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CCS 8ef: 12243
16 May 2014













reparat|on of a
hys|ca| Deve|opment |an for the
A|bert|ne Graben |n Uganda











repared for:
MlnlsLry of Lands, Pouslng and urban uevelopmenL
repared by:
CCS lnLernaLlonal LlmlLed
In assoc|at|on w|th:
kkA11 ConsulL

Sl1uA1lCn AnAL?SlS 8LC81

1
sL
lloor, 1rldenL
Pouse
Lower 8road SLreeL
8rldgeLown,
8arbados
brldgeLown[cpcs.ca
www.cpcs.ca





16 May 2014 CCS 8ef: 12243

ermanenL SecreLary
MlnlsLry of Lands, Pouslng and urban uevelopmenL,
. C. 8ox 7096,
kampala, uganda

Attent|on: Comm|ss|oner 8yendam|ra,


uear Slr:

ke: Deve|opment of a hys|ca| Deve|opment |an for the A|bert|ne Graben, Uganda

We are pleased Lo dellver our SlLuaLlon Analysls 8eporL for Lhls ro[ecL followlng an lnLense
slx-week daLa collecLlon efforL durlng Aprll and May. 1hls lncluded slgnlflcanL amounLs of
fleld work by 8 of our Leam along wlLh a hlghly parLlclpaLory serles of SLakeholder Worklng
Sesslons held ln 3 ma[or cenLres. lease flnd enclosed 3 hard coples and 1 sofL copy as per
our agreemenL.

We are, of course, always ready Lo dlscuss any lLems LhaL may emerge or for whlch you
requlre furLher clarlflcaLlon.

We awalL your commenLs by 31 May and, as always, appreclaLe your conLlnulng supporL ln
successfully compleLlng Lhls plece of work.

8esL regards,
CCS 1ranscom Internat|ona| L|m|ted







8ob SLory
ro[ecL Manager/1eam Leader
SI1UA1ICN ANALSIS kLCk1 | reparaLlon of a hyslcal uevelopmenL lan
for Lhe AlberLlne Craben, uganda

CCS 8ef: 12243




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!"#$%&'()*(+($,-
Acknow|edgements
CCS would llke Lo acknowledge Lhe klnd asslsLance
granLed Lo Lhem by Lhe sLaff of Lhe MlnlsLry of Lands,
Pouslng and urban uevelopmenL. ln addlLlon we wlsh Lo
Lhank Lhe many offlclals and resldenLs of Lhe AlberLlne
8eglon who gave so generously of Lhelr Llme and shared
wlLh us Lhelr lnslghLs lnLo Lhe fuLure developmenL of Lhe
AlberLlne 8eglon.
Any errors of facL or lnLerpreLaLlon are ours.
CCS 1ranscom lnLernaLlonal LlmlLed
1sL lloor, 1rldenL Pouse
Lower 8road SLreeL
8rldgeLown, 8arbados
brldgeLown[cpcs.ca
SI1UA1ICN ANALSIS kLCk1 | reparaLlon of a hyslcal uevelopmenL lan
for Lhe AlberLlne Craben, uganda

