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Chapter 1 : Matter in our surroundings

Melting Point
- Indication of the strength of the force of attraction between its particles
- As solid is heated, kinetic energy of particles increases and they start vibrating with greater
Latent Heat
- Amount of heat energy that is reqd to change 1 kg of a solid into liquid at atmospheric pressure
at its melting point Latent Heat of Fusion
SI unit of temp = Kelvin
- Melting Point of Ice 273.16 K
A change of state directly from solid to gas without changing into liquid state is called sublimation
Applying pressure and reducing temperature can liquefy gases
- Solid CO2 gets converted directly to gasesous state if pressure is reduced without coming into
liquid state
o Hence it is known as dry ice
- Atm Pressure of air in atmosphere
o 1 atm = 1.01 x 10^5 Pa
- In case of liquids, a small fraction of particles at the surface, having higher kinetic energy, is able
to break away from the forces of attraction of other particles and gets converted into vapour.
Vapourization below boiling point Evaporation
- Factors
o Surface area
o Increase in temp
o Decrease in humidity amount of water vapour rpesent in the air
Air around us cant hold more than a definite amount
o Increase with wind speed
- Evaporation causes cooling
o Particles of liquid absorb energy from surrounding to regain the energy lost during
o Evaporation through absorbing heat required for latent head from surroundings
o Wear cotton clothes during summer
Cotton absorbs sweat and exposes it to atmosphere for evaporation
- Water droplets on the outside surface of a glass containing ice-cold water
o Vapour present in the air comes in contact of the glass, loses energy and gets converted
to liquid state
o Palm feels cold when we drop acetone
- 5 states of matter S, L, G, Plasma, Bose-Einstein Condensate
o Plasma
Super energetic and super excited particles
Particles in the form of ionized gases
Neon sign bulb and fluorescent bulb (helium gas)
Gas gets ionized when electrical energy goes through it
Charging up creates a glow of special colour depending upon gas
Sun and stars glow because of plasma
o Bose-Einstein Condensate
Satyandra Nath bose
2001, Corenell, Ketterle, Wiemann received Nobel Prize in Physics for achieving
Bose-Einstein condensation
BEC cooling a gas of extremely low density to super low temperature

Chapter 14 : Natural Resources

Outer crust of the earth is called the lithosphere
Life-supporting zone of the earth where atmosphere, hydrosphere and lithosphere found is biosphere
- Living beings biotic components
- Air, water, soil abiotic component
14.1 The Breath of Life : Air
Gases like Nitrogen, Oxygen, Co2 and water vapour composition of air
Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic cells need oxygen to break down glucose molecules and get energy for their
activities - Results in production of Co2
Also combustion
Despite the above two, percentage of Co2 is a mere fraction because CO2 is fixed in two ways
- Green plants convert Co2 into glucose in the prescence of sunlight
- Many marine animals use carbonates dissolved in sea water to make their shells
14.1.1 Role of atmosphere in Climate Control
Air bad conductor of heat so atmosphere moderates earths temperature
- Moons surface termperature without atmosphere ranges from -190 C to 110C
14.1.2 The Movement of Air : Winds
Atmosphere is heated from belw by the radiation that is reflected back by land or water bodies. On
being heated, convection currents are set up in the air. Hotter hair rising up. Since land gets heated
faster than water, the air over land would also be heated faster than the air over water bodies. So in
coastal areas, as air over land rises, a region of low pressure is created and air over the sea moves into
this area of low pressure. The movement of air from one region to other creates winds.
At night, water cools down slower than the land. Hence air over land is cooler than water so air flows
from land to sea as low pressure over water.
A high pressure area is essentially a location where there is high force over a certain area. The pressure
essentially is pushing all matter away from it, much the same way as if you were to drop a book, there
would be a rush of air out from under it as it fell.
All movements of air caused uneven heating of atmosphere in different regions as well as mountain
ranges and rotation of the earth
14.1.3 Rain
When water bodies are heated during the day, a large amount of water evaporates and goes into the
air. Some amount of water vapour also get into the atmosphere because of various biological activities.
This air also gets heated. The hot air rises up carrying the water vapour with it. As the air rises, it
expands and cools. This cooling causes the water vapour in the air to condense in the form of tiny
droplets. This condensation of water is facilitated if some particles could act as the nucleus for these
drops to form around. Normally dust and other suspended particles in the air perform this function.
Once the water droplets are formed, they grow bigger by the condensation of these water droplets.
When the drops have grown big and heavy, they fall down in the form of rain. Sometimes, when the
temperature of air is low enough, ppt may occur in the form of snow, sleet or hail.

