption 71
Appendix L Tactical Quiet Generators 73
Appendix M Harvest Falcon Energy & Fuel Demand 74
Appendix N Sources 76


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List of Figures
Figure1.KSpanStructure 15
Figure2.HESCO 20
Figure3.ClassIDistribution 23
Figure4.BottledWater 27
Figure5.FullyBurdenedCostofFuel 32
Figure6.FuelConsumption 33
Figure7.MREandUGRH&SPackaging 37
List of Tables
Table1.FOBTypes 4
Table2.MilitaryClassesofSupply 10
Table3.TransportationInformation 11
Table4.Tents 14
Table5.FOBPlanningFactors 16
Table6.ConstructionEfforts 17
Table7.WaterConsumptionPlanningFactors 25
Table8.Responsibilities 31
Table9.CharacterizationStudies 38
Table10.2003,2006Study 39
Table11.SolidWasteManagementExample 40



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1 Introduction
1.1 Overview
NobliswastaskedbytheStrategicEnvironmentalResearchandDevelopmentProgram(SERDP)to
identifyandcharacterizethelogisticalcomponentsandpracticesrequiredtodevelop,build,andsustain
ForwardOperatingBases(FOBs).Thissnapshotofcurrentoperationalrequirementscanthenbeused
bySERDPtoidentifyandexploreadditionalresearchopportunitiesinsustainableFOBdesign.
Thispaperwillprovideabriefreviewof:
1. FOBtypes(role,differencesbasedonsize,mission,Service,areaofoperation,andduration)
2. FOBconstructionplanningprocess
3. Supplyconsiderations
4. StructuresandfacilitiesatFOBs
5. Quantity,composition,andcurrentoperationalpracticesassociatedwithfood,waterand
wastewater,energy/power/fuel,andsolidwastestreams
6. Nextstepsandparallelresearchefforts
1.2 Relevance
ThesustainabilityofourFOBsinIraq,Afghanistan,andaroundtheworldhasneverbeenamore
relevantissue.Recenttroopsurgesandextendedoperationsinmultipletheatersunderscorethe
urgencyforimprovedFOBsustainabilitytoreducecosts,logisticsupport,forceexposure,andcasualties.
Withoutrenewablepower,asMajorGeneralRichardZilmersaidinanoftquotedremark,U.S.forces
willremainunnecessarilyexposedandwillcontinuetoaccruepreventableseriousandgrave
casualties.
1

Dr.AshCarter,theUnderSecretaryofDefenseforAcquisition,Technology,andLogistics,has
commentedthatprotectinglargefuelconvoysimposesahugeburdenoncombatforcesand
reducingthefueldemandwouldmovethedepartmentmoretowardsanefficientforcestructureby
enablingmorecombatforcessupportedbyfewerlogisticsassets,reducingoperatingcosts,and
mitigatingbudgeteffectscausedbyfuelpricevolatility.
2

FOBsustainabilityissuesextendfarbeyondeffortstoconsolidateforcesandbasesinIraqandshiftthe
focustoAfghanistan.Boththechallengeswefacetodayandthebenefitsfrombridgingthegaptomore
sustainableFOBswillextendtofutureconflictsandlocations.
1.3 Definitions
WeusethetermForwardOperatingBase(FOB)toincludeallrelevantServiceuniqueandU.S.Central
Command(CENTCOM)designationsforfacilitiesinsupportofexpeditionaryorcontingencyoperations,
including:forwardoperatingbase,contingencyoperationbase,mainoperationsbase,camp,combat
outpost,patrolbase,basecomplex,tacticalbase,logisticsbase,logisticssupportarea,intermediate
stagingbase,firebase,andenduringbase.
Differencesinprocessandcharacterizationofinput/outputstreamsthataredependentonthesize/type
ofFOBwillbeidentifiedandaddressedinthefollowingsections.

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1.4 Approach
Aspartoftheresearchprocesstodevelopthispaper,Noblisconductedinterviewswithrepresentatives
throughoutthefederalgovernmentandU.S.military,performedanextensiveliteraturereviewon
doctrine,guidance,privateandpublicsectorresearch,anecdotalfirstpersonaccounts,andpublic
articles,andattendedconferences,symposiums,andworkshopsonenergy,sustainability,andthe
correspondingimpactonthemilitary.Althoughnotwithinthescopeofthisparticulareffort,Noblisalso
brieflyassessedareasofpotentialresearchthatwarrantadditionalconsideration.
ThoughthepurposeofthispaperistoprovideanoverviewofFOBs,keypointsarehighlighted
throughoutandmayprovideabasisforcontinuedresearch.Identificationofbestpractices,
recommendedapproaches,sustainabilityprinciples,andspecificresearchtoaddressFOBdesignand
operationswillrequiremoredetailedanalysesandfuturestudy.

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2 Forward Operating Bases
Highlights
FOBsarecriticaltotheU.S.expeditionarywarfightingstrategy
EstablishingandsustainingFOBsrequiresignificantlogisticalsupport
FOBscanvarywidelyinsophistication,dependingonsize,supportrequirement,hostnation
infrastructure,thenatureoftheoperation(contingency,enduring),andanticipatedduration
(temporary,semipermanent,permanent)

ImplicationsforFutureResearch
Solutionsmustbegeographyneutral.Solutionscanbeinspiredbyneedinoneregion,suchas
sprayfoamingtentsforinsulationinIraqorAfghanistan,buttheebbandflowofsoldiersin
IraqandAfghanistansuggestthatsolutionsshouldnotberelevantforonlyonegeography
type.Plannersmustanticipatethenextcontingencyoperation.
Solutionsmustbemodular,flexible,scaleable,andadaptableforthespectrumofFOBtypes,
fromaustere,platoonsizedbasestofull,divisionsizedmainbases.
2.1 Role of FOBs
AlthoughthetotaltallyandspecificlocationofFOBsareunavailabletothepublic,reportscurrently
placethetotalnumberofU.S.andcoalitionFOBs(aswehavedefinedthetermabove)atapproximately
400inAfghanistanand300inIraq.
3
AlthoughthecurrentplanistoconsolidatetheFOBsinIraqinto
anywherefrom1450enduringbasesfollowingtheAugust31,2010deadlinetoremoveU.S.combat
forcesfromIraq,the400basesinAfghanistanrepresentsasignificantincreasesinceCENTCOM
announcedthattherewere100basesinAfghanistaninNovember2008.
4
Thisbuildingboomisdirectly
correlatedwiththeamountofmoneyspentonbaseconstruction,withreportsindicating$3bworthof
workcurrentlyinAfghanistanand$3.2binIraq,asignificantincreaseoverthe$4.5bspentbytheU.S.
ArmyCorpsofEngineers(USACE)between2002and2008.
5

ThesenumbersrepresenthowintegralFOBshavebecometotheU.S.expeditionarywarfighting
strategy.Simplydefined,theFOBisanevolvingmilitaryfacilitythatsupportsthemilitaryoperationsof
adeployedunitandprovidesnecessarysupportandservicesforsustainedoperations,withaparticular
focusonsupportingexpeditionarycapabilities(theabilitytodeploycombinedarmsforcesintoany
operationalenvironmentandoperateeffectivelyuponarrival)andcampaigncapabilities(theabilityto
sustainoperationsaslongasnecessarytoconcludeoperationssuccessfully).
6
FOBshavebecomethe
hallmarkofU.S.contingencyoperationsandposebothdistinctadvantagesandchallengestothe
participantsinU.S.contingencyoperations:
Totheoperators,FOBsarecriticalinwagingasymmetricwarfare.AsoneArmycaptain
described,colocatinginpopulationcentersenabledustodenytheenemyaccesstothelocal
population,influenceandassistthelocalgovernment,providesecurity,andtotrainthelocal
policeandarmyunitstoprovidetheirownunaidedsecurity.Overthecourseofnearlyayear,
theplatoonleadershipdevelopedstrongrelationshipswithlocalsthatallowedtheleadershipto
maintainaconstantreadonthepopulationandinsurgents,providingthechainofcommand
withbottomupintelligencefortheplanningofmissions.
7

Tothesoldier,FOBshelpreducethepsychologicaltollofwarfareastheygivesoldiersan
unprecedentedadvantageofgainingarespitefromconstantdanger,minimizethewearing
effectsofhungerandfatigue,andreducetheisolationofcombat.
8


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Tothelogistician,FOBsquicklybecomethefocusofamassivelogisticaleffortasbuildingand
sustainingFOBsinremoteareasnecessitatehugeexpendituresofresources.
9
Whileoffering
benefits,colocatingU.S.forceswiththeindigenouspopulationalsocreateseasiertargetsfor
enemyfireandaddstothecostofprotectingsupplylinesandconvoys.
2.2 Types of FOBs
AlthoughwehavedefinedFOBsbroadlytoencompassallcontingencybases,FOBscandiffergreatly
basedonmissiontype,duration,size,role,AreaofOperation(AOR),hostnationinfrastructure,Service,
andunitssupportedfromanaustere,platoonsizedbaseonthetacticaledgetodivisionsized
enduringbasesthatsellflatscreentelevisionsfromtheirPostExchange(PX).Table1,FOBTypes,
illustrateshowU.S.militarydoctrineusesdifferentduration,size,andbasetypedistinctionsin
classifyingtypesofFOBsandbasecamps.Authorizedbuildings,typeofamenities,andofparticular
relevanceforthispapertheenergy,fuel,water,andwastetreatmentstandardsforaFOBwilldepend
ontheseclassifications.Additionalinformationonhowfacilitystandardscandifferisprovidedin
AppendicesAthroughD.AppendixAprovidesthesummarycharacterizationofcurrentFOBs.Appendix
BprovidesasnapshotoffacilitystandardsbasedonU.S.ArmyFieldManual(FM)334.AppendixC
providesanoverviewofUSACEcontingencyconstructionstandards.AppendixDprovidesacomparison
ofauthorizedfacilitiesatFOBs,MainBaseCamps,andOutpostsaccordingtotheUnitedStatesArmy,
Europe(USAREUR)BaseCampFacilitiesStandards(commonlyreferredtoastheRedBook)..
10

Table1.FOBTypes
ByDuration
ByBaseType
BySize
USArmyCorpsofEngineers Contingency Enduring
Organic Initial Temporary Semipermanent Permanent
<90days <6months <24months
ArmyFM334 Initial Temporary Semipermanent
<6months 624months 210years
USAREUR Initial Temporary Semipermanent
"RedBook" <6months 624months 225years
USCENTCOM Contingency Permanent
"SandBook" Expeditionary Initial Temporary
ForwardOperatingBase MainOperationsBase EnduringBase
PlatoonCompany BattalionBrigade Division

Generally,adivisionhas10,000to20,000soldiers,abrigade2,000to5,000soldiers,aregiment2,000to
3,000soldiers,abattalion300to1,000soldiers,acompany70to250soldiers,andaplatoon25to60
soldiers.

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AbriefsnapshotofthedifferencesbetweenFOBs:
10,000soldiersstationedat12basecampsintheBalkansaspartofOperationJointEndeavor(starting
in1995);moststationedatEagleBase(1,260)inBosniaandCampBondsteel(3,950)inKosovo.
FOBsoftenaustere,withnolivingquarters,latrines,ordininghalls
11

CampLeatherneck(Afghanistan)(U.S.MarineCorps,orUSMC)wasa460acresiteofdunesand
moondust,nowa6,000membercamp,with4,000Marinesand2,000contractors
12

FOBSalerno(Afghanistan):300acres
FOBPacesetter(Iraq):austerebasewithnofacilities
FOBAltimur(Afghanistan)lookslikefortifiedgravelpitonabarrenslope,surroundedbytwotiered
sacksofdirtandrazorwire
13

AlAsad(Iraq)includes20,000peoplelivingon18squaremiles,withaninternalbussystem,481
megawatt(MW)generators,32MWofcontinuouspowerdemand,1.1mgallonsofwater/daydemand,
1.2mgallonsofwater/daysupply,9waterwells,ReverseOsmosisWaterPurificationUnit(ROWPU),
watertreatmentfacilitiestreating60gallons/person/day,6,771facilities,and193spotgenerators
14

CampBalad(Iraq)has2powerplants,2watertreatmentplants(producing1.9mgallonsofwater/day),
aplantthatprovides7mbottles/moofdrinkingwater,2firestations,agym,healthclinic,restaurants
FOBHit(Iraq):norunningwater,justtents.OnlyMealsReadytoEat(MREs)andburninghumanwaste
FOBDanger(Iraq)hasairconditionedpalaces, FOBSpeicher(Iraq)hasaBurgerKingandadayspa,
FOBAnaconda(Iraq)hasaswimmingpool,butFOBBrassfieldMora(Iraq)isntanywhereasniceas
theotherFOBs.ItsPXsellsmostlysodaandshavingcream.ItsmesshallservesMREsforlunch.
15

Allinall,FOBNaray(Afghanistan)isnowhometoabout500AmericanandAfghansoldiers,about
onethirdofwhomareoutatanyonetimemanningtheOPsandoutpostsforweekslongspells.And
therearenohotA'satthosesites;none.I'vespentsometimeatone.JustMREs,threetimesaday.And
noflushtoilets,nohotshowers,orbathingatall,unlessoneisnearastreamorwatersource.Andno
realelectricity,exceptasmallgenerator,noairconditioning,notents,and,heavenforbid,nointernet.
AllofwhichcanbefoundatFOBNaray.Sure,theflushtoiletsareallthewayontheothersideofthe
camp,unlessyou'recountingthecoupleofouthouseburnshittersonthenorthside.Andtheshowers
tooaren'tnextdoor;theyareinaconexthatisalong,anklestrainingriverrockwalkawayacross
camp.Thereisairconditioningandheatinthewinter,butthelongtentsarepacked,30to40cotsor
moreeach,withpersonalspacelessthananarm'sreach.Asfortheinternet,exceptforthestaff
workingtheTOC(withinternetattheirfingertips,that'sthebenefitofbeingstaff),thereareexactly
threecomputershookedupinasmallconex,there'sa30minutelimit,andthere'salwaysalineof
guyswaiting.Still,it'sbetterthantheguysupintheoutpostshaveit,withonlytheirdreamsto
communicatebackhometolovedones.
16

Toaddtothecomplexity,FOBsnaturallyevolveovertimeasmissionschangeinscopeandduration.
OperationJointEndeavorinBosnia(19951996),forexample,wasintendedtobeatemporary
occupation(anditwaspresentedtohostnationsassuch),sotentcampsweresetupquicklyto
establishapresenceandkeeptroopsshelteredandoutofthemud.
17
Asistypicalofanexpeditionary
campaign,however,itsoonbecameobviousthatpeacekeepingwouldrequirealongercommitment,
leadingtothereplacementofmilitaryissuetentswithSoutheastAsiahuts(SEAhut),16x32footwood
frametentsmodifiedbyametalroof,extendedrafters,andscreenedinareas.
18
Insubsequent
missions,suchasinKosovofollowingNATOOperationAlliedForce(1999),baseplannersdirectlyused
SEAhuts.
19


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3 Planning Process
Thefirstelementofthesustainabilityequationistounderstandthebasicplanningprocess
involvedinestablishingFOBs

Highlights
Planningprocesscharacterizedbydecentralizedmanagementofdetails;extensive
coordinationrequiredacrossadisparatesetofparties
Norepositoryofbestpracticesorconsistentdoctrine,standards
Nosystematic,robustprocessfordevelopingandimplementingsustainablesolutions
Processcharacterizedbytradeoffs,butmissionsuccesstakestoppriority

ImplicationsforFutureResearch
Solutionsmusthavecommanderbuyinfromthebeginning
Solutionsmusttakeintoaccountrelevantconcernsfromallparties
Solutionsmustaccountforoperationalandpoliticalreality
Solutionsmustnotobstructbutenablemissionsuccess
Solutionsmustnotjeopardizesoldierhealth,safety,ormorale
SolutionsmustnothindertimelyFOBdevelopment

AreasofPotentialFutureResearch
Developstrategyroadmaptowardsgreatersustainabilitywiththefollowingsteps:1)fully
utilizeallmateriel,2)reducedemand,3)minimizewastethroughreuseofmateriel,and4)
reusegeneratedwaste
Developdecisionsupporttoolthatincorporatessustainablebestpractices
Whilethemajorityofthispaperwillfocusonthetangiblequantitiesoffuel,water,andmateriel
consumedandwasteproducedatFOBs,itisimportanttounderstandtheplanningprocessinvolvedin
locating,designing,andconstructingaFOB.Therearethreeprimaryreasonswhytheplanningprocessis
afactorinenhancingthesustainabilityofFOBdesign:1)decisionsmadeinplanningdirectlyimpactthe
commoditiesrequiredtobuildandsustaintheFOB,2)understandingtheplanningprocessintroduces
theparticipantsthatmustbeinvolvedindesigningmoresustainableFOBs,and3)thetradeoffsof
currentFOBdesignwillremainrelevantinimprovingsustainability.
3.1 Characteristics of the Process
DecentralizedAuthority
WithFOBs,thecommandersintentguidesthebasicparametersofthebaselocation,size,combat
elements,intendeddurationofusebutthedetailsarehandledbydecentralizedorlocalcommand
authority.ThoseinvolveduseguidancefromCENTCOMsSandBook,RedBook,andindividualmanuals
fromtheirrespectiveServices,butthereisnocentralrepositoryofbestpracticesandnoonepointof
authoritywithaholisticperspectiveontheprocess.AlthoughtheRedBookhasbeeninexistencefor
sometime,theSandBookwasonlydevelopedrecently,andevenwithitsimplementation,mostsoldiers
inIraqandAfghanistanforthemostpartcontinuedtotreatitmoreasageneralguidethanstrict
doctrine.Withtheemphasisonachievingthemilitarymission,implementingbestpracticesin
sustainableFOBdesigninevitablytakeslesserpriority.