CCS 8ef: 12243




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1ab|e of Contents


Acknow|edgements ........................................................................................................... |
Acronyms]Abbrev|at|ons ................................................................................................... |
Lxecut|ve Summary ...........................................................................................................1
1 Introduct|on ....................................................................................................................1
1.1 ro[ecL 8ackground ..................................................................................................... 2
1.2 ro[ecL Coals and Cb[ecLlves ....................................................................................... 2
1.2.1 ro[ecL Cb[ecLlves ................................................................................................ 2
1.3 SLraLeglc Cb[ecLlves ..................................................................................................... 3
1.4 ComponenLs of an lnLegraLed hyslcal uevelopmenL lan ......................................... 4
1.3 SlLuaLlon Analysls Approach and MeLhodologles ....................................................... 4
1.3.1 1eam and 8oles .................................................................................................... 4
1.3.2 lnformaLlon Sources ............................................................................................. 3
1.3.3 lleld Work ............................................................................................................ 3
1.3.4 SLakeholder arLlclpaLlon ..................................................................................... 6
1.3.3 ClS and Alr hoLo uaLa ......................................................................................... 6
1.6 SLrucLure of Lhls 8eporL ............................................................................................... 6
2 Nat|ona| & keg|ona| Context ...........................................................................................7
2.1 ro[ecL LocaLlon & hyslcal uescrlpLlon ...................................................................... 8
2.2 Soclo-Lconomlc ConLexL .............................................................................................. 8
2.3 lnsLlLuLlonal ConLexL .................................................................................................. 11
2.3.1 CovernmenL SLrucLure ....................................................................................... 11
2.3.2 lnsLlLuLlonal ConLexL - hyslcal lannlng ............................................................ 11
2.3.3 Local CovernmenL ln Lhe AlberLlne .................................................................... 13
2.4 Legal and lnsLlLuLlonal lramework ............................................................................ 13
2.4.1 1he ConsLlLuLlon of Lhe 8epubllc of uganda, 1993 ............................................ 13
2.4.2 1he hyslcal lannlng AcL, 2010 ......................................................................... 13
2.4.3 1he Local CovernmenL AcL ................................................................................. 16
2.4.4 1he Land AcL, 1998 ............................................................................................. 17
2.4.3 1he Land AcqulslLlon AcL, 1963 .......................................................................... 18
2.4.6 1he ubllc PealLh AcL ......................................................................................... 18
2.4.7 1he naLlonal LnvlronmenL AcL, Cap 133 ............................................................ 18
2.4.8 1he Wlldllfe AcL, 1996 ........................................................................................ 19
2.4.9 1he loresL AcL, 1999 .......................................................................................... 19
2.4.10 1he eLroleum Supply AcL, 2003 ........................................................................ 19
2.4.11 1he eLroleum (LxploraLlon, uevelopmenL and roducLlon) 8lll, 2012 ............ 19
2.4.12 1he eLroleum (8eflnlng, Cas rocesslng and Converslon, 1ransporLaLlon and
SLorage) 8lll, 2012 .............................................................................................................. 20
2.3 1he lannlng ConLexL and Plerarchy ........................................................................ 20
2.6 Sub-8eglons Cvervlew ............................................................................................... 21
2.6.1 norLh SLudy Area ................................................................................................ 21
2.6.2 CenLral SLudy Area ............................................................................................. 21
2.6.3 SouLh SLudy Area ................................................................................................ 21
3 Stakeho|ders' V|ews ...................................................................................................... 24
3.1 lnLroducLlon ............................................................................................................... 23
SI1UA1ICN ANALSIS kLCk1 | reparaLlon of a hyslcal uevelopmenL lan
for Lhe AlberLlne Craben, uganda

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3.2 SLakeholders Worklng Sesslons - lannlng arLlclpaLlon rocess ............................. 26
3.2.1 Summary of key 1oplcs ldenLlfled ...................................................................... 26
3.2.2 Arua lannlng arLlclpaLlon Worklng Sesslon .................................................... 29
3.2.3 Ad[umanl lannlng arLlclpaLlon Worklng Sesslon ............................................ 37
3.2.4 Polma lannlng arLlclpaLlon Worklng Sesslon ................................................. 43
3.2.3 lorL orLal lannlng arLlclpaLlon Worklng Sesslon .......................................... 34
3.2.6 lshaka-8ushenyl lannlng arLlclpaLlon Worklng Sesslon ................................. 62
3.2.7 MLPuu lannlng arLlclpaLlon Worklng Sesslon ............................................... 72
4 Soc|o-Lconom|c & Cu|tura| S|tuat|on .............................................................................. 78
4.1 uemographlcs ............................................................................................................ 79
4.2 MlgraLlon and urbanlsaLlon 1rends .......................................................................... 83
4.3 Local Lconomy & LmploymenL .................................................................................. 83
4.3.1 lormal SecLor ..................................................................................................... 86
4.4 LducaLlon ................................................................................................................... 86
4.4.1 LnrolmenL ........................................................................................................... 86
4.4.2 ulsLance Lo nearesL School laclllLy .................................................................... 87
4.3 PealLh and SanlLaLlon ................................................................................................ 88
4.3.1 PealLh lnfrasLrucLure .......................................................................................... 88
4.3.2 Plv/Alus ............................................................................................................. 90
4.6 Cender LquallLy ......................................................................................................... 92
4.7 overLy ....................................................................................................................... 93
4.8 CulLural PerlLage ........................................................................................................ 93
4.8.1 LLhnlc Croups ..................................................................................................... 93
4.9 lssues 8elevanL Lo Lhe u ........................................................................................ 98
S Land Use, Management and Sett|ement atterns ........................................................ 100
3.1 lnLroducLlon - Land .................................................................................................. 101
3.1.1 General Problems in Ugandas Land Acquisition System ................................. 101
3.1.2 8ecommendaLlons Lo Solve Lhe Ceneral Land AcqulslLlon roblems ............. 102
3.2 Land 1enure 8eglmes ln uganda ............................................................................. 102
3.2.1 CusLomary Land 1enure ................................................................................... 102
3.2.2 Mallo 1enure and naLlve lreehold 1enure ...................................................... 104
3.2.3 lreehold 1enure ............................................................................................... 106
3.2.4 Leasehold 1enure ............................................................................................. 107
3.3 Compulsory Land AcqulslLlon .................................................................................. 108
3.4 Land values .............................................................................................................. 110
3.3 Land-use Culdellnes ................................................................................................ 111
3.6 Land uses ................................................................................................................. 112
3.7 SeLLlemenL aLLerns................................................................................................. 113
3.7.1 SeLLlemenL aLLerns & CrowLh 1rends ............................................................ 113
3.7.2 SeLLlemenL Analysls .......................................................................................... 118
6 Infrastructure and Serv|ces .......................................................................................... 12S
6.1 1ransporLaLlon ......................................................................................................... 126
6.1.1 8oad 1ransporL ................................................................................................. 126
6.1.2 8allway 1ransporL ............................................................................................. 133
6.1.3 Alr 1ransporL .................................................................................................... 139
6.1.4 WaLer 1ransporL ............................................................................................... 143
6.1.3 lpellne ............................................................................................................. 149
SI1UA1ICN ANALSIS kLCk1 | reparaLlon of a hyslcal uevelopmenL lan
for Lhe AlberLlne Craben, uganda

