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00CHAPTER OUTLINE

I0. EXPLORING HUMAN DEVELOPMENT


Developmental psychology is concerned with the course nd cuses o! de"e#o$%ent#
chn&es o"er $erson's entire #i!eti%e.
What does genetic influence mean?
A0. Historic# Pers$ecti"e
(0. )ritish e%$iricist $hi#oso$her *ohn Loc+e in the (,-0s r&ued tht chi#dhood
e.$eriences /nurture0 $er%nent#1 !!ect $eo$#e. E%$iricists sw the new2orn s
2#n+ s#te or tabula rasa on which e.$erience writes.
30. 4rench $hi#oso$her *en5*c6ues Rousseu in the (7,0s r&ued the o$$osite8 tht
nture #one &i"es chi#dren ## the1 need to &row nd #ern8 without du#t
&uidnce.
90. A%ericn $s1cho#o&ist Arno#d Gese## in the er#1 (-00s sid tht %otor s+i##s
de"e#o$ in !i.ed se6uence o! st&es in ## chi#dren due to maturation, ntur#
&rowth or chn&e8 which un!o#ds in !i.ed se6uence re#ti"e#1 inde$endent o!
the en"iron%ent. The ter% development enco%$sses not on#1 %turtion 2ut
#so the 2eh"ior# nd %ent# $rocesses tht re in!#uenced 21 #ernin&.
:0. )eh"iorist *ohn ). ;tson in the (-(0s c#i%ed tht ## de"e#o$%ent is due to
#ernin&.
<0. =wiss $s1cho#o&ist *en Pi&et sw nture nd nurture s inse$r2#e nd
intercti"e in co&niti"e de"e#o$%ent.
)0. Understndin& Genetic In!#uence
(0. Behavioral genetics is the stud1 o! how &enes !!ect 2eh"ior. This reserch
de%onstrted tht nture nd nurture >oint#1 contri2ute to de"e#o$%ent in two
w1s.
00 Nture nd nurture o$erte to&ether to %+e ## $eo$#e si%i#r in so%e
res$ects.
Example: Motor s+i## %i#estones occur t si%i#r ti%es !or %ost chi#dren
due to co%%on &enes !or the ner"ous s1ste%'s %otor contro# nd co%%on
2sic cre nd nutrition $tterns.
200 Nture nd nurture #so o$erte to&ether to %+e ech $erson uni6ue.
Di!!erent inherited &enes nd en"iron%ents under#ie "ritions in
$erson#it18 inte##i&ence8 s$eech $tterns8 nd so on.
30. )eh"ior# &eneticists re concerned with the differences 2etween indi"idu#s or
&rou$s o! indi"idu#s8 not with chrcteristics o! sin&#e indi"idu#.
00 A !indin& tht certin trit is <0 $ercent herit2#e wou#d %en tht
$$ro.i%te#1 h#! o! the differences between people on tht trit cou#d 2e
e.$#ined 21 &enetic !ctors. No c#i%s cou#d 2e %de 2out n1 $rticu#r
$erson.
200 Mn1 trits re influenced 21 the interctions o! nu%2er o! &enes8 s we##
s 21 %n1 en"iron%ent# !ctors.
?0. Genes nd The En"iron%ent
The re#ti"e contri2utions o! nture nd nurture di!!er !or s$eci!ic s$ects o!
de"e#o$%ent8 2ut their in!#uences on ## hu%n chrcteristics re !ore"er intertwined
nd re %utu##1 in!#uenti#.
II0. )EGINNING=
Why should pregnant women stay away from tobacco and alcohol?
A0. Prent# De"e#o$%ent
Prent# de"e#o$%ent 2e&ins when s$er% !erti#i@es n e&& nd !or%s 2rnd5new
ce##. Most hu%n ce##s contin :, chromosomes, ech %de u$ o! thousnds o!
genes, which re %de o! deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA).
New ce##s re constnt#1 2ein& $roduced throu&h the $rocess o! mitosis; the ce##'s
chro%oso%es du$#icte the%se#"es so tht ech new ce## contins co$ies o! the 39
$irs o! chro%oso%es in the ori&in#.
)ut !or %#e s$er% ce##s nd !e%#e o" /e&& ce##s08 meiosis occurs when the
chro%oso%e $irs re rndo%#1 s$#it nd rerrn&ed8 #e"in& ech new s$er% nd e&&
ce## with uni6ue rrn&e%ents o! 39 sin&#e di!!erent chro%oso%es. ?once$tion resu#ts
in !erti#i@ed ce##8 the zygote8 which crries the usu# 39 $irs o! chro%oso%es8 2ut
h#! o! ech $ir co%es !ro% the %other nd h#! !ro% the !ther. The @1&ote di"ides
!irst into co$ies o! itse#!A then it di"ides nd redi"ides into the 2i##ions o! s$eci#i@ed
ce##s tht !or% co%$#ete new hu%n 2ein&.
(0. 0=t&es o! $rent# de"e#o$%ent.
00 The !irst two wee+s !ter conce$tion re c##ed the germinal st&e. )1 the
end o! this st&e the ce##s o! the di"idin& @1&ote h"e !or%ed n embryo.
200 The embryonic stage 2e&ins ne.t8 durin& which ti%e the 2sic 2od1 $#n
nd or&ns re creted.
c00 The fetal stage 2e&ins !ter two %onths. The e%2r1o 2eco%es fetus, nd
its "rious or&n s1ste%s &row nd 2e&in to !unction.
30. 0Prent# ris+s
00 Durin& $rent# de"e#o$%ent8 placenta !or%s nd ttches itse#! to the
uterus throu&h n umbilical cord. The $#cent cts s !i#ter throu&h
which the e%2r1o or !etus cn t+e in nutrients !ro% the %other nd send
w1 wste. The $#cent is n i%$er!ect !i#ter8 ##owin& %n1 su2stnces
to rech the e%2r1o.
200 Teratogens re hr%!u# su2stnces tht in"de the wo%2 nd cuse 2irth
de!ects. Terto&ens re o! concern in the e%2r1onic st&e 2ecuse it is
critical period, ti%e durin& which certin +inds o! &rowth must occur i!
de"e#o$%ent is to $roceed nor%##1.
c00 D%&e cn occur i! the 221's %other t+es certin dru&s8 is e.$osed to
certin to.ins or stress8 or hs certin i##nesses durin& $re&nnc1.
/(00 ?ocine use cn resu#t in $re%ture8 underwei&ht8 tense8 nd !uss1
22ies who %1 su!!er de#1ed $h1sic# &rowth nd %otor
de"e#o$%ent.
/300 Ner#1 h#! o! 22ies 2orn to wo%en who 2use #coho# de"e#o$ fetal
alcohol syndrome, $ttern o! de!ects tht inc#udes %ent#
retrdtion nd %#!or%tion o! the !ce. ?onsu%$tion o! s #itt#e s
&#ss or two o! wine d1 21 the %other cn !!ect in!nts'
inte##ectu# !unctionin&.
