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Rock Fragmentation by Blasting – Singh & Sinha (Eds) © 2013 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 978-0-415-62143-4

Evaluation of the effect of ground vibration due to blasting on adjacent structures in dam construction projects

H. Bakhshandeh Amnieh & A. Siamaki

Mining engineering department, Kashan university, Iran

ABSTRACT: Only a proportion of the energy released from blasting is consumed for fragmentation of the rock mass. A sizable proportion of the energy is wasted in air-blast, ground vibration and fly-rock. Stress waves propagated in the surrounding environment transfers the energy to the nearby structures. In case induced ground vibration exceeds the allowable threshold for the specific structure, this will lead to considerable damage and financial loss. In this article, the influence of ground vibrations produced in 4 dams of Eevashan, Kangir, Shian and Gotvand have been investigated, on the adjacent structures including local village house and power-plant infrastructure. Explosions were carried out at distances of 200–700 m and having used 3-component seismographs (PG 2002), the vibrations were recorded. Having studied these, relations and limitations have been proposed for all four dams, and an attempt was made to introduce a general empirical relation for estimation of peak particle velocity. Since Shian, Eivashan and Kangir dams are near residential areas, some relations for the prediction of the PPV at these areas were presented based on the relation proposed by the USBM. In addition the amount of the permissible charge weights for different distances from the blasting point was proposed based on DIN 4150-3:1999 and ISO 4866:1990. Gotvand dam blast’s effect on tunnel’s linings and the concrete structure of phase 1 power plant were investigated and a relation for the determination of the charge weight at different distances from the concrete structure of phase 1 power plant was proposed.

1

INTRODUCTION

Vibrations caused by blasting have always been a problem in construction projects because of the damage to the surrounding residential and indus- trial buildings, and the complaints the residents have lodged. This is why blasting operations are designed and performed so as to suit different structures, considering the available standards. The amount of the allowable charge and the suit- able relation for the prediction of the Peak Particle Velocity (PPV) are determined based on recorded data. There are many relations for the prediction of vibrations caused by blasting, among which the ones presented by Cole and Lyakov in 1949 are for concentration of the explosives in water and saturated soils. Duvall and Fogelson (1962) of the United States Bureau of Mining (USBM) found that the PPV is scaled with the square of the charge weight. Ambrasey and Hendron (1968) considered the cube root of the maximum charge. Langefors and Khilstrom (1973) presented a relation for the prediction of the PPV based on Q/D 3/2 , which is acceptable for different charge weights. Ghosh and Deamen (1983) stated that numerous non- elastic factors cause a reduction in the energy of the wave during its propagation; this non-elastic

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effect causes a decrease in the wave range due to its geometric propagation. They rewrote the relation proposed by the USBM based on the non-elastic damping factor. Pal Roy (1991) assumed that when vibrating waves propagate in the rock mass, there is an increase in its volume which decreases the density of the energy. The density reduction proc- ess, considering a geometrical propagation, causes a reduction in the energy during the wave propa- gation—hence, a reduction in its range [White & Farnfielf, 1993; Bhandri, 1997; Singh & Lamond, 1993; Sastry & Singh, 1992; Pal Roy et al., 1992]. Table 1 shows some relations proposed by different researchers.

Table 1.

Some relations proposed for the prediction of

PPV.

Investigator

Relation

Duvall and Fogelson (1962) Ambrasey and Hendron (1968)

Langefors and Khilstrom

Ghosh (1973) and Deamen (1983)

Pal Roy (1991)

PPV = K(D/Q 1/2 ) -b PPV = K(D/Q 1/3 ) -b Q / D
PPV = K(D/Q 1/2 ) -b
PPV = K(D/Q 1/3 ) -b
Q / D 2/3
PPV = K(D/Q 1/2 ) b e P.D
PPV = K(D/Q 1/3 ) b e P.D
PPV = n + K(D/Q 1/2 ) -1

