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PART 1 : ANCIENT HISTORY

1) VEDIC AGE
2) Evoluation of BUDDHISM & JAINSIM
BUDDHIST COUNCIL:
NO VENUE CHAIRMAN PATRON KING RESULT
1 RAJGIR MAHAKASSAPA AJATASHATRU Compilation of 2 holy book:
SUTRA PITAK, VINAY PITAK
2 VAISHALI SABAKAMI KALASHOKA Differences:
Theravadi/Sthirvadi : OLD
Mahasanghika : NEW
3 PATALIPUTRA TISSA ASHOKA 3
RD
BOOK: ABHIDHAMMA PITAK
4 KASHMIR VASHUMITRA KANISHKA HINYANA / MAHAYANA

3) MAGADH EMPIRE
HARYANAKA DYNASTY {BIMBISARA was the founder of haryanaka dynasty}
{Capt: RAJGIR}
AJATASHATRU was the son of Bimbisara & Founded new capital at PATALIGRAMA.
{Patronised 1
st
buddhist council}
SHISHUNAGAS DYNASTY : founded by SHISHUNAGA { Capt: VAISHALI}
KALASHOK was the son of Shishunaga.
{ Patronised 2
nd
Buddhist council.}
NANDAS DYNASTY : founded by MAHAPADMANANDA {Capt: PATALIPUTRA}
THE MAURYAS : founded by CHANDRAGUPTA MAURYA.
BINDUSARA was the son of Chandragupta.
Known as AMITRAGHATTA (killer of enemy).
Appointed his eldest son SUSIMA as his Viceroy at Taxilla & ASHOKA as Ujjain.
ASHOKA: Subhadrangi or Janapada Kalyani was ASHOKAs mother
: has 3 wife- Asandhimatta, Karuvaki, Padamavati
: after death of ASHOKA whole empire divided into EAST & WEST.
: EAST part govrerned by ASHOKAs grandson DASHARATH.
: WEST part governed by ASHOKAs son KUNALA.
BRIHADRATHA was last mauryan king & eventually was killed by his own commander-in-chief
PUSHYAMITRA SUNGA.
BOOK AUTHOR BOOK AUTHOR
ARTHASHASTRA KAUTILYA INDICA MEGASTHENESIS
MUDRARAKSHASA VISHAKHADATTA KATHASARITA SAGAR SOMADEVA
BRIHADKATHA KSHEMENDRA RAJTARANGANI KALHANA

4) PRE-GUPTA PERIOD
SHUNGA DYNASTY : founded by PUSHYAMITRA SUNGA.
AGNIMITRA was the son of Pushyamitra sunga.
Hero of KALIDASHs drama- MALVIKAGNA MITRA.
Last sunga king was DEVBHUTI. & killaed by VASUDEV KANVA.
KANVAS DYNASTY : founded by VASUDEV KANVA.
KANVAS was replaced by SATAVAHANAS.
FOREIGN DYNASTY
A) The Indo-Greeks or Bactrain Greeks:
MENANDER : Ruled from his capt SAKALA (SIALKOT ) in pakistan.
MILINDPANHO book : question of MENANDER & answer of NAGASENA.
These are the 1
st
ruler whose coin carried the portrait of king & their name.
They were 1
ST
RULER to issue GOLD COINS.
GANDHARA SCHOOL OF ART was developed under Indo-greeks.

B) THE SAKAS : enterd India through BALAN PASS.
They are divide in 5 branch.
RUDRADAMAN-1 was most imp king ruled form Ujjain.
Saka fought with VIKRAMADITYA & VIKRAM SOMVAT is reckoned.
Last Saka ruler RUDRASIMHA-III was defeated by CHANDRAGUPTA-II.
C) THE PANTHIANS : also known as PAHALAVAS.
Iranian people, ruled from PESHAWAR.
VONONES, who adopted the title GREAT KING OF KINGS.
GONDOPHERNES, great parthian king.

