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2.

4 Linear Material Properties

The material properties used by the element type are listed under "Material Properties" in the input table for each element type. A brief description of all
material properties not described with the elements is given in Table 2.4-1 at the end of this section. These properties (which may be functions of
temperature) are called linear properties because typical non-thermal solutions with these properties require only a single iteration. Properties such as stress-
strain data (described in Section 2.5.1) are called nonlinear properties because an analysis with these properties requires an iterative solution. Linear materials
that are required for an element, but which are not defined, use the default values as described below (except that EX and KXX must be input with a non-zero
value). Any additional materials are ignored. See Section 2.1 of the ASYS Theory Reference for material property details.
For orthotropic materials, the X,Y, and Z part of the label (e.g. EX, EY, and EZ, or KXX, KYY, and KZZ) refers to the direction (in the element coordinate
system) that that particular property acts in. The Y and Z directions of the properties default to the X direction (e.g., EY and EZ default to EX) to reduce the
amount of input required. In addition, PRYZ and PRXZ default to PRXY; NUYZ and NUXZ default to NUXY; GXY defaults to EX/(2(1+PRXY)) and GYZ
and GXZ default to GXY for isotropic materials (for orthotropic materials, actual values of GXY should be input; if not input, GXY defaults to
EX*EY/(EX+EY+2*PRXY*EX).
Important: If properties KXX, KYY, and/or KZZ vary with temperature, this denotes a nonlinear analysis problem.
Poisson's ratio may be input in either major (PRXY, PRYZ, PRXZ) or minor (NUXY, NUYZ, NUXZ) form, but not both for a particular material. The major
form is converted to the minor form during the solve operation [SOLVE]. For isotropic materials, the major and minor forms are equivalent. Solution output is
in terms of the minor form, regardless of how the data was input. If no Poisson's ratio properties are input, the minor form is used by default and 0.3 is used
for NUXY. If the major form is to be used, PRXY must be input. If a zero value is desired, input the label (NUXY or PRXY) with a zero (or blank) value.
Poisson's ratio should not be equal to 0.5 for an isotropic material.
Material dependent damping (DAMP) is an additional method of including structural damping for dynamic analyses and is useful when different parts of the
model have different damping values. If DAMP is included, the DAMP value is added to the BETAD value as appropriate (see Section 15.3 of the ASYS
Theory Reference). Special purpose elements, such as COMBIN7, LINK11, CONTAC12, MATRIX27, FLUID29, and VISCO88, generally do not require
damping. However, if material property DAMP is specified for these elements, the value will be used to create the damping matrix at solution time.
For axisymmetric analyses, the X, Y, and Z labels refer to the radial (R), axial (Z), and hoop ( ) directions, respectively. Orthotropic properties given in the
R,Z, system should be input as follows: EX=ER, EY=EZ, and EZ=E . An additional transformation is required for Poisson's ratios. If the given R,Z,
properties are column-normalized (see Section 2.1 of the ASYS Theory Reference), NUXY=NURZ, NUYZ = NUZ = (ET/EZ) *NU Z, and NUXZ=NUR .
If the given R,Z, properties are row-normalized, NUXY=(EZ/ER)*NURZ, NUYZ=(E /EZ)*NUZ =NU Z, and NUXZ=(E /ER)*NUR .
EMIS defaults to 1.0 if not defined; however, if defined with a 0.0 (or blank) value, EMIS is taken to be 0.0.
When you use the MP command to enter values for the thermal coefficient of expansion ( ), the program interprets those values as mean values, taken with
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respect to some common datum or definition temperature. For instance, suppose you measured thermal strains in a test laboratory, starting at 23 C, and took
readings at 200, 400, 600, 800, and 1000. When you plot this strain-temperature data, the slopes of the secants to the strain-temperature curve would be
the mean values of the coefficient of thermal expansion, defined with respect to the common temperature of 23