In these relations, PPV is the peak particle veloc- ity, D is the distance from the explosion point, Q is the charge per delay, and K, b are the area param- eters. In the relations proposed by Ghosh and Deamen, P is the non-elastic damping factor, and in Pal Roy’s proposal, n is related to parameters affected by ground discontinuities and rock mass. In this article, to investigate the effects of blast- ing in dam construction projects on residential buildings and concrete structures near the blast area, studies were done on four dams, namely Shian, Kangir, Eivashan and Gotvand. Blasting data of these dams were recorded using PG-2000 3-component seismographs. In this study, vibra- tions caused by blasting as well as the determina- tion of suitable relations for the estimation of the PPV and the highest charge weight were examined, all with regard to the threshold limits.

2 GEOLOGICAL AND GEOGRAPHICAL SITUATION OF THE DAMS

Blasting is a low cost, economical method for fragmentation of rock masses in mining and con- struction projects, but the side effects are worth considering. A serious problem in the blasting of

the above four dams was the undesirable effect of blast vibrations on residential buildings and nearby concrete structures. Shian reservoir dam in the Kermanshah prov- ince, west of Iran, is an earthen structure, and of the homogeneous type. The height from the river bed is 20.45 m, the crown length and width are

1005 m and 8 m, respectively, the reservoir volume,

in normal utilization range, is 9 million m 3 , and its

adjustment volume is 13.5 million m 3 . The nearest village to the dam construction site is about 600 m, and the residential buildings are built of mud and bricks or adobe. Eivashan reservoir dam in the Lorestan prov- ince, central Iran, is an earth dam with a clay core. The maximum height from the riverbed is 64 m, the crown length and width are 529 m and 8 m, respec- tively and the reservoir volume in normal utiliza- tion range is 4.51 million m 3 . The village houses are from 300 to 700 m from the dam construction site and are of adobe, mud and wooden frameworks. Kangir reservoir dam in the southwest of Iran is a homogeneous earth dam. The height from the riverbed is 42 m. The nearest village to it is about

1500 m away, with adobe, mud and brick houses.

Some have wooden frameworks and brick walls. Gotvand dam and its power plant are in Khooz- estan province. The main objective of this hydro- electrical dam is to produce 4500 mkw/hr of energy. It is an earthen dam with a clay core, 180 m in height and a crown length of 640 m. The maximum

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thickness of the crown is 15 m. The dam body is estimated to be about 29 million m 3 , and the over- all reservoir capacity is about 4.5 billion m 3 . Geologically, Shian, Kangir and Eivashan dam sites are in the Gachsaran formation which, in general, consists of Asmari limestone. This forma- tion consists of grey, green and red clay lime along with Asmari limestone with silicate sandstone. Gotvand dam is located in the stratified Zagros zone, which includes the Bakhtiari and Aghajari formations and a middle zone. The Bakhtiari is formed by conglomeration of different degrees of cementation in sandstone and mudstone veins. The Aghajari formation consists of successively strong and weak mudstone and sandstone layers [Mahab Ghodss & Coyne et al., Bellier, 2000].

3 INVESTIGATION OF BLASTING INDUCED GROUND VIBRATION EFFECTS ON RESIDENTIAL AREAS

Eivashan, Shian and Kangir reservoir dams are near rural and residential areas. This is why investi- gating the vibrations due to blasting operations in these dams and their effects on the structures and the residential buildings around them are of spe- cial importance. Determination of the allowable range of the vibrations, considering the structure type and the maximum charge weight per delay for the blasts, is a precautionary measure taken to reduce the rate of the vibrations and to eliminate the damage to residential buildings. To achieve safe vibrations in the above areas, six 3-component records from Shian, six from Eivashan and seven from Kangir have been obtained from seven blasts. Table 2 shows the number of the records for different distances.

3.1 Determination of a suitable relation for the prediction of the PPV

The objective of recording the data obtained from blasting operations in these three dams is not only to determine the proper charge weight to lessen the damage to residential buildings, but also to find suitable relations for the prediction of the PPV. A very important relation for the prediction

Table 2.