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6.1.6 1ransporLaLlon needs ...................................................................................... 149
6.1.7 1ransporL Legal and 8egulaLory framework .................................................... 131
6.2 WaLer Supply ........................................................................................................... 132
6.2.1 LxlsLlng lnfrasLrucLure ...................................................................................... 132
6.2.2 CondlLlon of Lhe WaLer Sources ....................................................................... 133
6.2.3 WaLer Supply Challenges and 8ecommendaLlons ........................................... 134
6.2.4 WaLer Supply SlLuaLlon Analysls ...................................................................... 133
6.2.3 WaLer lnsLlLuLlonal lramework ........................................................................ 133
6.3 SanlLaLlon ................................................................................................................. 137
6.3.1 LxlsLlng lnfrasLrucLure ...................................................................................... 137
6.3.2 SanlLaLlon ln Lhe AlberLlne reglon .................................................................... 137
6.3.3 lanned ro[ecLs /SLraLegles ............................................................................ 137
6.3.4 SanlLaLlon Challenges and 8ecommendaLlons................................................. 137
6.3.3 SanlLaLlon SlLuaLlon Analysls ............................................................................ 138
6.3.6 SanlLaLlon lnsLlLuLlonal lramework ................................................................. 139
6.4 Solld WasLe ManagemenL ....................................................................................... 139
6.4.1 LxlsLlng lnfrasLrucLure ...................................................................................... 139
6.4.2 CondlLlon of Solld WasLe ulsposal ................................................................... 160
6.4.3 lanned Solld WasLe SLraLegles/ro[ecLs ......................................................... 160
6.4.4 Solld WasLe SlLuaLlon Analysls ......................................................................... 160
6.4.3 Solld WasLe Legal and lnsLlLuLlonal lramework .............................................. 161
6.4.6 Solld WasLe Challenges and 8ecommendaLlons .............................................. 161
6.3 Lnergy ...................................................................................................................... 162
6.3.1 lnLroducLlon ...................................................................................................... 162
6.3.2 Pydropower...................................................................................................... 163
6.3.3 AlLernaLlve Lnergy Sources .............................................................................. 167
6.3.4 Lnergy Challenges and 8ecommendaLlons ...................................................... 167
6.3.3 Lnergy SlLuaLlon Analysls - Summary ............................................................... 169
6.3.6 Lnergy lnsLlLuLlonal lramework ....................................................................... 170
6.6 lnformaLlon and CommunlcaLlon 1echnology ........................................................ 171
6.6.1 lnLroducLlon ...................................................................................................... 171
6.6.2 l1C 1argeLs / lanned uevelopmenLs ............................................................... 172
6.6.3 l1C Challenges and 8ecommendaLlons ............................................................ 173
6.6.4 l1C Legal and lnsLlLuLlonal framework ............................................................. 174
7 Mun|c|pa||t|es, 1owns and the A|bert|ne ..................................................................... 176
7.1 lnLroducLlon- urban uevelopmenL .......................................................................... 177
7.2 urban Areas ln Lhe AlberLlne Craben ...................................................................... 177
7.3 SLaLus of lannlng of urban Areas ........................................................................... 179
7.4 urban uevelopmenL lssues, CpporLunlLles and ConsLralnLs ................................... 183
7.4.1 Arua .................................................................................................................. 183
7.4.2 Polma ............................................................................................................... 186
7.4.3 lorL orLal 1own ............................................................................................... 188
7.4.4 kasese 1own ..................................................................................................... 190
7.4.3 Maslndl 1own ................................................................................................... 192
7.4.6 8ushenyl-lshaka 1own ...................................................................................... 193
7.4.7 akwach............................................................................................................ 194
7.4.8 8uLlaba ............................................................................................................. 193
SI1UA1ICN ANALSIS kLCk1 | reparaLlon of a hyslcal uevelopmenL lan
for Lhe AlberLlne Craben, uganda