/900 =%o+ers' 22ies %1 2e 2orn $re%ture#1 nd underwei&htA the1
o!ten su!!er !ro% res$irtor1 $ro2#e%s8 irrit2i#it18 nd ttention
$ro2#e%sA nd the1 re t &reter ris+ !or nicotine ddiction #ter in
#i!e.
/:00 Pre&nnt cocine users %1 &i"e 2irth to 22ies $re%ture#18 nd the
22ies re %ore o!ten o! #ow 2irth wei&ht8 tense8 nd !uss1. The1 %1
su!!er de#1ed $h1sic# &rowth nd %otor de"e#o$%ent8 nd
%#!or%ed +idne1s8 &enit#s8 or other or&ns. The1 re #so %ore
#i+e#1 to de"e#o$ co&niti"e8 2eh"ior#8 nd #ernin& $ro2#e%s8 thou&h
these %1 2e re"ersi2#e i! the en"iron%ents re su$$orti"e.
/<00 Less thn (0 $ercent o! ## 22ies 2orn in the United =ttes wi## h"e
%ent# or $h1sic# $ro2#e%s resu#tin& !ro% hr%!u# $rent# !ctors.
)0. The New2orn
To stud1 new2orns' 2i#ities8 reserchers show sti%u#i nd note where in!nts #oo+
nd !or how #on&. Reserchers #so note chn&es in hert rtes8 suc+in& rtes8 2rin
w"es8 %o"e%ent8 nd s+in conductnce / %esure o! $ers$irtion tht cco%$nies
e%otion0.0
(0. Vision nd Other =enses
00 Vision is "er1 $oorA new2orns cn see on#1 #r&e o2>ects c#ose u$. )rin
res tht $rocess "isu# in!or%tion re not !u##1 de"e#o$ed. Reserchers
esti%te tht new2orns' "ision is 30B900.
/(00 In!nts 1oun&er thn 3 %onths !ocus on ed&es. Lter the1 re 2#e to
scn who#e o2>ects. New2orns en>o1 #oo+in& t !ces.
200 A !ew d1s !ter 2irth8 new2orns cn her so!t "oices8 #octe sounds8 nd
discri%inte tones. The1 $re!er risin& tones s$o+en 21 wo%en nd
chi#dren8 nd hi&h5$itched8 e.&&erted8 e.$ressi"e s$eechC221 t#+.
/(00 Herin& is not de"e#o$ed co%$#ete#1 unti# #ter in chi#dhood.
c00 New2orns h"e s%e## nd tste $re!erences. The1 $re!er sweet tstes8 nd
2rest5!ed 22ies $re!er the odor o! their own %other to tht o! nother
%other.
30. Re!#e.es nd Motor =+i##s
00 Mo"e%ents durin& the !irst !ew %onths re do%inted 21 in"o#untr18
un#erned rections8 c##ed reflexes.
200 O"er twent1 re!#e.es h"e 2een o2ser"ed in new2orns8 inc#udin& the
grasping rooting /turn %outh towrd !in&er or ni$$#e tht touches the
chee+08 nd suc!ing /suc+ on n1thin& tht touches the %outh0 re!#e.es.
c00 An 2sence o! re!#e.es in new2orn si&n#s $ro2#e%s in 2rin
de"e#o$%ent8 s does !i#ure o! re!#e.es to dis$$er !ter !ew %onths.
90. Vo#untri#1 contro##ed %o"e%ent de"e#o$s in ti%e8 $rt#1 !ro% &enetic
un!o#din& o! incresed %usc#e stren&th nd coordintion8 nd #so $rt#1 due to
tri#5nd5error e.$eriences with %o"in& 2out the wor#d. Motor de"e#o$%ent
resu#ts !ro% co%2intion o! %turtion nd e.$erience.
III0. IN4AN?D AND ?HILDHOODE ?OGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT
"ow do babies thin!?#
A0. The De"e#o$%ent o! Fnow#ed&eE Pi&et's Theor10
Pi&et sw the 2i#it1 to thin+ s &rowin& in !i.ed se6uence o! st&es. ?hi#dren re
not %initure du#ts8 with s%##er 6untit1 o! du#t co&niti"e s+i##sA chi#dren's thin+in&
is $ualitatively di!!erent.
(0. )ui#din& )#oc+s o! De"e#o$%ent
chemas8 the 2sic units o! +now#ed&e tht re the 2sis o! inte##ectu#
de"e#o$%ent8 re %ent# i%&es or &ener#i@tions tht !or% s $eo$#e
e.$erience the wor#d. The1 or&ni@e $st e.$eriences nd $ro"ide !r%ewor+
!or understndin& !uture e.$eriences.0
00 In assimilation, the indi"idu# !its new e.$erience into n e.istin&
sche%.
Example: A todd#er %1 c## 2utter!#1 2ird the !irst ti%e he sees one.
200 In accommodation, the indi"idu# %odi!ies n e.istin& sche% to 2etter !it
new e.$erience.
Example: A!ter seein& %ore 2utter!#ies8 todd#er %1 re#i@e tht the1 re
not the s%e s 2irds8 thou&h 2oth h"e so%e o! the s%e !etures. =he
%1 then 2roden her Gthin&s tht !#1H sche% to inc#ude new cte&or1
c##ed G2utter!#ies.H
30. =ensori%otor De"e#o$%ent
The sensorimotor period co"ers the !irst two 1ers o! #i!e8 with %ent# cti"it1
#i%ited to sche%s 2out sensor1 nd %otor !unctions.0
00 =ensori%otor in!nts cnnot !or% sche%s 2out o2>ects nd ctions tht
re not $resentCthe1 cn on#1 thin+ 2out o2>ects in the Ghere nd now8H
direct#1 sensin& or ctin& on the%.
200 This $eriod ends s chi#d 2e&ins to !or% %ent# re$resenttionsC
thin+in& 2out o2>ects in their 2sence. Fnowin& tht o2>ects e.ist e"en i!
1ou cnnot direct#1 sense the% is ob!ect permanence.
ExampleE I! to1 ro##s 2ehind the curtins8 chi#d without o2>ect
$er%nence cn no #on&er thin+ 2out the to18 s i! the to1 no #on&er e.ists.
A chi#d with o2>ect $er%nence $ursues the to18 #oo+in& 2ehind the
curtins.
90. New Views o! In!nts' ?o&niti"e De"e#o$%ent
Modern reserchers h"e shown tht in!nts +now %ore8 nd sooner8 thn Pi&et
h1$othesi@ed. In!nts re not >ust sensin& nd %o"in&Cthe1 re thin+in&8 too.