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ExtensiveCoordinationRequired
Theplanningprocessrequiresextensivecoordinationacrossadisparatesetofparties.
20
Aftertheater
command/headquartersidentifiesaneedforaFOB,plannersusevarioustools(e.g.,Theater
ConstructionManagementSystem,theNavysAdvancedBaseFunctionalComponentsPlanningand
ProgrammingSystem)todesignthefacilities.Thefuturetenants,thesupportedunit,willrefinetheplan
andengineerswillstartconstruction,oftenrelyingheavilyoncontractorsupport.
21
Throughoutthe
process,theparticipantsmustassesstheterrain,evaluatesupplyroutesforconstruction,and
coordinateairandgroundtransportationcontacts.Commandersandtheirteamsmustevaluateland
andsupplydropzoneswhileengineersevaluatesoilconditionsandforceprotection,contingencyreal
estateteamslegallysecuretheland(coordinatingwithhostnationrepresentativesifnecessary),and
logistics/engineersgeneratethesupplyrequestforitemsneededimmediatelytobegintheconstruction
process(e.g.,concertinawire,HESCOs,lumber,plywood,sandbags,tents,powergenerators,MREs,
bottledwater,fuel).Teamsmightincludeorganiccombatengineeringunits,Armyconstruction
battalions,USACE,U.S.ArmyPrimePower(249
th
EngineerBattalion),U.S.ArmyForceProvider(643
rd

QuartermasterCompany),UnitedStatesNavyConstructionBattalions(Seabees),andUnitedStatesAir
Force(USAF)809
th
ExpeditionaryRedHorseSquadronandPrimeBaseEngineerEmergencyForce
(PRIMEBEEF)Squadron.
22

3.2 Process Tradeoffs


Allpartiesinvolvedhavedistinctconcerns,andalloftheseconcernsmustbetakenintoaccountwhen
designing(oroptimizing)FOBs.Theseconcerns,oftendivergent,resultinaplanningprocessthatis
characterizedbytradeoffs.Theseincludetheneedtobalance:

1. TheextensiveprocessofbuildingaFOB(effectivelydesigningacity,completewithutilities)
withmanystakeholdersagainsttheneedtohaveaFOBbuiltquickly.
23

2. Sustainability,environmentalstewardship,andhostnationrelationsagainstthedemandsof
militaryoperations,theimperativetoprotectsoldiers,andmissionrequirements
3. Theoptimum,sustainablesolutionagainstpoliticalnecessityandoperationalreality(e.g.,the
useoflocalcontractors,handingoutbottledwatertoIraqicivilians)

Theresultofbalancingthesetradeoffsisaniterativeprocesscharacterizedbyadaptationand
compromiseateverystep.IndesigningFOBs,forexample,youeitherbuildaFOBfromscratchand
designithowyouwant,amoretimeconsumingprocessthatmitigatesfuturerisk,orelsemakedo
withwhatyouhave,whichemphasizesspeedattheexpenseofrisk.
24
FOBconstruction,another
soldierwrites,wasdrivenbyimmediatenecessity.FOBforceprotectionbecameaphasedoperation:
firstwebuiltwhatwethoughtneededtobebuilt.Secondweassessedwhatthereactiontheenemyhad
toourfortifications.Third,wedevelopedcontrolsbasedontheenemyreaction.
25
AnArmy
representativeplanningprocessinvolvesthefollowingsteps:

Preliminaryplanning
o Someteamswillutilizeabasecampplanningboard
26

o DetermineprimaryFOBmission,duration
Locationselection

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o Conductextensivereconnaissance
o Determinewhethertoutilizeexistinggovernmentbuildings/hutsorbuildFOBsfrom
scratch;movingintoexistingbuildingswouldrequirelessresources,butcouldexpose
soldierstoquestionableinfrastructureandpotentialhealthproblems
27

o FOBplanningoftenrequiresatleastamonthbeforeconstruction
28

Landuseplanning
Facilityrequirementsdevelopment
Generalsiteplanning
Designguide,programming,andconstruction
Maintainandupdateplans
Cleanup,closure,andarchive

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4 Supply of FOBs
Thesecondelementinthesustainabilityequationistoevaluateopportunitiestooptimizesupply
strategyandexecutionindesigningsustainableFOBs

Highlights
ThemajorityofmaterielneededtobuildandsustainFOBsisbroughtintotheater
RedesignofsupplystrategycancontributetomoresustainableFOBs
Transportationchallengesdifferbasedongeography(e.g.,Iraqv.Afghanistan)
ShippingcontainerscanberedesignedforgreateruseatFOBs

ImplicationsforFutureResearch
Solutionsmustadheretocurrentinfrastructureandtransportationrequirements

AreasofPotentialFutureResearch
Designmaterielsupplychainstrategytoenhancesustainability
DesignshippingcontainersforuseasFOBstructures,forceprotection.Developothercreative
usesforpackagingmaterial/pallets.
Thefundamentalconsiderationinforwarddeploymentislogistics.Logisticshasbeenaprimary
determinantofcampaignsuccessthroughouthistory.Today,logisticsrequireshalfofallDepartmentof
Defense(DoD)personnelandconsumesathirdofitsbudget.
29
AsGeneralJamesT.Conway,theUSMC
Commandant,explained,theU.S.supplylinesinAfghanistanrepresentanoperationalvulnerability
and,asaresult,wearegettinghit;wearelosingMarines.
30
Thissectionexamines:1)whatitems
needtobeshippedtoaFOB,2)howmaterielistransported,and3)thecontainerizationoflogisticsand
facilities.
4.1 What Needs to be Shipped
ThemajorityofallmaterielneededtobuildandsustainaFOBisbroughtintothetheaterofwarrather
thansourcedlocally,evenifresupplyrequiresextensivetime(upto45daysfromsourcetoenduserin
Afghanistan).
31
Aperspectiveonthevolumeofmaterielneededfollows:

1. A30vehicleinitialconvoywasrequiredtomakeoneFOBadequateforlivinganddefendable
inAfghanistan;subsequentlyneededanother20trucksofsupplies,8fueltrucks,and2trucks
carryingaBobcatandaSmallEmplacementExcavator(SEE)
32

2. Inadditiontonormallogisticspackages,the411
th
EngineerBrigadesentmorethan300
containersoflumber,concertinawire,andelectricalpartstoFOBHammer(Iraq)
33

3. A600soldierFOBrequiresaconvoyof22trucksperdaytosupplythebasewithfuelorwater
andtotruckawaywastewaterandsolidwaste
34


Anyreductionintheamountofmaterielneededtobeshippedhasadirectimpactonthelogisticscosts
andpotentialcasualtiesfromconvoyprotection.Notonlydoesthisunderscoreaneedtoconsider
multiplepurposesforeachitemshippedinordertomaximizeitsrelativecontributiontotheFOB,buta
redesignordevelopmentofnewstrategytominimizethelogisticstailcancontributetotheoverall
sustainabilityofFOBs.

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Theelementsofglobaldistributionhaveevolvedintocommoditybasedsupplychainsalignedto
militaryclassesofsupply,areflectionofashiftinDoDsupportphilosophyawayfromthetraditional
stockbasedlogisticsystemtoaleaner,justintimedistributionbasedsystemthathasreducedthe
traditionalsafetynetofredundantmaterielstocks.
35
Table2,MilitaryClassesofSupply,liststhe
classesofsupply.

Table2.MilitaryClassesofSupply
36

Eachclassofmaterielhasanindividualsupplyanddistributionprocess,severalofwhichwewillexplore
ingreaterdetailinlatersectionsofthispaper.
4.2 Transportation
HowmaterielistransportedalsohasanimpactonFOBsustainability,asanynewsystemorsolutionstill
hastobetransportableusingcurrentvehicleplatformsandfitwithintheconfinesofexisting
transportationinfrastructureandcurrentoperationalpractices.
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InIraq,wherethelandisrelativelyflat,theprimarymethodofsupplyandresupplyhasbeenthetruck
convoy,usuallywithheavycontractorsupport.AsofNovember2007,80convoyswerecontinuously
travelingbetweenKuwaitandIraq(with70%transportingfuelorwater),exposingacriticalvulnerability
toImprovisedExplosiveDevices(IEDs)astheytransportedsuppliesfromsurroundingnations.
37

ThelogisticsofsupplyinAfghanistan,however,posesadifferentchallenge.Witharoadnetworkmuch,
muchthinnerthaninIraq,fewerairports,andageographycomprisedmostlyofmountainsoutsidethe
desertsofHelmondprovince,theU.S.militaryinAfghanistanhasremainedheavilydependenton
suppliestravelingthelong,windy,anddangerousroadsoronresupplybyair.
38
Bothmethodshave
oftenbeenunreliableinthemountainpasses.The20footjingletrucksusedinconvoysinAfghanistan
flippedoverinthemountainsatsucharatethatcommandershaveresortedtousingdumptrucks
instead,andonafewoccasionsheavyairdrops,[ContainerDeliverySystems](CDS)bundles,convoys,
slingloads,andCH47palletsallfailedwhengettingmaterialtobuildBhutsinAfghanistan.
39

Table3,TransportationInformation,providesasummaryofthecapacityofvarioustransportation
methods.Forreference,aForceProvidermodule(Section5.5describesForceProvideringreaterdetail)
fora600personbasewouldrequire54sortiesbyC130,24sortiesbyC141,12sortiesbyC17,or9
sortiesbyC5.
40

Table3.TransportationInformation
41

4.3 Containers
Manyclassesofsupply,asshowninTable2,MilitaryClassesofSupply,arebroughtintothetheaterin
containers.Ifusedproperly,thesecontainerscanbeconvertedfromwastethatmustbedisposedof
intosomethinguseful,evenpotentiallyreplacingothermaterielthatmustbebroughtintotheater.

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May2010 12

AccordingtoU.S.ArmyFM5565,thetypesofcontainersinclude:
IntervalSlingableUnit(ISU)
CertifiedforhelicopterairliftandAirMobilityCommand(AMC)aircraft.463Lpalletcompatible
andhasa10,000poundcapacity.Basemeasures108x88andwithheightsrangingfrom60
90.
42
463Lpalletshavebasedimensionsof108x88andcanholditems8feettall.
Milvancontainers
20x8x8;41,300poundcapacity,3,500poundemptyweight
Commercialshippingcontainers
Quadcon:Quadconsmeasure82x57x96.AccordingtoFM5565,itisalockable,
weatherproof,reusable,prefabricatedcontainerwithacargocapacityof8,000pounds.The
Quadconhasastructuralsteelweldedframe.Itstopsidesanddoorpanelsaremadeofplywood
coatedwithaplasticlaminate.Theflooris[constructed]ofhighdensityplywoodcoveredon
bothsideswithsheetsteel.FourQuadconscoupledtogetherhavethesamedimensionsasa
standard20footISO[InternationalOrganizationforStandardization]container.
TheU.S.militaryincreasinglyreliesonmodularsets,likeForceProvider,thatcanbedeployedinaset
numberofcontainers.
43
Thecontainersthemselves,however,shouldbeputtogooduse;some
commandersinIraqandAfghanistanhaveaskedtheircontractorstoturnshippingcontainersinto
offices,kitchens,andbathrooms.
44
OnekeytoasustainableFOBwillbetofullyutilizeeverythingthat
enterstheFOB,regardlessofitsoriginaldesign,intent,orpurpose.Thestepstogreatersustainability
fullyutilizingallmaterielataFOB,reducingdemand/consumption,minimizingwastethroughreuseof
materiel,andreusinggeneratedwastewillgreatlycontributetolowercostsandreducedcasualties.

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May2010 13

5 Facilities, Structures, and Construction
Thethirdelementinthesustainabilityequationistounderstandandoptimizefacilitydesign,
engineering,andconstructiontoenhanceFOBsustainability

Highlights
DependingonthesizeandsophisticationoftheFOB,aFOBcanhaveawidevarietyof
differenttypesofbuildings
Theleastcostlyconstructionmethodutilizesexistinginfrastructureasmuchaspossible
Tentsaresimpletotransportandusebutarenotenergyefficient
ThecostofbuildingmaterialshouldfactorintoFOBdesignplanning
FOBsets,suchastheForceProvidermodules,haveplayedagrowingroleinstandardizingand
simplifyingfieldconstruction

AreasofPotentialFutureResearch
Designanddeployrealtimeenergydemandmanagement/smartgridsystems
Designandbuildmoreenergyefficientstructures.Adoptefficiencybestpracticesinselecting
constructionmaterialused,lightingtechnology,windowtechnology,layout.Consider
integrationofrenewableenergygeneration(e.g.,thinfilmsolar)withstructures
Identifystateofartsolutionstoimprovetheenergyefficiencyofstructures.Sprayfoam
insulationisagoodstartingpoint,butitalsopreventsreuse
Designconstructionmaterialsupplychaintoenhancesustainability
Improvecurrentbasesets,likeU.S.ArmyForceProviderandUSAFHarvestFalconand
HarvestEagle
5.1 Types of Buildings
AtypicalArmyFOBmayincludesomeorallofthefollowingelements:lifesupportareas,toilet/shower
facilities,headquartersfacilities,logisticalsupportfacilities,diningfacilities,finance/personnelsupport,
postalfacilities,laundrycollectionanddistributionpoint,aviationfacilities,communicationfacilities,
medicalfacilities,motorpoolfacilities,fuelstoragefacilities,hazardouswastecollectionfacilities,
ammunitionsupplypoints,trainingfacilities,PX,moralewelfarerecreation(MWR)facilities,and
detaineeholdingareas.
45

TallilAirForceBase(nowtransferredbacktoIraqicontrol),forexample,wasoriginallybuiltfor3,000
soldiersandhad22barracks,32headquartersbuildings,3diningfacilities,7warehouses,7
maintenancefacilities,and29othersupportbuildingssuchasafirehouse,jail,andmosque.Utilities
includedwastewatertreatmentplants,watertreatmentplant,andanelectricalgenerationplant.
46
FOB
Salernohadagym,withexercisemachinesandbigscreenTVs,laundry,offices,hospital,morgue,anda
church.
47
OtherFOBshadvariationsofsimilarfacilitiesandequipment.
48

5.2 Types of Structures, Infrastructure


Preexistingstructures
TheleastcostlyandefficientmannerofFOBconstructionutilizesexistingstructurestothegreatest
extentpossible.
49
AnUSACEstudystatesthatcurrentconstructionofbuildingsintheatertakestoo
long,coststoomuch,andtiesupcriticaltransportationresources.
50
Inresponse,somecommanders

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haveusedmudandstrawbuildingsbuiltoverpackeddirtfloorsandtoppedwiththatchedwooden
roofsforoffices,maintenancebuildings,andclinicsinAfghanistanandIraq.
51

Tents
Tentsarethehousingstandardforthefirstsoldiersinthefieldduringanexpeditionarycampaign.As
shownintheTable4,Tents,GeneralPurpose(GP)tentsandTentExtendableModularPersonnel
(Temper)tentscanvaryinsize.Tempertentsincludeanaluminumframewithvinylpolyesterduckcloth
thatisfire,mildew,andwaterresistant.MediumGPtentscanhouse12peopleandbeerectedby4
peoplein1hour,whilelargeGPtentshold22peopleeachandcanbeerectedby6peoplein1.5hours.

Table4.Tents
52

Usingtentspresentsinevitabletradeoffs.Tentsarerelativelylightweight,donotincursubstantial
transportationcosts,canbeerectedquickly,andcouldtheoreticallybereusedinafutureconflict.Trying
toheat20cotsleepingtentsorcooltentsin120degreeIraqisummers,however,createsqualityoflife
issuesandisatremendousdrainonenergy,power,andfuel.
53
Oneproposedsolutiontoreducethe
energycostsofheating/coolingtentshasbeentosprayinsulatingfoamonthetentsurface,butthat
solutioneffectivelyturnsatemporarytentintoapermanentfacility.AnotherareaofcurrentFOB
sustainabilityresearchhasbeeninevaluatingtheprospectsofattachingsolarpanelstotentstomitigate
theprodigiousfuelrequirementsofmanagingtentclimate.
Preengineeredmetalorfabricbuildings
Preengineeredbuildingsareusuallyusedformaintenancefacilities,astheyrequirelimitedinternal
supportcolumnsandarerelativelyeasytoconstruct.Navyestimatessuggestthat1012peoplecould
assemblethe10,000squarefeetKSpanstructureinaday(seeFigure1,KSpanStructure).
54

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Figure1.KSpanStructure
55

AccordingtotheArmy,asteelbasedbuildingrequireshalfasmuchmaterial,halftheconstruction
time,lessthanaquarterthecargospace,andis60%cheaperthanwoodbuildings.
56
Otherpre
engineeredbuildingsincludetensionfabricbuildings,suchastheUniversalFabricStructures/clamshell
structures.
Modularbuildings,trailerunits,assembledprefabricatedbuildings,ormanufacturedbuildings
ThiscategoryincludestrailersandotherContainerizedHousingUnits(CHU),whichareshipping
containersprefabricatedintolivingquarters,offices,andothertypesoffacilities.Atypicaloffice
shippingcontainer,forexample,hassixinternetconnections,shelves,andadesk.Suchpre
fabricated/manufacturedbuildingsoffercostsavings,speed(aseverythingispremade),qualitycontrol,
andeaseofexpansionandrelocation.
57

Constructingwood,steel,orConcreteMasonryUnit(CMU)framedandsupportedbuildings
Asdescribedearlier,onsiteconstructionallowsforflexibilityofdesign,butitcanbecostly,time
consuming,andrequirelargequantitiesofClassIVsuppliesluxuriesincontingencyoperations.
58
CMU
examplesincludeBhutsandSEAhuts.Botharewoodenstructures,withBhutsmadeofplywoodand
holdingupto8people,andSEAhutsconstructedofwoodwithasheetvinylfloor,5/8inchgypsum
wallsandceiling,flatlatexpaint,metalroof,precastconcretepilings,paintedexterior.
59
Thereare5
SEAhutsinaDavidsonconfiguration,foratotalof2,944squarefeetofenclosedspace.
Roads
Buildingroadsrequiressubstantialmaterial.TheRedBookrequiresasphaltroads,concreteturning
pads,andgravelsecondaryroads,butgravelisoftendifficulttoprocure.
60
Procuringthe100,000cubic
metersofgravelforFOBHammer,forexample,requiredmoretimethanoriginallyscheduled.
61

Furniture
Approvedfurnitureforasoldierincludesonebed,onemattress(singlefoamrubberwithnonplastic
shell),aonefootlocker,nailboardsonwallsoflivingareas,andlocallybuiltshelvesmadeofplywood.
62

5.3 FOB Footprint


ThegeographicalfootprintofanFOBcanvaryfromencompassingafewacrestoafewhundredacresto
over11,000acres(18squaremiles)forAlAsad(includingrunways).
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AsshownintheTable5,FOBPlanningFactors,U.S.ArmyFM334suggestsrealestateacreageranging
from16to350acresforbasecampsfor500to10,000soldiers,respectively.Troophousingwouldrange
from0.91acresto18acresacrossthespectrum.SeeSection9fordetailedpowerrequirements.

