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Teams typically outperform individuals. Teams use employee talents better. Teams are more flexible and responsive

Teams typically outperform individuals.

Teams use employee talents better.

Teams are more flexible and responsive to changes in the environment.

Teams facilitate employee involvement.

Teams are an effective way to democratize an organization and increase motivation.

Teams foster Synergy and Consensus Building among the team members

“A team is a small group of people with complimentary skills, who work actively together

“A team is a small group of people with complimentary skills, who work actively together to achieve a common purpose for which they hold themselves collectively accountable.”

TeamsTeams Teams inin in OrganizationsOrganizations Organizations

TeamworkTeamwork isis thethe processprocess ofof peoplepeople workingworking togethertogether inin teamsteams toto accomplishaccomplish commoncommon goalsgoals

people working working together together in in teams teams to to accomplish accomplish common common goals
Common objectives Trust Cooperation Support Information sharing Mutual respect Accountability

Common objectives Trust Cooperation Support Information sharing Mutual respect Accountability Positive group- no back-biting or stabbing at the back

Work Group A group that interacts primarily to share information and to make decisions to

Work Group

A group that interacts primarily to

share information and to make decisions to help each group member perform within his or her area of responsibility

Work Team

A group whose individual efforts

result in a performance that is greater than the sum of the individual inputs

Work Team A group whose individual efforts result in a performance that is greater than the
Work Team A group whose individual efforts result in a performance that is greater than the
Strengths: members work on the directive of a group leader perform within his/her area of

Strengths:

members work on the directive of a group leader perform within his/her area of responsibility Limited opportunity to engage in collective work requiring joint effort No positive Synergy ( performance is merely the summation of each members individual contribution.) Weaknesses:

Time-consuming-to pool all information Decision-making authority in a single person can be perilous

A group whose individual efforts result in a performance that is greater than the sum

A group whose individual efforts result in a performance that is greater than the sum of

the

individual inputs (generates positive

synergy) Members with complimentary skills committed to a goal Mutually accountable Interact with each other and the leader-highly collaborative Decisions reflect the know-how and experience of many-better decisions

ProblemProblem-- SelfSelf-- SolvingSolving ManagedManaged
ProblemProblem--
SelfSelf--
SolvingSolving
ManagedManaged

TypesTypes ofof TeamsTeams

CrossCross-- VirtualVirtual FunctionalFunctional
CrossCross--
VirtualVirtual
FunctionalFunctional
Composed of 5–12 employees from the same department, who meet for a few hours each

Composed of 5–12 employees from the same department, who meet for a few hours each week to discuss, share ideas or offer suggestions

A special type of Employee Involvement team is the “QUALITY CIRCLE” ( A small group of persons who meet periodically to discuss and develop solutions for problems relating to quality, productivity and cost.)

persons who meet periodically to discuss and develop solutions for problems relating to quality, productivity and
Ways of improving quality Efficiency Work environment How work processes and methods can be improved

Ways of improving quality Efficiency Work environment How work processes and methods can be improved No authority to implement their suggested actions

Groups of 10 to 15 people empowered to handle a task and make decisions on

Groups of 10 to 15 people empowered to handle a task and make decisions on a day-to-day basis. May select their own leader and members performing highly related or interdependent jobs planning scheduling of work assigning tasks to members Evaluating performance Training for job-skills

jobs planning scheduling of work assigning tasks to members Evaluating performance Training for job-skills
• • • • • •

Employees from about the same hierarchical level, but from different work areas, who come together

Employees from about the same hierarchical level, but from different work areas, who come together to accomplish a task

Task forces

Committees

level, but from different work areas, who come together to accomplish a task • Task forces
• • • • • • • •

Virtual Teams Teams that use computer technology to tie together physically dispersed members in order

Virtual Teams

Teams that use computer technology to tie together physically dispersed members in order to achieve a common goal

dispersed members in order to achieve a common goal Characteristics Characteristics of of Virtual Virtual

Characteristics Characteristics of of Virtual Virtual Teams Teams

1.

1.

2.

2.

The The absence absence of of paraverbal paraverbal and and nonverbal nonverbal cues cues A A limited limited social social context context

3.

3.

The The ability ability to to overcome overcome time time and and space space constraints constraints

4.

4.

Cost-effectiveness Cost-effectiveness and and speed speed to to teamwork teamwork

Finding a right balance between allowing individuals to show their unique talents, while at the

Finding a right balance between allowing individuals to show their unique talents, while at the same time minimizing grudges, big egos, personality conflicts and misunderstandings.

THE STRONGEST TEAMS SUCCESSFULLY BALANCE THE “I” AND THE “WE” Individual attitudes are also critical for team success

All work teams rely on resources outside the group to sustain it scarcity of resources

All work teams rely on resources outside the group to sustain it

scarcity of resources reduces the ability of the team to perform its job effectively

On traditionally managed teams two factors influence team performance. – leader’s expectations. – leader’s

On traditionally managed teams two factors influence team performance.

leader’s expectations.

leader’s mood.

Leaders who expect good things from their team are more likely to get them! Self-managed work teams often perform better than teams with formally appointed leaders. Team members decide collectively.

Who is to do what?

Ensure equal sharing.

