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ALCATEL

1660 SM
ALCATEL 1660SM ALCATEL 1660SM
SYSTEM DESCRIPTION SYSTEM DESCRIPTION
ALCATEL 1660SM ALCATEL 1660SM
SYSTEM DESCRIPTION SYSTEM DESCRIPTION
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SYSTEM DESCRIPTION SYSTEM DESCRIPTION SYSTEM DESCRIPTION SYSTEM DESCRIPTION
ALCATEL
1660 SM
Section Section--I: I: ALCATEL 1660SM ALCATEL 1660SM -- 1660SM in MSN Family 1660SM in MSN Family
Section Section--II: II: ALCATEL 1660SM ALCATEL 1660SM --Introduction into the Network Introduction into the Network
Section Section--III: III: ALCATEL 1660SM ALCATEL 1660SM --Subsystem description Subsystem description
1660 1660 System Description System Description -- Index Index
1660 Operation & Maintenance - Index
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1660 1660 Subassemblies Description Subassemblies Description -- Index Index
Section I Section I : ALCATEL 1660SM LCATEL 1660SM --Boards description Boards description
Section II Section II : Acronyms
ALCATEL
1660 SM
UNION SDH Network Scheme
CW
TC
OA
YS
STM-16/4
(
)
STM-1
STM-1
T1-3
LT
SS
WG
SH
TS
)

STM-1
STM-1
STM-1/4/16
(UNION )
ALCATEL
1660 SM
STM-16, Eth, GbE, Packet Ring, ATM STM-16, Eth, GbE, Packet Ring, ATM
STM-64, GbE STM-64, GbE
Metro Metro
Metro Core Metro Core
1660 SM
1670 SM
Optical Multi-Service Nodes family
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STM-1/4, Eth, GbE, Packet Ring, ATM STM-1/4, Eth, GbE, Packet Ring, ATM
STM-4, Eth, GbE, Packet Ring, ATM STM-4, Eth, GbE, Packet Ring, ATM
Metro Access Metro Access
1650 SMC
Metro CPE Metro CPE
1640 FOX
1662 SMC
1642 EM
ALCATEL
1660 SM
Alcatel 1660 SM
State-of-the-art technology integration
Upgrade to 10G (STM-64)
Four-fold traffic capacity
More HW density
CWDM OADM plug-in
8 wavelengths capacity

2
STM-64 STM-64
CWDM CWDM
Packet Ring Packet Ring
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Alcatel 1660 SM Alcatel 1660 SM
8 wavelengths capacity
4 x Any plug-in
SAN Extension, Transparent Services
ISA-Packet Ring plug-in
Carrier-Class Metro Ethernet Services
Ethernet
Fiber Channel
ESCON
FICON
D-Video
ALCATEL
1660 SM
System Description System Description
Section Section--II
ALCATEL 1660 SM ALCATEL 1660 SM
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ALCATEL 1660 SM ALCATEL 1660 SM
in MSN Family in MSN Family
ALCATEL
1660 SM
ALCATEL 1660SM in MSN Family
1.1. The new generation MSNs
1.2. 1660SM in the MSN family
1.2. System aspect: technology
1.3. System aspect: Update standards
1.4. Network aspects: Flexibility and Network
1.5. Network aspects: Migration toward MSN
1.6. Network Protection
1.7. 1660SM equipment configuration
1.8. 1660SM network configurations
T1-7
1.8. 1660SM network configurations
1.9. Ring interconnections
1.10. 1660SM in meshed networks
1.11. Management & Control
1.12. Management & Control
1.13. Common aspect : Port Units
1.14. Common aspect : Access Modules
ALCATEL
1660 SM
The New Generation SDH equipment includes the following Multi-Service Nodes
(MSN) designed with common family concepts:
1660SM 1660SM STM-1/4/16 Node and small DXC
1650SMC 1650SMC STM-1/4 compact ADM or multi-terminal
1.1 The New Generation MSNs
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1640 FOX 1640 FOX STM-1 compact ADM or terminal for SDH extension to customer
premises
1642 EM 1642 EM STM-1 compact ADM or terminal for SDH extension to customer
premises
ALCATEL
1660 SM
Notes
1.1 The New Generation MSNs
g Alcatel OPTINEX 1660 SMis a Synchronous Multi Service Node (MSN) used to implement a
generic node in the SDH Network.
g It is the main element of OPTINEX transmission equipment family, which complies with the
SDH standard defined in ITU-T Recommendation G.707/G.783.
g 1660 SM is compatible with other NEs of the Optinex family and with the installed SDH
network.
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network.
g As MSN it can be configured either as a full ADM or as a Terminal Multiplexer for point-
to-point or ring applications, at a line rate from 155(STM1) to 2500(STM16) Mb/s.
g A wide range of different ports, both SDH and PDH are provided since the first Release. Ports
with ATM and IP capability will be provided in the next releases.
ALCATEL
1660 SM
1.2. 1660SM in the MSN family
34/45 Mbit/s
STM-1
STM-4
2 Mbit/s
140 Mbit/s
ALCATEL
1660SM
96x96 STM-1 equivalent HO matrix
64x64 STM-1 equivalent LO matrix
Interfaces
Network protection
EPS
T1-10
34/45 Mbit/s
STM-4
ATM/IP
STM-16
EPS
MSP
2F MS-SPRing on STM-16 ports
SNCP (N and I) at all VC layers
4x4/8x8 STM-1 equivalent ATM
switch
GbE / Fast Ethernet
SAN Application
ALCATEL
1660 SM
1.2. System aspects: Technology
Compliance to the most recent ITU-T recommendations and ETSI standards for SDH
equipment
Use of up-to-date technologies (ASICs, microprocessors, memories, )
Centralized control architecture
Distributed power supplies
T1-11
ALCATEL
1660 SM
Notes
1.2. System aspects: Technology
All equipment in Optinex family are designed with the same concepts and with the same basic
technology.
1660 SM is provided with an high capacity (96x96 STM1 ports 96x96 STM1 ports) SDH Matrix, which cross-
connects VCs, Au4 and TUs.
ATM cell matrix have been provided.
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1660 SM has the same capability of an SDH cross-connect and its features are limited by the
available external accesses only.
Support GbE / Fast Ethernet
Following G.7041, G.7024 Standard (GFP, LCAS, MPLS, RPR, L2 VPN)
ALCATEL
1660 SM
1.3. System aspects: Updated standards
Applied standard
ITU-T G703 electrical interfaces
ITU-T G707 SDH frame and multiplexer structure
ITU-T G957-G958 optical interface
ITU-T G826 transmission quality
ITU-T G813 synchronization
ITU-T G783-G841 network protection architecture
ITU-T G784-G774 system management functions
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ITU-T G784-G774 system management functions
New features:
Concatenation AU4-C
ALCATEL
1660 SM
Notes
1.3. System aspects: Updated standards
G.703 defines standards structure and bit rates.
G.707 define SDH frame and multiplexing.
G.957-958 defines functionality and characteristics of optical interfaces.
G.826 defines performance monitoring parameters.
G.813 defines timing characteristics of SETS (Synchronous Equipment Timing
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G.813 defines timing characteristics of SETS (Synchronous Equipment Timing
Source).
G.783 defines the functional objects of an SDH NE.
G.841 defines the protection structures.
G.784 and G.774 define the network management principles.