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7.3 8eglonal lnLegraLlon ................................................................................................ 199
8 Lnv|ronmenta| S|tuat|on.............................................................................................. 200
8.1 lnLroducLlon ............................................................................................................. 201
8.2 Legal, AdmlnlsLraLlve and ollcy lramework .......................................................... 201
8.2.1 key LeglslaLlon and ollcles ln uganda ............................................................ 201
8.2.2 8egulaLory and lannlng 8odles and Lhelr 8oles ............................................. 203
8.2.3 Approvals rocess as Applled Lo Cll & Cas ...................................................... 206
8.3 1he LxlsLlng LnvlronmenL ........................................................................................ 206
8.3.1 lnLroducLlon ...................................................................................................... 206
8.3.2 ALmospherlc LnvlronmenL ............................................................................... 207
8.3.3 Ceology and Solls ............................................................................................. 207
8.3.4 Surface WaLer and CroundwaLer ..................................................................... 207
8.3.3 llora, launa and 8lodlverslLy ........................................................................... 209
8.3.6 llshlng ............................................................................................................... 211
8.3.7 roLecLed Areas ................................................................................................ 211
8.4 oLenLlal uevelopmenL lmpacLs .............................................................................. 212
8.4.1 lnLroducLlon ...................................................................................................... 212
8.4.2 CllmaLe Change ................................................................................................ 217
8.4.3 Land Cover and Solls ........................................................................................ 218
8.4.4 Surface WaLer and CroundwaLer ..................................................................... 218
8.4.3 llora and launa ................................................................................................ 220
8.4.6 WeLlands .......................................................................................................... 221
8.4.7 roLecLed Areas ................................................................................................ 222
8.4.8 llsh ................................................................................................................... 223
8.4.9 CumulaLlve LffecLs ............................................................................................ 224
8.4.10 Secondary LffecLs ............................................................................................. 224
8.3 LocaLlon of LnvlronmenLal ulsLurbance .................................................................. 223
8.3.1 lnLroducLlon ...................................................................................................... 223
8.3.2 roLecLed areas ................................................................................................ 227
8.3.3 WeLlands .......................................................................................................... 227
8.3.4 Wlldllfe, Specles of Speclal lmporLance and 8lodlverslLy ................................ 228
8.3.3 llsh opulaLlons ............................................................................................... 228
8.3.6 Soll Lroslon ....................................................................................................... 229
8.6 Concluslons .............................................................................................................. 229
9 Natura| kesources Management ................................................................................. 231
9.1 ConLexL / lnLroducLlon ............................................................................................. 232
9.1.1 ueflnlLlon .......................................................................................................... 232
9.1.2 LcosysLem Servlces: lramework for naLural 8esources ManagemenL ........... 233
9.1.3 urpose of Lhls ChapLer .................................................................................... 234
9.1.4 1he naLlonal ConLexL of naLural 8esources ..................................................... 234
9.2 naLlonal lnsLlLuLlonal, Legal and 8egulaLory ConLexL ............................................. 233
9.2.1 lnsLlLuLlonal SLrucLure ...................................................................................... 233
9.2.2 LeglslaLlon and 8egulaLlon ............................................................................... 237
9.2.3 lnLernaLlonal ConslderaLlons ............................................................................ 238
9.3 naLural 8esources of Lhe AlberLlne Craben reglon ................................................. 238
9.3.1 lnLroducLlon ...................................................................................................... 238
9.3.2 non-renewable 8esources: Mlnerals and Cll & Cas ........................................ 239
SI1UA1ICN ANALSIS kLCk1 | reparaLlon of a hyslcal uevelopmenL lan
for Lhe AlberLlne Craben, uganda