Table5.FOBPlanningFactors
63

AppendixEprovidesUSACEplanningfactors,whichdifferfromthoseinFM334.AppendixFprovides
theplanningfactorsfortroophousing,withtypicalSEAhutandTempertentconfigurations.Page14of
theRedBookalsoprovidesadditionalinformationregardingspecificFOBbuildingsquarefootage.
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5.4 Construction
May2010 17

65
s
moredetailedestimateofconstructioneffortrequirementsforeach
omponentofa500manFOB.

Table6.ConstructionEfforts
66

ClassIVsuppliesincludeallconstructionrawmaterialandfortification/barrieritemssuchaslumber,
wire,andsandbags.
64
DefenseLogisticsAgency(DLA)isthewholesalematerielmanagerandexecutes
throughDefenseSupplyCenterPhiladelphia(DSCP),withrawmaterialprocuredasneeded(although
plywoodandlumberisexpensiveinintheatermarkets)andwithaheavyemphasisonvendor
support.
Table6,ConstructionEfforts,providestheestimatedconstructioneffortassociatedwithFOBsofvariou
sizes,andAppendixGprovidesa
c

5.5 Sets (Force Provider, Harvest Falcon, Harvest Eagle)


Asdiscussedearlier,FOBplanningisoftenanexerciseinexpediencyandadaptation.Inordertomakeit
easiertohaveuniformstandardsforallFOBs,theArmycreatedtheArmyForceProvider(FP)concep
FPwasdevelopedasastandardizedhousingsetthatcouldbedroppedintotheaterwitheverything
neededtobuildabasecampfor550people.FPwasalsodesignedtoworkinconjunctionwiththeAFs
HarvestFalconandHarvestEaglesetsforjointbaseoperation

t.
s.AccordingtoCongressionaltestimony,
availableFPmoduleshavebeendeployed.
67

r
Bwater,energy,andwasteusagewillbedescribedingreaterdetailinlater
AirfieldResources(BEAR)program,withitsHarvestFalcon(HF)andHarvestEagle(HE)components,is
alloftheArmys
ForceProvider
AFPmoduleincludestentswithHVAC,commandandcontrol,showers,powergeneration,dining
facility,medical,MWR,waterandfuelstorage,andwastewatercollection.WithFP,aFOBcanbe
operationalin14daysusing50people.ThebasicFPhousingunitsareTempertents,whichinclude
showers,latrines,andkitchen/diningfacilities.AsdescribedinSection5.2,astandardTempertent
(32x20,or640sqft)iscomprisedof48x20Tempertentsections,canbeerectedby4peoplein2
hours,andcanhouse12people.Whenfullyoperational,1brigadesizedmodulecanserve1,500meals
perdayfrom8containerizedkitchens,provide3showersperweekpersoldierfromsixshowerunits,
andprovide20gallonsofwaterperdaypersoldierthroughfour20,000galloncollapsiblewatertanks
and33,000gallonROWPUs.
68
AsingleFPmodulefor550peopleispackagedin103Tricons(see
Section4.3,withthreetriconsequivalenttofourquadcons),five20feetISOcontainers,and27traile
mountedgenerators.FO
sections.
HarvestFalcon,Eagle
Abarebaseiscomprisedofausablerunway,taxiareas,andpotablewater.TheBasicExpeditionary

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May2010 18

le
nce,airfieldlighting,power,
69
a550

g8C130
70

ciatedwithHFandHEmodules.HFisdeployedusing15C130
orties,usingthe463Lpalletsystem.

theAirForceequivalentoftheArmyFPprogram.BothHFandHEaredesignedtobeC130transportab
andtogetheraddresstransportation,housing,messing,aircraftmaintena
water,sewage,heating,cooling,medical,andcivilengineeringneeds.
TheHarvestEagleplatformincludesahousekeepingandutilitysupportsetcapableofsupporting
manAFFOB.WithallrelevantHEcomponents,includinghousing,generators,kitchens,showers,
laundryunits,latrines,aHEmoduleincludes75,000unitsofsupply,weighs323tons,requires44,000
cubicfeetoftransportationvolume,ispackagedin135ISUcontainers,andisdeployedusin
sortieswiththe463Lpalletsystem.TheHEutilizesboththemediumandlargeGPtents.
TheHarvestFalconplatformcansupport1,100peopleeachandincludeshousekeeping,industrial
operations,initialandfollowonflightlinesets.Housekeepingincludesbilletingwithheating,cooling,
kitchen,showers,latrines,andgenerators.TheHFalsoprovideswater,sewage,andelectricalservices.
HFusesastandardMobileElectricPower(MEP)12generator.Section9.4providesadditional
informationontheenergyusageasso
s

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May2010 19

6 Force Protection
Thefourthelementinthesustainabilityequationistooptimizethesustainabilityofforce
protectionmeasuresbyuseofstandardandnonstandardconstructionandsupplymaterials

Highlights
SuccessfulforceprotectionisvitaltothesurvivalofaFOB
Usingindigenousmaterialandorganic,creativesolutionsiskeytoamoresustainableFOB

AreasofPotentialFutureResearch
Designanddevelopnewforceprotectiontechnologiesthatarelighter,stronger,madeoflocal
material,andeasiertobuild
ForceprotectionisanessentialelementofFOBdesign,especiallygiventheneedforcommandersto
placeFOBsnearthelocalpopulace.Forceprotectionmeasuresincludeantipersonnelbarriers,anti
vehicularbarriers,structureprotection,observationposts,entrycontrolpoints,andtacticaloperations
centers.TraditionalforceprotectionrequiresasignificantamountofClassIVsupplies,andusing
indigenous,organic,andcreativesolutionsiskeytoamoresustainableFOB.Asthe3
rd
InfantryDivision
discovered,thelackofClassIVmaterialsinBaghdadforcedthedivisiontousewhateverwasavailable
forimmediateforceprotection,includingvehicles,Iraqibarbedwire,rubble,andearthenberms.
71

MoredetailedinformationbeyondwhatispresentedhereisavailabletheJointForwardOperations
Base(JFOB)ForceProtectionHandbook.
6.1 Anti-Personnel / Vehicle Barriers
Antipersonnelbarriersaremostlychainlinkedandmetalfencesorconcrete/CMUwalls.AtBalad
(Iraq),forexample,forceprotectionwasameshfence,withobservationtowersupgradedfromwooden
toconcrete.
72
Evenatriplestrandconcertinafence,however,canbetimeconsuming.A100acreFOB
wouldrequire254manhoursjusttofencewithconcertina.
Antivehiclebarriersareusuallyrigidbarriersorsometypeoftemporarywall.Typicalmethodsinclude:
Concretebarriers(Jersey,Alaska,Texas,Bitberg)
NewJerseybarriersare9longx33.5highandweigh400600poundsperlinearfoot.Aheavy
expandedmobilitytacticaltruckwithacranecouldtransportandplace10atatime.Theseare
apparentlyinshortsupply.
73
Texasbarriers(BremerWalls)are12highandAlaskabarriers20
high.OnefactoryinIraqwasreportedlyproducing50tonsofconcreteadaytofillU.S.military
contractsproducingblastwallsupto18highandweighing2tonseach.
74

Concreteorsandfilledoildrums
OneFOBused55gallonoildrumsfilledwithrocksasbarrierswhentheyranoutofHESCOs
inIraq,thenusedthedrumslaterforfuelreservoirsorsupportsfor8pickets.
75

Concretebollardsorplanters
Steelorsteelreinforcedconcreteposts
Sandorwaterfilledplasticvehiclebarriers
Earthfilledbarriers(HESCObastions,metalrevetments)
SeeSection6.2fordetailsregardingHESCObarriers.

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6.2 Other Force Protection Measures
Otherforceprotectionmeasuresinclude:
Sandbags
Astandardsandbagis4x8x16andrequires0.3cubicfeetofsand;100bagswouldrequire30
cubicfeet(1.1cubicyards)ofsand.Twelvesandbagsproduceawall1highby4long.Although
fillingsandbagsisatimeandmanpowerintensiveeffort,manyFOBsincludingFOBBrassfield
MoraandCampVictoryuseawaistorchesthighwallofsandbagsforperimeterprotection
outsidetentsandportapotties.
76

HESCOBastionConcertainer
HESCOsareprefabricated,collapsiblewiremeshproductslinedwithgeotextilefabricsand
filledwithdirttoformbarriers.MostHESCOsusedinIraqareeitherMil1(4.5x3.5x32)orMil2
(2x2x4)(seeFigure2,HESCO,forpictureofaHESCO).CompanysizedFOBsneeded,on
average,100HESCOsfortheperimeter,gates,andserpentines,butthedifficultywasboth
deliveringtheHESCOsandobtainingsufficientmaterialtofilltheminanurbanenvironment.
77

ApalletofsevenMil1unitsweighs2,332pounds,anddelivering1,000metersofMil7HESCOs
requiredseven20ftjingletruckloads.AFOBcommanderinAfghanistanspent$25,000ona
frontendloadertofill1,000metersofHESCOs(2weeks),whileotherFOBsusedworkerswith
shovels($16,000,2weeks)tofillthesameamount.
78

Watchtower(woodorconcrete)
FOBDangerhadtallconcretewatchtowershungwithcamouflagenetsanda15footblast
wallwithcoilsofconcertinawireontop.
79

Other
Otherforceprotectionmeasuresincludedusingtheexistingregimesflowerpotsorstorm
waterpiping(6meterslongx1.5metersindiameter).
80



Figure2.HESCO
81

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May2010 21

7 Food
Thefifthelementinthesustainabilityequationistooptimizefood(ClassISubsistence)sourcing
anddeliveryandtominimizepowerconsumptionandwastegeneration

Highlights
Rationsaredeliveredtothetacticaledge.Preparationofcertaintypesofrationsrequires
energy/powerforcookingand/orrefrigeration.
Rationsareasourceofsolidandhumanwaste

AreasofPotentialFutureResearch
Designsupplychaintoreduceneedfortransportationwithoutriskingsoldiersafety
Designrationstoreducepackagingwaste(e.g.,biodegradablepackaging)
Designmoreenergyefficientfieldkitchens
Designprocesstoconvertwaste(includinggrease)tofuel,power,andenergy
Redesigningfood(ClassISubsistence)inputandoutputstreamswillbecriticaltodevelopingamore
sustainableFOB.ClassIitems,rangingfrommilitaryrationstocommercialfooditems,mustbefirst
procuredanddeliveredtothetacticaledge.Foodpreparation,dependingonthetypeofration,willalso
potentiallyrequireenergyforcookingandrefrigeration(ForceProviderusesthree60kilowatt(KW)
generatorsforkitchen,dining,sanitation,andrefrigeration).
82
Finally,ClassIitemsareasourceofboth
solidandhumanwaste(7590%ofthesolidwasteinabasecampcomesfromfoodandpackaging).
83

7.1 Rations
ARations
ARationsaremealspreparedusingfresh,refrigerated,orfrozenfoods.Asaresult,theyareservedin
diningfacilities,preparedinthefieldusingfieldkitchens,orpreparedatafixedfacilityanddelivered
intothetheater.ARationsrequirefoodpreparationpersonnelandequipment,plusrefrigerationforthe
perishablefoods.ARationsincludetheUnitizedGroupRation(UGR)AOption(UGRA),whichincludes
allcomponentsfora50personmeal(1,450calories/meal)inoneUGRAmodule.Onepallethas12
modules(600meals),andeachmoduleweighs86.7poundsandis4.03cubicfeet.
84

BRations
BRationsaremealsservedusingcannedorpreservedingredients.BRationscanbepreparedinfield
kitchensandservedinthefieldwithoutrefrigerationorfreezerfacilities.BRationsincludeUGRB
Option(UGRB),whichalsoprovide50meals(1,300calories/meal)permodule.Eachpalletwillhave8
modules(400meals).
85

UGRExpress
UGRExpress(UGRE)isacompact,selfcontainedmodulethatprovidesacomplete,hotmealfor18
warfighterswithnoneedforequipmentorpersonnel.Eachmealisequivalentto1,300calories.
86

Meals,ReadytoEat
Meals,ReadytoEathavebeenstaplerationsforcontingencyoperations.MREsconsistofafullmeal
(1,250calories)inabag,packagedincasesof12MREseach(eachcaseweighs22pounds).Apallethas
24Acasesand24Bcases(differentmenus),foratotalof576mealsat1,098pounds/pallet.
87


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May2010 22

FirstStrikeRation
TheFirstStrikeRation(FSR)isacompactrationusedduringthefirst72hoursofconflict.EachFSRis
sufficientfoodforonesoldierfor24hours(2,900calories),andeachcasehas9meals.7casesis
thereforesufficientfoodfor63soldiersfor24hours.At3.2pounds,oneFSRisalsohalftheweightof3
traditionalMREs.Thenetweightforacaseis29pounds,andatapproximately50casestoapallet,the
netweightofapalletis1,442poundsandincludes45024hourmeals,or1,350equivalentMREs.
88

UGRHeatandServe
UGRHeatandServe(UGRH&S)isdesignedforwhereverthereareoperationalfoodservicefacilities
duringcontingencyoperations.EachUGRH&Smoduleprovidesallcomponentsfora50personmeal,
unitizedinto3boxes.2modules(100meals)occupyonetierofa4tieredpallet,soonepallethas8
modules(or400meals).Eachmoduleaverages133poundsfordinner,sothetotalpalletweightis1,068
poundsonaverage.AppendixHprovidesrepresentativeweightanddimensionalcharacteristics.
89

7.2 Requirements
ThebasicsubsistencerequirementsarebasedonServicespecificfeedingplansdesignedtosupportthe
operationalandtacticalneedsofthecommander.
90
TogetherwithDSCP,theServicesthendevelopthe
ClassIrequirementsforthetheater,withconsideredfactorsincludinganticipatedmissions,operational
conditions,geographiclocations,unitsize,historicalusagedata,availabilityoffoodservicepersonnel
andequipment,andsupportingfoodservicefacilities,storage,andtransportationassets.
91
Asaresult,
soldiersatamoreestablished,largerFOBcanenjoyhotmealswhilesoldiersatamoreaustereFOBeat
MREsthreetimesaday.AppendixIprovidesanexampleofaUSAREURcontingencymenu.
7.3 Distribution
Ingeneral,theServicesdesignthedistributionchannelsforClassISubsistence,whichinturn
determinestheClassIinventoryheldintheater.
92
Accordingtojointdoctrine,operationalrations
(MREs,UGRs)areonlystockedinlimitedquantitiesmanagedbyDSCPatDLAdepotsandcontracted
storagesitesbasedoncontingencyrequirements.
93
ThemajorityofClassIitemsfordininghallsfor
diningfacilitiesaresuppliedprimarilybyprimevendorswhoperformtheprocurement,stocking,
requisitionprocessing,andphysicaldistributionfunctionspreviouslycarriedoutbytheDoD.
94
ClassA
rations(includingfreshmeat,fruits,andvegetables)arenotnormallystocked,withproduceprocuredas
aDirectVendorDelivery(DVD)itemfromCONUS/OCONUSsourcesandmarketreadyitems(e.g.,
bakedgoods,dairy)procuredlocallybytheservice,operationalelements,orDSCP.
95
Inpractice,
however,doctrinemustbeweighedagainstthecostandsafetyofprocuringfoodlocally.InIraq,for
example,allsubsistenceitemsweretruckedinfromoutsidethecountry,withnolocalsourcing.
AstheFigure3,ClassIDistribution,illustrates,thephysicaldistributionofClassIitems,otherthansome
operationalrations,ismostlyacommercialfunctionthroughprimevendors.AppendixJprovidessample
distributionprocessesforIraqandAfghanistan.AccordingtooneUSMCstudy,7trucksin2convoysper
weekdeliveredUGREs,MREs,andUGRH&SstoFOBsinAfghanistan.
96


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Figure3.ClassIDistribution
97

7.4 Structures
TheimpactofsubsistenceonFOBsustainabilityalsodependsonthefuelandenergyrequirementsof
preparingfood.Fieldfacilitiesinclude:
AssaultKitchens
Kitchen,CompanyLevelFieldFeedingEnhanced(KCLFFE)produces150250meals/day.
98

MobileKitchenTrailer
Introducedinthe1970storeplacetheM1948messtent;stilltheprimaryArmyfieldkitchen.
Produces250350meals/day.
99