Recorded data frequency at different

distances.

Distance from blasting (m)

No. of records

200–400

6

400–600

5

600–800

4

800–1000

4

of the blast induced vibrations is proposed by the USBM. Figure 1 shows the changes in the PPV of the recorded data for the scaled distance of the above mentioned dams. Consider Figure 1. To find the constants of the relation proposed by the USBM, a regression analysis was performed on the data recorded for each dam. As seen in Figure 1–D, it is not possible to achieve a single relation for the prediction of the PPV because of the scattered data (due to different geological conditions). Therefore, the constants K and b in the USBM relation and the correlation coefficient are found according to Table 3 by doing regression on the data found for each dam. In gen- eral, if the correlation coefficient is more than 0.7, the relation is accep table [Azimi et al., 2010]. To make sure of the capability of the calculated con- stants and coefficients, the relative error of the results from the relations was determined. Accord- ing to Table 3, the relative error found from these 3 relations is in the acceptable range. Before blasting operations, we visited the residen- tial areas near these dams to study the structures. Most of them are made of adobe, mud and bricks and few have wooden skeletons; metal structures are rare. There were some radial and diagonal cracks on the structures as a result of previous blasts. According to the USBM, vibrations having frequen- cies less than 40 Hz have more potential to harm structures [Siskind et al., 1980]. This is why there will be unforeseen damage if these points are neglected.

will be unforeseen damage if these points are neglected. Figure 1. The PPV—scaled distance changes of

Figure 1. The PPV—scaled distance changes of the recorded data. A—Kangir dam, B—Shian dam, C—Eivashan dam, D—Comparison of the data of the 3 dams.

Table 3. Results obtained by the analysis of the data recorded at Shian, Eivashan and Kangir dams.

Dam

b

K

R 2

(%) Relative

 

errors

Shian

-2.3

841.16

0.913

17.47

Eivashan

-2.514

19946

0.936

28.4

Kangir

-1.73

175.49

0.811

15.71

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Kangir - 1 . 7 3 175.49 0.811 15.71 485 Figure 2. Gotvand dam tunnels—schematic view.

Figure 2.

Gotvand dam tunnels—schematic view.

Table 4.

ferent distances from residential areas.

Maximum charge weight for dif-

Distance from

Maximum charge per delay (kg)

blasting (m)

50

2.9

100

11.6

200

46

300

104

400

185

500

290

600

417

700

568

The recorded wave frequencies of these 3 dams are within a range of 10 to 40 Hz. There- fore, we considered the structure type and vibrat- ing frequencies, and the regulations applicable to them. According to DIN 4150-3:1999 and ISO 4866:1990 codes, the allowable rate of vibration for such structures is 4 mm/s, and according to the USBM, it is 12.5 mm/s [DIN, 1999; ISO, 1990]. As seen in Figure 2, only one wave with a vibration of 6.7 mm/s is above the threshold, but consider- ing the USBM code, it is within the safe limits. Other records are less than 4 mm/s (the allowable limit) and about 90% are below 1 mm/s. Therefore, considering the structure types, the vibrations caused by blasting in these areas are within the safe limits. To increase safety, the permissible amount of charge weight for Eivashan dam was determined according to Table 4.

4 STUDyING THE EFFECTS OF BLASTING VIBRATIONS ON UNDERGROUND AND SURFACE CONCRETE STRUCTURES

Gotvanddamwaterwaysystemconsistsof 4tunnels, each with a diameter of 11 m, that channel water through the intake structure and hydro-mechanical equipment. Considering the water pressure, and to prevent cavitation, the intake tunnels are connected

to shock absorber storage tanks along their path by some shafts. In their path, the intake tunnels reach a turnout and increase to 8 tunnels, 7 m in diameter each. Then, after a short distance, they reach the vertical shafts and continue on a hori- zontal route, with high pressure, and finally, enter the power plant. Figure 2 shows the tunnel struc- tures of this dam [1]. Concrete structures, tunnel lining and other concrete works in the power plant, existing on the dam construction site, are among the structures susceptible to blasting vibrations. It is necessary, then, that special care be taken of such structures, according to the age of the concrete, so that the probable damage may be prevented. The objective of this section is to investigate the effects of the blasting vibrations on the lining of Gotvand dam under the pressure tunnels, and on the power plant phase 1 concrete structure.