D) THE KUSHANAS : most powerful to all forigen invendor.
1
st
king of Yuechis was KADPHISES-I.
Issued many COINS with INDIAN GOD & GODESS.
KADPHISES-II : issued COPPER & GOLD coins.
Devotee of SHIVA as his COIN showed SHIVA.
After Kadphises-II, KANISHKA came in king form.
KANISHKA founded SAKA ERA.
Follower of MAHAYANA BUDDHISM
4
TH
Buddhist council held.
Constructed PEHSAWAR STUPA.
SUSHRUTA SAMHITA book on surgery written by SUSHRUTA at Kaniska time.
5) ANCIENT SOUTH INDIA
SANGAM DYNASTIES :
Tamil is the oldest among the spoken & Literary Language of South India.
Literary assemblies were called SANGAM, est by PANDYAN kings.
CHOLAS : they occupied the DELTA of KAVERI river & the adjoining region.
PANDYAS : MADURAI was their capt, situated on the bank of river VAGAI.
KORKAI was their seaport.
CHERAS : Also known as KERLAPUTRAS. They were situated to the west & north of Pandyas kingdom.
SENGUTTUVAN also known as RED CHERAS was greatest chera king. He crossed GANGA
and reached NORTH.
DYNASTY EMBLEM
Chola Tiger
Pandya Fish
Chera Bow

SATVAHANAS DYNASTY : { SIMUKA was the founder of this dynasty }
In deccan & central India, covering part of Andhra & MaharastramMAUYRA were succeded
by SATVAHANA.
GAUTAMIPUTRA SATKARNI was the IMP king & also called EKABRAHAMAN.
He destroyed SAKAS, YAVANS & PAHLAVAS.
His achivements are inscripted in the NASIK INCRIPTION by his mother GAUTAMI
BALASRI.
He was the 1
st
king bearing MATRONYM.
Satvahanas issued max no of LEAD COINS.
CHALUKYA OF BADAMI :
1
st
chalukya king was PULKESHIN-I
Most imp king was PULKESHIN-II.
AINOLE was callesd CULTURAL CAPITAL of chalukyas.
PALLAVAS OF KANCHIPURAM : { Founded by SIMHAVISHNU }
The Pallavas were the contemporaries of chalukyas.
Pallav patronised sanskrit although they ruled in extreme south.

