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GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE

Is a style of architecture that flourished during the high and late medieval period.
It evolved from Romanesque architecture and was succeeded by Renaissance
architecture.

Its characteristics include the pointed arch, the ribbed vault and the flying
buttress. Gothic architecture is most familiar as the architecture of many of the
great cathedrals, abbeys and churches of Europe. It is also the architecture of
many castles, palaces, town halls, guild halls, universities and to a less
prominent extent, private dwellings.



GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE NETHERLANDS
12th-16th Century

INFLUENCES

GEOGRAPHICAL
The fertile land and the great mavigable rivers created and maintained a number
of Medieval states and prosperous cities. dependent culturally on either France
or Germany.

GEOLOGICAL
Belgium has marbles, limestone, sandstone and granite. In Flanders, where clay
is abundant.
A characteristic and beautiful brick architecture developed

CLIMATIC
An often grey and rainy climate gave to many and large windows in houses and
to great traceried windows in churches and town halls.

ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTER
Brabantine style.
Long narrow and low-set sanctuary windows
The 'hall' churches, in which nave and aisles were approximately of equal height.
Adapted to brick,
Adaption to brick entaled simplification of detail and ornament




EXAMPLE OF GOTHIC STRUCTURES
A.) ECCLESIASTICAL ARCHITECTURE

1.) St. Gudule, Brussels {1220-1475)
Typical of the
Netherlands is the
plan which lacks
aisles to the
transepts and a full
chevet of chapels but
includes wide
chapels flanking the
choir.










2.) ANTWERP Cathedral (1352-1411)
Is in the mature Belgian style, with further outside influences.
It is remarkable for its great width-a nave flanked by triple aisles-yet the
transepts are aisle less and spread of chapels each side of the choir is typical of
the Netherlands.
Tracery wall panelling, many I slender pier shafts, often without capitals, and
huge clear-storey windows mark the period.
It is 122m 1400 ft.) high and capped by a three stage lantern with pinnacle
buttresses.

B.) SECULAR ARCHITECTURE

1.) Castle of Muilden
13th Century
In Holland near Amsterdam, relied largely on water for its defence.

Town Halls



Cloth Hall and BELFRY-BRUGES
Has a tower 80 m (260 ft.) high is
typical of flemish brick and
stone civic architecture.


LATE MEDIAEVAL ARCHITECTURE IN ITALY

INFLUENCES

GEOGRAPHICAL
North Italy includes the great Lombard plains and the islands of ,the Venetian
Republic, passes through the Alps and the Venetian state, on the coast of the
Adriatic, is in constant contact with the Byzantine sphere and the East .

GEOLOGICAL
North Italy is especially remarkable for the abundance of clay in title alluvial
Lombard plains, from which were made the beautiful red bricks and terra cotta
and lustrous while and coloured marbles from the mountains.

CLIMATIC
Gothic features, such as large traceries windows,with the consequent necessity
for buttresses instead of walls.

ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTER
Gothic is generally neutralized in Italy by horizontal cornices and string courses.

Churches are marked externally by the following features:
Flatness of roofs.
The screen wall of the west facade which masks the aisle roofs as seen in the
MilanCathedral.
Absence of pinnacles and of flying buttresses.
Stripes of coloured marbles instead of mouldings
Occasional frescoes and mosaics in panels,
Small windows without tracery.
The projecting entrance porches with columns, often resting on the backs of lion-
like beasts are in striking contrast to the cavernous porches.
The brickwork and plastic terra-cotta & the Lombard plains resulted in a
smallness of detail
Intricacy of ornament natural to this material.
Colour effect and delicate detail were relied on









EXAMPLES:
A.) NORTH ITALY
1.) Milan Cathedral
In plan it consists of a nave
16.7 m (55 ft.) wide between
the piers, lofty double aisles
Transepts terminated with a
circlet of columns
It has huge piers, 18m (60ft.)
high, surrounded by engaged
shafts and Slur mounted by
enormous capitals, 6.1 m (20
ft. l in height, containing
canopies and statues.
The exterior is a gleaming mass of white marble with lofty traceried windows,
panelled buttresses, flying buttresses and pinaccles crowned with statutes.

2.) DOGE'S Palace, Venice
Is the grandest effort in civic
architecture of the period
Facade is 15m (500ft.) total length
The upper storey is faced with white
and rose-colored marble walls, resembling
patterned brickwork, pierced by a few large
and ornate windows, and finished with a
lace-like parapet of oriental cresting.



B.) CENTRAL ITALY

1.) Florence Cathedral
Also known as Sta. Maria del Fiore,
designed by Arnolfo di Cambia, and is
essentially
Italian in character without the vertical
features of northern Gothic.
The exterior is notable for its coloured
marble panelling, small traceries
windows, absence of buttresses and
pinnacles, and for the horizontal lines
of the design, the unique semi
octagonal Apses, and the pointed
dome.
2.) Siena Cathedral
Is largely the outcome of civic pride, and all artistic
of Sienna contributed their works to its building and
adornment.
The plan is cruciform, with an unusual irregular
hexagon at the crossing 17.7 m (58 ft.) in diameter,
The zebra marble-stripping on wall and pier, the
squint-arches of the strange hexagon and the incised
marble floor.

3.) Palazzo vechio, Florence
Represent the municipal life and enterprises of
these mediaeval cities and stand, grave and
severe, amidst the bustle of modern life,



C.) SOUTHERN ITALY AND SICILY
1.) Palermo Cathedral
Built on the site of an earlier
Moslem Mosque
Is also basilica in plan and was
commenced by King William the good of
Sicily.
The open porch with slender columnssupporting stilted pointed arches of Moslem
type.
Two slender minaret towers on either side resemble those at the east end, and
its vigour of sk'ltline,


2.) Palazzo St. Stefano
One of the many palaces in ancient precipice city
which have pointed too-light windows with trefoil heads
and crowning machicolated cornices.

3.) Palazzo Arcivescovile, Palermo
Designed with flamboyant tracery windows (15th
century) is typical secular building of the Mediaeval
period.

GOTHIC TERMINOLOGIES
BELFRY - a tower not connected with 'bell' a term
applied to the upper room in a tower in
which the bells are hung.

CRYPT - a space entirely or partly under a building;
in churches generally beneath the
chansel and used for burial in earlier-times.