De"e#o$%ent# $s1cho#o&ists &ener##1 &ree tht in!nts de"e#o$ so%e %ent#
re$resenttions nd sense o! o2>ect $er%nence er#ier thn Pi&et su&&ested.
The1 dis&ree 2out whether the +now#ed&e is $ro&r%%ed in in!nts8 de"e#o$s
6uic+#1 throu&h interctions with the outside wor#d8 or is constructed throu&h the
co%2intion o! o#d sche%s nd new ones.
:0. Preo$ertion# De"e#o$%ent
The preoperational period /2out &es two to se"en0 2e&ins s chi#dren
understnd8 crete8 nd use symbols /e.&.8 #n&u&e0 to re$resent 2sent thin&sA
the1 cn $retend8 drw8 nd t#+. Durin& the second h#! o! the $reo$ertion#
st&e chi#dren 2e&in to %+e intuiti"e &uesses 2out the wor#d8 2ut the1 cnnot
te## the di!!erence 2etween i%&intion nd re#it1.
00 Preo$ertion# thou&ht is do%inted 21 wht chi#d sees nd touches
Preo$ertion# chi#dren re egocentric in tht the1 ssu%e tht e"er1one
sees wht the1 see.
200 ?hi#dren #c+ conservation, +nowin& tht certin $ro$erties o! su2stnces
/e.&.8 "o#u%e0 st1 the s%e e"en s $$ernces chn&e. ?hi#dren #so do
not understnd reversibility or complementarity. The1 !ocus on on#1 one
di%ension t ti%e.
<0. ?oncrete nd 4or%# O$ertion# Thou&ht
00 )1 the concrete operational period /usu##1 &e se"en to do#escence08
chi#dren de"e#o$ conser"tion nd the 2i#it1 to use si%$#e #o&ic nd
%ent# o$ertions8 inc#udin& countin&8 %esurin&8 ddin&8 su2trctin&8
orderin&8 nd sortin&. The1 $$#1 #o&ic on#1 to concrete o2>ects /e.&.8 trees8
2oo+s08 2ut not to 2strct conce$ts /e.&.8 #i2ert10.
200 Pi&et's formal operational period o! co&niti"e de"e#o$%ent8 which
t1$ic##1 occurs in do#escence8 %r+s the 2i#it1 to thin+ h1$othetic##1
nd to thin+ #o&ic##1 nd s1ste%tic##1 2out 2strct ides8 s1%2o#s8 nd
$ro$ositions.
/(00 Peo$#e who h"e not &one to schoo# re #ess #i+e#1 to e.hi2it !or%#
o$ertions. E"en $eo$#e with !or%# o$ertions tend to use such
resonin& on#1 in their own do%ins nd not in others.
)0. Modi!1in& Pi&et's Theor1
(0. De"e#o$%ent# $s1cho#o&ists 2e#ie"e tht co&niti"e 2i#ities de"e#o$ t di!!erent
&es in di!!erent res8 nd in G$oc+etsH rther thn in #r&e ##5or5none ste$s or
st&es. In ddition to their &ener# #e"e# o! de"e#o$%ent8 chi#dren's resonin&
de$ends onE
00 how es1 the ts+ is8
200 how !%i#ir the1 re with the o2>ects in"o#"ed8
c00 how we## the1 understnd the #n&u&e 2ein& used8 nd
d00 wht e.$eriences the1 h"e hd in si%i#r situtions.
?0. In!or%tion Processin& Durin& ?hi#dhood
The information"processing $$roch e.%ines how in!or%tion is t+en in8 used8
nd re%e%2ered. This $$roch !ocuses on &rdu#8 6untitti"e chn&es in chi#dren's
%ent# c$cities.
(0. As chi#dren &et o#der8 their in!or%tion5$rocessin& s+i##s &rdu##1 &et 2etter.
The1 h"e #on&er ttention s$ns8 their %e%or1's stor&e c$cit1 i%$ro"es8 nd
the1 &et 2etter t choosin& $ro2#e%5so#"in& strte&ies tht !it the ts+ the1 re
!cin&.
30. )oth nture /%turtion0 nd nurture /e.$erience0 re i%$ortnt. ?hi#dren do
2etter with !%i#ir %teri#. ?hi#dren #ern %e%ori@tion strte&ies in schoo#.
D0. Lin+&esE De"e#o$%ent nd Me%or1
4ew du#ts re%e%2er n1thin& !ro% 2e!ore the &e o! three. This is c##ed Gin!nti#e
%nesi.H =e"er# e.$#ntions re o!!ered !or this $heno%enon.
(0. ?hi#dren cou#d #c+ du#t5#i+e %e%or1 encodin& nd stor&e c$cit1. Det two5
nd three51er5o#d chi#dren cn re%e%2er e"ents !ro% se"er# %onths &o.
30. In!nti#e %nesi %1 occur 2ecuse in!nts do not h"e stron& se#!5identit1
nd thus cnnot or&ni@e %e%ories round wht h$$ens to the%. This wou#d
not e.$#in #osin& %e%or1 !ro% &es two to three8 when chi#dren do h"e se#!5
identit1.
90. Me%ories %1 2e there 2ut %1 2e ccessi2#e on#1 i%$#icit#1 or unconscious#1.
)ut 2oth i%$#icit nd e.$#icit %e%ories o! er#1 1ers re 6uite #i%ited.
:0. Er#1 %e%ories %1 2e #ost 2ecuse chi#dren do not h"e the #n&u&e s+i##s to
t#+ 2out8 nd thus so#idi!18 those %e%ories. Howe"er8 studies h"e shown tht
chi#dren cn h"e %e%ories o! e"ents tht cou#d 2e rec##ed non"er2##1.
<0. Er#1 %e%ories cou#d h"e 2een !used into generalized event representations
such s G&oin& to Grnd%'s.H =o8 the c$cit1 to retrie"e s$eci!ic %e%ories
%1 not 2e $ossi2#e.
E0. ?u#ture nd ?o&niti"e De"e#o$%ent
(0. Russin $s1cho#o&ist Le" V1&ots+1 !ocused on the soci# wor#d o! $eo$#e nd
"iewed co&niti"e 2i#ities s the $roduct o! cu#tur# histor1. A chi#d's %ind
&rows throu&h interction with other %inds in the cu#ture.
30. Reserchers h"e studied how soci# routines /e.&.8 !%i#1 dinners8 re#i&ious
ser"ices8 2irthd1 $rties0 !!ect chi#d's &rowin& +now#ed&e o! how the wor#d
wor+s.
00 Iuite er#18 chi#dren !or% scripts %ent# re$resenttions o! the se6uences
in which routine cti"ities o! their cu#ture shou#d $roceed.
Example: A chi#d's %ent# re$resenttion !or %i# %1 inc#ude the !ct tht
!irst so%eone writes 2irthd1 crd8 then the crd &oes in %i#2o.8 then
the crd is de#i"ered to the !%i#1's %i#2o.8 then Mo%%1 or Ddd1 &ets
the crd nd hnds it to the chi#d8 then the chi#d o$ens the 2irthd1 crd8
nd so on.