4.1 Effects of Gotvand dam blasting on the underground structures

The objective of this section is to study the effects of the blasting of the intake and surge tanks on the lining of phase 1 intake tunnels. For this propose, the records of 7 blasts including 23 3-component records were recorded. There were 4 blasts in the intakes, 2 in the surge tanks, and 1 in the spillway. The locations of the seismographs with respect to the structures and the blasting blocks have been chosen so as to make it possible to record the data in a 120 degree radius of effect of the wave propagation. The maximum charge weight per delay for the blasts of the intake face is 32 kg, and for the tun- nels, benching is 120 to 300 kg. The seismographs are located at 56.2 to 145.5 m from the center of the blasting blocks. The maximum charge weight per delay for the blasts of the surge tank face is 75 kg and for the tunnels, benching is 122 kg. The distance of the seismographs from the blast area is 36.5 to 172.8 m. Figure 3 shows the PPV— frequency graph of the recorded data.

3 shows the PPV— frequency graph of the recorded data. Figure 3. PPV—frequency graph of the

Figure 3. PPV—frequency graph of the recorded data of Gotvand dam.

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To check the safety level of these vibra - tions, USBM and Oriard criteria were used.

Figure 4 shows the maximum PPV at different dis- tances, evaluated for 48-day old concrete according

to Oriard criteria. As seen, all the data points lie

within acceptable levels [Lucca, 2003]. Considering the results of the investigation of the effects of the blasting vibrations on under- ground structures, the third root of the scaled dis- tance was used to predict the PPV. The empirical relation for the prediction of the PPV with a cor- relation coefficient of 0.825 was achieved by per- forming a regression on the recorded data (Fig. 5), using the Ambrasey and Hendron relation.

3 Q
3
Q

(1)

where PPV is the peak particle velocity, mm/s.

D is the distance from the blasting point, m. Q is

the maximum charge weight per delay, kg. Considering the proposed relation for the pre- diction of the PPV and the USBM permissible vibration for 48-hour old concrete, the maximum charge weight for the blasts of the tunnels bench- ing was determined to be 180 kg.

of the tunnels bench- ing was determined to be 180 kg. Figure 4. PPV—distance graph based

Figure 4. PPV—distance graph based on Oriard per- missible vibration limits.

graph based on Oriard per- missible vibration limits. Figure 5. Results of regression analysis on the

Figure 5. Results of regression analysis on the vibra- tions data recorded near the lining of Gotvand water way tunnels.

4.2 Effects of Gotvand dam blasts on the structure of its phase 1 power plant

To study the effects of the vibrations caused by blasting carried out near Gotvand dam crater on the structure and equipment of the phase 1 power plant, the vibrations of 12 blasting, including 27 3-component data, were recorded. The total charge weight varied between 130 and 1050 kgs, and the largest and the least distances of the seismographs from the blasting point were 203 and 24.1 m, respectively. Considering the range of frequencies, the USBM code was used, which is in terms of PPV—frequency. As seen in Figure 6, all the vibra- tions lie in acceptable levels. Also the vibrations for 48-hour old concrete are at an acceptable level, according to the US Army code. The purpose of recording the data, apart from studying the blasting vibrations, is to determine the area coefficients. Therefore, regression analysis was carried out on the PPV and the scaled distance parameters with a safety factor of about 90%, using the recorded data. The correlation coeffi- cient has been 72%, which is at an acceptable level. Figure 7 shows the regression analysis of the data

level. Figure 7 shows the regression analysis of the data Figure 6. PPV—frequency graph of the

Figure 6. PPV—frequency graph of the data recorded near the structure of Gotvand dam phase 1 power plant.