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9.3.3 8enewable 8esources: WaLer Supply and Lhe Lcologlcal 8eserve .................. 239
9.3.4 CllmaLe Change ................................................................................................ 242
9.3.3 WaLer and llsherles ......................................................................................... 242
9.3.6 WaLer and Lnergy: Pydropower ...................................................................... 243
9.3.7 Land, Solls and AgrlculLure and loresLry ......................................................... 244
9.3.8 loresLs and loresLry ......................................................................................... 243
9.3.9 Wood 8esources and 8lomass Lnergy (Charcoal) ............................................ 248
9.3.10 Wlldllfe, 8lodlverslLy and 1ourlsm ................................................................... 231
9.4 lssues 8elevanL Lo Lhe u ...................................................................................... 233
9.4.1 Synopsls and 8esL racLlce ............................................................................... 233
9.4.2 naLural 8esource CpporLunlLles for Lhe AlberLlne Craben ............................. 239
9.4.3 naLural 8esource ConsLralnLs ln Lhe AlberLlne Craben ................................... 239
10 Agr|cu|ture - 1he Lconom|c 8ase ................................................................................ 261
10.1 lnLroducLlon ............................................................................................................. 262
10.1.1 8ackground ....................................................................................................... 262
10.2 AgrlculLure SecLor ln Lhe AlberLlne Craben ............................................................. 263
10.3 Land uses ln Lhe AlberLlne Craben ......................................................................... 267
10.4 AgrlculLure erformance ......................................................................................... 267
10.4.1 Land .................................................................................................................. 267
10.4.2 key AgrlculLure LnLerprlse roflles ln Lhe AlberLlne Craben ........................... 268
10.3 key lssues Shaplng CompeLlLlveness ln AgrlculLure ................................................ 270
10.3.1 lncreased roducLlon, roducLlvlLy and 8eslllence .......................................... 270
10.3.2 lmproved MarkeLlng SysLems and Access ........................................................ 271
10.3.3 The Case for Dutch Disease Impetus: ........................................................... 271
10.3.4 lnformaLlon Access and lnvolvemenL of Clvll SocleLy CrganlsaLlons ............... 272
10.3.3 Puman 8esource CapaclLy and Skllls LnhancemenL: ....................................... 272
10.3.6 MarkeLlng ......................................................................................................... 273
10.3.7 AgrlculLural llnanclng ....................................................................................... 273
11 1he etro|eum Industry |n the A|bert|ne .................................................................... 276
11.1 lnLroducLlon ............................................................................................................. 277
11.2 Cverarchlng lssue: Managlng LxpecLaLlons ............................................................ 279
11.2.1 LxpecLaLlons from CovernmenL of lndusLry .................................................... 279
11.2.2 LxpecLaLlons from CommunlLles of lndusLry ................................................... 280
11.2.3 LxpecLaLlons of lndusLry from CovernmenL .................................................... 280
11.2.4 LxpecLaLlons of CommunlLles from CovernmenLs ........................................... 281
11.3 Land ......................................................................................................................... 282
11.3.1 Complex Land use 1radlLlons ........................................................................... 282
11.3.2 Land valuaLlon and SpeculaLlon ....................................................................... 283
11.3.3 lnvolunLary 8eseLLlemenL ................................................................................ 283
11.4 lnsLlLuLlonal resence/CapaclLy .............................................................................. 284
11.3 CoordlnaLlng Company/CommunlLy /naLlonal uevelopmenL lans ....................... 283
11.6 Challenges and 8elaLed 8esL racLlces .................................................................... 286
11.6.1 SusLalnablllLy erformance SLandards ............................................................. 286
11.6.2 8evenue 1ransparency ..................................................................................... 287
11.6.3 SLakeholder LngagemenL ................................................................................. 287
11.6.4 ro[ecL-lnduced ln-mlgraLlon ........................................................................... 289
11.6.3 Local ConLenL and vocaLlonal 1ralnlng ............................................................ 289
SI1UA1ICN ANALSIS kLCk1 | reparaLlon of a hyslcal uevelopmenL lan
for Lhe AlberLlne Craben, uganda

