Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 22

Alkenes

1. General formulae : C
n
H
2n
[ no alkene corresponding to n = 1 as CH
2
is not exist]
2. Alkenes is unsaturated hdrocar!on !ecause the presence of the
dou!le !ond.
". #ame of each mem!ers end $ith %ene&.

#o. of
car!on atom
#ame
'olecular
formulae
'olar mass (
g mol
)1
*hsical
state at room
condition
1 #one
2 +thene C
2
H
,
2- Gas
" *ropene C
"
H
.
,2 Gas
, /utene C
,
H
-
0. Gas
ethenes
Alkenes containing at least one carbon-carbon
double bond
0 *entene C
0
H
11
21 3i4uid
. 3i4uid
2 3i4uid
- 3i4uid
5 3i4uid
11 3i4uid
6H+# 7H+ #8'/+9 :; CA9/:# <# H=>9:CA9/:#
<#C9+A?+?(G9+A7+9(H<GH+9@ 7H+ ?<A+ :; HC
':3+C83+ <? /<GG+9.
7H8?@ 7H+ <#7+9':3+C83A9 ;:9C+?(Ban der 6aals
;:9C+? <? ?79:#G+9.
7H8?@ ':9+ +#+9G= <? #++>+> 7: :B+9C:'+ 7H+
;:9C+?.
,. ?tructure formula for fe$ mem!ers of alkenes
Name Number
of isomer
Structure formula and name
+thene
C
2
H
,
1
H H
C C
C D C
C C
H H
*ropene
C
"
H
.
1
H H
C C
C D C E C E H
C C C
H H H
/utene@
C
,
H
-
"
H H H
C C C
C D C E C E C E H
C C C C
H H H H
!ut )1) ene
H H
C C
H E C E C D C E C E H
C C C C
H H H H
H H
C C
C DDD C EEE C E H
C C C
H HECEH H
C
H
!ut )2) ene
2)methl propene
*entene@
C
0
H
11
0
H H H
C C C
C DDD C EEE C E C E H
C C C C
H HECEH H H
C
H
2)methl!ut )1) ene
H H H
C C C
H E C E C E C D C E C E H
C C C C C
H H H H H
H H H H
C C C C
C D C E C E C E C E H
C C C C C
H H H H H
pent )1) ene
pent )2) ene
H H H H
C C C C
C D C EEE C EEE C E H
C C C
H HECEH H
C
H
")methl !ut )1) ene
Hexene@
C
.
H
12
12
H H H
C C C
HE C EEE C DDD C EC E H
C C C
H HECEH H
C
H
2)methl !ut )2) ene
H H H H H
C C C C C
C D C E C E C E C E C E H
C C C C C C
H H H H H H
H H H H
C C C C
H E C E C D C E C E C E C E H
C C C C C C
H H H H H H
H H H H
C C C C
H E C E C E C D C E C E C E H
C C C C C C
H H H H H H
H H H H
C C C C
C DDD C EEE C E C E C E H
C C C C C
H HECEH H H H
C
H
H H H H
C C C C
C D C EEE C EEE C E C E H
C C C C C
H H HECEH H H
C
H
H H H H
C C C C
C D C E C EEE C EEE C E H
C C C C C
H H H HECEH H
C
H
H H H H
C C C C
H E C EEE C DDD C E C E C E H
C C C C
H HECEH H H
C
H
H H H
C C C
H E C E C DDD C EEE C E C E H
C C C C C
H H HECEH H H
C
H
H H H
C C C
HEC E C D C EEE C EEE C E H
C C C C C
H H H HECEH H
C
H
H H H H H
C C C C C
C DDD C EEE C E C E C E H
C C C C C
H HECEH H H H
C
H

H
C
H HECEH H
C C C
C DDD C EEE C EEE C E H
C C C C
H HECEH H H
C
H

H
C
H HECEH H
C C C
HE C EEE C DDD C EEE C E H
C C C
H HECEH H
C
H

H
C
H HECEH H
C C C
C DDD C EEE C EEE C E H
C C C C
H H HECEH H
C
H
Can ou named the moleculesF
Steps to name branched alkenes G
i. determined and named the long chains that has dou!le
coHalent !ond
ii. num!ered the car!on atom from the nearest end to dou!le
coHalent !ond
iii. determined and named the !ranch chain
CH
3
: methyl
C
2
H
5
or CH
2
CH
3
: ethyl
C
3
H

or CH
2
CH
2
CH
3
: prophyl
iii. giHe num!er to !ranched chain
iH. 7he num!er for car!on atom $hich !ranched emerged
from@ must put !efore(infront the alkl
H. 7he $ord % di@ tri& is used if the !ranched chains is more
than one
!hysical !roperties
*hsical properties of alkenes Isimilar to alkanesJ
i. cannot conduct electrit
ii. less dense than $ater
iii. o!es % like dissolHe like&G
dissolHe in organic solHents
insolu!le in $ater
iH. lo$ melting and !oiling points@ graduall stead increase
as the num!er of car!on in alkene increases
Chemical !roperties
"eacti#ity of alkenes
1. Alkenes is more reactiHe !ecause the presence of double
co#alent bond$ %unsaturated hydrocarbon&
2. Alkenes decolouriKed purple solution of acidified potassium
manganate%'((&
". Alkenes decolouriKed reddish !ro$n solution of bromin )ater
,. #eutral.
Combustion of alkenes
.
Addition "eaction %5*2&
+he carbon-carbon double bond is con#erted into
t)o single bonds