ALCATEL
1660 SM
1.4. Network aspects:
Flexibility and Network Topologies
Network compatibility with current ADM family
Flexibility for use in all network topologies (linear, ring, and meshed networks)
Symmetric architecture; all STM-n ports are functionally equivalent
T1-15
Full cross-connect capabilities in all
configurations
Termination of multiple SNCP
rings (or MS-SPRINGs)
ALCATEL
1660 SM
Notes
1.4. Network aspects:
Flexibility and Network Topologies
1660 SM can be introduced into the SDH networks either with new generation
equipment or with existing first generation equipment.
Full compatibility is assured for transported signal as well for management functions.
The Alcatel Network Release concept has to be applied for compatibility from the
management point of view.
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management point of view.
ALCATEL
1660 SM
1.5. Network aspects:
Migration toward MSN
Port
Aggr.
Matrix
Trib. Trib.
Aggr.
ADM
T1-17
Matrix
Port
Port Port
MSN
ALCATEL
1660 SM
Notes
1.5. Network aspects:
Migration toward MSN
The first vision of SDH network was:
Rings or interconnected rings
Now the history shows that the networks can be meshed
Then the NE functions migrates :
from ADM (Add/ Drop Multiplexer)
T1-18
from ADM (Add/ Drop Multiplexer)
to Node (Multi-Service Node)
ALCATEL
1660 SM
1.6. Equipment and Network Protection
EPS (Equipment Protection Switching):
EPS on each equipment parts (excluding Access Boards)
EPS for Matrix is hitless if operated by Force command
Network Protection:
1+1 and 1:1 Linear MSP on all STM-n interfaces (single / dual ended)
HO/LO SNCP/I and SNCP/N between any SDH interface (SNCP/I only)
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HO/LO SNCP/I and SNCP/N between any SDH interface (SNCP/I only)
2 fibers MS-SPRing at STM-16
D&C functions
ALCATEL
1660 SM
EPS:
g Matrix 1+1
g PDH ports
g APS:
g STM-N linear single-ended 1+1 APS (MSP)
g SNCP/I
g Drop &Continue for Dual Ring Protection
Notes
1.6. Equipment and Network Protection
T1-20
Drop &Continue for Dual Ring Protection
g APS:
g 2F MS-SPRING
+
ALCATEL
1660 SM
NE
PDH PORTS
SDH PORT
SDH PORT
(SPARE)
NE
Side B
Side A
SDH PORT
SDH PORT
(SPARE)
SDH PORT
SDH PORT
(SPARE)
1-Terminal Multiplexer
2-Add/Drop Multiplexer
1.7. 1660SM equipment configuration
T1-21
PDH PORTS
SDH PORT
(SPARE)
(SPARE)
SDH,
NE
SDH PORT
SDH PORT
(SPARE)
SDH PORT
SDH PORT
(SPARE)
SDH PORT
3-STM-n HUB
ALCATEL
1660 SM
Notes
1.7. 1660SM equipment configurations
Terminal multiplexer
The NE is provided with an STM-1/STM-4/STM-16 station interface (optionally with 1+1 protection)
to be connected to a Digital Electronic Cross-Connect or to a higher hierarchy line system.
Add/Drop Multiplexer
The NE can be programmed to drop (insert) signals from (into) the STM1/STM4/STM-16 stream.
Part of the signal is passed-through between the line sides, defined A(W) and B(E)
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STM-N HUB
The NE allows to cross-connect VCs of multiple STM-N streams, grooming them into STM16
streams, in HUB structures.
Mixed Configuration
The NE allows to implement in the same node all the above configurations
ALCATEL
1660 SM
NE NE
PDH PORTS PDH PORTS
SDH PORT
SDH PORT
SDH PORT
SPARE
SDH PORT
SPARE
1-Point-to-Point Link:
1.8. 1660SM network configurations
T1-23
NE NE NE NE
SPARE SPARE SPARE
PDH PORTS
SDH PORT
SDH AND PDH
SDH PORT SDH PORT
PORTS
SDH AND PDH
PORTS
PDH PORTS
2-Linear Drop-insert
ALCATEL
1660 SM
Notes
1.8. 1660SM network configurations
The most important network topologies are:
Point to Point
Linear
Ring and multi-ring topology
Meshed topology
Point-to-point link
T1-24
Point-to-point link
In this case the NE can be connected to another multiplexer through a Multiplex Section
Linear Drop-insert
The NE can be configured to drop (insert) PDH and SDH ports from (into) the STM-1,
STM-4, STM-16 streams, by using the VC matrix.
ALCATEL
1660 SM
RING 1
SDH AND PDH
PORTS
PORTS
STM-N
STM-N
STM-N STM-N
SDH and PDH
PORTS
SDH and PDH
PORTS
NE
NE NE
PORTS
Each interconnecting node
can have one single NE or
1.9. Ring interconnections
T1-25
RING 2
PORTS
STM-N STM-N
STM-N
STM-N
STM-N STM-N
SDH and PDH
PORTS
SDH and PDH
PORTS
SDH and PDH
PORTS
NE
NE
NE
NE
PORTS
NE
can have one single NE or
two NEs. In case of one sigle
NE the D&C CXC at TU
level must be adopted.
ALCATEL
1660 SM
Notes
1.9. Ring interconnections
Ring structure
The drop-insert function allows to implement ring structures.
The VC can be automatically rerouted if the optical link breaks down or one of the
equipment nodes fails.
Rings can be single ring or multiple (usually dual) rings.
In case of dual rings, interconnection can be provided in two nodes, to improve
T1-26
In case of dual rings, interconnection can be provided in two nodes, to improve
availability.
ALCATEL
1660 SM
RING
SDH AND PDH
PORTS
PDH PORT
STM-N STM-N
STM-N
STM-N
STM-1 STM-1
PDH PORT
PDH PORT
PDH PORT
NE
NE
NE
NE NE
NE
1.10. 1660SM in meshed networks
T1-27
STM-N
RING
SDH AND PDH
PORTS
PDH PORT
STM-N
STM-N
STM-N
STM-N
STM-N
STM-N
PDH PORT
PDH PORT
SDH AND PDH
PORTS
NE
NE
NE
NE
NE
ALCATEL
1660 SM
Notes
1.10. 1660SM in meshed networks
Meshed Topology
1660SMcan be used to implement a mixed network architecture, with meshed and ring
structure.
The general Meshed topology may be used either in backbone networks or in case of
collection of traffic from peripheral nodes and from customer premises sites.
T1-28
1+1 line protection (MSP) may be used to protect against line failures and, in some
cases, against node failure, by using dual hub topology too.
For this type of network topologies, 1660SM MSN performs the same functions of a
digital cross connect system, including at same time SNCP protection. Differences with
4:3:1cross-connect must be taken into account mainly for matrix capacity and for access
capacity, in terms of ports number.
ALCATEL
1660 SM
1.11. Management & Control
Standard QB3 interface (G.774 infomodel)
Infomodel Craft Terminal through RS-232 (38 Kbit/s) Remote Craft Terminal
Support of Alcatel Q2/RQ2 Mediation Function
Management of up to 32 DCC channels (with automatic re-routing)
Complete network compatibility with existing equipment and TMN (IS-IS, NTP,
Dual OS)
T1-29
Dual OS)
Interchangeable PCMCIA Flash Card for non-volatile data
ALCATEL
1660 SM
Notes
1.11. Management & Control
1660 SM can be managed either locally or from the central OS (EML and RM).
Central OS can communicate with 1660 SM either through Qecc channels or through
Q3 Ethernet interface.