14.1.4 Air Pollution
When fuels are burnt, nitrogen and sulphur too are burnt and this produces different oxides of nitrogen
and sulphur - they also dissolve in rain to give rise to acid rain.
- Acid Rain are caused by emissions of Sulphur Dioxide and Nitrogen which react with water
molecules in the atmosphere to produce acids
Smog suspended particles in cold air (when water also condenses out of air)
Lichen is sensitive to levels of Sulphur Dioxide
14.2 Water : A wonder liquid
14.2.1 Water pollution
Affects level of dissolved oxygen which adversely affect the aquatic organisms
Change in temperature
14.3 Mineral Riches in the soil
Quality of soil decided by the amount of humus (it causes soil to become more porous and allows water
and air to penetrate deep underground) and also size of soil particles
Earthworms help in making rich humus
14.4 Biogeochemical Cycles
14.4.1 The water cycle
Some of the rain seeps into the soil and becomes part of underground reservoir of fresh water
Underground water finds its way to the surface through springs

14.4.2 The nitrogen cycles
Nitrogen gas makes up 78% of our atmosphere
Nitrogen found in DNA/RNA or important compounds like alkaloids/Urea
Other than a few forms of bacteria, life-forms are not able to convert the comparitively inert nitrogen
molectules into nitrates and nitrites
- nitrogen fixing bacteria associated with few dicot plants
- found in the roots of legumes (pulses) in special structures called root nodules
During lightning, high temperatures and pressures created in air convert nitrogen to oxides of nitrogen
- These oxides then dissolve in water to give nitric and nitrous acides
- Acid Rain
Plants take up nitrates and nitrites to convert them into amino acides
- These are subsequently consumed by animlas
Once the animal dies, the various compounds of nitrogen convert it back intro nitrates and nitrites

14.4.3 The carbon-cycle
Occurs in elemental form as Diamond and Graphite
In the combined state, it is found as carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, as carbonate and hydrogen
carbonate salts in various minerals
- Carbon present in proteins, carbohydrates, fats, nucleic acids and vitamins
- Endoskeletons (internal skeleton) and exoskeletons (like shells for turtles) are made of
carbonate salts
Carbon incorporated into life-forms through basic process of photosynthesis which is performed with
the help of sunlight by all life-forms that contain chlorophyll
Utilization of Glucose releases CO2
Combustion also releases CO2
Greenhouse Effect
- Some gases prevent the escape of heat from earth
- An increase in percentage of such gases in the atmosphere would cause the avg temperatures to
increase world wide which is called GH effect

14.4.4 The oxygen Cycle
Oxygen 21% of atmosphere
Oxygen from atmosphere mainly used in three processes
- Combustion
- Respiration
- Formation of oxides of nitrogen
Oxygen returned to atmosphere only in photosynthesis
Some forms of life ie bateria are poisoned by elemental oxygen(even process of nitrogen fixing does not
take place in prescence of oxygen)

14.5 Ozone Layer
O3 its poisonous and found at upper reaches of atmosphere
It performs the vital function of absorbing harmful IR radiations from sun
But CFCs (Choloro fluoro carbons) react with Ozone molecules causing its depletion
A hole in Ozone layer has been found near Antarctica