(T
o
). (The discussion which follows also uses
another term, the instantaneous value of the coefficient of thermal expansion. The slopes of the tangents to this curve represent the instantaneous values.)
The program calculates structural thermal strain as follows:
where:
T = element evaluation temperature
TREF = temperature at which zero thermal strains exist (TREF or MP,REFT commands)
(T) = mean coefficient of thermal expansion, with respect to a definition temperature (in this case, same as TREF)
If the material property data is in terms of instantaneous values of , then you need to convert those instantaneous values into mean values as follows:
where:
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T
n =
temperature at which a mean value is being evaluated
T
o =
definition temperature at which the mean values are defined (in this case, same as TREF)
If the values are based upon a definition temperature other than TREF, then you need to convert those values to TREF. This can be done using the
MPAMOD command. Also see Section 2.1.3 of the ASYS Theory Reference.
Specific heat effects may be input with either the C (specific heat) property or the ENTH (enthalpy) property. Enthalpy has units of heat/volume and is the
integral of C x DENS over temperature. If both C and ENTH are specified, ENTH will be used. ENTH should be used only in a transient thermal analysis. For
phase change problems, the user must input ENTH as a function of temperature using the MP family of commands [MP, MPTEMP, MPTGE, and
MPDATA].
Properties may be input in tabular form (value vs. temperature) or as a fourth order polynomial (value = f(temperature)). If input as a polynomial, however,
evaluation is done by PREP7 at discrete temperature points and converted to tabular form. The tabular properties are then available to the elements. Property
evaluation is done at the element matrix formulation level of the solution phase. Evaluation is done by linear interpolation of the tabular data at (or near) the
element center temperature (or, for the thermal elements, at the integration point temperatures). Film coefficients are evaluated as described with the SF
command. See Section 13.4 of the ASYS Theory Reference for additional details. Property evaluation at element temperatures beyond the supplied tabular
range assumes a constant property at the extreme range value. An exception occurs for the ENTH property, which continues along the last supplied slope.
Table 2.4-1 Material Property Labels
Label Units Description
EX
Force/Area
Elastic modulus, element x direction
EY Elastic modulus, element y direction
EZ Elastic modulus, element z direction
ALPX
Strain/Temp
Coefficient of thermal expansion, element x direction
ALPY Coefficient of thermal expansion, element y direction
ALPZ Coefficient of thermal expansion, element z direction
REFT Temp Reference temperature (as a property) [TREF]
PRXY
None
Major Poisson's ratio, x-y plane
PRYZ Major Poisson's ratio, y-z plane
PRX Z Major Poisson's ratio, x-z plane
NUXY Minor Poisson's ratio, x-y plane
NUYZ Minor Poisson's ratio, y-z plane
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NUXZ Minor Poisson's ratio, x-z plane
GXY
Force/Area
Shear modulus, x-y plane
GYZ Shear modulus, y-z plane
GXZ Shear modulus, x-z plane
DAMP Time K matrix multiplier for damping [BETAD].
MU None Coefficient of friction (or, for FLUID29 and FLUID30 elements, boundary admittance)
DENS Mass/Vol Mass density
C Heat/Mass*Temp Specific heat
ENTH Heat/Vol Enthalpy (e DENS*C d(Temp))
KXX Heat*Length / (Time*Area*Temp) Thermal conductivity, element x direction
KYY Thermal conductivity, element y direction
KZZ Thermal conductivity, element z direction
HF Heat / (Time*Area*Temp) Convection (or film) coefficient
EMIS None Emissivity
QRATE Heat/Time Heat generation rate (MASS71 element only).
VISC
Force*Time / Length
2
Viscosity
SONC Length/Time Sonic velocity (FLUID29 and FLUID30 elements only)
RSVX Resistance*Area / Length Electrical resistivity, element x direction
RSVY Electrical resistivity, element y direction
RSVZ Electrical resistivity, element z direction
PERX
Charge
2
/ (Force*Length)
Electric permittivity, element x direction
PERY Electric permittivity, element y direction
PERZ Electric permittivity, element z direction
MURX
None
Magnetic relative permeability, element x direction
MURY Magnetic relative permeability, element y direction
MURZ Magnetic relative permeability, element z direction
MGXX Charge / (Length*Time) Magnetic coercive force, element x direction
MGYY Magnetic coercive force, element y direction
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MGZZ Magnetic coercive force, element z direction
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