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11.7 lssues 8elevanL Lo Lhe u ...................................................................................... 291
12 Lconom|c Deve|opment ............................................................................................. 292
12.1 Macro-Lconomlc Cvervlew - uganda ...................................................................... 293
12.2 uganda ln Lhe LasL Afrlca CommunlLy ..................................................................... 296
12.3 1he AlberLlne ln uganda .......................................................................................... 297
12.3.1 AgrlculLure Crop roducLlon ......................................................................... 297
12.3.2 AgrlculLure llsherles ...................................................................................... 299
12.3.3 AgrlculLure CLher ........................................................................................... 300
12.3.4 1ourlsm ............................................................................................................. 300
12.3.3 eLroleum lndusLry .......................................................................................... 301
12.3.6 Mlnlng............................................................................................................... 301
12.4 CpporLunlLles and LlmlLaLlons/ConsLralns .............................................................. 302
12.4.1 Cll SecLor lmpacL on uganda ........................................................................... 302
12.4.2 Cll SecLor uevelopmenL wlLhln naLlonal uevelopmenL lan ........................... 303
12.4.3 Speclflc CpporLunlLles for Lhe AlberLlne 8eglon .............................................. 303
12.4.4 Ma[or Lconomlc CpporLunlLy ConsLralnLs ln Lhe AlberLlne ............................. 303
12.3 lssues 8elevanL Lo Lhe u ...................................................................................... 309
13 Cn-go|ng and |anned ro[ects .................................................................................. 311
13.1 lanned and Cn-Colng ro[ecLs ln Lhe AlberLlne .................................................... 312
14 ILC rogramme ......................................................................................................... 314
14.1 lnLroducLlon ............................................................................................................. 313
14.2 undersLandlng lLC ................................................................................................... 313
14.2.1 lnformaLlon ...................................................................................................... 313
14.2.2 LducaLlon .......................................................................................................... 316
14.2.3 CommunlcaLlon ................................................................................................ 316
14.3 1he lLC SLraLegy ....................................................................................................... 316
14.3.1 Coal & Cb[ecLlves ............................................................................................. 316
14.3.2 Approach & MeLhodology ................................................................................ 316
14.3.3 lLC MaLerlals & AcLlvlLles ................................................................................. 317
14.3.4 1argeLed Audlence ........................................................................................... 317
14.4 MonlLorlng LffecLlveness ......................................................................................... 317
14.3 lLC rogress Lo uaLe (SlLuaLlon Analysls hase May 2014) .................................. 318
14.3.1 MonlLorlng and LvaluaLlon ............................................................................... 322
14.6 Way lorward ........................................................................................................... 323
14.7 lLC for hyslcal lan lmplemenLaLlon ...................................................................... 323
1S Issues, Cpportun|t|es, Constra|nts ............................................................................. 32S
13.1 AlberLlne uevelopmenL lssues, CpporLunlLles and ConsLralnLs .............................. 326
16 Next Steps ................................................................................................................. 334
16.1 nexL SLeps ................................................................................................................ 333
16.1.1 CllenL and SLakeholder 8evlew ........................................................................ 333
16.1.2 lormal resenLaLlon of Lhe SlLuaLlon Analysls 8eporL ..................................... 333
16.1.3 reparaLlon of Lhe urafL AlberLlne Craben u .............................................. 333
16.1.4 roposed resenLaLlon, ConsulLaLlon on Lhe urafL u .................................. 333
Annexes......................................................................................................................... 336
Annex 1: Document L|st ................................................................................................. 337
Annex 2: Ident|f|ed Stakeho|ders ................................................................................... 340

SI1UA1ICN ANALSIS kLCk1 | reparaLlon of a hyslcal uevelopmenL lan
for Lhe AlberLlne Craben, uganda