Notes: IS to IS ( Intermediate System) is the algorithm adopted in OSI messaging for
automatic rerouting of packet data units in the data communication network
T1-30
automatic rerouting of packet data units in the data communication network
NTP (Network Time Protocol) is the protocol used for NEs real time
synchronization: the NE asks the real time clock to a Server.
PCMCIA is mounted inside the EQUICO board: it allows to save Equipment
Configuration and Equipment Sw in not-Volatile memory, thus simply adapting the
same Hw controller to different equipment.
ALCATEL
1660 SM
1.12. Management & Control
Processing levels:
Equipment Controller (EC):
1 processor for QB3 interface, Message Communication Function (MCF) and
database management
SDH Matrix:
1 processor for Shelf Control (SC)
1 Performance Monitoring co-processor
No processors on Traffic Units (e.g. 63x2Mb/s Port card)
T1-31
EC
SC
Co-Processor
ASICs
No processors on Traffic Units (e.g. 63x2Mb/s Port card)
ALCATEL
1660 SM
Notes
1.12. Management & Control
Control features are implemented within the EQUICO and Matrix boards.
Two main levels of control are provided:
Equipment Controller (EC), including:
MCF (Message Communication Function), for DCC routing
T1-32
VMMF (Virtual Machine Management Interface), to process the equipment data in
order to present the infomodel to the management system
Shelf Controller (SC) with PMMF (Physical Machine Management Function), to
control the real physical resources: this controller directly interfaces the ASICs.
EC+SC form the SEMF+MCF functional blocks specified in G.783 Rec.
ALCATEL
1660 SM
1.13. Common aspects:Port Units
PORT UNITS: PORT UNITS:
63 x 2 Mbit/s
63 x 2 Mbit/s ISDN-PRA
3 x 34/45 Mbit/s switchable
4 x 140M/STM-1 switchable
4 x STM-1 electrical
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4 x STM-1 electrical
4 x STM-1 electrical / optical
1 x STM-4 optical
1 x STM-16 optical
ALCATEL
1660 SM
Notes
1.13. Common aspects:Port Units
As part of the new OPTINEX family, 1660SM shares most plug-in units with
1650SMC
In this way, network upgrade capacity is improved and costs and spare management
are optimized.
The main difference, compared with 1650SMC, is that SYNTH board is not used in
T1-34
The main difference, compared with 1650SMC, is that SYNTH board is not used in
1660SM: to get more flexibility it is substituted by Matrix+EQUICO boards
STM-1 electrical / optical interfaces are mounted on plug-in modules that allow
flexible combination of electrical and optical (short or long haul) ports on the same
unit
ALCATEL
1660 SM
1.14. Common aspects:Access Modules
ACCESS MODULES: ACCESS MODULES:
21 x 2 Mbit/s
3 x 34 Mbit/s
3 x 45 Mbit/s
4 x STM-1 electrical
T1-35
4 x STM-1 electrical
2 x 140/STM-1 O/E adapter
High speed protection
2 x STM-1 electrical / optical
STM1 electrical /optical Module
ALCATEL
1660 SM
Notes
1.14. Common aspects:Access Modules
Access Modules for PDH ports are separated from Port Modules.
Access Modules hold the physical connectors for:
PDH ports,
SDH ports,
Management Interface (Q3 and Q2),
External clock,
T1-36
External clock,
Alarms and Housekeepings,
Auxiliary channels
Power supply
In this way a better scalability is obtained in configuring the equipment.
ALCATEL
1660 SM
System Description System Description
Section Section--II II
ALCATEL 1660 SM ALCATEL 1660 SM
T1-37
ALCATEL 1660 SM ALCATEL 1660 SM
Introduction into the Network Introduction into the Network
ALCATEL
1660 SM
OPERATION
SYSTEM
GATEWAY
CRAFT
TERMINAL
OPERATION
SYSTEM
GATEWAY
LAN
BRIDGES
LAN
BRIDGES
1660SM
GATEWAY
DCN
LAN
LAN
QB3
F F F 1660SM 1660SM
1660SM
2.5. 1660SM in the Management System
T1-38
DCC
NE NE NE
F
CRAFT
TERMINAL
F
F
DCC DCC
DCN : DATA COMMUNICATION NETWORK
1660SM 1660SM 1660SM
ALCATEL
1660 SM
Notes
2.5. 1660SM in the Management System
The management of the NE is performed by :
Craft Terminal (CT).
Operations System (OS) made up of one or more Workstation, whose function is widened to network
management. Further it permits the connection to the Telecommunications Management Network
(TMN).
Craft Terminal interface is an EIA-RS232 type (F interface). It can be:
local, connecting the Craft Terminal via the F interface.
T1-39
remote, from another SDH equipment or SDH gateway of the network where a Craft Terminal is
connected (to the F interface), addressing the actual equipment. In this case the management
information is transported by the optical network, using DCC bytes (Qecc link), or routed by a LAN.
When Remote Craft Terminal option is used, a max of 32 equipments are manageable by means of one
F interface.
Interface QB3 allows to establish connection with the OS; the management information can be
transported by the optical network, using DCC bytes (Qecc protocol) or by a dedicated LAN
network. It supports dual addressing to OS, allowing OS redundancy protection.
ALCATEL
1660 SM
2.6. 1660SM connected to the OS
T1-40
ALCATEL
1660 SM
Notes
2.6. 1660SM connected to the OS
Connection between NE and OS is performed in the following way:
The EC Equipment Controller (physically within EQUICO unit) transfers messages
between QB3 and DCC.
To forward TMN messages towards other NEs, the Equipment Controller uses the QECC
bus connected with the STM-1 ports.
Messages are transmitted on D1:D12 bytes of STM (DCC). The connected NE extracts the
messages from these bytes and sends them to the Equipment Controller.
T1-41
messages from these bytes and sends them to the Equipment Controller.
In the selected NE the Equipment Controller uses the MANAGEMENT BUS to exchange
data with the units.
Data are transferred towards the OS via the STM-1 DCC. In all the NE not involved
in DCC termination, the Equipment Controller passes through the DCC between the
two opposite STM-1 ports (STM-1 port A and STM-1 port B in the example).