ContainerizedKitchen
Combinationofexistingmilitarystandardkitchenequipmentandcommercialcomponents
integratedintoanexpandable8footby8footby20footcontainer.Towedbya5toncargo
truck.Includesgenerator,environmentalcontrols,andrefrigeratedstorage.Provides550800
meals/day.
100

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May2010 24

8 Water and Wastewater
Thesixthelementinthesustainabilityequationistooptimizewateracquisition,treatment,and
wastewaterdisposal

Highlights
Wateriscriticaltoexpeditionarycampaignsuccess
Waterconsumptionandwastewatergenerationplanningfactorsvarydependingon
geography,doctrine,Service,andcommand;reflectstheflexibilityrequiredindeveloping
sustainableFOBs
Watercanbeprocuredfromhostnationinfrastructure(reservoirs,irrigationsystems,
municipalsources,andswimmingpools),wells,naturalsurfacesources,andbottledwater
AlthoughofficiallythesourceoflastresortaccordingtoU.S.militarydoctrine,bottledwateris
theprincipalsourceofdrinkingwateratmanyFOBsthroughoutAfghanistanandIraq.Not
onlyisdeliveringbottledwaterexpensiveanddangerous,buttheplasticbottlesalsobecome
majorsourcesofsolidwaste
WastewatertreatmentmethodsvarydependingonsizeandsophisticationoftheFOB
Burningwaste,onedisposalmethodataustereFOBs,canbehazardoustosoldiers

AreasofPotentialFutureResearch
Identifywaystohelppromotesustainablebehavior(e.g.,lessbottledwateruse,conservation)
Developmoreefficient,effective,andlessenergyintensivewaterpurifiersthatproduce
tastelesswaterbothlargescaleandportable
DevelopstrategytoexpeditethecertificationofdrinkingwaterstandardsatFOBs
Developstrategytoreducebottledwaterconsumption
Designmoresustainablewastewatertreatmentsolutions
Designprocess/technologytoreusewastewater
Waterisparamounttoexpeditionarysuccess.Byfarthelargestshipmentsofsuppliestothetactical
edgeinAfghanistanandIraqhavebeentodeliverwaterandfuel,withanemphasisonwater.Supplying
FOBswithwaterandremovingwastewaterarebothsignificantchallenges,butalsorepresentsignificant
opportunitiestotackleaprimaryobstacletomoresustainableFOBs.Thissectionwilladdress1)the
amountofwaterrequiredatFOBs,2)currentpracticesrelatedtosourcingwater,3)thequantityof
wastewatergeneratedatFOBs,and4)currentpracticesrelatedtowastewaterdisposal.
8.1 Water Consumption
Waterisusedfordrinking,foodpreparation,laundering,centralizedhygiene,ForceProvider,andina
varietyofbuildings/structures.
101
Drinking,hygiene,andfoodpreparationrequirepotablewater.
102

Waterconsumptionfactorsvarydependingonthesource.Afewexamples:
Table5,FOBPlanningFactors,providesestimatesbasedonArmydoctrine.Abasecampwould
require12,500potablegallonsofwaterdaily(g/w/d)for500soldiers,37,500g/w/dfor1,500
soldiers,75,000g/w/dfor3,000soldiers,and250,000g/w/dfor10,000soldiers.Thatis
equivalentto25g/w/dpersoldier.
103

Table7,WaterConsumptionPlanningFactors,providesArmygeneralpotableandnonpotable
waterplanningfactors.Includingthelineitemsindividual,camp,sewage,andgarbage
totals16,500g/w/dfora500manFOB,or33g/w/dpersoldier.
104


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Table7.WaterConsumptionPlanningFactors
105

USAREUR(BlueBook)doctrinedictates60gallonsofpotablewaterdailypersoldier.
106

ForceProviderestimatesthat,fora550manFOB,latrineswillrequire2,700g/w/d,laundry
5,200g/w/d,showers11,000g/w/d,andfood1,925g/w/d.Together,the20,825g/w/dresults
ina38g/w/destimatepersoldier.
107

Abrigadesizedclusterneeds66,000g/w/d.A3,000manbrigadewouldthereforeimply22
g/w/dpersoldier.
108

AlAsadrequired1.1milliong/w/dandgenerated1.2milliong/w/d.
109
With20,000troops,that
demandimpliesa55g/w/dpersoldierestimate.
Personalaccountshaveplacedconsumptionratesat2liters/soldier/hourduringamission,or
around12litersorapproximately3gallonspersoldierperday(whichmostlymatchesthe
Armyestimatesforindividualconsumption).
110

Typicalhomesconsume59.3g/w/dperperson,withtoilets(20.1g/w/dperperson),laundry
(15g/w/dperperson),shower(13.3g/w/dperperson),andfaucets(10.9g/w/dperperson).
111

Otherdatapoints:estimatesrangefrom9to109g/w/dpersoldierinthefield,andtheArmy
consumes18.5milliong/w/d.
112

8.2 Water Source and Treatment


WaterforFOBscanbeobtainedinthreeprimaryways:
1. Useexisting,HostNation(HN)waterdistributioninfrastructure
2. Distill,purify,ortreatwaterfromwellsorsurfacesources(rivers,lakes)
3. TruckpotableorbottledwaterintotheFOB
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,
ing,
118

Establisheddoctrinecallsforfirstevaluatinghostnationsourcestoseeifthewatermeetspurityand
quantityrequirements,thentodigwellsoruseROWPUs,TacticalWaterPurificationSystems(TWPS)or
LightWeightPurifiers(LWP)totreatnonpotable,intheaterwatersources,andthenonlyfinallyifstill
necessarytoresorttotruckingpotablewaterorbottledwatertotheFOB.
113

Howwaterisactuallyobtained,however,willdependonthesize,mission,andlocationoftheFOB.At
moreestablishedandlargerFOBs,watercanbemoreeasilyobtainedfromexistingwellsorcurrent
infrastructure,whereasinmoreausterelocations,theprimarysourcesofwaterarewellsandbottled
watertruckedinfromoutsidethetheater.AtFOBHammer,awatersourcewasfound,soitwasno
longernecessarytotruckitin.
114
AtDoaChina,conditionsareprimitive:thereisnorunningwater,
otherthananelectricpumpwhichrunswaterfromthedeepwell,connectedtoahose.
115

ExistingInfrastructure
Themostefficientandsuccessfulsourcesofwaterduringdeploymentoftenarethehostnation
supportsystems,includingreservoirs,[existing]manmadewells,firehydrantsystems,irrigation
systems,waterplants,watertowers,quarries,andswimmingpools.
116
DuringOperationIraqi
Freedom(OIF),the3
rd
ArmoredCalvaryRegimenttappedintoAlAsadsfirehydrants,filleda400,000
gallonpool,andthenused4ROWPUstocreate50,00070,000g/w/d.
117
Usingexistinginfrastructure
however,createspotentialpoliticalandhealthliabilities(unreliablechlorineresidual,leakyplumb
lessstringentwaterstandards).
WellsandNaturalSources
DiggingwellsandpurifyingwaterfromnaturalsourcesarealternativestotappingintoexistingHN
infrastructure.RedHorse,forexample,drilledwellsatFOBSharanathatpumped165,000g/w/d,while
canalwaterwasrunthroughROWPUsandthenbottledonsiteatBalad.
119
Studieshaveexplored
potentiallyobtainingwaterfromwatervapor,rain,wastewater,urine,perspiration,andcondensation
ofwatervaporinexhaust.
120

BottledWater
Althoughofficiallythesourceoflastresort,bottledwaterhasbecomeastandardsourceofwaterfor
FOBsofallsizes.Whiletherearebenefitstousingbottledwaterastheprimarywatersource,thereare
alsosignificantcost,supply,andwasteproblemsassociatedwithusingbottledwater.
First,thebenefitsofusingbottledwater:
Thereremainsapsychologicalimpressionthatbottledwaterissaferandcleaner,although
bacteriacanflourishinplasticbottlesinOIF/OperationEnduringFreedom(OEF)theaterheat
Easytopackandcarryonmissions
Moreconvenienttouse,nowashingrequired(aswithCamelBaksandothersimilarproducts)
Easilyaccessible,withstackedpalletsthroughoutaFOB
Buildspoliticalcapitalassoldiershandbottledwatertociviliansduringhumanitarianmissions
Theconsequencesofusingbottledwater:
Costly.Estimatesrangefrom$4.78to$15.30toover$50.00pergallontodeliverwatertothe
tacticaledge.
121

Hugesupplyrequirement.Technically,bottledwaterfollowstheClassIdistributionnetwork.A
USMCEnergyAssessmentteamfoundthatabattalionsizedFOBhad,onaweeklybasis,14

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trucksdeliveringwaterand2trucksdeliveringfuel.
122
AstheUSMCCommandantsaid,

Eightyalmost90percentofwhatwedeliveronadailybasistodayinAfghanistaniseither
waterorfuel.AndIdontknowhowmanytimesIveseenthese40foottruckshaulingwater,
drivingacrossthebridgeandtherivertogettowheretheyregoing.IhopeImakeapointto
youinthat.Werecarryingwaterhundredsofmilestogettowhereourtroopsare.Bytheway,
itdoesnttasteverygoodafterspendingyouknow,sortofsemiboiledin130degreeheat.
But,nevertheless,weknowitspure;weknowitsclean.Andwerepayingexorbitantpricesfor
thatkindofdelivery.And,again,Ijusthavetothinkthatwecandobetter.
123



Figure4.BottledWater
124

Significantsourceofsolidwaste.Soldiershavedescribedfinishinghalfabottle,tossingtherest,
andpickingupanewbottlefromthemountainofbottledwater.Wasteisgeneratedeven
beforethebottledwatergetstotheFOB,asthebottledwaterhastobeshippedinshrink
wrappedpallets.Halfofallthebottledwatercontainersarethendiscardedbecausetheshrink
wraptears,andthenanotherthirdarediscardedbecauseofshelflifeandexpirationissues.The
lastsectioninthisreportwillbededicatedtoevaluatingsolidwasteatFOBs.
125

8.3 Wastewater Source and Quantity


FM81015categorizeswasteinto5groups:general(includingsolid)waste,hazardouswaste,medical
waste,medicalwaste,humanwaste,andwastewater.
126
Thissectionwilladdressthelasttwohuman
wasteandwastewater.Theseincludegraywater,includingwaterwithlowlevelsofmicrobial
contamination(andthereforetheeasiesttotreatandreuse)fromlaundries,washracks,andshowers,
andblackwaterfromFOBtoiletfacilities.
127
Aswithwaterconsumption,estimatescanvary:
ForceProvider,fora600manbase,generates5,200gallonsofgraywaterperday(g/gw/d)from
itscontainerizedbatchlaundrysystem,11,000g/gw/dfromitscontainerizedshowersystem,
and1,375g/gw/dfromitsfoodservicefacility.Thattotalsto17,575g/gw/d(29.3g/gw/dper
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May2010 28

person),whichisslightlydifferentthanotherstudieswith19,000g/gw/d(32.0g/gw/dper
person).
128
FPalsogeneratesanestimated3,465gallonsofblackwaterperday(g/bw/d),or
approximately5.8g/bw/d.
129
Together,theseestimatessuggestapproximately21,000to
22,500gallonsofwastewatergeneratedeachday(g/ww/d),or3537g/ww/dperperson.
RedBookestimatesthateachFPsizedFOBwillgenerate30,000g/ww/d(50g/ww/dper
person),andanotherstudyputsFPwastewatergenerationat20,000g/ww/d(33g/ww/dper
person).
130

Otherestimateshaverangesfrom1.544g/ww/dperperson,andFM334hassewage
estimatesof8,750gallons/dayfora500manbase(17.5g/dperperson),26,250g/dfora1,500
manbase,52,500g/dfora3,000manbase,and175,000g/dfora10,000manbase.
131

Onaverage,15%ofallwastewaterisblackwater,withgraywaterasthebalance
8.4 Wastewater Treatment
MeasuresusedtohandlewastewaterwilldifferaccordingtoFOBpopulation,generalstandards,
contractorservices,andlocation.Asageneralrule,thesmallerandmoreausteretheFOB,themore
primitivethemethodsemployedformanagingwastewater.
132
AsFOBsmatureandtakeonamore
enduringrole,however,methodswillevolveaswell,withmorerudimentarysystemsgivingwayto
chemicallatrines,storage/septictanks,andultimatelytoconventionaltreatmentsystems.Camp
BondsteelinKosovo,forexample,firstutilizedtruckcollectionofwaste(anddisposalinapit),thenbuilt
afourcellaeratedlagoon,andthenbuiltaconventionalwastewatertreatmentplant.
133

Burnoutlatrines
Usingburnoutlatrinesisperhapsthemostrudimentaryfieldsanitationmethodandoftenstandard
operatingprocedureatFOBsonthetacticaledge.Anoildrumiscutinhalfandawoodenseataddedto
thetop.Vehiclefuelisthenaddedtothehumanwasteintheoildrumandsetonfire.Whileburnout
latrinesareeasilyconstructed,haveaminimalgeographicfootprint,andminimizetheremainingwaste,
theyareunsafe,generatequalityoflifeissuesforsoldiers,createsairpollution,wastesfuel,and
requiresseparatefacilitiesforliquidwaste(urinalpipes,orpisstubes).
Chemicallatrines(PortaJohns)
Theseselfcontainedtoiletsrequireminimalconstructioneffortandcanbelocatedanywhere,butmost
requirecontractorstoserviceandthewastemustberemovedtoasanitarylandfillsite.These
considerationsrequirethattheFOBberelativelymoreestablished,withsufficientmanpowertomanage
theinandoutflowofcontractorsservicingthechemicallatrines.
Seweragelagoons
Theselagoonscanbeusedtotreatanddisposeofblackandgraywater,avoidingtheneedfor
contractorstoremovewaste.Sincetheyshouldbebuiltawayfromhousingtoavoidwindor
groundwatercontamination,seweragelagoonsrequirethattheFOBbelargeenoughtoaccommodate
boththelagoonandabufferzone.Theselagoonscanalsoberestorationproblemsinthefuture.
Septicsystemandleachfields
Thesesystemsalsoallowforblackandgraywaterdisposal,butrequirebothsignificantamountsofland
andadistributionsystem;theyarebettersuitedformoreestablishedFOBs.
Wastewatertreatmentfacility

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May2010 29

Wastewatertreatmentplantsareontheoppositesideofthespectrumfromburnoutlatrines,andare
thereforeusedinsomeoftherelativelylargerFOBs.Thereisalimitedabilitytoconstructandoperate
wastewatertreatmentplantsduringcontingencyoperations,however,andnotalltheatersofwar
provideeasyaccesstoaHNmunicipalwastewatertreatmentplant.Theyarealsoexpensiveandare
cappedbydesigncapacity.EagleBaseinBosniaoriginallyhada500personcapacitywastewater
treatmentplant,buthadtobuildanew$1millionplantwhen3,000U.S.troopsarrived.
134

Conservation/reclamation
Adeployableandeasytousewaterreclamationstation,whichtransformswastewaterintoreusable
waterwithinthebase,wouldimprovethebaseenvironment,security,soldiershealth,stewardshipof
foreignlandsandconcurrentlyreducecostandfreshwaterdemandfromoffbasesources.
135


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May2010 30

9 Fuel, Power, and Energy
TheseventhelementinthesustainabilityequationistominimizefuelandenergydemandatFOBs

Highlights
FuelconsumptionhasgrownsubstantiallysincetheVietnamWar,aconsequenceof
technologyandincreasingcomplexity
FueldistributionfacesIEDattacksinIraqandimpassableterraininAfghanistan
Thefullyburdenedcostoffuelcanrangetohundredsofdollarspergallonofdeliveredfuel
FOBfuelusageestimatesvary,dependingonthesizeandprimarymissionoftheFOB
Supportoperationsareasignificantsourceofbattlefieldfueldemand
ProblemsatFOBs:inefficientgenerators,excessgeneration,inefficientbuildings
Batteriesrepresentasignificantconstraintonindividualfightingcapability

AreasofPotentialFutureResearch
Designmoreenergyefficientbuildingsthatrequirelesselectricity
Designenergysupply/demandmanagementsoftware;rungeneratorstomeetsupply
Ensurecompatibilitybetweengeneratorsandappliances
Developtrainingstrategy/curriculumforinterconnectedpowersystems
Designefficient,nextgenerationpowergenerators
DesignrenewableenergygeneratorsspecificallyforFOBs
Designmethodstoproduceandusealternativefuels
Reducebatteryweightforindividualsoldiers
Designsupplystrategytostreamlinefueldistribution
Designfuelrecyclingprogram
Fuelisofparamountconcerntodeployedtroops.Bulkfuelispropulsionfuelfortheaircraft,ships,and
vehiclesthatsustainthewarfightingcapabilityonthetacticaledgeandwhatrunstheHeating,
Ventilating,andAirConditioning(HVAC)systemsthatcoolthetentsinhotIraqisummers.
136
Butthe
importanceoffuelandenergyisovershadowedbythecostsincurredwhiletransportingfuel,withthe
costspaidforindollarsandlives.Evenbatteriesarealiteralburdenontheshouldersofoursoldiers.
Thissectionwillprovideasnapshotoffuelandenergydistributionandconsumptionintheater,atFOBs,
andattheindividualsoldierlevel.TheprincipalsupplyclassevaluatedwillbeClassIIImateriel.
9.1 General Statistics
Somegeneralstatisticshighlightthegrowingdependenceonfueltosustainwar.Asof2007,fuel
consumptionwasat22gallonspersoldierperdayforOEFandOIF,whichrepresenteda175%increase
inpercapitaconsumptionsinceVietnam.
137
Muchofthatgrowthhasbeenfueledbymilitary
technologyandincreasingcomplexity.AMarineinfantrybattalion,forexample,had55armored
Humveesin2008,comparedto32canvasHumveesin2001.
138
Thatsamebattalionhad1,220radiosets
in2008,comparedto175in2001.
139
InFY2006,theU.S.Armyused412milliongallonsofjet
fuel/mobilityfuel($940million),59milliongallonsofdiesel($123million),20milliongallonsofgasoline
($45million),and330,000gallonsofbiodiesel($775,000).
140
By2008,theDoDwassupplying68million
gallonsoffuelpermonthtojustsupportOEFandOIF,orover2milliongallonsperday.
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9.2 Distribution and Cost
Theoveralldistribution/supplychainforfuelisfairlystraightforward.TheJointPetroleumOfficeforthe
theaterlevelcommandsetsthefuelconsumptionandprimaryplanningrequirementsbasedoncurrent
andfutureoperations.DLAisthematerielmanager,andtheDefenseEnergySupportCenter(DESC)
arrangesthecontractsandprocuresthefuelfrommilitaryorcommercialsourcesasclosetothe
customeraspossible.
142
DESCthencoordinateswithU.S.TransportationCommand(USTRANSCOM)or
otherwisearrangestransportofthefueloutsidethejointoperatingareabyexistingHNassets,pipeline,
oceantankers,barges,trucks,orrail.
143
Oncefuelisdeliveredtoahubintheater,DESChandsoff
responsibilitytotheServiceelementstodistributethefueltoFOBsonthetacticaledge.