6) THE GUPTA EMPIRE
Founded by SRIGUPTA.
Sriguptas son GHATTOTKACHA succede him.
CHANDRAGUPTA-I :
Succed his father Ghattotkacha & regared as TRUE FOUNDER OF GUPTA EMPIRE.
He married to Lichchhavi princes Kumaradevi.
SAMUDRAGUPTA, proudly called himself LICHCHHAVI DAUHITRA (In ALLAHABAD INSCRIPTION ), ie son
of daughter of Lichchhavi.
He was son of Chandragupta-I.
He was the 1
st
Gupta king adopt the title MAHARAJADHIRAJ.
He has been also called INDIAN NEPOLEAN & KAVIRAJ, ie king of poets.
He issued GOLD COIN.
CHANDRAGUPTA-II :
Under his region, the gupta empire reached to its Highest Glory.
DATTADEVI was his mother.
After victory over sakas, he addopted the title of VIKRAMDITYA.
During his region FA-HIEN visited india.
KALIDAS, VARAHAMIHIRA, DHANVANTARI,AMARASIMHA resided in his court.
KUMARAGUPTA-I : { succeded his father CHANDRAGUPTA-II }
Adopted the title of MAHENDRADITYA.
Introduce the worship of god KARTIKEY.
Founded the Monastry of NALANDA.
SKANDAGUPTA : { succede his father KUMARAGUPTA-I }
Repaired the dam of SUDARSANA LAKE.
BHITARI STONE INSCRIPTION in GHAZIPUR district (UP ) describes his power.
Skandagupta was succeded by his brother PURUGUPTA after his death.
Note: BHANUGUPTA is known for EARN INSCRIPTION (Sagar. MP ).
EARN INSCRIPTION is the 1
st
ever inscription evidance of SATIPRATHA.
VISHNUGUPTA was the last gupta king.
PART 2 : MEDIEVAL HISTORY
ARRIVAL OF MUSHLIM / INVASION
1) MAHMUD GAZANI :
He made 17 raids into India & were aimed at PLUNDERING THE RICH TEMPLES of city.
In 1025, he completely destroyed SOMNATH TEMPLE {Gujarat }.
ALBERUNI visited at his time & wrote KITAB-UL-HIND or TAHQIQ-i-HIND.
FIRDAUSI was poet in his court & wrote SHAHANAMA.
2) MOHAMMAD GORI :
Initial raid in Gujarat & defeated by solanky.
He entered in India through GOMAL PASS.
In 1191, he defeated by PRITHVIRAJ CHAUHAN in 1
ST
BATTEL OF TARAIN.
In 1192, he defeated prithviraj chauhan in 2
nd
BATTLE OF TARAIN.
In 1194, he defeated JAICHAND ruler of kannauj in BATTLE OF CHANDAWAR.
He deputed QUTBUDDIN AIBAK as incharge of his indian possession.
Image of goddess LUXMI has been found on coin of gori.
DELHI SULTANAT
A) SLAVE DYNASTY :
QUTBUDDIN AIBAK :
Ruled from LAHORE.
Started IQTA SYSTEM.
He died while playing CHAUGAN (polo) in Lahore.
Started construction of QUTUB MINAR on the name of 1
st
sufi sant of delhi Qutbuddin
Bakhityar kaki, disciple of Moinuddin Chisti Ajmer & completed by ILTUTMISH.
ILTUTMISH :
1
ST
sultan of delhi, ruled from delhi in place of Lahore.
Started COIN AGE. Silver coin called TANKA & Copper coins JITTAL.
He organised the group of nobles called CHAHALGANI, the fourty turkish Noble.
RAZIA :
Daughter of iltutmish, was nominated by him against the will of chahalgani.
Revolt occures & was supressed by her with help of YAKUT.
Married to ALTUNIA & proceded with him to delhi to capture it by force.
They were murderd by robbers in 1240.
GAYASUDDIN BALBAN :
Was formaly the member of chahalgani.
Broke the power of chahalgani & restorted the prestige of crown.
He introduce the persian systen & court manner SIJDAH.
He started Parsi festival NAVROZ.
He showed special attention to the poet AMIR KHUSRAU.
Last sultan of slave dynasty KAYUMAR was put to death by JALALDDIN KHALJI.