90. ?o&niti"e 2i#ities re #so sh$ed 21 #n&u&e. It is hrder to understnd
conce$ts i! the cu#ture's #n&u&e hs !ew ter%s or 2strct ter%s to descri2e
the%.
40. Indi"idu# Vritions in ?o&niti"e De"e#o$%ent
(0. A#thou&h heredit1 is n i%$ortnt !ctor8 e.$erience /the en"iron%ent0 #so
$#1s ro#e in co&niti"e de"e#o$%ent.
00 ?o&niti"e de"e#o$%ent cn 2e s#owed 21 conditions o! de$ri"tion8 such s
those resu#tin& !ro% 2use8 ne&#ect8 $o"ert18 nd $oor nutrition.
200 Prents cn id chi#d's co&niti"e de"e#o$%ent 21 e.$osin& hi% or her to
"riet1 o! interestin& %teri#s nd e.$eriences8 su$$orti"e con"erstion8
nd #o"in& interctions with !%i#1 %e%2ers or others8 s we## s 21
encour&in& the chi#d to t+e on ch##en&es cti"e#1.
c00 Pro>ect Hed =trt nd other $ro&r%s !or $oor $reschoo# chi#dren cn
enhnce chi#dren's co&niti"e 2i#ities. Music #essons nd e#ectronic &%es
cn #so $ro%ote chi#dren's co&niti"e de"e#o$%ent.
IV0. IN4AN?D AND ?HILDHOODE =O?IAL AND EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT
"ow do infants become attached to their caregivers?
Mutu# ttrction 2e&ins i%%edite#1 !ter 2irth 2etween $rents nd in!nts. In!nts re
sensiti"e to the $eo$#e round the%. Der5o#d chi#dren use their %others' e%otion#
e.$ressions to &uide their own 2eh"ior when the1 re uncertin. /Rec## soci# re!erencin&
!ro% ?h$ter J.0
A0. Indi"idu# Te%$er%ent
(0. Temperament re!ers to n in!nt's st1#e nd !re6uenc1 o! e.$ressin& needs nd
e%otionsA it is constitution#8 2io#o&ic#8 nd &enetic##1 2sed. It is $re#ude to
personality. Te%$er%ent cn 2e !!ected 21 the $rent# en"iron%ent. The
stress e.$erienced 21 the %other !ter her 221's 2irth #so !!ects the 221's
te%$er%ent.
00 Easy babies the %ost co%%on8 re $redict2#e8 rect to new situtions
cheer!u##18 nd se#do% !uss.
200 %ifficult babies re irre&u#r nd irrit2#e.
c00 &low'to'warm'up babies rect wri#1 to new situtions 2ut s#ow#1 co%e to
en>o1 the%.
30. Er#1 te%$er%ent# chrcteristics h"e #stin& e!!ects.
00 Te%$er%ent $tterns $ersist #ter in #i!e. )ut since nture intercts with
nurture8 e.$eriences cn shi!t the indi"idu#'s de"e#o$%ent in one direction
or the other.
/(00 The %tch 2etween n in!nt's te%$er%ent nd $rent#
e.$ecttions or $erson# st1#e !!ects the st2i#it1 o! chi#d's
te%$er%ent# 6u#ities.
/300 There is n d$ti"e inter$#1 o! innte nd cu#tur# !ctors in the
de"e#o$%ent o! te%$er%ent o$ertin& in ## cu#tures.
)0. The In!nt Grows Attched
As the1 interct with $rents nd other i%$ortnt !i&ures8 in!nts !or% dee$8
!!ectionte8 c#ose8 nd endurin& re#tionshi$s(attachments.
(0. Attachment theory ws !irst de"e#o$ed 21 *ohn )ow#218 )ritish
$s1chon#1st8 who drew ttention to the i%$ortnce o! ttch%ent !ter he
o2ser"ed chi#dren who hd 2een or$hned in ;or#d ;r II.
3. Mother#ess Mon+e1sCnd ?hi#dren
Hrr1 Hr#ow's e.$eri%ents studied the nture nd i%$ortnce o! ttch%ents.
00 New2orn %on+e1s re%o"ed !ro% their %others !or%ed Gttch%entsH with
so!t8 c#oth5co"ered rti!ici# %other8 2ut not with si%i#r#1 sh$ed wire5
%esh rti!ici# %other8 e"en i! the wire %other he#d %i#+ 2ott#e.
/(00 Attch%ents see% to !o##ow !ro% needs !or so!tness nd cudd#in&8
rther thn !ro% %eetin& 2sic $h1sic# needs.
200 In!nt %on+e1s were "er1 i%$ired soci##18 e%otion##18 nd $h1sic##1
when ttch%ents were $re"ented. The1 did not en&&e in nor%# se.u#
2eh"ior8 nd when !e%#es 2ec%e %others throu&h rti!ici#
inse%intion8 the1 did not h"e de6ute %tern# 2eh"iors.
/(00 =i%i#r serious $ro2#e%s re seen in chi#dren 2ndoned 21 their
%others nd ne&#ected 21 or$hn&e wor+ers. Neuro#o&ists su&&est
tht there is de"e#o$%ent# 2rin d1s!unction nd d%&e 2rou&ht on
21 #c+ o! touch nd 2od1 %o"e%ent in in!nc1.
90. 4or%in& n Attch%ent
In %ost cu#tures8 in!nts !irst &row ttched to their %others. )1 si. or se"en
%onths8 in!nts $re!er their %other to n1one e#se. In %ost cu#tures8 ttch%ent
to the !ther occurs #ter thn tht to the %other nd %1 2e di!!erent in nture.
30. Vritions in Attch%ent
The %ount o! c#oseness nd contct the in!nt see+s with cre&i"er de$ends to
so%e e.tent on the in!nt s we## s the cre&i"er. Attch%ents re studied 21
o2ser"in& the chi#d's attachment behavior durin& the &trange &ituation )est
where the ntur# co%in& nd &oin& o! the ttched $erson is si%u#ted.
00 Most in!nts in the United =ttes !or% secure attachment to #o"in&
%others. These chi#dren to#erte 2rie! se$rtions !ro% %other 2ut re
h$$1 to see her return.
200 =o%e in!nts !or% n insecure attachment:
/(00 I! the re#tionshi$ is avoidant the in!nt "oids or i&nores the %other
when she $$roches or when she returns !ro% 2rie! se$rtion.
/300 I! the re#tionshi$ is ambivalent the in!nt is u$set when the %other
#e"es 2ut cts n&r1 nd re>ects her when she $$roches.