ALCATEL
1660 SM
System Description System Description
Section Section--III III
ALCATEL 1660 SM ALCATEL 1660 SM
T1-42
ALCATEL 1660 SM ALCATEL 1660 SM
Subsystems Description Subsystems Description
ALCATEL
1660 SM
INDEX
3.1. 1660SM Sub-systems
3.2 Sub system & involved cards
3.3. 1660 SM Mechanical Sub-system
3.4. 1660SM layout: Access Area and Basic area
3.5. 1660SM layout: reserved slots
3.6. Payload Sub-system: general characteristics
3.6. Payload Sub-system: general characteristics
3.7 Payload Sub-system: External Accesses
3.8 Payload Sub-system: Cards Connections
T1-43
3.8 Payload Sub-system: Cards Connections
3.8. High Order Low Order connection for 1660SM
3.9. OH and DCC Sub-systems
3.10. Control and SW Sub-systems: general
3.11. Control and SW Sub-systems: Architecture
3.12. Control and SW Sub-systems
3.13. Synchronization Sub-system
3.17. Network Protection : SNCP
ALCATEL
1660 SM
INDEX
3.14. Equipment protections
3.15. Equipment Protection : example
3.16. EPS: resume of characteristics
3.17. Network Protection : MSP
3.18 Network Protection : Drop & Continue
3.18. Drop & Continue with 1660SM
3.18. Drop & Continue: failure
3.18. Drop & Continue with 1660SM
3.19 Collapsed dual node ring interconnection
T1-44
3.19 Collapsed dual node ring interconnection
3.20 Collapsed single node ring interconnection
3.21. Network Protection : MS-SPRING
3.22. Network Protection:Squelch in MS-SPRING
ALCATEL
1660 SM
3.1. 1660SM Sub-systems
1660SM Sub-systems
Mechanical Sub-system
Payload Sub-system
OH Sub-system
Control Sub-system
DCC Sub-system
SW Sub-system
T1-45
SW Sub-system
Synchronization Sub-system
ALCATEL
1660 SM
Notes
3.1. 1660SM Sub-systems
SDH Equipment basic structure
A general SDH equipment can be abstracted in 7 main Sub-systems:
Mechanical Sub-system: Rack, Shelf, Boards, Connectors, Cabling;
Payload Sub-system: Hw and SW devoted to transfer payload from input to output ports,
T1-46
managing cross-connections and payload related alarms and performance parameters;
OH Sub-system: Hw and Sw devoted to manage clear and message channels (typically
users channels) embedded into SDH frame, at any level of hierarchy.
ALCATEL
1660 SM
Notes
3.1. 1660SM Sub-systems
Control Sub-system: Hw and Sw drivers devoted to manage the NE as an Agent of the
management system, allowing configuration, performance and alarms management.
DCC Sub-system: Hw and Sw devoted to DCN embedded DCC into SDH MSOH and
RSOH .
SW Sub-system: Application SW, as part of Control Subsystem, devoted to to manage the
T1-47
SW Sub-system: Application SW, as part of Control Subsystem, devoted to to manage the
NE as an Agent of the management system
Synchronization Sub-system: Hw and Sw devoted to recover Synchronization signal
from external network (SDH or PDH), in order to provide internal clock and optionally to
supply an external clock.
ALCATEL
1660 SM
3.2 Sub system & involved cards
T1-48
ALCATEL
1660 SM
3.2 Notes: Sub system & involved cards
T1-49
ALCATEL
1660 SM
The access area:
slot 1-9, 13-21: access cards
slot 10: CONGI A
slot 11: SERVICE
slot 12: CONGI B
3.3. 1660 SM Mechanical Sub-system
T1-50
slot 12: CONGI B
The basic area:
slot 22: EQUICO
slot 23, 40: Matrix
slot 24-39: High speed / Low Speed
port
ALCATEL
1660 SM
Notes
3.3. 1660 SM Mechanical Sub-system
Mechanical Sub-system: Rack, Shelf, Boards, Connectors, Cabling
Three types of cards are used :
Access card: board containing the signal physical interfaces ( electrical connectors)
Ports card: board that performs the SDH signal processing
Module (electrical or optical) : special plug-in card ( of small dimensions ) inserted on
the front panel of some SDH port cards.
T1-51
EQUIPMENT view:
1660SM is composed of one shelf containing 21 slots in the access area and 19 slots in
the basic area. The two areas are located on different lines inside the shelf.
ALCATEL
1660 SM
CONGI A: Remote alarms, Station alarms,
Housekeeping, QB3 (10base2 and
10baseT), Q2/RQ2, Power A;
CONGI B: Remote alarms, Housekeeping,
Power B;
SERVICE: AUX and Synch interfaces;
3.4. 1660SM layout: Access Area and Basic area
E
Q
U
I
C
O
M
A
T
R
I
X

A
M
A
T
R
I
X

B
C
O
N
G
I

A
C
O
N
G
I

B
S
E
R
V
I
C
E
6
5
0

T1-52
MATRIX : 96x96 STM-1 Matrix&CRU, SC;
EQUICO : Equipment Controller (EC).
Traffic units except STM-16
Traffic units except 2Mbit/s
Electrical access modules
2xSTM-1 Optical Access Module Electrical
protection for High Speed interfaces
19
E
Q
U
I
C
O
M
A
T
R
I
X

A
M
A
T
R
I
X

B
STM-
16
STM-
16
STM-
16
STM-
16
STM-
16
ALCATEL
1660 SM
Notes
3.4. 1660SM layout: Access Area and Basic area
Mechanical Sub-system
Access Area:
21 slots :
first 9 slots and last 9 slots are for Access Cards
the 3 central slots are reserved for: CONGI-A, SERVICE and CONGI-B
CONGI= Control & General interface
SERVICE has similar functions as SERGI in 1650SMC
Basic Area:
T1-53
Basic Area:
19 slots:
the first slot (#22) is reserved for EQUICO (Equipment Controller)
second slot (#23) and last but one slot (#40) are reserved for Matrix (Main and Spare)
Notes:
CONGI-A and CONGI-B are usually both equipped, to protect the battery connection: they are mainly
used for power supply and they hold the battery connectors (A and B) on the front panel ;
CONGI-A holds the MAC Address of the NE;
two bus terminations are plugged-in (fixed) near the slots 22 and 41
ALCATEL
1660 SM
Access Area Access Area
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21
L20 L20 L20 L20 L20 L20 L20 L20 L20 L20 L20 L20 L20 L20 L20 L20 L20 L20 L20 L20 L30
3.5. 1660SM layout: reserved slots
T1-54
Basic Area Basic Area
22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31
32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41
L20 L35 L20 L20 L20 L20 L20 L20 L20 L20 L20 L20 L20 L20 L20 L20 L20 L20 L35 L20
ALCATEL
1660 SM
Notes
3.5. 1660SM layout: reserved slots
Mechanical Sub-system
Enhanced HS port slots: these are slots 25-26, 28-29, 34-35 and 37-38
These are slots where STM16 boards can be plugged-in
These slots are connected to the Matrix by means of 8xSTM1 equivalent links,
instead of normal 4xSTM1 equivalent link
Enhanced slots are reserved either for STM16 ports or for other HS ports
Each STM16 port board is connected with two enhanced slots toward the Matrix, in
order to get full connectivity of 16 AU4.
T1-55
LS ports are the 2Mb/s ports (P63E1 board): max 6 LS port boards
LS Accesses are the accesses for 2Mb/s: max 18 LS Access boards
HS ports and HS Accesses correspond to 34, 45, 140, STM1 and STM4 ports
Slots marked as LS can be equipped with 2Mb/s Ports or with 2Mb/s Accesses only.
Slots marked as LS-HS can be equipped either with LS boards or with HS boards.