Table8.Responsibilities
144

Inpractice,however,fueldistributionisfarlessstraightforwardastheU.S.militarymustbalancesafety
anddiversificationofsourceswithspeedandcost.FuelisdeliveredtoIraqthroughKuwait,Jordan,and
TurkeyandtoAfghanistanthroughthenorthernCentralAsianstatesandPakistan.InIraq,thelongfuel
convoyshavebeenthetargetsofsignificantIEDattacks.InAfghanistan,bringingfuelbythenorthern
routesinvolvesshippingrefinedoilproductsthousandsofmilesbyrail,truck,barge,orpipelinefrom
TurkmenistanorAzerbaijan.
145
AfterthefuelarrivesattheAfghanborderafter10days,thefuelis
loadedontotrucksfortheadditional24daysittakestoreachthemilitarysfuelhubs.
146
Eventhen,the
militaryisconfrontedbyahostofchallengesincludingmountainousterrainwithinadequateor
nonexistentroadnetworks,harshweatherinthewintermonthsandinsurgentactivity,thereby
requiringtheoccasionalcostlyairdrop.InAfghanistan,onecommanderfirstreceived5gallonfuelcans
onCH47pallets,then50gallondrums,andfinallyinstalled20,000gallonfuelblivetsonsiteandused
locallycontractedfueltruckstofillthemwith56monthsworthoffuelbeforewinter.
147

Theconceptofincorporatingthefullyburdenedcostoffuelintomilitarycalculationshasbeena
contentiousissue,withdisagreementsonwhattoincludeandhowtocalculatethecomponentpieces.
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Asaresult,theestimatesofdeliveringfueltothetacticaledgevarysignificantlydependingonthe
source.TheUSMCEnergyAssessmentteamcalculatedthecontractordeliveredfueltoCamp
LeatherneckinAfghanistanat$6.39pergallon,and$11.70pergallontodeliverthefueltothetactical
edge(FOBDwyer,50kilometersfromCampLeatherneck).
148
AnearlierestimateputsFY02standard
DESCfuelpriceat$1.34pergallon,atruecostofUSAFtankerdeliveredfuelat$17.50pergallon,and
hundredsofdollarspergallonforArmyforcesdeepinthebattlespace.
149
ADoDestimatebySteve
SiegelpresentedinaDeloittereportspansthegap,withthefullyburdenedcostoffuelestimatedtobe
$45pergallon(seeFigure5,FullyBurdenedCostofFuel).
150



Figure5.FullyBurdenedCostofFuel
151


9.3 FOB Fuel Usage
FuelusageatFOBswillvarywithsize,location,andmission.FOBswithanaviationcomponentwill
obviouslyconsumemorefuelthanonewithoutaviation.FOBsatthetacticaledge,wherethereisless
energyandelectricitydemand,consumelessfuelthanamainbasewithTVsandHVACsystems.
152
Fuel
consumptionestimatesinclude:
GeneralWald:FOBsconsume300g/d,althoughwithoutknowingwhatsizetheFOBis,this
estimateseemstobeonthelowerendincomparisontotheotherestimates.
153

GeneralConway:U.S.Armybrigade(3,5004,000soldiers)needs10,000gallonsdaily(2.52.8
g/d/soldier).CampLemonier,Djibouti,inanenergyauditin2006had2,500soldiersand
averaged10,000gallonsofdieselperday(4g/d/soldier).
154
InJune2008,thathadincreasedto
333,191gallonsforbasesupport,whichequatesto11,106gallons/day,or4.4g/d/soldier.
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Armydoctrine(FM334)requires3,200barrelsofdieselstoragefora10,000manbase,witha
stockobjectiveof8days.3,200barrelsisequalto134,400gallons,soover8days,thatimplies
16,800g/d,or1.7g/d/person.
155

CampLeatherneckrequired36,740gallons/day(3.7g/d/soldier,assuming~10,000troopsat
Leatherneck),ofwhich15,431gallons(42%)wereforgenerators;HVACrequired7,406
gallons/day.
156

Jugroom,aplatoonsizedFOBinAfghanistan,requiredonly25g/dofJP8witha3KWmaxload
(or1g/d/soldierfora25manbase).
157
AnotherplatoonsizedFOBinAfghanistanused50g/d,
or12g/d/soldier.
158

GeneralConway:15,000manUSMCexpeditionarybrigadewithanaviationcomponentto
consume500,000g/dinattackplans(33g/d/soldier).
159
73%ofthat,however,wasforaviation
andonly17%tologisticians(85,000g/d),or5.6g/d/soldier.
160

ForceProviderfor600soldiersrequires20,000gallonsforevery3days,or11g/d/soldier.
161

AnotherFPestimatehad3FPmodulesconsuming6,700g/d,or3.72g/d/soldier.
Abasefor1,100peopleusingHFhousekeeping,industrialoperations,andinitialandfollowon
flightlinesetswillconsume4,880g/d,or146,400gallonsinamonth(4.4g/d/soldier).
162

AppendixMprovidesanoverviewastudyofHFenergyandfueldemand.
FuelUseDistribution
TheallocationoffuelusedfordifferentpurposesreflectsthemissionandlocationoftheFOB.For
MarineExpeditionaryBrigade(MEB)A,fueluseinAugust2009was46%foraviation,32%forpower
generation,and22%other.
163
AtCOBAdder,78%ofthe1,602,013gallonsoffuelconsumedinJune
2008wasforbasesupport,whileonly13%ofthe7,072,136gallonsconsumedatBagramAirField
duringthesametimewasforbasesupport.
164
ForAirForceHFsets,environmentalcontrolaccountsfor
59%oftheenergyrequirementfora1,100manbase.
165


Figure6.FuelConsumption
166

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May2010 34

169

remaining
rgydemandequatestoapproximately0.5
171
.8
ntinuous,notpeak).
173

100sethasapeakdemandof3,878KW,or3.5KW/soldier.
174

cantdemandplacedongeneratorstopowersystems
196generatorsrunningat30%capacityand
175
fthe
generatorswouldntalwaysworkwiththecommercial
emstheyhadtoprocure.
176

moreestablishedFOBs,the

Atthesmallest,mostaustereFOBs,therearenogenerators.

AppendixKprovidesfuelconsumptiondetailsforCampLemonier,QWestAirBase,CampArifjan,
COBAdder,andBagramAirField.
9.4 Power and Electricity Generation
AtmanyFOBs,supportoperationstopowertheequipment,systems,andinfrastructurerepresenta
significantsourceofbattlefieldfueldemand,withthewaterheaterforafieldkitchenrequiringmore
fuelthantheAH64DApacheattackhelicopter.
167
With1/3oftheArmystotalwartimefuelusedfor
runningelectricgenerators,reducingelectricityandenergydemandatFOBscanresultinsignificantfuel
savings.
168
Withnoexistingemphasisonenergyefficiencyatmostforwardlocations,insulating9
millionsqftoftemporarystructuressaved77,000to180,000g/d,equivalentto13to26truckloadsof
fuel.
AmountofPowerNeeded
Estimatesofenergydemand,asalways,varydependingonthesize,location,andmissionoftheFOB:
AFPmodulerequires1.1MWofcontinuouspowerorabout2KW/soldier.
170
Iflatrines(38
KW),laundry(100KW),showers(55KW),andfood(120KW)total313KW,thenthe
787KW,ifusedentirelyforelectricitygeneration,is72%ofthetotalFOBdemand.
AtCampLeatherneck,5MWofaverageene
KW/soldier,assuming10,000soldiers.
AplatoonsizedFOB,runningsatelliteinternetsystems,lights,computers,andbattery
chargers,requiresan[average]totalof20KW,whichfor2550soldiers,equals0.5to0
KW/soldier.Thisexcludesheatingandcooling,whichisasignificantdemandsource.
172

ArmyDoctrinehasanestimateof0.320.36KW/soldier(mostlikelyco
AHF1,
TheProblems
TherearethreesignificantproblemswithhowelectricityisgeneratedatFOBs.
FOBstructuresareinefficient,withsignifi
toheatorcooltentswithnoinsulation.
ThesupplyofpowergeneratedfarexceedsdemandatmostFOBs.AtCampLeatherneck,the5
MWofdemandismetby19MWofcapacity,with
consuming15,431gallonsoffuelperday.
Thegeneratorsandappliancesareinefficient.Onecommandercomplainedthatonly50%o
heatersworked,withanothercommandermentionedthataslittleas3%ofthegenerators
availablewererunningsincethemilitary
HVACsyst
SourceofPower
Justaswastewatertreatmentmethodsaremoresophisticatedatlargerand
sourceofelectricityandpoweratFOBsfollowthesameevolutionarypath.

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May2010 35

00.
185

AtaustereFOBswithsomeenergydemand,therearedistributedgenerators.
177
Distributed
generatorsshouldnotbeloadedatlessthan50%,accordingtodoctrine.
178

AsthebattlefieldsolidifiesandtheAOmatures,theconsolidationofsmallunitpowersystems
isdesirable.SmallFOBsshouldconstructcentralpowerplantscapableofsupporting125%of
campmaximumdemandload.
179

AstheFOBsgetlarger,thereisagreaterneedforcentralized,contractedpowerplantswith
interconnecteddistributionsystems.AtBalad,forexample,theAirForcehadageneratorfarm
withseveral40ftMilvansholdingCaterpillar12cylindergeneratorsthatranondiesel.
180

Finally,FOBscantapintotheHNcommercialutilitygrid,withalltheramificationsofpotential
politicalliabilityandinfrastructureweaknesses.
TypesofGenerators
Thefollowingpresentsseveraldifferenttypesofmilitarygenerators.Despitetheseeminglyexhaustive
listofgeneratorsavailable,however,OEF/OIFsawaconsiderablerelianceoncommercialgenerators.
DeployablePowerGenerationandDistributionSystems(DPGDS)
DPGDSmeanttoreplacethe750KWsets,asDPGDSunitsare25%lighter,15%morefuel
efficient,andaremorereliable.
181
PowerUnit(PU)theMEP810AorBModelhastwo
Caterpillar460KWsetscapableofdelivering920KWat4,160volts(v),and50/60hertz(HZ).
MEP810AcanbetransportedviaC130.
MobileElectricPower/PrimePower
MEPgeneratorsrangefrom0.5KWto920KW,includingthe750KWMEP012APrimePower
Units.TheMEP012Aweighs25,000pounds,measures241x96x101,andconsumes55gallons
offuelperhour.Usesliquidcooled,turbochargedV12diesel(CumminsKTA38).TheMEP208A
isalsoa750KWgenerator,andtheAirForcealsousestheMEP805(30KW,3006lbs,2.43
gallons/hr),806(60KW,4063lbs,4.51g/hr),and807(100KW,6100lbs,7.85g/hr).
182

MultiUnit
Multiunit4.5MWElectroMotiveDivision(EMD)plants3generatorseachcapableof
producing1.5MWat4,160VACat60Hertz
TacticalQuietGenerators(TQG)
Beganbeingfieldedin1993andnowprovides82%ofArmytacticalpowerneeds.Developedfor
greatermobility,survivability,andreducedacousticsignatures.AppendixLprovidesalistof
TQGmodeltypes.
AdvancedMediumSizeMobilePowerSources(AMMPS)
A3KWTQGweighs325pounds,buteventhenmaybeoverpoweredfortheload,soanew
generationofgeneratorswillbedevelopedandfieldedinthenearfuture.
183

9.5 Individual Soldier


NotonlyisenergydemandaburdenforFOBs,buttheweightsofbatteriesrequiredinthefightposesan
effectivenessandqualityoflifeconstraintdirectlyonoursoldiers.Onestudy,forexample,estimates
that1520%ofasoldiers7090poundpackisbatteries.
184
Anotherstudyfindsthatasoldiermust
oftenchangebatteries23timesduringa1218hourmission,meaningthatarifleplatoons5day
missioncanrequire889batteriestotaling160poundsatanestimatedcostof$13,0

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May2010 36

10 Solid Waste
Theeighthelementinthesustainabilityequationistominimizegenerationandoptimizedisposal
ofsolidwaste

Highlights
Accumulationofsolidwastecanbecomeanenvironmental,health,andpoliticalliability
Plasticwaterbottles,wood,andfoodpackagingarethreesignificantsourcesofwaste.The
woodfromcontainersandpalletsshouldbereusedattheFOBinsomeothercapacity
Solidwastegenerationratesdifferdependingonthecharacterizationstudyinquestion
Thereisahierarchyofsolidwastedisposalmethods,fromburningwastetohiringcontractors
tohaulwastefromtheFOB.BurningisprevalentinAfghanistan.

AreasofPotentialFutureResearch
Designmoresustainableandsaferdisposaltechnologies/practices
Developrecyclingprogram;identifyopportunitiestoreusesolidwaste
Designmoreefficientandreliableincinerators
Developsafetreatmentmethodforashgeneratedafterburning
ManagingsolidwasteatFOBshasalwaysplaguedmilitarycommanders.Attherateatwhichsolidwaste
isaccumulated,itcanlimitwarfightingeffectivenessorbecomeanenvironmental,health,andpolitical
liability.Thissectionwill1)describesomeoftheprimarysourcesofsolidwaste,2)provideanoverview
ofseveralcharacterizationstudiesthathavebeenpreparedtodate,and3)highlightprincipalpractices
relatedtothetreatmentanddisposalofsolidwaste.
10.1 Select Sources of Solid Waste
AsignificantportionofaFOBssolidwastestreamiscomprisedofpackagingmaterials(cardboard,
paper,plastic)andfoodwaste.
186
Packagingforsmallarmsammunition(SAA)isalsoasignificantsource
ofwastesinceOEFandOIFareSAAdriven.
Plastic
Asdescribedearlier,bottledwaterhasbecomeastandardsourceofdrinkingwaterduringcontingency
operations.SomeFOBsreceivebottledwaterdeliveriesthroughstandardClassIdistributionchannels,
whileothersbottlepurifiedwateronsite.Regardlessofsource,theamountofbottledwaterconsumed
posesasignificantchallenge.EagleBase,forexample,generatesthesametypesofwasteasasmall
community,withtheexceptionofanextraordinarylargevolumeofplasticwaterbottles.Notonlywas
thecostsufficienttopromptatransitiontousingalocalwatersource,buttheplasticwaterbottleswere
problematicduetothesheervolumeandtothenoxiousfumestheycreatewhenburnedinanair
curtaindestructor,astandarddisposalmethod.
187

Wood
Wood,too,isasignificantsourceofsolidwaste.WhenthesolidwastestreamatFOBsiscomparedto
municipalwaste,themostobviousdifferenceisthemuchlargerpercentageofwoodinbasecamp
waste.Virtuallyeverythingthatisshippedtoabasecamparrivesonwoodenpalletsorinwoodencrates
andboxes.
188
AswiththediscussionregardingcontainerizationinSection4.3,woodwasteisanother
potentialareaofresearchinidentifyingopportunities,ifnottocurtailtheincomingstream,thentoat
leastmaximizetheuseofwoodforotherconstructivepurposesattheFOB.

SERDP|SustainableForwardOperatingBases



Food
Asmentionedearlier,foodrepresents7590%ofthesolidwasteproducedataFOB.
189
Thetwosources
ofthiswasteare1)packagingand2)foodwaste,withtherelativevolumeofthetwosourcesdependent
onthetypeofFOB.AtmoreaustereFOBs,wheretheprimaryfoodsourceistheMRE,rationpackaging
isaprimarysourceoffoodrelatedsolidwaste.Figure7,MREandUGRH&SPackaging,providesan
overviewofthepackagingofMREsandUGRH&Ss.