/900 I! the re#tionshi$ is disorganized the in!nt is inconsistent8
distur2ed8 nd distur2in&.
c00 The t1$e o! ttch%ent !or%ed hs #stin& e!!ects. ?o%$red to chi#dren
with insecure ttch%ents8 secure#1 ttched chi#dren tend to 2e %ore
co%$etent soci##1.
d00 Ptterns o! ttch%ent "r1 wide#1 in di!!erent $rts o! the wor#d. In ##
countries8 the #i+e#ihood tht chi#dren wi## de"e#o$ secure ttch%ent
de$ends on the %other's ttenti"eness.
?0. Thin+in& ?ritic##1E Does D1 ?re Hr% the E%otion# De"e#o$%ent o! In!ntsK
(0. What am * being as!ed to believe or accept?
Di#1 se$rtions due to d1 cre d%&e ttch%ent 2etween the %other nd
in!nt nd hr% the chi#d's e%otion# de"e#o$%ent.
30. *s there evidence available to support the claim?
In!nts $#ced in d1 cre do !or% ttch%ents to their %others nd $re!er their
%others to their d1ti%e cre&i"ers. Howe"er8 these in!nts re %ore o!ten
c#ssi!ied s insecure#1 ttched in the =trn&e =itution thn in!nts who were
not in !u##5ti%e d1cre.
90. +an that evidence be interpreted another way?
The =trn&e =itution %ethod %1 not 2e "#id %esure o! secure ttch%ents
in these situtions. In!nts who e.$erience routine se$rtions %1 !ee# %ore
co%!ort2#e 2ein& #e!t #one8 so the1 see+ #ess c#oseness with their %others
2ecuse the1 re %ore inde$endent8 not insecure. A#so8 $rents who "#ue
inde$endence in the%se#"es nd their chi#dren %1 2e %ore #i+e#1 to wor+ nd
$#ce chi#dren in d1 cre.
:0. What evidence would help to evaluate the alternatives?
Other %esures o! e%otion# d>ust%ent re needed to +now i! chi#dren re
ctu##1 hr%ed 21 d15cre se$rtions. A #r&e stud1 o! in!nt d1 cre !ound
tht in!nts in d1 cre were no %ore #i+e#1 to h"e e%otion# $ro2#e%s or to 2e
insecure#1 ttched to their %others thn in!nts not in d1 cre. Howe"er8
in!nts $#ced in $oor56u#it1 d1 cre nd whose %others were insensiti"e to
their needs were #ess #i+e#1 to de"e#o$ secure ttch%ent to their %others.
<0. What conclusions are most reasonable?
D1 cre 21 itse#! does not #ed to insecure ttch%ent. )ut i! the d1 cre is o!
$oor 6u#it18 it cn worsen sitution t ho%e nd increse the #i+e#ihood tht
in!nts wi## h"e $ro2#e%s !or%in& secure ttch%ent to their %others.
D0. Re#tionshi$s with Prents nd Peers
Eri+ Eri+son descri2ed #i!e#on& $s1chosoci# de"e#o$%ent s !o##owin& series o!
ei&ht st&es8 ech o! which !ocuses on n issue or GcrisisH tht is es$eci##1 i%$ortnt
t tht ti%e in #i!e. The w1s in which $eo$#e reso#"e these crises sh$e $erson#ities
nd $erson# re#tionshi$s. The !irst crisis in in!nc1 o! 2sic trust or %istrust 2out
cre&i"ers !or%s the 2sis !or ## !uture soci# nd e%otion# de"e#o$%ent. The second
st&e in"o#"es the de"e#o$%ent o! inde$endence !ro% $rents. ;hether $rents
encour&e or discour&e inde$endence is re#ted to their $rentin& st1#es.
(0. Prentin& st1#es
ociali#ation is the $rocess where21 uthorit1 !i&ures chnne# chi#d's ener&1
into soci##1 cce$t2#e out#ets nd tech chi#d the s+i##s nd ru#es needed to
!unction in their cu#ture.
00 ?u#tur# !orces $ower!u##1 sh$e soci#i@tion. In the United =ttes8
His$nic $rents re o!ten in!#uenced 21 the %ore co##ecti"ist cu#tur#
trditions o! Puerto Rico8 Me.ico8 nd ?entr# A%eric8 in which !%i#1
co%%unit1 is e%$hsi@ed o"er indi"idu# &o#s. ?o%$red to Euro$en
A%ericn $rents8 His$nic $rents in the United =ttes %ore o!ten e.$ect
chi#dren to res$ect nd o2e1 e#ders nd to do #ess 6uestionin&8 ne&otitin&8
or r&uin&.
200 There re distinct $tterns o! soci#i@tion or $rentin& st1#es %on&
Euro$en A%ericn $rents.
/(00 Authoritarian parents re strict8 $unishin&8 nd uns1%$thetic.
The1 "#ue o2edience !ro% their chi#dren8 do not encour&e
inde$endence8 nd se#do% $rise their chi#dren.
/0 ?hi#dren rised in this w1 tend to 2e un!riend#18 distrust!u#8 nd
withdrwn.
/300 $ermissive parents &i"e their chi#dren co%$#ete !reedo% with #itt#e
disci$#ine.
/0 ?hi#dren rised in this w1 tend to 2e i%%ture8 de$endent8 nd
unh$$1.
/900 Authoritative parents reson with their chi#dren8 &i"in& &reter
res$onsi2i#ities with &e. The1 set !ir% #i%its 2ut #so re%in
understndin& nd encour&e inde$endence. Their de%nds re
reson2#e8 rtion#8 nd consistent.
/0 ?hi#dren rised in this w1 tend to 2e !riend#18 coo$erti"e8 se#!5
re#int8 nd soci##1 res$onsi2#e. The1 re #so %ore success!u#
in schoo# nd 2etter to#erte di"orce o! their $rents8 i! it shou#d
occur.
/:00 %ninvolved parents in"est s #itt#e ti%e8 %one18 nd e!!ort in their
chi#dren s $ossi2#e8 !ocusin& on their own needs 2e!ore their
chi#dren's.
c00 Lin+s 2etween $rticu#r $rentin& st1#es nd chi#dren's $erson#ities re
corre#tions /nd not $rticu#r#1 stron& ones08 so it is unc#er wht the
cuse5nd5e!!ect re#tionshi$s re. ?hi#dren %1 #so sh$e their $rents'
2eh"ior.
d00 A#so8 it %1 not 2e the $rents' soci#i@tion $rctices tht in!#uence their
chi#dren 2ut rther how the chi#dren $ercei"e the disci$#ine the1 recei"e.
e00 There is no uni"ers##1 G2estH st1#e o! $rentin&. It is $ro22#1 the !it
2etween the $rticu#r st1#e nd the $rticu#r chi#d tht !!ects the chi#d
the %ost. Prentin& st1#es %ust 2e e"#uted in ter%s o! their cu#tur#
conte.t.