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L|st of I|gures
llgure 1-1: lnLegraLed hyslcal lannlng ComponenLs .............................................................. 4
llgure 2-1: lannlng lnsLlLuLlonal Plerarchy ............................................................................ 13
llgure 2-2: hyslcal uevelopmenL lan Plerarchy ................................................................... 20
llgure 3-1: lnLegraLed lannlng Approach ............................................................................... 26
llgure 3-1: Clobal urban-8ural opulaLlon 1rends ................................................................ 116
llgure 3-2: lorL orLal lormal aLLern ................................................................................... 118
llgure 3-3: Arua SeLLlemenL aLLern Analysls ........................................................................ 119
llgure 3-4: Polma SeLLlemenL aLLern Analysls ..................................................................... 120
llgure 3-3: lorL orLal SeLLlemenL aLLern Analysls .............................................................. 120
llgure 3-6: 8hlno Camp SeLLlemenL aLLern Analysls ............................................................ 121
llgure 3-7: urban lormal SeLLlemenL - uenslLy Sample ........................................................ 122
llgure 3-8: lnformal urban SeLLlemenL - uenslLy Sample ...................................................... 122
llgure 3-9: erl-urban SeLLlemenL - uenslLy Sample ............................................................. 123
llgure 3-10: 8ural SeLLlemenL - uenslLy Sample .................................................................... 123
llgure 6-1: 8oad neLworks - LxlsLlng and luLure Works ....................................................... 131
llgure 6-2: assenger Lrafflc aL CAA managed Aerodromes .................................................. 142
llgure 6-3: AlberLlne WaLer Supply Coverage........................................................................ 136
llgure 6-4: AlberLlne Pydro SlLuaLlon .................................................................................... 164
llgure 7-1: roposed "Lco-ClLy, Arua" ................................................................................... 183
llgure 7-2: Arua lannlng ....................................................................................................... 186
llgure 7-3: Polma lannlng .................................................................................................... 187
llgure 7-4: Polma SLrucLure lan ........................................................................................... 188
llgure 7-3: lorL orLal lannlng ............................................................................................. 189
llgure 7-6: lorL orLal SLrucLure lan .................................................................................... 190
llgure 7-7: kasese lannlng .................................................................................................... 191
llgure 7-8: Maslndl lannlng .................................................................................................. 192
llgure 7-9: Maslndl SLrucLure lan ......................................................................................... 193
llgure 7-10: akwach lannlng .............................................................................................. 194
llgure 7-11: 8uLlaba lannlng ................................................................................................ 193
llgure 9-1: Lake AlberL llshlng and lnvaslve Weeds .............................................................. 241
llgure 12-1: 8eal Cu and Cu er CaplLa (2002 consLanL prlces), 2002-2013 .................... 293
llgure 12-2: Ugandas Economic Structure LmploymenL vs. ConLrlbuLlon Lo Cu ............ 294
llgure 12-3: 1ourlsm SecLors Contribution to GDP and Employment, 2000-2020 ............... 293
llgure 12-4: ConLrlbuLlon of AlberLlne 8eglon ln naLlonal lood Crop roducLlon, 2008/09 297
llgure 12-3: roducLlon of lour 1op lood Crops (meLrlc Lonnes), 2008/09 ......................... 298
llgure 12-6: llsh CaLch by WaLer Source, 2009-2012 ............................................................ 299
llgure 12-7: number of vlslLors Lo naLlonal arks, 2012 ...................................................... 300
llgure 12-8: uolng 8uslness 8anklng by lndlcaLor, 2014 ....................................................... 307
llgure 12-9: SLarLlng 8uslness rocedures and 1lme ............................................................. 308
llgure 12-10: uomesLlc CredlL Lo rlvaLe SecLor by 8anks (ln of Cu), 2012 .................... 309
llgure 14-1: osLer 1 (Lngllsh/8uLooro/8unyoro) ................................................................. 318
llgure 14-2: osLer 2 .............................................................................................................. 319
llgure 14-3: osLer Sample AddopLlng vlsuals ...................................................................... 324



SI1UA1ICN ANALSIS kLCk1 | reparaLlon of a hyslcal uevelopmenL lan
for Lhe AlberLlne Craben, uganda

CCS 8ef: 12243




vlll

L|st of Maps
Map 2-1: SLudy Area LocaLlon .................................................................................................... 9
Map 2-2: AlberLlne hyslcal uescrlpLlon .................................................................................. 10
Map 2-3: AlberLlne AdmlnsLraLlve 8oundarles ........................................................................ 14
Map 4-1: opulaLlon uenslLy.................................................................................................... 82
Map 4-2: Soclal laclllLles .......................................................................................................... 91
Map 4-3: AlberLlne's LLhnlc ComposlLlon ................................................................................ 97
Map 3-1: AlberLlne Craben Land uses ................................................................................... 114
Map 6-1: uganda's Ma[or 8oad Llnks .................................................................................... 127
Map 6-2: Ma[or 8oad Llnks Lo and WlLhln Lhe AlberLlne Craben .......................................... 130
Map 6-3: 8allway 1ransporL ln uganda .................................................................................. 133
Map 6-4: roposed uganda 8all ro[ecLs ............................................................................... 138
Map 6-3: roposed AlrsLrlps .................................................................................................. 144
Map 6-6: AlberLlne lerry Servlces .......................................................................................... 147
Map 6-7: roposed LocaLlon of Cll lnfrasLrucLure ................................................................. 149
Map 7-1: MunlclpallLles ln Lhe AlberLlne ............................................................................... 180
Map 8-1: LnvlronmenLal lssues - AlberLlne ............................................................................ 226
Map 9-1: Natural Resource Hotspots in the Albertine ........................................................ 238
Map 10-1: AgrlculLure - norLhern AlberLlne Craben ............................................................. 264
Map 10-2: AgrlculLure - CenLral AlberLlne Craben ................................................................ 263
Map 10-3: AgrlculLure - SouLhern AlberLlne Craben ............................................................. 266
Map 11-1: eLroleum Leases - 2013 ...................................................................................... 278
Map 13-1: AlberLlne CrowLh 1rends ...................................................................................... 333