B) KHALJI DYNASTY : { founded by JALALUDDIN KHALJI }
He was an Iqtadar of an iqta & served Balban for many years.
ALAUDDIN KHALJI :
Aftr killing his uncle Jalaluddin he became king.
In deccan, Alauddins army led by his slave MALIK KAFUR. Defeated Yadavas of Devgiri,
Kakatiyas of Warangal, Hoyasalas of Dwarasamudra & Pandyas of Madurai.
SOMNATH TEMPLE AGAIN demolised by ALAUDDIN KHALJI.
Hee was the only sultan who went into the cause of REBELLION. Causes were
a) Insufficient intelegence department.
b) Use of liquor.
c) Excess of wealth in the possession of some natable people.
He issued ordinance
a) Discontinued iqta system.
b) Ban on liquor.
c) Reorganisation of SPY SYSTEM ( hindu were required to pay JZIYA ).
He was the 1
st
sultan of Delhi to lay the foundation of PERMANENT STANDING ARMY & to be
PAID in CASH.
Market reform was price control policy.
He declared himself as SIKANDAR-i-SANI, the 2
nd
ALEXANDER.
AMIR KHUSRO & AMIR HASAN resided at his court.
NOTE : Amir Khusro also known as Tuti-i-Hind or Parrot of India.
PADMAVAT written by MALIK MUHAMMAD JAYASI.
C) TUGHLAQ DYNASTY :
GAYASUDDIN TUGHLAQ:
Served as Alauddins muqti in Dipalpur (punjab) for several years.
At that time sufi sant NIJAMUDDIN AULIYA.
He has credit to improve communication system, ie Postal System.
He laid the foundation of big palace fort called TUGHLAQABAD.
He died in a pavilion which was erected by JAUNA KHAN for his reception, fell upon him.
MUHAMMAD BIN TUGHLAQ :
JAUNA KHAN become moh. Bin tughlaq.
He was most learned sultan of delhi, but he lacked practical judgment.
Policies : (a) Transfer the capt Delhi to DAULATABAD. (b) Introduce TOKEN currency.
(c) estb : Diwan-i-kohi :Department of Agriculture, more land under cultivation
with state support, ie more source of revenue.
He faced max no of revolt 1336: Vijay Nagar Revolt Cant stop
1347: Bahmani Kingdom Revolt.
FIROJSHAH TUGHLAQ :
Cousin of Moh. Bin Tughlaq.
Reforms town : jaunpur, hisar, Fatehabad in harayana.
Estb: Department of Charity DIWAN-i-KHAIRAT
Department of Slave Diwan-i-BANDAGAN
Made JIZYA as separate tax & imposed on Brahman for the 1
st
time in history in sultanate.
Brought TWO PILLER of ASHOKA
MEERUT PILLE 1
st
effort to decode the script
TOPARA PILLER of ASHOKAN PILLER
NASIRUDDIN TUGHLAQ :
Last king of tughlaq dynasty.
Mangol invasion occurred & TAIMUR appointed his army chief KHIZR KHAN as govr of
punjab.
Nasiruddin Tughlaq, last ruler of dynasty died and Nobles choose one of them, named
DAULAT KAHN as sultan.
D) SAYYID DYNASTY :
KHIZR KHAN : He defeated Daulat Khan & become ruler of Delhi.
E) LODHI DYNASTY :
BAHLOL LODHI :
An afgan, Bahlol lodhi was founder of Lodhi Dynasty.
His main achivement was the restoration of a part of credit & prestige of Delhi kingdom
which has fallen considerably low under the later Tughlaqs & the Sayyaids.
His 2
nd
achivement wes the conquest & annexation of kingdom of jaunpur.
Started coins called Bahloli.
SIKANDAR LODHI :
Son of bahlol lodhi.
Founded the city of AGRA & transferred capt from DELHI to AGRA.
Built his fathers tomb at Delhi.
IBRAHIM LODHI :
Eldest son of Sikandar Lodhi.
He was defeated by RANA SANGA of MEWAR.
DAULAT KHAN LODHI, govr of Punjab invited BABUR (King of Kabul) to invade India &
overthrew IBRAHIM.
Ibrahim Lodhi was defeated & Killed by BABUR in 1
st
BATTLE OF PANIPAT.
MUGAL EMPIRE :
1) BABUR : 1526-1530
founder of MUGAL DYNASTY.
He was the 1
st
one to entitled himself as BADSHAH.
He introduce GUNPOWDER, GARDENS, flowing water FOUNTAIN.
YEAR BATTLE BETWEEN WINNER
1526 1
st
Battle of PANIPAT BABUR / IBRAHIM LODHI BABUR
1527 Battle of KHANWA BABUR / RANA SANGA BABUR
1528 Battle of CHANDERI BABUR / MEDINI RAI BABUR
1529 Battle of GHAGHRA BABUR / joint forces of AFGHAN & Sultan of BENGAL BABUR

The Battle of GHAGHRA was the 1
st
Battle fought on WATER & LAND.
He wrote BABURNAMA in Turkish, Translated into Persian by Abdul Rahim Khan Khana.