30. Re#tionshi$s with Peers
=oci# de"e#o$%ent is #so stron&#1 in!#uenced 21 chi#dren's $eer re#tionshi$s.
00 It t+es ti%e to #ern how to interct with other chi#dren. Re#tionshi$s with
others chn&e with &e. Two51er5o#ds $#1 to&ether on#1 21 e.chn&in& or
!i&htin& o"er to1s. Three51er5o#ds use to1s to &et res$onse !ro% $eers.
4our51er5o#ds con"erse 2out the to1s the1 $#1 with8 nd 21 the end o!
$reschoo#8 chi#dren 2e&in to shre to1s nd ts+s coo$erti"e#1. Durin& the
schoo# 1ers8 $eer interction 2eco%es %ore co%$#e. nd structured.
4riends 2eco%e i%$ortnt8 2ut $s1cho#o&ic# inti%c1 does not $$er
unti# do#escence.
E0. =oci# =+i##s
&ocial s!ills8 #i+e co&niti"e s+i##s8 %ust 2e #erned. Ver1 1oun& chi#dren #c+ the soci#
s+i##s !or sustined8 res$onsi"e interctions with others. Prents cn he#$ chi#dren
de"e#o$ such s+i##s8 nd the1 cn he#$ chi#dren detect nd correct#1 inter$ret other
$eo$#e's e%otion# si&n#s. Another set o! soci# s+i##s in"o#"es !ee#in& wht nother
!ee#s /empathy0 nd res$ondin& with co%!ort or he#$ i! the $erson is in distress.
(0. ?hi#dren who h"e de"e#o$ed soci# s+i##s #i+e e%$th1 tend to 2e %ore $o$u#r.
?hi#dren without the% tend to 2e re>ected or ne&#ected.
40. 4ocus on ReserchE E.$#orin& De"e#o$in& Minds
(. What was the researcher,s $uestion?
Renee )i##r&eon /$ronounced G215r5LHANH0 wnted to +now whether the
in2i#it1 o! 1oun& chi#dren to reco&ni@e wht others re thin+in& re!#ects true
#c+ o! Gtheor1 o! %ind8H or ws the resu#t o! usin& reserch %ethods tht were
not sensiti"e enou&h to detect its e.istence.
3. "ow did the researcher answer the $uestion?
)i##r&eon's 2sic %ethod ws to show in!nts "rious e"ents nd then cre!u##1
%esured the %ount o! ti%e the1 s$ent #oo+in& t the%. =he resoned tht
in!nts' tendenc1 to #oo+ #on&er t certin e"ents indictes tht those e"ents
"io#te their e.$ecttions 2out the wor#d. 4or instnce8 she used this %ethod to

%esure the 2i#it1 o! !i!teen5%onth5o#d in!nts to $redict where wo%n wou#d
#oo+ !or to18 de$endin& on whether she hd true or !#se 2e#ie! 2out to1Ms
#oction.
9. What did the researcher find?
The resu#ts o! this stud1 showed tht8 contrr1 to wht wou#d 2e e.$ected !ro%
$re"ious reserch8 the in!nts #oo+ed re#i2#1 #on&er when the wo%n #oo+ed !or
the to1 in the 1e##ow 2o..
:- What do the results mean?
These resu#ts su$$ort the "iew tht8 des$ite #ots o! er#ier reserch e"idence to the
contrr18 in!nts under the &e o! !our do h"e Gtheor1 o! %ind.H
<- What do we still need to !now?
;ht %ent# sttes 2esides 2e#ie!s nd $erce$tions cn in!nts understndK Do
the1 #so re#i@e tht other $eo$#e's 2eh"ior cn 2e in!#uenced 21 &o#s8
intentions8 e%otions8 nd e"en 21 the !irness or un!irness o! situtionK How
soon !ter 2irth does Gtheor1 o! %indH de"e#o$K
G0. Gender Ro#es
(0. Mn1 soci# ro#es tht chi#dren #ern re #in+ed to &ender. A## societies h"e sex
roles /#so +nown s gender roles08 $tterns o! wor+8 $$ernce8 nd 2eh"ior
ssocited with 2ein& %#e or !e%#e8 2ut the1 %1 di!!er in how trdition# or
e.tre%e the ro#es re.
30. Gender ro#es $ersist 2ecuse the1 re dee$#1 rooted in 2oth nture nd nurture.
=%## $h1sic# nd 2eh"ior# di!!erences 2etween the se.es $$er er#1 nd
tend to increse o"er ti%e.
90. )io#o&ic# 4ctors
Reserch in 2eh"ior# &enetics shows tht &enes e.ert %oderte in!#uence on
the $$ernce o! &ender5t1$ed 2eh"iors. The 2io#o&ic# nture o! se.
di!!erences is su&&ested 21 their $$ernce t n er#1 &e8 di!!erences in
nto%18 hor%ones8 nd 2rin or&ni@tion8 nd cross5cu#tur# de%onstrtion o!
consistent &ender $tterns8 des$ite di!!erent soci#i@tion.
:0. =oci# 4ctors
00 Gender ro#es re nurtured 21 soci# interctions nd en"iron%ent# cues.
4ro% 2irth8 2o1s nd &ir#s re treted di!!erent#1.
/(00 Prents8 techers8 nd te#e"ision ro#e %ode#s $ss on ides 2out
G$$ro$riteH 2eh"iors !or 2o1s nd &ir#s. )o1s tend to recei"e
encour&e%ent to chie"e8 co%$ete8 nd ct inde$endent#18 whi#e
&ir#s re %ore o!ten encour&ed to 2e e.$ressi"e8 nurturnt8
de$endent8 nd unse#!ish.
/300 ?hi#dren #so $ic+ u$ &ender5$$ro$rite 2eh"ior !ro% $eers.
/900 =oci# nd cu#tur# trinin& tends to su$$ort nd %$#i!1 n1
2io#o&ic# $redis$ositions tht distin&uish 2o1s nd &ir#s.
<0. =o%e $rents h"e tte%$ted to de5e%$hsi@e &ender5ro#e soci#i@tion. =uch
e!!orts %1 reduce so%e &ender di!!erences8 such s those in "er2# nd
%the%tics s+i##s8 2ut other &ender di!!erences $ersist8 such s %#es' &reter
2i#it1 to "isu#i@e nd %ni$u#te o2>ects in s$ce nd !e%#es' &reter 2i#it1
to red !ci# e.$ressions. ;hte"er the cuse o! &ender di!!erences8 it is
i%$ortnt to re%e%2er tht %ost o! the% re 6uite s%##.
V0. ADOLE=?EN?E
What threatens adolescents. self'esteem?
A0. The ?h##en&es o! ?hn&e
(0. Ado#escence 2e&ins with sudden &rowth s$urt. $uberty, the 2e&innin& o!
re$roducti"e c$2i#it18 cuses dr%tic 2odi#1 chn&es.