Spare board for LS port boards can be inserted into slot#32 only
ALCATEL
1660 SM
3.5. 1660SM layout: reserved slots
Port Card Acronym Port Card Slot Access Card acronym Access Card Slot
P3E3T3 24 A3E3 2
P3E3T3 25 A3E3 3
P3E3T3 26 A3E3 4
P3E3T3 27 A3E3 5
P3E3T3 28 A3E3 6
P3E3T3 29 A3E3 7
P3E3T3 30 A3E3 8
P3E3T3 31 A3E3 9
P3E3T3 32 A3E3 13
P3E3T3 33 A3E3 14
Relation between P3E3T3 and A3E3(3x34Mb/s)
T1-56
P3E3T3 33 A3E3 14
P3E3T3 34 A3E3 15
P3E3T3 35 A3E3 16
P3E3T3 36 A3E3 27
P3E3T3 37 A3E3 18
P3E3T3 38 A3E3 19
P3E3T3 39 A3E3 20
Notes: there is exactly the same that you see the previous table between the following boards:
P3E3T3 and A3T3 (3x45Mbt/s),
P4S1N, P4E4N, and A2S1,
P4ES1N(4xSTM-1 Electrical) and A4ES1
ALCATEL
1660 SM
3.5. Notes
Port Card Acronym Port Card Slot Access Card acronym Access Card Slot
A21E1 1
24 A21E1 2
A21E1 3
A21E1 4
27 A21E1 5
A21E1 6
A21E1 7
P63E1
30 A21E1 8
Relation between P63E1,P63E1N and A21E1
T1-57
P63E1
30 A21E1 8
A21E1 9
32(spare) ------- -------
A21E1 13
33 A21E1 14
A21E1 15
A21E1 16
36 A21E1 27
A21E1 18
A21E1 19
39 A21E1 20
A21E1 21
ALCATEL
1660 SM
3.6. Payload Sub-system: general characteristics
Payload architecture Payload architecture:
based on a centralized matrix with only connection function but capability of
autonomously deciding protection switching based on the concept of in-band signaling;
96x96 HPC 64x64 LPC
no functional difference between aggregate and tributary ports;
backpanel connections running at 622Mb/s (2x622 Mb/s for enhanced slots)
T1-58
backpanel connections running at 622Mb/s (2x622 Mb/s for enhanced slots)
up to 63 x 2 Mb/s and 4 x STM1 (electrical) single board.
ALCATEL
1660 SM
Notes
3.6. Payload Sub-system: general characteristics
1660SM architecture is based on a central VC-Matrix, which can cross-connect VC, AU4
and TU
All Ports are connected to the Matrix in the same way, without any difference between the
port types.
LO and HO connections are always performed by the matrix: no direct connection
between two ports is allowed
T1-59
between two ports is allowed
There is no constraint for the timeslot change for each cross-connection (e.g.: TU12#n of
an SDH port can be cross-connected to TU12#m of another SDH port, with n and m
generic)
ALCATEL
1660 SM
3.7 Payload Sub-system: External Accesses
96x96 STM-1 equivalent HO matrix
64x64 STM-1 equivalent LO matrix Interfaces:
Up to 64 STM-1
Up to 64 140Mbit/s
Up to 16 STM-4
Up to 4 STM-16
Up to 378 2Mbit/s
T1-60
Up to 378 2Mbit/s
Up to 48 34/45Mbit/s
Network protection
MSP/MS-SPRing on STM-n ports(2F MS-SPRING)
SNCP (N and I) at all VC layers
4x4/8x8 STM-1 equivalent ATM/IP switch
ALCATEL
1660 SM
Notes
3.7 Payload Sub-system: External Accesses
External Accesses can be PDH or SDH interfaces, from 2Mb/s up to STM16
ATM and IP over SDH have been provided, using same interfaces or other suitable
physical interfaces.
The Matrix has a capacity of 96 bi-directional STM1 ports, of which 64 ports can be
structured.
T1-61
structured.
Comparing with other MSNs:
Both 1650SMC and 1640FOX have a Matrix with 32 STM1 equivalent bi-directional
ports;
How the capacity can be fulfilled: e.g. four STM16 ports have 4x16 STM1s; if they
are all structured (up to VC3 or VC12) and cross-connected to each other, the LO
capacity of the matrix (LPC) is saturated.
ALCATEL
1660 SM
Legenda:
(2)
(1)
2 Mbit/s to 2 Mbit/s connections, 34Mbit/s to 34 Mbit/s connections,
45 Mbit/s to 45 Mbit/s connections, 140 Mbit/s to 140 Mbit/s, 155 Mbit/s to 155 Mbit/s
STM-1 to STM-4/STM-16 connections
STM-4 to STM-4, STM-16 to STM-16.
Notes
3.8 Payload Sub-system: Cards Connections
T1-62
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
STM-1 to STM-4/STM-16 connections
140 Mbit/s to STM-1/STM-4/STM-16 connections
34 or 45 Mbit/s to STM-1/STM-4/STM-16 connections
2 Mbit/s to STM-1/STM-4/STM-16 connections
ALCATEL
1660 SM
See notes (1).(5) attached
MATRIX
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(1)
(1)
MATRIX spare
STM-4
STM-16
3.8 Payload Sub-system: Cards Connections
T1-63
63x2 Mbit/s 34/45 Mbit/s 140 Mbit/s
STM-1
MATRIX
(1) (1) (1) (1)
main
access card access card access card access card
ALCATEL
1660 SM
3.8. High Order Low Order connection for 1660SM
The following table illustrates the connections for each unit:
T1-64
ALCATEL
1660 SM
3.8. Notes
The connections can be realized at VC-12, VC-3, and VC-4 level using a not
blocking matrix present on the MATRIX unit.
Several types of connections may be established, such as:
Unidirectional Point to Point
Unidirectional Point to Multipoint
Bidirectional Point to Point
The maximum matrix cross connection capability can be 96 x 96 STM-1 equivalent
port at VC-4 level or 64x64 STM-1 equivalent port at VC-12 / VC-3 level + 32x32
T1-65
port at VC-4 level or 64x64 STM-1 equivalent port at VC-12 / VC-3 level + 32x32
STM-1 equivalent port at VC-4 level.
AU4-4C and AU4-16C concatenated signals can also be cross connected between
any STM-4 and STM-16 ports.
ALCATEL
1660 SM
G.A.
G.A.
G.A.
EQUICO
STM-N port
STM-N port STM-N port
SERVICE
DCC/AUX
EXTRACTION
DCC/AUX
EXTRACTION
DCC/AUX
EXTRACTION
DCC BUS A
QAUX
OH Matrix
3.9. OH and DCC Sub-systems
T1-66
DCC
MANAGEMENT
EQUICO SERVICE
4 X G.703 64 Kbit/s
Order Wire
Extension Engineering
INTERFACES
DCC A
2 x 2 Mbit/s G.703
4 x V11
4 x RS232
OH Matrix
ALCATEL
1660 SM
Notes
3.9. OH and DCC Sub-systems
Main features concerning with OH access are performed within SERVICE Card.
The SERVICE card can be used as required:
to externally access the EOW interface
to connect the external access point to the SOH and POH bytes of the units (termination)
to allow SOH and POH bytes to pass through the various units.
The external access points of the SERVICE card are:
one local operators set for speech connection, with the following types of connections:
between two stations (selective call)
among three stations (multi-selective call)
T1-67
among three stations (multi-selective call)
omnibus call
Engineering order wire extensions
four V11 64kb/s data channels
four RS232 64kb/s data channels
four G.703 64 Kb/s data channels
two 2 Mbit/s G.703 data channels
On the SERVICE units a not blocking matrix performs SOH and POH bytes cross
connections The matrix cross connect the RS232, V11, and G.703 data channels.