Chapter 15 : Improvement in Food Resources

15.1 Improvement in Crop yields
Wheat, rice, maize, millets, sorghum provide carbohydrates
Pulses like gram (chana), pea (matar), black gram (urad), green gram (moong), pigeon pea (arhar), lentil
Oil seeds soyabean, groundnut, sesame, castor, mustard, linseed
Fodder crops like berseem, oats, sudan grass
Photoperiods different climatic conditions, temperatures
- Related to duration of sunlight
- Kharif June to Oct (rainy season)
o Paddy, soyabean, Pigeon pea (arhar), Maize, Cotton, Green Gram (moong), Black Gram
- Rabi
o November to April
o Wheat, Gram, mustard, Linseed
Improving yield
- Crop Variety Improvement (quality/choice of seeds for planting)
- Crop Production Management (Nurturing of Plants)
- Crop protection Management

15.1.1 Crop Variety Improvement
Hybridisation genetically crossing dissimilar plants
- Intervarietal (between different varieties)
- Interspecific (between two different species of same genus)
- Intergeneric (Between different genus)
Introducing a gene that woud provide a certain characteristic GM crops
Some of the factors for which variety improvement is done
- Higher yield to increase the productivty of the crop per acre
- Improved quality Baking quality in wheat, Protein quality in pulses, Oil quality in oilseeds
- Biotic and abiotic resistance
o Biotic (diseases, insects, nematodes)
o Abiotic (drought, salinity, water logging)
- Change in maturity duration
o From sowing to harvesting
- Desired agronomic characteristics
o Tallness and profuse branching in fodder crops
o Dwarfness desired in cerals

15.1.2 Crop Production Management

Farmers purchasing capacity for inputs decides cropping system and production practices
15.1.2 (i) Nutrition Management

There are 16 nutrients which are essential for plants
Air Oxygen, Carbon and Hydrogen and soil provides other 13 nutrients
Amongst 13, 6 required in large quantity known as macro nutrients
- N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S
- Micronutrients
o Fe, Mn, B, Zn, Cu, Mb, Cl
- Decomposition of animal exreta and plant waste
- Manure helps in imporving soil structure
o Increases water holding capacity
o In clayey soils, it helps in drainage and in avoiding water logging
- Based on the kind of biological material used, manure can be classified as
o Compost and vermi-compost
Livestock excreta in puts known as composting
When earthworms used to quicken the decomposition it is known as vermi
o Green manure
Prior to sowning, some plants like sun hemp or guar are grown and then
mulched by ploughing them into the soil
These green plants thus turn into green manure which helps in enriching the soil
in Nitrogen and Phosphorous
- Supply N, P, K
- Destroys soil fertility as micro-organisms are harmed long term
- Water polluted as irrigation water washes awayfertilizers
- Oraganic Farming
o Manure, minimal use of chemicals
o Bio-agents, biofertilizers like neem leaves, turmeric, blue green algae

15.1.2 (ii) Irrigation

Droughts Light soils have less water retention capacity
Irrigation sources
- Wells Dug wells (water from water bearing strata) and tubewells (water from deeper strata)
- Canals receive water from reservoirs and is subranched into further canals
- River Lift systems Water is directly drawn from rivers in areas close to rivers
- Ranks small storage reservoirs
Rainwater harvesting, building small check-damsn to increase ground water levels (also reduce soil
15.1.2 (iii) Cropping Pattern
Mixed Cropping
- Two or more crops on the same piece of land
o Wheat + Gram, Wheat + Mustard, Groundnut + Sunflower
- Reduces risk and gives some insurance against failure of crops
Inter cropping growing two or more crops simultaneously in a definite pattern
- A few rows of one crop alternate with a few ros of the 2
- Soybean + maize, finger millet (bajra) + cowpea (lobia)
- Ensures maximum utilization of nutrients supplied
- Prevents pests and diseases from spreading to all the plants belonging to one crop in a field
Crop rotation
- Growing of different crops on a piece of land in a pre-planned succession is known as crop