Figure7.MREandUGRH&SPackaging
190

Asbasecampandsupplyroutesecurityissuesareresolvedtothepointthatservicecontractorscan
servicethebasecamp,theArmyrapidlydirectsaservicecontractortoestablish[DiningFacilitiesAt
Camp](DFACs)thatservethreeArationsperdayandprovidetroopswith24hourmealandbeverage
service.
191
Asaresult,theMRErelatedwastegenerateddiminishesovertime,tobereplacedbya
significantamountofplasticpackagingfromtheDFACsandconsumablewaste.
192
With80%ofaFP
moduleswastecomingfromtheDFACs,theplasticandfoodwastefromFOBsremainsacritical
roadblocktoFOBsustainability.
193

10.2 Characterization Studies


Severalexistingcharacterizationstudiesevaluatedthecompositionandquantityofsolidwastestreams
atFOBs.TheresultsofseveralofthesestudiesarepresentedinTable9,CharacterizationStudies.
May2010 37


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Table9.CharacterizationStudies
194

Earlyplanningfactors(Vietnam2000)hadrangedwidely,from1.64lbs/d/soldierfora1998
Navysurveyonboardanaircraftcarrierto85lbs/d/soldierfromaGeorgiaTechstudybasedon
21campsduringOperationJointEndeavor.
195
A1999studyofthePrinceSultanAirbase
calculatedaplanningfactorof28lbs/d/soldier.
196
AccordingtoaFPstudy,earlierstudies
foundpermanent,fixedinstallationsgenerated9lbs/d/soldierofsolidwaste,anoverseasair
basegenerated21.2lb/d/soldier,andafieldartilleryunitgenerated3.12lbs/d/soldier

.
197

p
AstudyofFPmodulesdeterminedthata550manFPmodulegenerated2,500lbsofsolidwaste
perday,or4.1lbs/d/soldier.
198
Anotherstudydeterminedthatthe2,500lbsofsolidwastewas
equivalentto410kgofJP8,orwhenconvertedtoelectricityat25%efficiency,abletoprovide
51KWofcontinuouspower.
199

A1,100manHFbarebasegeneralplanningfactoris4lb/d/soldier(whichcoincidentally
matchesaccountsof80,000lbsofdailywasteatVictoryBase),butastudyevaluatingall
planningfactorsfoundthatamoreappropriateplanningfactorwas10lb/d/soldier.
200

In2003,USAREURdirectedastudyatEagleBasetoevaluatesolidwastegenerationrates.That,
alongwithsimilarotherstudiesatCampBondsteel(Kosovo)andCampBulwark(Bulgaria),
formedthebasisfora2004characterizationstudythatconcludedastandardsolidwaste
generationratetobe15.8lbs/d/soldier.
201
In2006,asecondcharacterizationstudywas
performedforUSAREURatanothercampintheBalkans.Thisdata,publishedina2007report,
suggestedthatthesolidwastestreamwasnow18.2lbs/d/soldier.
202
Althoughacomparison
ofthetwostudiesshowsamarkeddecreaseinthepercentageofthewastestreamthatisscra
wood,othercomponentshadunfortunatelycompensatedforthedifference.
203

May2010 38


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Table10.2003,2006Study
204

10.3 Treatment and Disposal


FOBsgeneratealotofsolidwaste.
205
Themethodsofmanagingthatwastemirrorthespectrumof
wastewatertreatmentandpowergenerationoptionsbetweensmall,austereFOBsandlarger,more
establishedFOBs.Inearly,expeditionaryphasesofacontingencyoperation,solidwastemanagement
hasaverylowpriority.Fieldexpedientmeasuresofopendumping,burying,andlimitedburningofsolid
wastearestandardpracticeofArmyunitsonthemove,andthesepracticescontinueintheinitialbase
campphasesuntilthelocalthreatlevelislowenoughtoallowunitstoaddresssolidwastemanagement
asageneralhealthandsanitationrequirement.
206
WithDODI4715.5,ManagementofEnvironmental
ComplianceatOverseasInstallations,exemptingmilitarycontingencyoperationsfromstrictlyfollowing
severalenvironmentalrequirements,expediencytakestoppriorityinthesesituations,withwaste
burnedwithdieselfuel,wastewaterdumped,andnoncombustiblewastestacked.
207
OncetheFOBis
moresecure,wastemanagementisthenoftenperformedbycontractors,withtheassociatedcostand
safetyramifications.
208
Table11,SolidWasteManagementExample,providesoneexampleofacamps
wastedisposalprocedures:

May2010 39


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Table11.SolidWasteManagementExample
209

Landfills
Buryingsolidwasteinlandfillsbothonandoffsitearetypicalmethodsofdisposingofsolidwaste.Given
thevolumeofsolidwaste,however,onsitelandfillscanquicklyhampertheeffectivenessandforce
protectioncapabilitiesofaFOBandcreateenvironmental,vectorattraction,andqualityoflife
problems.
210
WithdistancestooffsitelandfillsinIraqorAfghanistanoftenreaching60to120miles,
transportingwasteofftheFOBcancost$4.6millionannuallyfora7300manFOB.
211

BurnPits,Incinerators,BurnBoxes,andAirCurtainDestructors
Burningcanbeusedtoreducethevolumeandweightofpaper,plastics,andothercombustibleitems
priortoburyingorlandfilldisposal.CommercialincineratorscanefficientlyreducePetroleum,Oil,and
Lubricants(POL),otherchemicals,DFACwaste,paper,andcardboardtoafractionofitsoriginalmass.
212

Eachmethod,however,alsoincurscosts.Sortingisrequiredbeforeburningtoremoveanyhazardous
items.Burnpits,boxes,andaircurtaindestructorsrequiresignificantamountsofpreciousfueland
wood,andburningwasteemitstoxic,acridsmoke,whichhascausedmilitarypersonneltocomplain
abouteyeandlungirritation.
213
Incineratorscanbeunreliableandexpensivetooperate.
214

Regardlessofthemethod,theresidualfromburningmuststillbeburiedortransportedoutsideth
fordisposal,incurringadditionalcos
eFOB
ts.
HazardousWaste
Hazardouswasteiscollectedin55gallondrumsandtakentoasatelliteaccumulationpoint.
215

May2010 40


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May2010 41

11 Going Forward
Thissectionsummarizes1)keyfindings,2)areasofpotentialfutureresearch,3)parallelresearch,and4)
nextsteps.
11.1 Key Findings
Summaryofkeyfindings:
FOBs
FOBsarecriticaltoexpeditionarywarfightingandforwagingasymmetricwarfare
EstablishingandsustainingFOBsrequiresignificantlogisticalsupport
FOBscanvarywidelyinsophistication,dependingonsize,supportrequirement,hostnation
infrastructure,thenatureoftheoperation(contingency,enduring),andanticipatedduration
(temporary,semipermanent,permanent)

Planning
Planningprocesscharacterizedbydecentralizedmanagementofdetails;extensivecoordination
requiredacrossadisparatesetofparties
Norepositoryofbestpracticesorconsistentdoctrine,standards
Nosystematic,robustprocessfordevelopingandimplementingsustainablesolutions
Processcharacterizedbytradeoffs,butmissionsuccesstakestoppriority

Supply
ThemajorityofmaterielneededtobuildandsustainFOBsisbroughtintotheater
RedesignofsupplystrategycancontributetomoresustainableFOBs
Transportationchallengesdifferbasedongeography(e.g.,Iraqv.Afghanistan)
ShippingcontainerscanberedesignedforgreateruseatFOBs

Facilities
DependingonthesizeandsophisticationoftheFOB,aFOBcanhaveawidevarietyofdifferenttypesof
buildings
Theleastcostlyconstructionmethodutilizesexistinginfrastructureasmuchaspossible
Tentsaresimpletotransportandusebutconsumesignificantfueltoheat/cool
CostofbuildingmaterialshouldfactorintoFOBdesignplanning
FOBsets,suchastheForceProvidermodules,haveplayedagrowingroleinstandardizingand
simplifyingfieldconstruction

ForceProtection
SuccessfulforceprotectionisvitaltothesurvivalofaFOB
Usingindigenousmaterialandorganic,creativesolutionsiskeytoamoresustainableFOB

Food
Rationsaredeliveredtothetacticaledge.Preparationofcertaintypesofrationsrequiresenergy/power
forcookingand/orrefrigeration.
Rationsareasourceofsolidandhumanwaste

Water&Wastewater
Wateriscriticaltoexpeditionarycampaignsuccess
Waterconsumptionandwastewatergenerationplanningfactorsvarydependingongeography,
doctrine,Service,andcommand;reflectstheflexibilityrequiredindevelopingsustainableFOBs
Watercanbeprocuredfromhostnationinfrastructure(reservoirs,irrigationsystems,municipal

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May2010 42

sources,andswimmingpools),wells,naturalsurfacesources,andbottledwater
AlthoughofficiallythesourceoflastresortaccordingtoU.S.militarydoctrine,bottledwateristhe
principalsourceofdrinkingwateratmanyFOBsthroughoutAfghanistanandIraq.Notonlyisdelivering
bottledwaterexpensiveanddangerous,buttheplasticbottlesalsobecomemajorsourcesofsolid
waste
WastewatertreatmentmethodsvarydependingonsizeandsophisticationoftheFOB
Burningwaste,onedisposalmethodataustereFOBs,canbehazardoustosoldiers

Fuel,Energy,Power
FuelconsumptionhasgrownsubstantiallysincetheVietnamWar,aconsequenceoftechnologyand
increasingcomplexity
FueldistributionfacesIEDattacksinIraqandimpassableterraininAfghanistan
Thefullyburdenedcostoffuelcanrangetohundredsofdollarspergallonofdeliveredfuel
FOBfuelusageestimatesvary,dependingonthesizeandprimarymissionoftheFOB
Supportoperationsareasignificantsourceofbattlefieldfueldemand
ProblemsatFOBs:inefficientgenerators,excessgeneration,inefficientbuildings
Batteriesrepresentasignificantconstraintonindividualfightingcapability

SolidWaste
Accumulationofsolidwastecanbecomeanenvironmental,health,andpoliticalliability
Plasticwaterbottles,wood,andfoodpackagingarethreesignificantsourcesofwaste.Thewoodfrom
containersandpalletsshouldbereusedattheFOBinsomeothercapacity
Solidwastegenerationratesdifferdependingonthecharacterizationstudyinquestion
Thereisahierarchyofsolidwastedisposalmethods,fromburningwastetohiringcontractorstohaul
wastefromtheFOB.BurningisprevalentinAfghanistan.

11.2 Areas of Potential Future Research


Summaryofareasofpotentialfutureresearchandsolutionparameters:
ImplicationsforSustainability/SolutionParameters
Solutionsmustbegeographyneutral.Solutionscanbeinspiredbyneedinoneregion,suchasspray
foamingtentsforinsulationinIraqorAfghanistan,buttheebbandflowofsoldiersinIraqand
Afghanistansuggestthatsolutionsshouldnotberelevantforonlyonegeographytype.Anticipatethe
nextcontingencyoperation.
Solutionsmustbemodular,flexible,scaleable,andadaptableforthespectrumofFOBtypes,from
austere,platoonsizedbasestofull,divisionsizedmainbases.
Solutionsmusthavecommanderbuyinfromthebeginning
Solutionsmusttakeintoaccountrelevantconcernsfromallparties
Solutionsmustaccountforoperationalandpoliticalreality
Solutionsmustnotobstructbutenablemissionsuccess
Solutionsmustnotjeopardizesoldierhealth,safety,ormorale
SolutionsmustnothindertimelyFOBdevelopment
Solutionsmustadheretocurrentinfrastructureandtransportationrequirements

AreasofPotentialFutureResearch
Developstrategyroadmaptowardsgreatersustainabilitywiththefollowingsteps:1)fullyutilizeall
materiel,2)reducedemand,3)minimizewastethroughreuseofmateriel,and4)reusegenerated
waste
Developdecisionsupporttoolthatincorporatessustainablebestpractices
Designmaterielsupplychainstrategytoenhancesustainability

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May2010 43

DesignshippingcontainersforuseasFOBstructures,forceprotection.Developothercreativeusesfor
packagingmaterial/pallets.
Designanddeployrealtimeenergydemandmanagement/smartgridsystems
Designandbuildmoreenergyefficientstructures.Adoptefficiencybestpracticesinselecting
constructionmaterialused,lightingtechnology,windowtechnology,layout.Considerintegrationof
renewableenergygeneration(e.g.,thinfilmsolar)withstructures
Identifystateofartsolutionstoimprovetheenergyefficiencyofstructures.Sprayfoaminsulationisa
goodstartingpoint,butitalsopreventsreuse
Designconstructionmaterialsupplychaintoenhancesustainability
Improvecurrentbasesets,likeUSArmyForceProviderandUSAFHarvestFalconandHarvestEagle
Designanddevelopnewforceprotectiontechnologiesthatarelighter,stronger,madeoflocalmaterial,
andeasiertobuild
Designsupplychaintoreduceneedfortransportationwithoutriskingsoldiersafety
Designrationstoreducepackagingwaste(e.g.,biodegradablepackaging)
Designmoreenergyefficientfieldkitchens
Designprocesstoconvertwaste(includinggrease)tofuel
Identifywaystohelppromotesustainablebehavior(e.g.,lessbottledwateruse,conservation)
Developmoreefficient,effective,andlessenergyintensivewaterpurifiersthatproducetastelesswater
bothlargescaleandportable
DevelopstrategytoexpeditethecertificationofdrinkingwaterstandardsatFOBs
Developstrategytoreducebottledwaterconsumption
Designmoresustainablewastewatertreatmentsolutions
Designprocess/technologytoreusewastewater
Designmoreenergyefficientbuildingsthatrequirelesselectricity
Designenergysupply/demandmanagementsoftware;rungeneratorstomeetsupply
Ensurecompatibilitybetweengeneratorsandappliances
Developtrainingstrategy/curriculumforinterconnectedpowersystems
Designefficient,nextgenerationpowergenerators
DesignrenewableenergygeneratorsspecificallyforFOBs
Designmethodstoproduceandusealternativefuels
Reducebatteryweightforindividualsoldiers
Designsupplystrategytostreamlinefueldistribution
Designfuelrecyclingprogram
Designmoresustainableandsaferdisposaltechnologies/practices
Developrecyclingprogram;identifyopportunitiestoreusesolidwaste
Designmoreefficientandreliableincinerators
Developsafetreatmentmethodforashgeneratedafterburning

11.3 Parallel Research


Throughoutthefederalgovernment,agenciesandmilitaryServiceshavebegunearnestlypursuing
parallelpathstowardssustainability.Someorganizationshaveprioritizedidentifyingimmediate
solutionswhileothershaveemphasizedclosingthegapwithfutureresearch.Sincenoonesolutionwill
suffice,thefollowingprovidesanabbreviatedlistofseveralothercurrentresearchinitiativeswithinthe
federalgovernmenttopromotesustainableFOBs.Collaboration,communication,knowledgesharing
willbekeytodevelopingsolutionsinatimelyandcomprehensivemanner.

SERDP|SustainableForwardOperatingBases



Organi zati on Ini ti ati ves
DepartmentofDefense
PowerSuretyTaskForce Eski mosprayfoami nsul ati on;currentl yusedi nIraq
Transportabl eHybri dEl ectri cPowerSystems(testedatFt.Irwi n)
NetZeroPl usJoi ntCapabi l i tyTechnol ogyDemonstrati on
Monol i thi cDome(testedatFt.Irwi n)
Tacti cal GarbagetoEnergyRefi nery(testedi nIraq)
Hybri dEl ectri cPowerStati on(tobetestedi nKuwai t)
ProjectManagerMobi l eEl ectri cPower Devel opi ngmorefuel effi ci entgenerators(AMMPS)
Devel opmentofcentral powergenerati onsystem
Hybri dIntel l i gentPower(smartgri d)
Services
Ai rForce Bui l trenewabl eenergytentci ty(Tyndal l AFB)
Mari neCorps Devel opi ngDepl oyabl eRenewabl eEnergyAl ternati veModul e
CreatedUSMCExpedi ti onaryEnergyOffi ce
Devel opi ngExperi mental FOBatQuanti cototestsustai nabl eproducts
Army(USACE) Engi neerResearchandDevel opmentCenter(ERDC)/
CenterfortheAdvancementofSustai nabi l i tyInnovati ons(CASI)workshops
Devel opi ngprocesstoturnti resi ntoenergyandotherproducts
DemonstrateWastetoFuel pl ants
SponsoredCurrentandFutureBaseCampSustai nabi l i tyworkshop(2007)
Army(Nati ckSol di erSystemsCenter) SponsoredExpedi ti onaryBaseCampworkshop(2009)
Navy Demonstrati onoffuel cel l systemstoprovi deportabl epower
Navy(Offi ceofNaval Research) Sustai nabi l i tyi nl ogi sti cs
ArmyResearch,Devel opment,and
Engi neeri ngCommand(RDECOM)/Army
ResearchLaboratory(ARL)
Sourcesofotherproposedresearch:NatickExpeditionaryBasingWorkshop,ARLSustainableBase
Workshop(http://www.ncsu.edu/kenan/ncsi/aro_base.html),USACEERDC/CASISustainable,Full
SpectrumContingencyOperationsGapAssessment,andDefenseManagement:DODNeedstoIncrease
AttentiononFuelDemandManagementatForwardDeployedLocations,GAO,February2009.
11.4 Next Steps
Eachoftheprevioussectionsdeservesadditionalanalysistofullyidentifythegapsincurrentresearch
thatSERDPcanhelpbridge.TheNoblisteamdidnotdifferentiatepotentialfutureresearchintoshort
termandlongtermresearchneeds,butthereisasignificantneedforcreative,outoftheboxlongterm
research.TheoriginalwhitepapersubmittedbyNoblisinAugust2009envisionedafourpartprocess:
1. DefineresourcerequirementsandwastegenerationatFOBs
2. Assesscurrentpracticesandoperations
3. Identifygapsinthescience,technology,andenergy/wastemanagementandproposeRTD&E
andbestpracticestobridgethosegaps
4. Recommendapproachestoacceleratetheadoptionandimplementationofsustainable
technologiesandpractices
Thispaperwasdesignedtoaddressthefirsttwoparts,withthesecondhalfadetailedexaminationof
futureresearchopportunitiesforSERDPtofollowcompletionofthisFOBcharacterizationstudy.
SubjecttoadditionalguidancefromSERDP,Noblisproposestocompletethesecondhalfoftheoriginal
proposedscopeofwork.
May2010 44