The matrix also receives: DCC bi-directional link from EQUICO (DCC-A) and from STM-n
port; AUX bi-directional link from STM-n ports.
ALCATEL
1660 SM
3.10. Control and SW Sub-systems: general
Control architecture:
2 level architecture (Equipment Controller and Shelf Controller), based on isolation of
processes in three groups:
line and network protections
EPS, configuration, alarm reporting, performance monitoring
management interfaces, info model, DCC routing
T1-68
Dedicated Co-Processors (PC): HW incorporation of features that were SW in the old
generation (e.g.: performance monitoring, failure filtering, network protections)
Elimination of card controllers; at most three processors in the main shelf (with
redundancy option)
ALCATEL
1660 SM
Notes
3.10. Control and SW Sub-systems: general
Equipment Sw is supported by the following Hw:
Equipment Controller (EC) is implemented by the EQUICO card.
Shelf Controller (SC) is implemented as part of the MATRIX card.
Peripheral Controller (PC) is a set of FPGA Co-processors, for specific functions
EC
EC provides the HW/SW for the communication between NE and Management system (OS, Craft
Terminal, etc).
SC
SC provides the resources to support the SW functions related to the control and management operation
T1-69
g1+1 Matrix + Timing EPS:The OMSN architecture merges on the same card the Matrix and Timing, as well as
the Shelf Controller driving this circuitry and the peripheral logic of each service/traffic card equipped in the shelf.
Every failure condition blocking the availability of one of these centralized functions initiates the EPS switch
algorithm, which affects simultaneously the three parts.
gThe hardware and software implementation is based on a Matrix + Timing + Shelf Controller switching
mechanism intrinsically traffic hitless; the typical real case emulating this situation is the EPS switch
commanded by operator while there aren't pending failures on the active unit.
SC provides the resources to support the SW functions related to the control and management operation
of the boards.
PC is part of Shelf Controller
ALCATEL
1660 SM
CONGI a
Rack LEDs
Housekeeping
Alarms
NOT SDH NE OS
Local
Craft Terminal
QB
Remote and
RA
REMOTE
OPERATION
SYSTEM
CONGI b
EXTERNAL
INTERFACE
EXTERNAL
INTERFACE
QMD QAUX
RE/HK
QB
RE/HK
SERVICE
EXTERNAL
INTERFACE
3.11. Control and SW Sub-systems
T1-70
MATRIX a MATRIX b
F
Craft Terminal
EQUICO
ISSB
Management BUS
QECC
SDH units
PDH units
STM-1
Access
Modules
SERVICE
Management BUS
STM-1
EC
SC SC
FLASH
CARD
ALCATEL
1660 SM
3.11. Control and SW Sub-systems: Architecture
Equipment Controller (EQUICO board) Equipment Controller (EQUICO board)
EC) performs all the SW functions related to control and management, like info-model
processing, event reporting and logging, equipment data base management, SW
downloading, etc.
To support these activities, the EC uses a not- volatile RAM (Flash card), where MIB
(Management Information Base) and SW Releases are stored.
T1-71
Shelf Controller (SC within the Matrix Board) Shelf Controller (SC within the Matrix Board)
SC directly interfaces the ASICS on the boards implementing the SDH functions for data
collection (faults or alarm event detection, performance monitoring data) and
configuration management.
As the SC is involved in critical activities ( for instance EPS ) , it is 1+1 protected
SC is connected to HW-based Co-processors (PC), implemented by FPGA, e.g.: Protection
Co-Processor, Performance Monitoring Co-Processor etc.
ALCATEL
1660 SM
3.11. Control and SW Sub-systems: Architecture
Control Sub Control Sub--system internal connections system internal connections (Internal busses)
For the controller sub-system the following Internal Busses are defined:
Management bus Management bus (including: Intra-Card Parallel Bus, Intra-Shelf Parallel Bus,
Control Serial Bus) that allows:
connection between SC and boards for configuration data provisioning
remote inventory data acquisition
data collection (alarms ) and commands handling (e.g.loops)
T1-72
data collection (alarms ) and commands handling (e.g.loops)
Intra Intra--shelf Serial Bus shelf Serial Bus (ISSB) for communication between EC and SC
Note:Blocks marked FUTURE EXTENSION are shown only to demonstrate the
equipment capability for up-grading.
ALCATEL
1660 SM
3.12. Control and SW Sub-systems
External interfaces toward Craft Terminal, OS and External interfaces toward Craft Terminal, OS and
Mediation Device Mediation Device
F interface: available from the EC for connection to a local Craft Terminal;
electrical interface and connector are provided by EQUICO card. The standard
implementation of the physical layer for the F interface consists of an RS-232 UART
port accessible from the EQUICO card front panel.
T1-73
port accessible from the EQUICO card front panel.
QECC interface: TMN related communication interface based on Embedded
Communication Channels (D bytes), used to implement the DCN network toward the
OS.
ALCATEL
1660 SM
3.12. Control and SW Sub-systems
QAUX interface: additional TMN communication interface for message exchange between
NE and Remote OS station based on the use of a 2 Mbit/s proprietary protocol (customized
feature).
QMD interface: Q2/RQ2 Mediation device interface, to connect 1660SM with non-SDH
NEs; both the master and slave modes are supported. RS-485 interface and connector are
provided on the CONGI card.
QB2/3 interface: dedicated to OS connection. Both QB2 and QB3 options can be supported for
T1-74
QB2/3 interface: dedicated to OS connection. Both QB2 and QB3 options can be supported for
the connection to a WAN or LAN respectively. QB2 protocol stack requires an RS-485
interface, while QB3 requires a 10 BASE 2 or a 10 BASE T interface. The Qx physical
interfaces are provided by CONGI card.
RE / HK interface: parallel I/O signals for remote alarms and housekeeping I/O. The relevant
electrical interfaces are placed on the two CONGI cards, and they are controlled by the EC
through parallel I/O ports.
RA interface: commands toward the rack to light up the relevant lamps.
ALCATEL
1660 SM
3.13. Synchronization Sub-system
T1-75
ALCATEL
1660 SM
Notes
3.13. Synchronization Sub-system
The general structure of SETS (Synchronous equipment Timing Source) is the
following :
the SDH Equipment clock accepts up to 6 synchronization inputs from a number of
sources:(INPUT)
T1 is the clock derived from STM-N line signal;
T2 is a signal 2 Mbit/s containing both data and clock information;
T3 can be a 2 MHz or a 2 Mbit/s signal
internal oscillator (source 0).
T1-76
internal oscillator (source 0).
Automatic selection of one of these sources is achieved by selector B using quality (SSM
algorithm) or priority criteria.
Also manual selection is possible.
The SETS implemented in the Matrix card allows two external 2MHz/2Mb/s inputs
(T3/T6) and two 2MHz/2Mb/s outputs (T4/T5): connectors for T3 and T4 are on the front
panel of Service card.
ALCATEL
1660 SM
3.13. Synchronization Sub-system
Notes
The working modes:
locked
holdover
free running
are compliant to the ITU-T G.810, G.812 and G.813 Recommendations.
T1-77
A PLL is present that maintains locked the System clock to the one selected as a
input in case the equipment works in the "locked" mode.
ALCATEL
1660 SM
3.13. Synchronization Sub-system
Notes
As the MATRIX is redundant, the synchronization function is redundant as well.