15.1.3 Crop Protection management

Protection from weeds which compete for food, space and light. Xanthium (gokhroo), Parthenium (gajar
- Cut the root, stem and leaf
- Suck the cell sap from various parts of the plant
- Bore into the stem and fruits
Storage of grains
- Biotic
- Abiotic (inappropriate moisture and temperature0
- Degradation in Quality, Loss in Weight, Poor Germinability, Discolouration of Produce all leading
to poor marketability
15.1 Animal Husbandry
Scientific Mgmt of livestock
- Feeding
- Breeding
- Disease control
Stress on humane treatment of animals limitation in livestock farming
15.2.1 Cattle Farming
2 purposes
- Milk
- Draught labour
o Tilling
o Irrigation
o Carting
Indian cattle belong to two different species
- Cows Bos indicus
- Buffaloes Bos Bubalis
Milk-producing females known as milch animals while the ones used for farm labour known as draught
Milk period depends on lactation period (duration of milk production after birth of calf)
Milk Production can be increased by increasing the lactation period
- Exotic foreign breeds are selected for lactation periods (Jersey, Brown Swiss) while local breeds
(Red Sindhi, Sahiwal) show excellent resistance to diseases
- The two can be cross-bred to get desired qualities
The floor of cattle shed needs to be sloping so as to stay dry and to facilitate cleaning
Food requirements
- Maintenance type food required to support the animal to live a healthy life
- Milk producing requirement food requried during lactation period
Animal feed includes
- Roughage Fiber
- Concentrates low in fibre and contain proteins and other nutrients
Both internal and external parasites can affect cattle
15.2.2 Poultry Farming

Domestic fowl for egg production and meat
Cross breeding programmes between Indian (Aseel) and foreign (leghorn) for new desirable traits like
- Number and quality of chicks
- Dwarf broiler parent for commercial chick production
o Broilers are domesticated fowls raised specifically for meat production
- Tolerance to high temperature
- Low maintenance standards
- Size of egg-laying bird with ability to utilize diets from agricultural by products
Food requirement for broilers is protein rich with adequate fats with high level of Vitamins A and K
15.2.3 Fish Production

Includes finned true fish as well as shellfish like prawns and molluscs
2 ways of obtaining fish
- Capture fishing from natural resources
- Culture fishery fish farming
Both marine and freshwater
Marine Fisheries
- 7500 km of coastline and waters beyond it
- Popular fish Pomphret, Mackerel, Tuna, Sardines, Bombay Duck (not a duck but a lizardfish)
- Yields are increased by locating large schools of fish in open sea using satellites and echo-
- Finned fish of high economic value mullets, bhetki, pearl spots
- Shellfish like prawns
- Oyesters cultivated for pearls
- As fish stocks get depleted, demand can be met by fish farming known culture fishery, a
practice called mariculture
Inland fisheries
- Rivers, canals, ponds and brackish water resources (where sea water and fresh water mix
together such as estuaries and lagoons)
- Capture fishing also done but yield is not high
- Most fish production from these resources is through aquaculture
- Fish culture is sometimes done with rice crop in the paddy field
- Intensive fish farming composite fish culture systems - combination of 5-6 fish species used in
a single fish pond (generally non-competitors for food)
o Catlas, Rohus, Mrigals, Grass carps feed on different layers
o One problem, many fish breed in monsoon
o Breeding done through hormonal stimulation
15.2.4 Bee-keeping
- bee farms apiaries
o to increase honey yield, depends on pasturage which is flowers available to the bees for
nectar and pollen collection
- Apis Cerana indica Indian bee
- Italian bee variety high honey collecting capacity and sting somehwat less and stay in beehive
for longer periods
o A. mellifera
- Value of honey depends on the pasturage or the flowers available to bees for nectar and pollen