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May2010 45

Appendices

SERDP|SustainableForwardOperatingBases



May2010 46

Acronyms
AMC AirMobilityCommand
AMMPS AdvancedMediumSizedMobilePowerSources
AOR AreaofResponsibility
ARL ArmyResearchLaboratory
BEAR BasicExpeditionaryAirfieldResources
CASI CenterfortheAdvancementofSustainabilityInnovations
CDS ContainerDeliverySystems
CENTCOM U.S.CentralCommand
CHU ContainerizedHousingUnit
CMU ConcreteMasonryUnit
DESC DefenseEnergySupportCenter
DFAC DiningFacility
DLA DefenseLogisticsAgency
DoD DepartmentofDefense
DPGDS DeployablePowerGenerationandDistributionSystem
DRMS DefenseReutilization&MarketingService
DSCP DefenseSupplyCenterPhiladelphia
DVD DirectVendorDelivery
EMD ElectromotiveDivision
ERDC EngineerResearchandDevelopmentCenter
FM FieldManual
FOB ForwardOperatingBase
FP ForceProvider(U.S.Army)
FSR FirstStrikeRation
g/bw/d Gallonsofblackwaterperday
g/gw/d Gallonsofgraywaterperday
g/w/d Gallonsofwaterperday
g/ww/d Gallonsofwastewaterperday
GP GeneralPurposetents
HE HarvestEagle(U.S.AirForce)
HF HarvestFalcon(U.S.AirForce)
HN Hostnation
HVAC Heating,Ventilation,andAirConditioning
HZ Hertz
IED ImprovisedExplosiveDevice
ISO InternationalOrganizationforStandardization

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May2010 47

ISU IntervalSlingableUnit
KCLFFE Kitchen,CompanyLevelFieldFeedingEnhanced
KW Kilowatt
LWP LightWeightPurifier
MEB MarineExpeditionaryBattalion
MEP MobileElectricPower
MRE Meals,ReadytoEat
MW Megawatt
MWR Morale,Welfare,Recreation
OEF OperationEnduringFreedom
OIF OperationIraqiFreedom
POL Petroleum,Oils,Lubricants
PRIMEBEEF PrimeBaseEngineerEmergencyForceSquadron
PU PrimeUnit
PX PostExchange
RDECOM U.S.ArmyResearch,Development,andEngineeringCommand
ROWPU ReverseOsmosisWaterPurificationUnit
SAA SmallArmsAmmunition
SEAHut SoutheastAsiahut
Seabees UnitedStatesNavyConstructionBattalions
SEE SmallEmplacementExcavator
SERDP StrategicEnvironmentalResearchandDevelopmentProgram
TEMPER TentExtendableModularPersonneltents
TQG TacticalQuietGenerator
TWPS TacticalWaterPurificationSystem
UGRA UnitizedGroupRationAOption
UGRB UnitizedGroupRationBOption
UGRE UnitizedGroupRationExpress
UGRH&S UnitizedGroupRationHeat&Serve
USACE U.S.ArmyCorpsofEngineers
USAF U.S.AirForce
USAREUR U.S.Army,Europe
USTRANSCOM U.S.TransportationCommand
V Volt


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May2010 48

Appendix A Summary FOB Characterization
Source:Multiplesources

FOBtacticalbase(50)
FOBtacticalbase
(500)
FOBmainoperations
base(1,500)
Enduringmain
operationsbase
(10,000)
General
Typeof
FOB
216

Small,platoonsized
FOBdesignedfor
tacticaloperationsand
colocationwithin
populationcenters.
Providessecure
locationwithonly
enoughlogistics
capacitytosupport
thecamp.
Companyorbattalion
sizedFOBdesignedfor
largertactical
operationsormissions
withalongerduration.
Providessecure
locationwithonly
enoughlogistics
capacitytosupport
thecamp.
Regimentorbrigade
sizedFOBfunctioning
asamainoperations
base.Hassufficiently
robustinfrastructure
tosupportawide
varietyofmissionsand
canincludeservice
membersupport
facilities.Military
training,civilaffairs
missions,andeventhe
capacitytosupport
civilianpolitical
functionsandNGO
activitiesmaybe
included.
DivisionsizedFOB
functioningasan
enduring,semi
permanentmain
operationsbase.Has
relatively
sophisticated
infrastructurecapable
ofsupporting
sustainedoperations.
Size
(#oftroops
supported)
50 500 1,500 10,000
Footprint
217
2acres 16acres 51acres 350acres
Location Austere
Limitedhostnation
infrastructure
Example:Afghanistan
Austere
Limitedhostnation
infrastructure
Example:Afghanistan
Sophisticated
Somehostnation
infrastructure
Example:Iraq
Sophisticated
Somehostnation
infrastructure
Example:Iraq
Mission
duration
Organic
Lessthan90days
Initial
Lessthan6months
Temporary
Lessthan2years
Enduring(Semi
Permanent)
Lessthan10years


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May2010 49

FOBtacticalbase(50)
FOBtacticalbase
(500)
FOBmainoperations
base(1,500)
Enduringmain
operationsbase
(10,000)
General
Construction
standards
(Source:
USACE)
218

Organicconstruction
istypicalofwhat
wouldbefoundina
tacticalassemblyarea.
Organicstandard
constructionissetup
onanexpedientbasis
withnoexternal
engineersupport,
usingunitorganic
equipmentand
systemsorHN
resources.Intended
foruseupto90days,
itmaybeusedforup
tosixmonths.
Characterizedby
minimumfacilities
thatrequireminimal
engineereffortand
simplifiedmaterial
transportand
availability,initial
standardconstruction
isintendedfor
immediateuseby
unitsuponarrivalin
theaterforuptosix
months.Theprimary
differencebetween
organicandinitial
standardsisthe
applicationof
engineereffortto
improveliving
conditionsabovewhat
theunitisableto
accomplishonitsown.
Characterizedby
somewhatminimal
facilities,temporary
standardconstruction
isintendedtoincrease
efficiencyof
operationsforuse
extendingto24
months,butmayfulfill
enduringphase
standardsandextend
to5years.Itprovides
forsustained
operationsandmay
replaceinitial
standardinsome
caseswheremission
requirementsdictate
andrequire
replacementduring
thecourseof
extendedoperations.
Itrequiresextensive
engineersupportand
mayinvolvenew
construction,rather
thanlimiting
operationstotents
andexistingfacilities.
Thestandard
construction
standardsatthese
FOBsreflectalife
expectancyofmore
thantwo,butless
thanten,years.The
typesofstructures
usedwilldependon
duration.This
standardmaybeused
initiallyaftercarefully
consideringthe
politicalsituation,
cost,qualityoflife,
andothercriteria.

Sitework
219
Nonetominimalsite
work;maximizeduse
ofexistingfacilities
Clearingandgrading
forfacilitiesincluding
drainage,revetments
ofPOL,ammostorage,
andairfieldparking.
Engineeredsiteprep,
includingpaved
surfaces,building
foundations,and
concretefloorslabs
Engineeredsite
preparation
Construction
220

18,264manhours
*

120,502manhours 240,070manhours 800,233manhours


*
Dataextrapolatedfor50manFOB

SERDP|SustainableForwardOperatingBases



May2010 50

FOBtacticalbase(50)
FOBtacticalbase
(500)
FOBmainoperations
base(1,500)
Enduringmain
operationsbase
(10,000)
Facilities
Available
facilities
221

Housing,basiclatrines
andsepticsystems,
minimaloffices,
minimaldining
facilities,gravelroads,
minimalmedical
facilities,post
exchange,fitness
center,minimalMWR
facilities
Housing,basiclatrines
andsepticsystems,
offices,diningfacilities
maybeoperatedby
contractors,roads,
medicalfacilities,
postexchange,fit
centers,MWR
facilities,
finance/postal/legal
maybeoffered,
warehouses,laundry,
maintenance
ness
Housing,latrinesand
septicsystems,
laundry,offices,dining
facilitiesoperatedby
contractors,roads,
warehouses,finance
andpostalservices,
aviation,medical
facilities,post
exchange,athletic
fields,MWRfacilities
Housing,latrinesand
septicsystems,
laundry,offices,dining
facilitiesoperatedby
contractors,roads,
warehouses,finance
andpostalservices,
aviation,medical
facilities,post
exchange,athletic
fields,MWRfacilities
Housing
standard
222

Preexisting
structures
Tents(TierIno
floor,nonpermanent)
Preexisting
structures
Tents(TierII,III
woodenfloors,lights,
polesupported,
electricaloutlets)
Couldinclude
prefabricatedhousing
(trailers)andlimited
newconstruction
Tents(TierIII wood
floor,2/3woodwalls)
Woodframe
structures,SEAHuts
Modularbuildings
Containers
Woodframe
structures,SEAHuts
Modularbuildings
Containers
Prefabricated
buildings
Masonry,steel
buildings
Housing
223
,

3,980squarefeet 39,800squarefeet 119,400squarefeet 796,000squarefeet


Dining
facility
224

Tents
Assaultkitchens
(KCLFFE)
TierIIIItents
Mobilekitchen
trailer
Containerized
kitchen
TierIIItents
SEAHuts
Masonry,pre
fabricatedbuildings
SEAHuts
Masonry,pre
fabricatedbuildings
MWR
225
LimitedMWRfacilities LimitedMWR
facilities,couldinclude
internetcafs,phone
service,andPXtrailers
(dependingoncamp
sizeandlocation)
Dependingonthe
lengthoftime
personnelmayoccupy
thebase,mayinclude
uptotheaterfacilities,
PX,internetcafs,
longdistancephone
service,ballfields,
gyms,andorganized
recreationevents
Dependingonthe
lengthoftime
personnelmayoccupy
thebase,mayinclude
uptotheaterfacilities,
PX,internetcafs,
longdistancephone
service,ballfields,
gyms,andorganized
recreationevents

20/80officertoenlistedratio,110sqft/officer,72sqft/enlisted

SERDP|SustainableForwardOperatingBases



May2010 51

FOBtacticalbase(50)
FOBtacticalbase
(500)
FOBmain
operationsbase
(1,500)
Enduringmain
operationsbase
(10,000)
ForceProtection
Standards Concertinafences,
sandbags,limitedguard
towers,limiteduseof
concretemasonry
Triplestandard
concertinafence,
sandbags,berms,
serpentineforentry
pointcontrol
Triplestandard
concertinafence,
berms,guard
towers,greateruse
ofHESCOs,concrete
barriers
Extensiveforce
protectionmeasures
Food
Rations MREs
UGREs
MREs
UGRH&S
UGRH&S
ARations(UGRA)
UGRH&S
ARations(UGRA)
Water
Quantity

1,750gallons/day 17,500gallons/day 52,500gallons/day 350,000gallons/


day
Source
226
Wells
Bottledwater
Wells
Bottledwater
Surfacewater
(usingROWPUs)
Wells
Bottledwater
Surfacewater
(usingROWPUs)
Treatmentplants
Existing
infrastructure
Wells
Bottledwater
Treatmentplants
Existing
infrastructure
Wastewater
Quantity
(total)

1,750gallons/day 17,500gallons/day 52,500gallons/day 350,000gallons/


day
Graywater 1,487gallons/day 14,875gallons/day 44,625gallons/day 297,500gallons/
day
Blackwater
**

263gallons/day 2,625gallons/day 7,875gallons/day 52,500gallons/day


Treatment
227
Rudimentary
infrastructure/practices:
Unitfieldsanitation
kitsandpitlatrines
Burnoutlatrines
Directdisposal(mostly
ofgraywater)
Limiteduseofleach
fields,lagoons
Pitlatrines
Burnoutlatrines
Chemicallatrines/
contractordisposal
Possiblylagoons,
leachfields
Limitedpossibility
forwastewater
treatmentplants
Rangesfrom
chemicallatrines
andcontractor
disposaltolagoons,
centralsewer
system,and
wastewater
treatmentplants
Mostlikely
wastewater
treatmentplant

Assuming35gallons/person/day

Assuming35gallons/person/day
**
Assumingblackwatercomprises15%oftotalwastewatervolume

SERDP|SustainableForwardOperatingBases



May2010 52

FOBtacticalbase(50)
FOBtacticalbase
(500)
FOBmainoperations
base(1,500)
Enduringmain
operationsbase
(10,000)
Fuel&
Power

Fuel
usage

250gallons/day 2,500gallons/day 7,500gallons/day 50,000gallons/day


Power
demand
(peak)

50KWorless 500KW 1.5MW 10MW


Sourceof
power
Limitedneedfor
electricity,useofunit
tacticalgenerators
wheneverneeded;
batteries
Distributed
generation.Tactical
militarygenerators,
commercial
generators,upto
ArmyPrimePower
Largergenerators,
bothcommercialand
military.
Consolidationof
generatorstoform
centralizedpower
plants.Limiteduseof
hostnationelectric
grid
Centralized
commercialpower
plantsanduseofhost
nationelectricgrid
SolidWaste
Quantity

500pounds/day 5,000pounds/day 15,000pounds/day 100,000pounds/day


Disposal Burnpits Burnpits
Incinerators
Somelandfilluse
Incinerators
Landfills
Contractorremoval
Limitedrecycling
Incinerators
Landfills
Contractorremoval
Recycling
/composting
Hostnation
treatment

Assuming5gallons/person/day

Assuming1kwofpeakdemand/person

Assuming10pounds/person/day

SERDP|SustainableForwardOperatingBases



Appendix B U.S. Army Field Manual 3-34 Standards
Source:USArmyFM334

May2010 53


SERDP|SustainableForwardOperatingBases


May2010 54


SERDP|SustainableForwardOperatingBases


May2010 55


SERDP|SustainableForwardOperatingBases


May2010 56


SERDP|SustainableForwardOperatingBases


May2010 57


SERDP|SustainableForwardOperatingBases




May2010 58


SERDP|SustainableForwardOperatingBases



Appendix C U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Standards
Source:USArmyCorpsofEngineers,BaseCampDevelopmentintheTheaterofOperations,January19,2009

May2010 59


SERDP|SustainableForwardOperatingBases


May2010 60


SERDP|SustainableForwardOperatingBases



Appendix D Red Book Standards
Source:USAREUR,BaseCampFacilitiesStandardsforContingencyOperations(RedBook)

May2010 61


SERDP|SustainableForwardOperatingBases


May2010 62


SERDP|SustainableForwardOperatingBases


May2010 63


SERDP|SustainableForwardOperatingBases



Appendix E USACE General Land Use Planning Factors
Source:USArmyCorpsofEngineers,BaseCampDevelopmentintheTheaterofOperations,January19,2009

May2010 64


SERDP|SustainableForwardOperatingBases



Appendix F Life Support Area Planning Factors
Source:USArmyCorpsofEngineers,BaseCampDevelopmentintheTheaterofOperations,January19,2009;
USArmyFM334(imagerevised)

May2010 65


SERDP|SustainableForwardOperatingBases


May2010 66


SERDP|SustainableForwardOperatingBases



Appendix G Construction Estimates - USACE
Source:USArmyCorpsofEngineers,BaseCampDevelopmentintheTheaterofOperations,January19,2009

May2010 67


SERDP|SustainableForwardOperatingBases



Appendix H Rations
Source: CustomerOrderingHandbook&Update,DefenseSupplyCenterPhiladelphia

May2010 68


SERDP|SustainableForwardOperatingBases



Appendix I USAREUR Contingency Menu
Source:CaptEdRackauskas,Subsistence,DSCP

May2010 69


SERDP|SustainableForwardOperatingBases



Appendix J Class I Distribution Iraq and Afghanistan
Source:CaptEdRackauskas,Subsistence,DSCP

May2010 70


SERDP|SustainableForwardOperatingBases



Appendix K FOB Fuel Consumption
Source:DefenseManagement:DODNeedstoIncreaseAttentiononFuelDemandManagementatForward
DeployedLocations,GovernmentAccountabilityOffice(GAO)

May2010 71


SERDP|SustainableForwardOperatingBases


May2010 72


SERDP|SustainableForwardOperatingBases



Appendix L Tactical Quiet Generators
Source:GlobalSecurity.org
Type Nomenclature Model# Length Width Height Applications
3kWTQG DED,60Hz MEP831A 34.8i n. 27.8i n. 26.5i n. WeaponSystems
DED,400Hz MEP832A Mi ssi l eSystems
CausewaySystems
C4I Systems
5kWTQG 60HzTQG 802A 50.4i n. 31.8i n. 36.2i n. WeaponSystems
400HzTQG 812A Mi ssi l eSystems
CausewaySystems
C4I Systems
10kWTQG 60HzTQG 803A 61.7i n. 31.8i n. 36.2i n. WeaponSystems
400HzTQG 813A Mi ssi l eSystems
LaundryUni ts
C4I Systems
Refri gerati onSystems
15kWTQG 60HzTQG 804A 69.3i n. 35.3i n. 54.1i n. WeaponSystems
400HzTQG 814A Mi ssi l eSystems
Wel l Ki t,Pri nti ngPl ants
Topographi cSupportSystems
C4I Systems
Hospi tal Mai ntenance
30kWTQG 60HzTQG 805A 79.3i n. 35.3i n. 54.1i n. WeaponSystems
400HzTQG 815A Mi ssi l eSystems
BakeryPl ant
ADPSupportSystems
WaterPuri fi cati on
C4I Systems
Avi ati onShopSets
60kWTQG 60HzTQG 806A 86.3i n. 35.3i n 58.2i n. WeaponSystems
400HzTQG 816A Mi ssi l eSystems
EarthSatel l i teTermi nal s
Fi el dHospi tal s/School s
Avi ati onGroundSupport