2) HUMAYUN : 1530-1540
Son of BABUR.
1539 Battle of CHAUSA HUMAYUN / SHERSHAH HUMAYUN DEFEATED
1540 Battle of KANNAUJ HUMAYUN / SHERSHAH HUMAYUN DEFEATED & leave India
Humayun got sheltor in Persia & Regained his empire with help of Persian King SHAH
TAHMASP.
He died after falling from STAIRS of his Library SHER MANDAL (purana qila).
His sister GULBADAN BEGUM wrote his biography HUMAYUNAMA.
His wife HAMIDA BANU BEGUM built his tomb at Delhi known as HUMAYUN TOMB.
3) AKBAR : 1556-1605
Son of AKBAR.
He was 14 yr old when he was crowned.
b/w 1556-1560, Akbar ruled under the regency of BAIRAM KHAN.
On MAHAM ANGAs advice, who was the foster mother, Akbak took control of empire from
Bairam Khan.
He married to JODHA BAI & his son SALIM, who become mugal emperor JAHANGIR.
In 1564, he capture Fort of GARH KATANGA : GONDWANA, at that time rani DURGAWATI
was queen of Gondwana.
In 1567, he capture CHITTOR (mewar).
In 1572, he faced a rebellion in Gujarat, which was crushed by him.
He built BULAND DARWAZA in Fatehpur Sikri, in victory of Gujarat.
1n 1576,he sent RAJA MANSINGH of amer to confront RANA PRATAP SINGH of mewar &
there is BATTLE OF HALDIGHATI, Rana Pratap Sing defeated.
In 1593, Akbar capture Northern Ahmednagar in BATTLE b/w AKBAR & CHAND BIWI; (Chand
Biwi defeated ).
AKBARS ADMINISTRATION :
He divided his entire empire into 12 SUBAS in 1580.
He built an IBADAT KHANA (house of worship) at Fatehpur Sikri in 1575 to discuss religious
matter of faith.
He abolished piligrrimage Tax on Hindu in 1563.
He abolished JIZYA in 1579.
In his court there were nine versatile Personalities named as NAVRATNA (nine gems).
RALPH FITCH was the 1
st
English man to visit akbars court in 1585.
ABUL FAZL wrote AKBARNAMA, the appendix of which was called Aina-i-Akbari. This
section deals with the law and revnue system during the region of Akbak.
He estb Tauhid-i-Allahi or Din-i-Allahi, which was divine MONOTHEISM.
In 1571, shifted capt from Agra to Fatehpur Sikri.
In 1585, shifted capt to Lahore.
Banned SATI & promote formal education.



4) JAHANGIR : 1605-1627
Son of akbar.
Started CHIAN OF JUSTICE at agra for dispensation of justice.
In 1608, JOHN HAWKINS came to agra who was the Caption of EAST INDIA COMPANY.
KHUSRAU (son of Jahangir), who received Patronage of GURU ARJUN DEV, revolt against
jahangir.
The 5
th
Sikh GURU ARJUN DEV was later sentenced to death for his blessing to rebel prince.
Guru Arjun Dev compiled AADIGRANTHA and constructed HARIMANDIR SAHEB & the
site donated by Akbar.
NURJAHAN was the wife of Jahangir. Jahingir died at Kashmir & burried at Lahore.
5) SHAHJAHAN : 1627-1658
Son of Jahangir & married to MUMTAJMAHAL.
He defeated Portuguese & capture Ahmednagar.
After the sickness, there is war of succession starts b/w his sons.
BATTLE of DHARMAL: Aurangzeb defeated Daras army.
BATTLE of SAMUGARH : again Aurangzeb defeated Dara singh & Executed him.
Shahjahan built MOTI MASJID (agra), RED FORT (delhi), JAMA MASJID (delhi) and
TAJ MAHAL (agra).
Shahjahan passed 8 yr of his life in captivity of Aurangzeb.
6) AURANGZEB : 1658-1707
Son of Shahjahan.
He started strict implementation of ISMALIC LAW.
Reimpose JiZYA & stopped festival NAUROJ.
He ordered the execution of GURU TEG BAHADUR, the 9
th
guru of sikh for not accepting
Islam.
He forbade inscription of Kalma on Coins, also forbade music in his court.
Aurangzeb destroyed several temple of hindus. Eg:
Keshav Rai Temple built by Raja Bir singh in Mathura.
Vishwanath temple built by Raja Man singh in Benaras.
Aurangzeb also called ZINDA PIR( living saint).
There was 20 Subas.
SUR DYNASTY :
SHERSHAH SURI : 1540-1545
Jagirdar of sasaram.
Founded sur dynasty after defeating Humayun in BATTLE of BILIGRAM & CHAUSA.
Started silver coin called RUPAYA.
Constrected road to promote Trade & Langest Road from SONARGAO in Bengal to
PESHWAR in Pakistan.
Constructed Purana Qila in Delhi.
Constructed his OWN TOMB at Sasaram in Bihar.