30. In early adolescence /&e e#e"en to !ourteen08 self'esteem8 the sense o! 2ein&
worth18 c$2#e8 nd deser"in& o! res$ect8 is ch##en&ed.
90. Ado#escent chn&es nd $ressures o!ten cuse !%i#1 con!#icts. In %ost ho%es8
howe"er8 the #e"e# o! con!#ict is %oderte. More thn h#! o! teens in ;estern
cu#tures !ind er#1 do#escence re#ti"e#1 trou2#e5!ree.
:0. Lo"e nd =e. in Ado#escence
00 A2out h#! o! do#escents 2etween &es !i!teen nd nineteen s1 the1 h"e
hd se.u# intercourse8 2out << $ercent h"e en&&ed in or# se.8 nd
rou&h#1 (0 $ercent h"e tried n# se..
200 =e.u##1 cti"e teens tend to ho#d #ess con"ention# ttitudes nd "#ues8
nd re %ore #i+e#1 to s%o+e8 drin+ #coho#8 nd use other dru&s.
c00 =e.u# cti"it1 is o!ten !o##owed 21 #ower schoo# chie"e%ent8 se.u##1
trns%itted diseses8 nd unwnted $re&nncies.
d00 One5!i!th o! ## AID= cses strt in do#escence8 nd #thou&h teen&e
$re&nnc1 rtes h"e 2een dec#inin& o! #te8 ner#1 7<08000 teen&e &ir#s in
the U.=. &et $re&nnt 2e!ore the1 rech &e nineteen. Teen&e $rents tend
to 2e #ess $ositi"e nd sti%u#tin& nd %ore #i+e#1 to 2use their chi#dren
thn o#der $rents. A nu%2er o! su$$ort $ro&r%s h"e re$orted so%e
success in ##e"itin& s1%$to%s o! de$ression8 incresin& the 1oun&
%others' $rentin& c$2i#ities8 nd he#$in& the% to chie"e their
eduction# &o#s.
)0. Identit1 nd De"e#o$%ent o! the =e#!
Ado#escents' e.tended ti%e s students nd trinees %+es it hrd to !ind nd !or%
identities.
(0. 4or%in& Person# nd Ethnic Identit1
00 Preschoo# chi#dren descri2e the%se#"es in ter%s o! !"orite cti"it1. At J
or -8 chi#dren &i"e !cts 2out the%se#"es. At 2out &e e#e"en8 chi#dren
2e&in to descri2e the%se#"es in ter%s o! soci# re#tionshi$s8 $erson#it1
trits8 nd other &ener# st2#e $s1cho#o&ic# chrcteristics8 su&&estin&
chn&es in the w1s the1 thin+ o! the%se#"es nd the 2e&innin& o!
de"e#o$%ent o! uni6ue $erson# identit1.
200 Person# identit1 %1 2e !!ected 21 ethnic identity8 which re!#ects one's
rci#8 re#i&ious8 or cu#tur# &rou$. A $ositi"e ethnic identit1 dds to se#!5
estee%.
30. 4cin& the Identit1 ?risis
Accordin& to Eri+son8 e"ents o! #te do#escence tri&&er n identity crisis,
stru&&#e to crete n inte&rted nd uni6ue se#!5i%&e. In ;estern cu#tures
durin& #te do#escence8 1oun& $eo$#e do consider #ternti"e identities. The1
Gtr1 outH "rious 2eh"iors to he#$ reso#"e 6uestions 2out se.u#it18 se#!5worth8
industriousness8 nd inde$endence. )1 &e twent15one 2out h#! o! the
do#escents studied h"e reso#"ed the identit1 crisis in w1 consistent with
their se#!5i%&e nd the historic# er in which the1 re #i"in&. 4or those who
!i# to reso#"e identit1 issues8 there re o!ten $ro2#e%s hed.
?0. Mor# Resonin&
(0. Foh#2er&'s =t&es o! Mor# Resonin&
Foh#2er& !ound tht the resons &i"en !or %or# choices chn&e s1ste%tic##1
nd consistent#1 with &e. Howe"er8 his si. st&es re not ti&ht#1 #in+ed to &e.
There is rn&e o! &es !or rechin& ech st&e8 nd not e"er1one reches the
hi&hest #e"e#.
00 The preconventional #e"e# inc#udes =t&es ( nd 3. Mor# >ud&%ents re
se#!ish8 tr1in& to "oid $unish%ent or !o##owin& ru#es when it is
d"nt&eous.
200 At the conventional #e"e#8 =t&es 9 nd :8 %or# >ud&%ents consider other
$eo$#e. Mor#it1 consists o! !o##owin& ru#es nd con"entions8 such s duties
to !%i#18 to %rri&e "ows8 nd to countr1.
c00 At the postconventional #e"e#8 =t&es < nd ,8 %or# >ud&%ents re 2sed
on $erson# stndrds or uni"ers# $rinci$#es o! >ustice8 e6u#it18 nd
res$ect !or hu%n #i!eCnot >ust the de%nds o! uthorit1 !i&ures or
societ1.
30. Li%ittions o! Foh#2er&Ms =t&es
00 In !ort15!i"e studies in twent15se"en cu#tures8 s su2>ects &rew o#der8 the1
scended throu&h Foh#2er&'s =t&es ( throu&h : without re"ersin&A
howe"er8 =t&es < nd , did not #w1s $$er. A#so %or# >ud&%ents
%de in so%e cu#tures did not #w1s !it net#1 into Foh#2er&'s st&es.
/(00 Peo$#e in di!!erent cu#tures de!ine %or# ide#s di!!erent#1. 4or
e.%$#e8 those in co##ecti"ist cu#tures r&ue tht su$$ortin& the
co%%unit1 is %ore i%$ortnt thn su$$ortin& $erson# stndrds.
200 ?ro# Gi##i&n r&ues tht the %or# ide# !or wo%en is not Foh#2er&'s
2strct conce$t o! >ustice8 2ut one o! crin& nd re#tionshi$s.
90. Mor# de"e#o$%ent is n d$ttion to the %or# wor#d nd to s$eci!ic situtions.
VI0. ADULTHOOD
What developmental changes occur in adulthood?
Early adulthood is &es 30 to 9-A middle adulthood is &es :0 to ,<A nd late adulthood is
!ter &e ,<.
A0. Ph1sic# ?hn&es
(0. In er#1 du#thood $h1sic# &rowth continues8 nd these 1ers re o!ten the
G$ri%e o! #i!e.H
30. )1 %idd#e du#thood the senses #ose shr$ness. ;o%en &ener##1 e.$erience
menopause8 the shutdown o! re$roducti"e c$2i#it1 in their #te !orties or er#1
!i!ties.
90. In #te du#thood $h1sic# chn&es inc#ude the dwind#in& o! 2one %ss nd
hi&her ris+ o! hert disese. There re %ore di&esti"e disorders nd we+ened
re!#e.es. The 2rin shrin+s.