H H H H

C , C L M = M C C =

H H H H

Alkenes 'olecule Alkanes
I8nsaturatedJ I?aturatedJ
-* Addition of hydrogen
'ixture of alkenes gas(Hapour and hdrogen gas@ is passed
through platinum or nickel at -./
o
C. 7he process is kno$n as
cataltic Hdrogenation.
Catalst: platinum or nickel
H H H H
#i(*t
C = C L H
2
H C C H
1-1
o
C
H H H H
+thene Hdrogen +thane
Chemical e4uation: C
2
H
,
L H
2
C
2
H
.
+xample use of this process:

'anufacture of margarine is through hdrogenation
2* Addition of halogens
7he process is kno$n as halogenation
H H H H

C , C L /r /r /r C C /r

H H H H
+thenes /romine 1@2)di!romoethanes
IunsaturatedJ IsaturatedJ
Chemical e4uation: C
2
H
,
L /r
2
C
2
H
,
/r
2

[H6)notes !ook]
N1: 6rite a chemical e4uation reaction !et$een !ut)1)ene $ith
!romine $ater. ?ho$ the structural formula as $ell.
[H6)exercises !ook]
N2: Halogenation process is !est used to differentiate !et$een
alkanes and alkenes. 01plain ho) it can !e doneF
[notes: refer to ?A/]
3* Addition of hydrogen halides
i. Alkenes reacts $ith hdrogen halide in room condition.
Hdrogen halide molecules is added to dou!le !ond in alkenes@
to produce halogenoalkane.
ii. 6hen hdrogen chloride gas is passed through into ethenes@
monochloroethanes is produced.
H H H H

C = C L HECl H C C Cl

H H H H
+thenes Hdrogen chloride 'onochloroethanes
I8nsaturatedJ I?aturatedJ

Chemical e4uation: C
2
H
,
L HCl O C
2
H
0
Cl
2* Addition of acidified potassium manganate%'((&
1. 6hen alkenes is mixed $ith acidified potassium manganateIB<<J@
its purple colour is decolourised.
2. 7his is !ecause addition process occurred@ a group of
hydro1yl %--3H& is added to the molecules of alkenes to form a
molecule of 4diol Itpe of alcoholJ $hich is saturated and
colourless.


C = C L H
2
: C C

:H :H
Alkenes

alkanes)diol compound
I8nsaturatedJ I?aturatedJ
[:]
[from acidified 56n3
2
]
+xampleG
H H H H

C , C L H
2
: L [:] H C C H

H H :H :H
+thene +thane)1@2)diol
I8nsaturatedJ I?aturatedJ

N: 8se propene as example.
H H H H H
C
HPC PC , C L H
2
: L [:] H CQC C H
C C
H H H H :H :H
*ropene@ C
"
H
.
*ropane)1@2)diol
C
"
H
.
L H
2
: L [:] C
"
H
-
:
2

5* Steam
%Hydration process&
1. Alkenes react $ith steam to produce e4uiHalent alcohol
at the temperature of "11
o
C and in the pressure of .1
atmosphere.
2. 9eactions catalst ! concentrated phosphoric acid @ H
3
!3
2
.
". 7his method is one of the industrial preparation to produce
alcohol.
H H H H

C = C L HE:H H C C H

H H H :H
+thene ?team +thanol


C
2
H
,
L H
2
: O C
2
H
0
:H R C
2
H
.
:
N: 8se !ut)1)ene
C
,
H
-
L H
2
:

C
,
H
5
:H ( C
,
H
11
:
3//
o
C$ 7/ atm
H
3
!3
2
3//
o
C$ 7/ atm
H
3
!3
2
!olymeri8ation
0."
*olmer : 3arge molecules made up from man identical
repeating su!)units called monomers@ $hich Soined
together ! coHalent !ond.
!olymeri8ation is a process of repeated linking
)hen a monomers are 9oined into chains
"eaction to form a polymer from alkene monomers is called an
addition polymerisation
Homologous Series
Characteristic of Homologous Series
Tamal Ariffin /in ?aaim
?'T>/3
http:((kemha$k.$e!s.com