Individual performance evaluations Incentives/Rewards Team-based appraisals – profit sharing/gain sharing –

Individual performance evaluations Incentives/Rewards Team-based appraisals profit sharing/gain sharing small-team incentives system modifications that will reinforce team effort and commitment

Teams require three different types of skills – Technical expertise – Problem-solving and decision-making skills

Teams require three different types of skills

Technical expertise

Problem-solving and decision-making skills

Interpersonal skills

The right mix is crucial Members learn the skills in which the team is deficient to reach its full potential

Teams of extraversion, conscientiousness and emotional stability achieve higher team performance characteristics that

Teams

of

extraversion,

conscientiousness and emotional stability achieve higher team performance

characteristics

that

rate

higher

in

mean

levels

agreeableness,

The

variance

in

personality

may be more important than the mean

– One bad apple can spoil the basket

Nine potential team roles. Teams selected to ensure diversity Select members for their strengths and

Nine potential team roles.

Teams selected to ensure diversity

Select

members

for

their

strengths

and

allocate work assignments accordingly.

KeyKey RolesRoles onon TeamsTeams

Adviser Linker Creator Promoter Assessor Organizer Producer Controller Maintainer
Adviser
Linker
Creator
Promoter
Assessor
Organizer
Producer
Controller
Maintainer

An adviser encourages the search for more information. A linker coordinates and integrates team functions. A creator initiates creative ideas. A promoter champions ideas after they are initiated. An assessor offers insightful analysis of opinions. An organizer provides structure. A producer provides direction and follow-through. A controller examines details and enforces rules. A maintainer fights external battles.

very small = under 4 or 5 very large = over a dozen – Very

very small = under 4 or 5 very large = over a dozen Very small teams lack diversity of views Large teams have difficulty getting much work done Effective teams = 5–12 people

Member Member Flexibility Flexibility & & Preferences Preferences

Members’ ability to complete each other’s

task improves adaptability and reduces in-dispensability

Cross training leads to higher team performance Not every employee is a team player -

threat to team’s morale

High performing teams - people who prefer working in a team

Effective teams need to work together and take collective responsibility to complete significant tasks This

Effective teams need to work together and take collective responsibility to complete significant tasks This category includes

freedom and autonomy

Skill variety

Task identity

Task significance

these characteristics enhance

member motivation

increase sense of responsibility

ownership of work

makes work interesting

increases team effectiveness

Purpose

A common and meaningful purpose

Goals

Successful teams translate their common purpose

into

specific

measurable

performance goals

and

realistic

Team goals should be challenging

Efficacy

Team efficacy-teams confidence in themselves to succeed

Team efficacy can be increased by

small successes

providing skill training

Conflict

No conflict leads to apathetic and stagnant teams

Effective

appropriate level of conflict Relationship conflicts - make teams dysfunctional Task conflicts - for teams performing non-routine activities- reduce groupthink

Social loafing

Individuals can hide inside a group. Effective teams undermine this tendency by holding themselves accountable at both the individual and team level.

teams

will

be

characterized

by

an

All team members must have no interpersonal/communication barriers be able to confront differences resolve

All team members must

have no interpersonal/communication barriers be able to confront differences resolve conflicts sublimate personal goals for the good of the team

WhatWhat What cancan can gogo go wrongwrong wrong inin in teams?teams? teams?

socialsocial loafingloafing personalitypersonality conflictsconflicts tasktask ambiguityambiguity poorpoor readinessreadiness toto workwork poorpoor teamworkteamwork

The Problems •Teamwork takes more time •Requires more resources. •Teams increase communication demands,

The Problems •Teamwork takes more time •Requires more resources. •Teams increase communication demands, conflicts to be managed, and meetings to be run. •Some managers have introduced teams into situations where the work is better done by individuals.

Three tests to see if a team fits the situation: – Is the work complex

Three tests to see if a team fits the situation:

Is the work complex and is there a need for different perspectives?

Does the work create a common purpose or set of goals for the group that is larger than the aggregate of the goals for individuals?

Are members of the group involved in interdependent tasks?

than the aggregate of the goals for individuals? – Are members of the group involved in
• • •

Team Effectiveness and Quality Management requires that teams: – Are small enough to be efficient

Team Effectiveness and Quality Management requires that teams:

Are small enough to be efficient and effective.

Are properly trained in required skills.

Are allocated enough time to work on problems.

Are given authority to resolve problems and take corrective action.

Have a designated “champion” to call on when needed.

Group Demography The degree to which members of a group share a common demographic attribute,

Group Demography

The degree to which members of a group share a common demographic attribute, such as age, sex, race, educational level, or length of service in the organization, and the impact of this attribute on turnover

Cohorts

Individuals who, as part

of

common attribute

a group, hold a

and the impact of this attribute on turnover Cohorts Individuals who, as part of common attribute
and the impact of this attribute on turnover Cohorts Individuals who, as part of common attribute
How does management re-energize stagnant teams? Effective teams can become stagnant due to – Familiarity

How does management re-energize stagnant teams?

Effective teams can become stagnant due to

Familiarity breeds apathy.

Success can lead to complacency.

Maturity brings less openness to novel ideas and innovation.

Mature teams are susceptible to groupthink.

– Prepare members to deal with the problems of maturity – refresher training – advanced

Prepare members to deal with the problems of maturity

refresher training

advanced training

development to be treated as a constant learning experience

What kinds of things have you experienced in a team setting that could be considered

What kinds of things have you experienced in a team setting that could be considered as process loss? Choose two and write them down.

things have you experienced in a team setting that could be considered as process loss? Choose
If you were asked to choose people from your class right now to make up

If you were asked to choose people from your class right now to make up a team for a class project, list five individuals you would choose.

choose people from your class right now to make up a team for a class project,
Is conflict in a team good or bad? Discuss.

Is conflict in a team good or bad? Discuss.

Is conflict in a team good or bad? Discuss.
Is conflict in a team good or bad? Discuss.