)0. ?o&niti"e ?hn&es
(0. Er#1 nd Midd#e Adu#thood
?o&niti"e chn&es throu&h &e si.t1 re usu##1 i%$ro"e%entsE #ernin& new
in!or%tion nd s+i##s8 retinin& o#d in!or%tion8 nd honin& s+i##s.
00 Adu#t thou&ht is %ore co%$#e. nd d$ti"e thn do#escent thou&ht.
Peo$#e's thin+in& 2eco%es dialecticalA the1 understnd tht +now#ed&e is
re#ti"e8 not 2so#ute.
30. Lte Adu#thood
A!ter &e si.t15!i"e8 so%e $eo$#e see dec#ine in certin inte##ectu# 2i#itiesC
%e%or18 !#e.i2i#it18 s$eed nd e!!icienc1 o! $rocessin& new in!or%tion8 nd the
2i#it1 to concentrte. )ut8 &i"en %ore ti%e8 o#der du#ts cn $er!or% s we## s
1oun&er du#ts. Ment# nd $h1sic# e.ercise he#$s %intin hi&h #e"e#s o!
co&niti"e 2i#it1.
00 ?o&niti"e dec#ines re #ess #i+e#1 nd occur #ess o!ten in $eo$#e who re
he#th1 nd $s1cho#o&ic##1 !#e.i2#eA who h"e hi&h #e"e# o! eduction8
inco%e8 nd occu$tionA nd who #i"e in n inte##ectu##1 sti%u#tin&
en"iron%ent with %ent##1 2#e co%$nions.
200 The &retest thret to co&niti"e 2i#ities in #te du#thood is A#@hei%er's
disese.
?0. =oci# ?hn&es
(0. Er#1 Adu#thood
Mn1 $eo$#e in their twenties !ocus on creers nd #o"e. Eri+son n%ed this n
Ginti%c1 "ersus iso#tionH crisis.
00 Adu#t $erce$tions o! inti%c1 $r##e# their er#ier $tterns o! in!nt
ttch%ent.
200 Prentin& is nother de"e#o$%ent $hse cco%$nied 21 chn&e. 4or
%n1 cou$#es8 %rit# stis!ction dec#ines. ;hen the !ther does not do
his shre o! crin& !or the 2218 2oth %others nd !thers re disstis!ied.
The 2i#it1 o! 1oun& $rents to $ro"ide de6ute cre !or their 22ies is
re#ted to their own ttch%ent histories.
30. Midd#e Adu#thood
)1 their !orties8 du#ts %1 !ocus on $roducin& so%ethin& to out#st the%.
Eri+son c##ed this the crisis o! generativity.
00 Around &e !ort18 $eo$#e &o throu&h midlife transition, re$$risin& nd
%odi!1in& their #i"es nd re#tionshi$s. 4or so%e8 2ut not ##8 the trnsition
is G%id#i!e crisis.H The de&ree o! h$$iness nd he#thiness $eo$#e
e.$erience durin& %idd#e du#thood %1 de$end on how %uch contro# the1
!ee# the1 h"e o"er their wor+8 !innces8 %rri&e8 chi#dren8 nd se. #i!e8 s
we## s the #e"e# o! eduction the1 h"e ttined nd the t1$e o! wor+ the1
re doin&.
90. Lte Adu#thood
Most $eo$#e 2etween si.t15!i"e nd se"ent15!i"e "iew the%se#"es s %idd#e5
&ed8 not o#d. The1 re usu##1 sti## cti"e $o#itic##1 nd soci##18 re $h1sic##1
"i&orous8 nd re >ust s stis!ied with #i!e s $eo$#e t other $eriods o!
du#thood. Peo$#e in #te du#thood tend to 2eco%e %ore intros$ecti"e8
cutious8 nd con!or%in&. The1 interct with others #ess !re6uent#1 2ut en>o1
these interctions %ore. As #on& s the1 h"e networ+ o! t #est three c#ose
re#ti"es or !riends8 the1 re content.
D0. Deth nd D1in&
A !ew 1ers or %onths 2e!ore deth8 $eo$#e o!ten show shr$ dec#ine in %ent#
!unctionin& +nown s terminal drop. The wreness o! i%$endin& deth is the #st
$s1cho#o&ic# crisis ccordin& to Eri+sonCinte&rit1 "ersus des$irCs $eo$#e re"iew8
e"#ute8 nd tr1 to $ut their #i"es into $ers$ecti"e.
(0. Lon&e"it1
Lon&e"it1 is re#ted to $erson#it1 chrcteristics #i+e conscientiousness nd
curiosit1. Peo$#e with hi&her IIs8 !ster rection ti%es8 nd %ore $ositi"e se#!5
$erce$tions whi#e in their !i!ties tend to #i"e #on&er8 s do $eo$#e who st1 cti"e
%ent##1 nd $h1sic##1 nd who h"e sense o! contro# o"er i%$ortnt s$ects
o! #i!e.
KEY TERMS
An cti"it1 2sed on the +e1 ter%s cou#d 2e used to introduce students to serch en&ines #i+e
Ps1cIN4O or Ps1cARTI?LE=. This cou#d 2e done s n in5c#ss de%onstrtion or s n
ssi&n%ent.
accommodation /p- 0123
assimilation /p- 0123
attachment /pp- 045'046 and 0653
attachment behavior /p- 0443
attachment theory /p- 0453
authoritarian parents /p- 0473
authoritative parents /p- 0473
behavioral genetics /pp- 054'058 and 0803
chromosomes /p- 0583
concrete operations /pp- 011 and 0163
conservation /pp- 015'011 018'016 and 04#3
conventional /p- 087 3
critical period /pp- 056'0573
deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) /p- 0583
developmental psychology /p- 0553
embryo /p- 0563
ethnic identity /pp- 088'0863
fetal alcohol syndrome /p- 0573
fetus /pp- 056'0573
formal operational period /pp- 011 086 and 0693
gender roles /pp- 082'0853
generativity /pp- 046 and 0613
genes /pp- 054'0583
identity crisis /pp- 088'086 and 0683
information processing /pp- 018'016 and 069'0623
moral development /pp- 086'06#3
maturation /pp- 054 01#'019 and 018'0163
ob!ect permanence /pp- 010'015 and 0163
parenting style /pp- 046'08#3
permissive parents /p- 0473
personality /p- 0403
postconventional /p- 0873
preconventional /p- 0873
preoperational period /pp- 015'0113
puberty /pp- 085 and 0683
reflexes /pp- 01#'0193
schemas /pp- 012'0103
sensorimotor period /pp- 012'0153
sex roles /p- 0823
sociali#ation /pp- 046'047 and 082'0803
temperament /pp- 040'045 047 and 0653
teratogens /p- 056'0573
terminal drop /p- 0643