10 0 10 1 1 1 0 1 00
10
0
10
1
1
1 0
1 00

Figure 7. Regression analysis on the vibrations recorded near phase 1 structure of Gotvand dam.

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recorded at the blasting operations of the power plant crater of Gotvand dam. Based on statistical findings, constant param- eters of site (K and b) in this area are 183.35 and 0.86, respectively. Therefore, the proper relation for the estimation of the PPV caused by blasting at the power plant crater of Gotvand dam, based on the relation proposed by Duvall and Fogelson, is as follows:

Q
Q

(2)

Rewriting relation 2 on the basis of the amount of the specific charge and using the US Army EM 2002-2-1110 code as a basis for the possible vibra- tion limit in concrete structures, we may estimate the charge weight per delay at different distances from the power plant structure [Woodson, 2011]. On this basis, the permissible charge weight per delay for concrete of age more than 48 hours and for different distances can be determined as follows:

Q = 0 9 2 D

.

2

5

CONCLUSIONS

(3)

In this investigation, the effects of the vibrations caused by blasting in dam construction projects and on the nearby structures were studied. This is important in Shian, Eivashan and Kangir dams because they are near rural areas. This is the rea- son the data recorded at these 3 dams were inves- tigated, and some relations for the prediction of the PPV at these areas were presented based on the relation proposed by the USBM. Based on DIN 4150-3:1999 and ISO 4866:1990, the permissible vibration levels for the rural houses were deter- mined and, based on those, the amount of the permissible charge weights for different distances from the blasting point were estimated. Gotvand dam blasts are important because they are close to the tunnel’s linings and the con- crete structure of the phase 1 power plant, and may damage them. This is why the vibrations in these two areas were studied, and some rela- tions were presented for the prediction of the PPV using the relations proposed by the USBM and Ambrasey and Hendron. The permissible charge weight amounted to 180 kg for the vibra- tion near the waterway tunnel’s lining. Also, the relation Q = 0.92D 2 was proposed for the deter- mination of the charge weight at different dis- tances from the concrete structure of phase 1 power plant.

REFERENCES

Azimi, y., Khoshrou, S.H., Osanloo, M., Sadeghee, A. 2010. Seismic wave monitoring and ground vibration analysis for bench blasting in Sungun open pit copper mine. Fragmentation by Blasting: 561–670. Taylor & Francis Group. Bhandari, S. 1977. Engineering Rock Blasting Opera- tions: 213–230. Rotterdam: Balkema. DIN 4150-3:1999. 1999. Structural vibration—Effects of vibration on structures. ISO 4866:1990. 1990. Mechanical vibration and shock, Vibration of buildings, Guidelines for the measure- ment of vibrations and evaluation of their effects on buildings. Lucca, F.J. 2003. Tight construction blasting: ground vibration basics, monitoring and prediction. Terra Dinamica LLC. Mahab Ghodss & Coyne et al, Bellier. 2000. Geotechnical Characteristics of Gotvand Dam Foundation.

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Pal Roy, P., Singh, R.B., Barman, B.K., Bhusan, V. 1992. Significant characteristics on the prediction and con- trol of ground vibration due to blasting in a Lead-Zinc Mine in India. Regional Symposium on Rock Slopes, India: 121–126. Sastry, V.R. & Singh, D.P. 1992. Ground vibrations pro- duced due to blasting: Prediction and control. Regional Symposium on Rock Slopes, India: 397–404. Singh, S.P. & Lamond, R.D. 1993. Prediction and meas- urement of blast vibration. International Journal of Surface Mining, Reclamation and Environment. Siskind, D.E., Stagg, M.S., Kopp, J.W., Dowding, C.H. 1980. Structure response and damage. USBM. White, T.J. & Farnfielf, R.A. 1993. Spatial relation between laws of vibration from blasting, Interna- tional Journal of Surface Mining, Reclamation and Environment. Woodson, D. 2011. Concrete portable handbook: 70–75. Elsevier.