May2010 73


SERDP|SustainableForwardOperatingBases



Appendix M Harvest Falcon Energy & Fuel Demand
Source:RandyL.Boswell,Major,USAF,TheImpactofRenewableEnergySourcesonForwardOperatingBases

May2010 74


SERDP|SustainableForwardOperatingBases



May2010 75


SERDP|SustainableForwardOperatingBases



May2010 76


Appendix N Sources
Severalsourceswerereviewedinpreparingthisreportbutcouldnotbedirectlycitedduetodistribution
restrictions.Theseinclude:
DeborahCurtinetal,Sustainable,FullSpectrumContingencyOperationsGapAssessment,USArmyCorps
ofEngineersERDC/CERLSR0813,August2008
GaryL.GerdesandAndrewL.Jantzer,BaseCampSolidWasteCharacterizationStudy,USArmyCorpsof
EngineersERDC/CERLTR0624,September2006
USCentralCommand,ConstructionandBaseCampDevelopmentintheUSCENTCOMAreaof
Responsibility(TheSandBook),October18,2004
LTCJohnGreen,JohnHorstmann,USARCENTBaseCampRequirements

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1
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2
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3
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4
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Locations,GovernmentAccountabilityOffice(GAO)
5
DefenseManagement:DODNeedstoIncreaseAttentiononFuelDemandManagementatForwardDeployed
Locations,GovernmentAccountabilityOffice(GAO);
TomDispatch.com
6
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7
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8
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9
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10
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11
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12
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14
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SERDP|SustainableForwardOperatingBases



May2010 77


15
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32
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33
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34
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SERDP|SustainableForwardOperatingBases



May2010 78


38
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JasonChudy,RemoteFOBSweeneyAppearsAlmostIdyllic,StarsandStripes,July13,2005
39
ChrisOBrien,ConstructingaPlatoonFOBinAfghanistan;
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40
GlobalSecurity.Org
41
USArmyFieldManual334.400(FM5104),GeneralEngineering
42
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43
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44
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45
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46
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47
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48
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49
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50
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51
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53
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54
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58
USArmyFieldManual334.400(FM5104),GeneralEngineering;
RichardM.Marlatt,IntegratedLifeCycleBaseCampSustainment;ChrisOBrien,ConstructingaPlatoon
FOBinAfghanistan
59
USArmyFieldManual334.400(FM5104),GeneralEngineering
60
USAREUR,BaseCampFacilitiesStandardsforContingencyOperations(RedBook)
61
GlobalSecurity.Org

SERDP|SustainableForwardOperatingBases



May2010 79


62
USAREUR,BaseCampFacilitiesStandardsforContingencyOperations(RedBook)
63
USArmyFieldManual334.400(FM5104),GeneralEngineering
64
JointPublications409,JointDoctrineforGlobalDistribution,December14,2001
65
JointPublications409,JointDoctrineforGlobalDistribution
66
USArmyFieldManual334.400(FM5104),GeneralEngineering
67
TestimonyofBGJeromeJohnson
68
GlobalSecurity.Org
69
GlobalSecurity.Org
70
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71
JasonM.Railsback,ForceProtectionofForwardOperatingBasesinBaghdad
72
Interviewswithmilitarypersonnel
73
JasonM.Railsback,ForceProtectionofForwardOperatingBasesinBaghdad
74
BryanFinoki,IntheBusinessofBlastWalls,April5,2008
75
JasonM.Railsback,ForceProtectionofForwardOperatingBasesinBaghdad
76
DouglasWissing,CultivatingAfghanistan:ADayonFOBSalerno;
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77
JasonM.Railsback,ForceProtectionofForwardOperatingBasesinBaghdad
78
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79
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80
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84
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85
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86
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87
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88
CustomerOrderingHandbook&Update,DefenseSupplyCenterPhiladelphia
89
CustomerOrderingHandbook&Update,DefenseSupplyCenterPhiladelphia
90
JointPublications409,JointDoctrineforGlobalDistribution
91
JointPublications409,JointDoctrineforGlobalDistribution
92
JointPublications409,JointDoctrineforGlobalDistribution

SERDP|SustainableForwardOperatingBases



May2010 80


93
JointPublications409,JointDoctrineforGlobalDistribution
94
JointPublications409,JointDoctrineforGlobalDistribution
95
JointPublications409,JointDoctrineforGlobalDistribution
96
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97
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98
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99
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100
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101
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102
JointPublications403,JointBulkPetroleumandWaterDoctrine
103
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104
USArmyFieldManual334.400(FM5104),GeneralEngineering
106
TheUSAREURBlueBook,BaseCampBaselineStandards
107
DonPickard,SmallScaleWastetoEnergyConversionforMilitaryFieldWaste
108
GlobalSecurity.Org
109
ProceedingsfromtheUSMCEnergy&PowerSymposium,NewOrleans,January2527,2010
110
Interviewswithmilitarypersonnel
111
JayL.Garland,Sustainable,DecentralizedApproachestoWaterUse(BiologicalApproaches),Presentation
forArmyResearchOffice
112
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Environment,SustainabilityLink,OverseasEnvironmentalWorkshop,July2527,2006
113
JointPublications409,JointDoctrineforGlobalDistribution;
Dr.JianmingWang;
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Workshop,USArmyCorpsofEngineersERDC/CERLTR0912,April2009;
USArmyFieldManual334.400(FM5104),GeneralEngineering;
USAREUR,BaseCampFacilitiesStandardsforContingencyOperations(RedBook)
114
Lt.Col.ThomasJ.SheaIII,BuildingaBaseCamp
115
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116
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117
JarredGuthrie,ObtainingandPurifyingWaterinIraq
118
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119
Interviewswithmilitarypersonnel

SERDP|SustainableForwardOperatingBases



May2010 81


120
RichardJ.Scholzeetal,ProceedingsoftheMilitaryApplicationsforEmergingWaterUseTechnologies
Workshop
121
USMCEnergyAssessmentTeam;
122
USMCEnergyAssessmentTeam
123
GeneralJamesConway,Commandant,USMC,RemarksattheUSMCEnergySummit
124
ProceedingsfromtheUSMCEnergy&PowerSymposium,NewOrleans,January2527,2010
125
Interviews
126
USArmyFieldManual81015,EmploymentoftheFieldandGeneralHospitals,Tactics,Techniques,and
Procedures,March26,1997
127
USArmyCorpsofEngineers,BaseCampDevelopmentintheTheaterofOperations;
JayL.Garland,Sustainable,DecentralizedApproachestoWaterUse(BiologicalApproaches)
128
DonPickard,SmallScaleWastetoEnergyConversionforMilitaryFieldWaste;
ExpeditionaryBasingWorkshop,ModernizingBaseCampsasaSystemofSystems,September2429,2009
(sponsoredbyUSArmyNatick)
129
DonPickard,SmallScaleWastetoEnergyConversionforMilitaryFieldWaste
130
USAREUR,BaseCampFacilitiesStandardsforContingencyOperations(RedBook);
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August2004
131
Dr.KurtPreston,KurtJ.Kinnevan,EnvironmentalAspectsofMilitaryCompounds,BaseCamps:The
Environment,SustainabilityLink;
USArmyFieldManual334.400(FM5104),GeneralEngineering
132
USArmyCorpsofEngineers,BaseCampDevelopmentintheTheaterofOperations;
133
C.JamesMartel,AnalysisoftheWasteManagementPracticesatBosniaandKosovoBaseCamps
134
C.JamesMartel,AnalysisoftheWasteManagementPracticesatBosniaandKosovoBaseCamps
135
Dr.JianmingWang
136
JointPublications409,JointDoctrineforGlobalDistribution
137
ChrisDorobekandAmyMorris,DailyDebrief,November20,2009NewReport:AlternativeEnergyMethods
KeytoSecuringTroopsonBattlefield(InterviewwithGen.CharlesWald),FederalNewsRadio;
Deloitte,EnergySecurity:AmericasBestDefense,2009
138
GeneralJamesConway,Commandant,USMC,RemarksattheUSMCEnergySummit
139
GeneralJamesConway,Commandant,USMC,RemarksattheUSMCEnergySummit
140
Dr.MarilynM.FreemanandAndyValentine,Overview:ArmyPower&EnergyEffortsandInitiatives,Office
oftheDeputyAssistantoftheArmy,May3,2007

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May2010 82


141
DefenseManagement:DODNeedstoIncreaseAttentiononFuelDemandManagementatForwardDeployed
Locations,GovernmentAccountabilityOffice(GAO)
142
JointPublications409,JointDoctrineforGlobalDistribution
143
JointPublications403,JointBulkPetroleumandWaterDoctrine;
JointPublications409,JointDoctrineforGlobalDistribution
144
DefenseManagement:DODNeedstoIncreaseAttentiononFuelDemandManagementatForwardDeployed
Locations,GovernmentAccountabilityOffice(GAO)
145
StevenMufson,WalterPincus,SupplyingTroopsinAfghanistanwithFuelisChallengeforUS
146
StevenMufson,WalterPincus,SupplyingTroopsinAfghanistanwithFuelisChallengeforUS
147
ChrisOBrien,ConstructingaPlatoonFOBinAfghanistan
148
USMCEnergyAssessmentTeam
149
RandyL.Boswell,Major,USAF,TheImpactofRenewableEnergySourcesonForwardOperatingBases,April
2007
150
Deloitte,EnergySecurity:AmericasBestDefense,2009
151
Deloitte,EnergySecurity:AmericasBestDefense,2009
152
USMCEnergyAssessmentTeam
153
ChrisDorobekandAmyMorris,DailyDebrief,November20,2009NewReport:AlternativeEnergyMethods
KeytoSecuringTroopsonBattlefield(InterviewwithGen.CharlesWald)
154
GeneralJamesConway,Commandant,USMC,RemarksattheUSMCEnergySummit;
Dr.MarilynM.FreemanandAndyValentine,Overview:ArmyPower&EnergyEffortsandInitiatives
155
USArmyFieldManual334.400(FM5104),GeneralEngineering
156
USMCEnergyAssessmentTeam
157
USMCEnergyAssessmentTeam
158
ChrisOBrien,ConstructingaPlatoonFOBinAfghanistan
159
GeneralJamesConway,Commandant,USMC,RemarksattheUSMCEnergySummit
160
GeneralJamesConway,Commandant,USMC,RemarksattheUSMCEnergySummit
161
DonPickard,SmallScaleWastetoEnergyConversionforMilitaryFieldWaste
162
RandyL.Boswell,Major,USAF,TheImpactofRenewableEnergySourcesonForwardOperatingBases
163
USMCEnergyAssessmentTeam
164
DefenseManagement:DODNeedstoIncreaseAttentiononFuelDemandManagementatForwardDeployed
Locations,GovernmentAccountabilityOffice(GAO)
165
RandyL.Boswell,Major,USAF,TheImpactofRenewableEnergySourcesonForwardOperatingBases
166
DefenseManagement:DODNeedstoIncreaseAttentiononFuelDemandManagementatForwardDeployed
Locations,GovernmentAccountabilityOffice(GAO)

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167
DefenseScienceBoardTaskForce,ReportoftheDefenseScienceBoardTaskForceonDoDEnergyStrategy:
MoreFightLessFuel
168
DefenseScienceBoardTaskForce,ReportoftheDefenseScienceBoardTaskForceonDoDEnergyStrategy:
MoreFightLessFuel
169
DefenseManagement:DODNeedstoIncreaseAttentiononFuelDemandManagementatForwardDeployed
Locations,GovernmentAccountabilityOffice(GAO)
170
DonPickard,SmallScaleWastetoEnergyConversionforMilitaryFieldWaste
171
USMCEnergyAssessmentTeam
172
ChrisOBrien,ConstructingaPlatoonFOBinAfghanistan
173
USArmyFieldManual334.400(FM5104),GeneralEngineering
174
RandyL.Boswell,Major,USAF,TheImpactofRenewableEnergySourcesonForwardOperatingBases
175
USMCEnergyAssessmentTeam
176
Interviewwithmilitarypersonnel
177
DouglasWissing,CultivatingAfghanistan:ADayonFOBSalerno
178
USArmyFieldManual334.400(FM5104),GeneralEngineering
179
USArmyFieldManual334.400(FM5104),GeneralEngineering
180
Interviewwithmilitarypersonnel
181
USArmyCorpsofEngineers(http://www.usace.army.mil/PPS/Pages/DPGDS.aspx)
182
GlobalSecurity.Org
183
DefenseScienceBoardTaskForce,ReportoftheDefenseScienceBoardTaskForceonDoDEnergyStrategy:
MoreFightLessFuel
184
DefenseScienceBoardTaskForce,ReportoftheDefenseScienceBoardTaskForceonDoDEnergyStrategy:
MoreFightLessFuel
185
ColGordonD.KuntzandJohnFittipaldi,UseofRenewableEnergyInContingencyOperations,Army
EnvironmentalPolicyInstitute,March2007
186
StephenD.Stouter,etal,ReducingSolidWasteinContingencyOperations,ArmyLogistician,JulyAugust
2006
187
C.JamesMartel,AnalysisoftheWasteManagementPracticesatBosniaandKosovoBaseCamps;
PublicWorksTechnicalBulletin200151,SolidWasteGenerationRatesatArmyBaseCamps,April1,2008
188
GaryL.Gerdesetal,HydrothermalProcessingofBaseCampSolidWastesToAllowOnsiteRecycling,US
ArmyCorpsofEngineersERDC/CERLTR0813,September2008
189
DonPickard,SmallScaleWastetoEnergyConversionforMilitaryFieldWaste
190
DonPickard,SmallScaleWastetoEnergyConversionforMilitaryFieldWaste
191
PublicWorksTechnicalBulletin200151,SolidWasteGenerationRatesatArmyBaseCamps

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May2010 84


192
PublicWorksTechnicalBulletin200151,SolidWasteGenerationRatesatArmyBaseCamps
193
W.H.Ruppertetal,ForceProviderSolidWasteCharacterizationStudy;
PublicWorksTechnicalBulletin200151,SolidWasteGenerationRatesatArmyBaseCamps;
USArmyFieldManual425.12(21101),UnitFieldSanitationTeam,January25,2002
194
DonPickard,SmallScaleWastetoEnergyConversionforMilitaryFieldWaste
195
H.N.Conkle,DeployableWasteManagementSystem,AirForceResearchLaboratory
196
H.N.Conkle,DeployableWasteManagementSystem
197
W.H.Ruppertetal,ForceProviderSolidWasteCharacterizationStudy
198
W.H.Ruppertetal,ForceProviderSolidWasteCharacterizationStudy
199
DaveKoch,SolidWasteExploitation,January8,2008
200
H.N.Conkle,DeployableWasteManagementSystem
201
PublicWorksTechnicalBulletin200151,SolidWasteGenerationRatesatArmyBaseCamps,April1,2008;
GaryL.Gerdesetal,HydrothermalProcessingofBaseCampSolidWastesToAllowOnsiteRecycling
202
PublicWorksTechnicalBulletin200151,SolidWasteGenerationRatesatArmyBaseCamps
203
PublicWorksTechnicalBulletin200151,SolidWasteGenerationRatesatArmyBaseCamps
204
PublicWorksTechnicalBulletin200151,SolidWasteGenerationRatesatArmyBaseCamps
205
USArmyCorpsofEngineers,BaseCampDevelopmentintheTheaterofOperations
206
GaryL.Gerdesetal,HydrothermalProcessingofBaseCampSolidWastesToAllowOnsiteRecycling
207
StephenD.Stouter,etal,ReducingSolidWasteinContingencyOperations;
Dr.JianmingWang
208
GaryL.Gerdesetal,HydrothermalProcessingofBaseCampSolidWastesToAllowOnsiteRecycling
209
C.JamesMartel,AnalysisoftheWasteManagementPracticesatBosniaandKosovoBaseCamps
210
StephenD.Stouter,etal,ReducingSolidWasteinContingencyOperations
211
GaryL.Gerdesetal,HydrothermalProcessingofBaseCampSolidWastesToAllowOnsiteRecycling;
212
USArmyCorpsofEngineers,BaseCampDevelopmentintheTheaterofOperations
213
StephenD.Stouter,etal,ReducingSolidWasteinContingencyOperations;
USArmyCorpsofEngineers,BaseCampDevelopmentintheTheaterofOperations
214
StephenD.Stouter,etal,ReducingSolidWasteinContingencyOperations
215
USArmyCorpsofEngineers,BaseCampDevelopmentintheTheaterofOperations
216
USArmyCorpsofEngineers,BaseCampDevelopmentintheTheaterofOperations
217
USArmyCorpsofEngineers,BaseCampDevelopmentintheTheaterofOperations
218
USArmyCorpsofEngineers,BaseCampDevelopmentintheTheaterofOperations
219
USArmyCorpsofEngineers,BaseCampDevelopmentintheTheaterofOperations
220
USArmyFieldManual334.400(FM5104),GeneralEngineering

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May2010 85


221
USAREUR,BaseCampFacilitiesStandardsforContingencyOperations(RedBook);USArmyCorpsof
Engineers,BaseCampDevelopmentintheTheaterofOperations
222
USArmyCorpsofEngineers,BaseCampDevelopmentintheTheaterofOperations
223
USArmyCorpsofEngineers,BaseCampDevelopmentintheTheaterofOperations
224
USArmyFieldManual334.400(FM5104),GeneralEngineering
225
USArmyCorpsofEngineers,BaseCampDevelopmentintheTheaterofOperations
226
USArmyFieldManual334.400(FM5104),GeneralEngineering;USArmyCorpsofEngineers,BaseCamp
DevelopmentintheTheaterofOperations
227
USArmyFieldManual334.400(FM5104),GeneralEngineering