The synchronization system guarantees the Hitless switch because the two MATRIX
works in a Master-Slave mode. In order to maintain locked and in phase the two
G.A. some signal are exchange on the SYNC BUS.
T1-78
ALCATEL
1660 SM
3.14. Equipment Protection
Matrix Card :
EPS protection 1+1 (not REVERTIVE)
LS Port Card:
N+1 EPS protection (N=1...6).
Spare Board has to be plugged in the slot 32. The same access cards are shared
between main and spare ports.
Only one protection scheme
T1-79
HS Port Card:
N+1 EPS protection only for HS electrical ports (N=1....15 with max 8 protection
schemes). The constraints are the following:
for the protecting port the corresponding access card has to be an HPROT access card
(without connectors)
the protecting card has to be plugged at the left side of the protected port or ports (the
same rule has to be respected by the corresponding access cards).
the main/spare ports have to be adjacent.
ALCATEL
1660 SM
Notes
3.14. Equipment protections
MATRIX
Main in slot 23
Spare in slot 40
CONGI: slots 10 and 12 (protection for Battery input only)
T1-80
ALCATEL
1660 SM
3.14. Equipment protections
The hardware failures causing automatic EPS protection switch can be grouped as :
failures causing the internal equipment link loss as powering KO, Clock loss, card missing
(referred as LOS/LOF)
failures causing traffic loss (the internal link is preserved) as for instance unlocked
oscillator, optical module defective, electrical interface defective and so on.
failures not causing traffic loss nor internal link loss but causing loss of management as
ISPB failure or SPI failure.
T1-81
Moreover some failures can cause equipment malfunctioning ( as remote inventory
fault, laser degrade, loss of DC/DC synchronism ).These hardware faults are
signalled to the management system and do not provokes an automatic switch.
ALCATEL
1660 SM
3.15. Equipment Protection : example
T1-82
ALCATEL
1660 SM
Notes
3.15. Equipment Protection : example
Low Speed (LS) port protection: 2 Mbit/s speed ports . LS ports are connected in a fixed
way to the relevant access cards using point-to-point connections. To connect the 63x2 Mbit/s
streams, 3 access cards are needed.
Spare LS port board is connected with all the access cards using point-to-multipoint connections.
Only one protection group N+1 revertive can be created because the spare port card must be in a
fixed position : Slot 32
T1-83
fixed position : Slot 32
Switches to select between main and protection links are located on the access cards and managed by a
microprocessor. The switch is activated in case of failure.
ALCATEL
1660 SM
Notes
3.15. Equipment Protection : example
High Speed (HS) port protection: 34 Mbit/s , 45 Mbit/s , 140 Mbit/s and 155 Mbit/s
electrical ports.
Up to 16 HS Port Cards can be housed in the basic area. For electrical HS ports the corresponding
access cards have to be put in the access area with fixed relations
More than one protection group N+1 revertive can be created (max 8), depending on the equipment
configuration. For each N + 1 protected group the revertive mode is supported while the 1+1 EPS
can be only not revertive.
T1-84
can be only not revertive.
The spare card position can be assigned in a flexible way . The only constraint are the following :
the access card corresponding to the spare card must be an HPROT card
the HPROT card has to be plugged at the left side of the access card group
the main/spare ports have to be adjacent.
the protecting card has to be plugged at the left side of the protected group of ports
the protecting/protected group of ports have to be of the same type (except 34 and 45Mb/s).
ALCATEL
1660 SM
3.16. EPS: resume of characteristics
EPS protection is applicable to the PDH/SDH traffic cards with electrical
interfaces. In the latter case the EPS is applied to the interface traffic card only; the
access module cards are part of the line and unprotected. General characteristics
of the EPS protection mode are:
Switching criteria: card-missing, card-fail
Switching time: max 50ms
T1-85
Switching time: max 50ms
Operation mode:
1+1 EPS always non-revertive
N+1 EPS always revertive w/ fixed WTR = 5 minutes
External commands to control the switch position: Manual, Force, Lockout, Clear
ALCATEL
1660 SM
Notes
3.16. EPS: resume of characteristics
EPS for 2Mb/s ports, 34/45Mb/s, 140Mb/s Ports and STM1 Electrical Ports.
Equipment modularity and implementation peculiarities have been be case by case
mentioned in the description of the individual EPS protection.
T1-86
ALCATEL
1660 SM
3.17. Network Protection : MSP
Single ended Single ended
Dual ended Dual ended
T1-87
Dual ended Dual ended
ALCATEL
1660 SM
3.17. Network Protection : MSP
Notes
In single ended mode the protection is accomplished by switching only the signal affected by the failure.
In dual ended mode the protection is accomplished by switching both the affected and the unaffected signals.
MS linear trail Protection (1+1 linear APS)
1+1 linear APS (single ended/dual ended MSP): line protection for STM-N interfaces only.
Switching criteria are : LOS, LOF, MS-AIS, Excessive BER, and, with software setting, Signal
Degrade.
Note that each STM-1 electrical stream can be protected by an optical stream and vice versa.
Switching signaling (in dual ended) is carried over the APS channel (K1 and K2 bytes), using the K-
T1-88
Switching signaling (in dual ended) is carried over the APS channel (K1 and K2 bytes), using the K-
byte protocol.
ALCATEL
1660 SM
3.17. Network Protection : SNCP
BRIDGE
SWITCH
T1, T2 PASS-THROUGH
T2 PASS-THROUGH
T1 PASS-THROUGH
2
T1
T2
4
3
Side A
Side B
Side A Side B
SNCP/I or SNCP/N
T1-89
SWITCH
T1 PASS-THROUGH
T1 PASS-THROUGH
T2 PASS-THROUGH
COUNTER
CLOCKWISE
CLOCKWISE
T2
T1
1
5
Side B
Side A
Side B
Side A
Side B
Side A
ALCATEL
1660 SM
Notes
3.17. Network Protection : SNCP
SNCP (Sub-Network Connection Protection)
Two types of SNCP are possible:
SNCP/I (Inherent monitoring) that switches on SSF criteria (AU-AIS and AU-LOP for HVC
and TU-LOP/TU-AIS for LVC).
SNCP/N (Non-intrusive monitoring) where POH is monitored by the POM enable before the
matrix. The switches criteria are SSF and one or more of ExBER, TIM, UNEQ, SD; in this case the
same selection must be made on each N.E. of the ring. (SNCP/N is not available in current
T1-90
same selection must be made on each N.E. of the ring. (SNCP/N is not available in current
Release).
Two operating modes can be selected for single VC SNCP:
revertive (the signal is switched back into the working channel, after recovery of the fault)-In the
revertive operation the Wait time to restore (WTR) is fixed at 5 min.
not revertive
ALCATEL
1660 SM
3.18 Network Protection : Drop & Continue
The Drop and Continue features
simultaneously realizes the
following on one node:
unidirectional pass-through
protected drop
insertion in one direction
T1-91
The configurations achievable are:
D/C-AINS-A
D/C-B INS-A
D/C-B INS-B
D/C-AINS-B
ALCATEL
1660 SM
Notes
3.18 Network Protection : Drop & Continue
Drop & Continue (dual node interworking)
Drop and Continue (D&C) is a way of protecting a path crossing a number of sub-
networks, e.g., rings. The sub-networks should be connected through at least two nodes.
The equipment is configured as DROP and CONTINUE at each interconnection node.
The subnetworks equipment implement the SNCP connection.
T1-92
1660SM allows to implement D&C by using one single NE at each interconnecting node as
D&C cross-connection can also be implemented at TUn level: this is a very important feature
in inter-connecting rings.
ALCATEL
1660 SM
3.18 Drop & Continue with 1660SM
Drop and Continue is a way of protecting a
path crossing a number of sub-networks,
rings.
The sub-networks should be connected through
at least two nodes (so realizing two
independent connections).
INS
A
A B A B
INS
B
D/CA INSA D/CB INS B
1
5
3 4
2
DC A IN A DC B IN B
T1-93
A
A B A B
INS
A INS
B
D/CB INSB D/CA INSA
7
9
8
6 10
DC A IN A DC B IN B
ALCATEL
1660 SM
3.18. Drop & Continue: failure
1
2 5
3 4
T1-94
6 10
7
9
8
Drop & Continue
1st failure
ALCATEL
1660 SM
3.18. Drop & Continue: failure
1
2 5
3 4
T1-95
6 10
7
9
8
Drop & Continue
2nd failure
ALCATEL
1660 SM
3.18. Drop & Continue with 1660SM
Drop & Continue connection (D&C CxC)
This cross-connection mode is used in dual protected SNCP ring configurations, when
two rings are interconnected either in at one single node or at two network nodes. The
slide shows the functional scheme of D&C CXC at TU level.
There are many different ways to implement the D&C CXC: with two NEs at each node,
with one single NE at each Node, with two interconnecting Nodes or with one single
interconnecting node
Notes
T1-96
interconnecting node
1660 SM allows to interconnect two SDH rings by using one single NE at each
interconnecting node, because the Line ports can independently operate from each other.
Drop&Continue protected connection must be implemented twice at each interconnecting
NE, at TU level.
Normal SNCP is used at termination nodes.
ALCATEL
1660 SM
3.19 Collapsed dual node ring interconnection
Respect to the configuration Drop and
Continue, "Collapsed dual node
interconnection" allows a Hardware
reduction, since an OMSN contains
several ports and a path signal can be
connected in protected mode, from a
generic port to another one, on the same
T1-97
generic port to another one, on the same
equipment.
The sub-networks' equipment
implement the SNCP connection.
ALCATEL
1660 SM
3.19Collapsed dual node ring interconnection
This architecture affords protection against multiple failures (evenly distributed one
per sub-network) tolerated without traffic loss (node failure or single cable cut).
Notes
T1-98
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3.20 Collapsed single node ring interconnection
Respect to the configuration " Drop and
Continue", "Collapsed single node
interconnection" allows the best
Hardware reduction; as a matter of
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fact four nodes are collapsed in one
node.
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3.20 Collapsed single node ring interconnection
The disadvantage of this configuration it's that you create a single point of failure
Notes
T1-100
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3.21. Network Protection : MS-SPRING
The MS MS--SPRING protection is an alternative with respect to SNCP SPRING protection is an alternative with respect to SNCP. While MS-
SPRING allows to share for different connections, in different spans, the same AU4 that can be
inserted and extracted in each span, on the contrary the SNCP connection engages the same
AU4 on both sides for the whole link.
The bandwidth of a 2F MS-SPRING is divided into two halves of equal capacity called
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respectively working (AU4# 1 to AU4# 8) and protection capacity (AU4#9 to AU4#
16).
The AU4# 1 is protected by AU4#9 up to AU4#8 that is protected by the AU4#16. The
working capacity is used to carry the high priority traffic, while the protection capacity
can be used for low priority traffic that is lost in case of failure (in this Release the low
priority connection are not managed).
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3.21. Network Protection : MS-SPRING
The MS- SPRING algorithm starts as a consequence of the following Section
alarms:
LOS,
LOF,
MS AIS,
EXBER (B2),
SIGNAL DEGRADE (B2)
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WORKING CHANNELS
PROTECTION CHANNELS
BRIDGE
PROTECTED
SIGNAL
2
3
BRIDGE
side A
SWITCH
side A
SWITCH
side B
BRIDGE
side B
B A B A
B A
1
3.21. Network Protection : MS-SPRING
T1-103
SWITCH
(*) All protecting AU4 are put in Pass-through in the 5th and 6th NEs
PROTECTED
SIGNAL
5
4 (*) (*)
A
B A B A
B
6
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Notes
3.19. Network Protection : MS-SPRING
MS-SPRING principle
The following MS-SPRING (Multiplex Section- Shared Protected Ring) type is
supported in the current Release: 2 fiber MS-SPRING at STM-16 (VC4 level),
compliant to the ITU-T Rec. G.841.
In case of fibre break the APS for 2F MS-SPRING uses a synchronized sequence of
bridge and switch operations that modify the internal connections of the two
NEs adjacent to the failure and permits the high priority traffic to be restored.
T1-104
NEs adjacent to the failure and permits the high priority traffic to be restored.
Only the NEs adjacent to the failure are interested to the switch and bridge
functions while for all other NEs the final configuration is a pass through of all
protection (low priority) AU4s.
Note: the max number of NEs in a ring with MS-Spring is 16, due to the limitation of
K1.K2 protocol.
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3.22. Network Protection:
Squelch in MS-SPRING
PORT 3
B
B
1 2
3
AU4 #1
BRIDGE
side A
SWITCH
side A
PORT 1
PORT 2
A
AU4 #1
PORT 4
B
AU4 #1
A
AU4 #1
SWITCH
side B
BRIDGE
side B
AIS ON AIS ON
(SF/SD) (SF/SD)
A
T1-105
Working Channels
Protection Channels
6
5 4
AIS ON
AU4 # 9
PASS-THROUGH
AIS ON
AU4 # 9
PASS-THROUGH
AIS ON
AU4 # 9
PASS-THROUGH
AIS ON
AU4# 9
AIS ON
AU4 # 9
A
B A B A
B
Isolated Node
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Notes
3.22. Network Protection:
Squelch in MS-SPRING
The Squelching function is activated when a node that carries Drop/Insert streams, remains
isolated because of a double failure, in order to avoid that the low priority traffic goes toward a
wrong destination.
In case of double failure, to avoid misconnection on the AU4 involved in MS-SPRING
protection, an AIS signal will be inserted on Low Priority streams transmitted from the nodes
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adjacent to the isolated one.
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Notes
3.20. Network Protection:
Squelch in MS-SPRING
Description of the example:
Before Node 2 isolation because of the double failure , the following connections were active using the
AU4#1
Stream between Port 3 and Port 1
Stream between Port 2 and Port 4
After a second failure, the Nodes adjacent to the isolated Node 2 send AIS on the Low Priority traffic
(AU4#9) by means of the Squelching function thus avoiding the misconnection between Port 3 and
Port 4.
T1-107
Port 4.
If the Squelch function were not active, the MS-SPRING algorithm would activate the Bridge and
Switch functions on the nodes adjacent to Node 2 thus misconnecting Port 3 and Port 4 using
AU4#9 as protection. Thanks to squelching function, the nodes adjacent to isolated Node 2 send AIS on
Low Priority AU4#9 avoiding misconnection between Port 3 and Port 4.
After the failure has been removed, a similar reverse sequence of operations on the NEs adjacent to the
recovered span will be activated. The reverse procedure can start after a step programmable WTR.