L|st of 1ab|es
1able 1-1: ConsulLanL 1eam and 8oles ....................................................................................... 4
1able 2-1: SLudy Area - key leaLures ....................................................................................... 22
1able 3-1: Summary - key 1oplcs ldenLlfled ............................................................................. 27
1able 3-2: Arua SWS - lssues, 8ecommendaLlon & rlorlLlzaLlon ........................................... 30
1able 3-3: Ad[umanl SWS - lssues, 8ecommendaLlon & rlorlLlzaLlon .................................... 39
1able 3-4: Polma SWS - lssues, 8ecommendaLlon & rlorlLlzaLlon ......................................... 47
1able 3-3: lorL orLal SWS - lssues, 8ecommendaLlon & rlorlLlzaLlon .................................. 36
1able 3-6: lshaka-8ushenyl SWS - lssues, 8ecommendaLlon & rlorlLlzaLlon ......................... 64
1able 3-7: MLPuu SWS - lssues, 8ecommendaLlon & rlorlLlzaLlon ....................................... 73
1able 4-1: uemographlc lnformaLlon of Lhe AlberLlne Craben ............................................... 80
1able 4-2: ro[ecLed 2014 Munlclpal opulaLlon wlLhln Lhe AlberLlne 8eglon ....................... 83
1able 4-3: ro[ecLed 2014 1own Counclls ln Lhe AlberLlne 8eglon ......................................... 83
1able 4-4: LducaLlon LnrolmenL lnformaLlon - AlberLlne Craben ........................................... 87
1able 4-3:ulsLances Lo LducaLlonal laclllLy .............................................................................. 88
1able 4-6:PealLh laclllLles ln Lhe AlberLlne Craben ................................................................. 89
1able 4-7: overLy PeadcounL by ulsLrlcLs - AlberLlne Craben ............................................ 94
1able 4-8: CulLural SlLes wlLhln Lhe AlberLlne Craben 8eglon ................................................. 96
1able 3-1: AlberLlne Craben Land uses .................................................................................. 113
1able 3-2: uenslLy Samples .................................................................................................... 124
1able 6-1: LengLh of uganda's 8oad neLwork ....................................................................... 126
1able 6-2: Average 2013 ually 1rafflc on Lhe uganda 8oad neLwork (ln vehlcles/day) ........ 126
SI1UA1ICN ANALSIS kLCk1 | reparaLlon of a hyslcal uevelopmenL lan
for Lhe AlberLlne Craben, uganda

CCS 8ef: 12243




lx

1able 6-3: Cngolng and rospecLlve 8oad ro[ecLs ............................................................... 128
1able 6-4: Ma[or 8uses from kamapala Lo Lhe AlberLlne reglon ........................................... 129
1able 6-3: Challenges and 8ecommendaLlons by 8oad 1ransporL SLakeholders ConsulLed . 134
1able 6-6: LxlsLlng CondlLlon of kampala Lo kasese 8allway Llne ......................................... 136
1able 6-7:LxlsLlng CondlLlon of 1ororo - akwach 8allway Llne ............................................ 136
1able 6-8: Challenges ln Lhe 8allway 1ransporL ..................................................................... 139
1able 6-9: leaLures of Arua AlrsLrlp ....................................................................................... 140
1able 6-10: leaLures of kasese AlrsLrlp .................................................................................. 141
1able 6-11: leaLues of akuba AlrsLrlp .................................................................................. 141
1able 6-12: 1ranslL assenger 1rafflc - CAA Aerodromes ln AlberLlne (2003-2012).............. 143
1able 6-13: Challenges laced ln Alr 1ransporL SecLor ........................................................... 143
1able 6-14: SLaLus of WaLer 1ransporL lnfrasLrucLure ln Lhe AlberLlneCraben ..................... 146
1able 6-13: WaLer 1ransporL Challenges laced by SLakeholders MeL................................... 148
1able 6-16:SlLuaLlon Analysls 1ransporLaLlon ..................................................................... 130
1able 6-17: CondlLlon of WaLer Sources ln Lhe norLhern 8eglon of Lhe AlberLlne Craben .. 133
1able 6-18: CondlLlon of WaLer Sources ln Lhe CenLral 8eglon of Lhe AlberLlne Craben...... 133
1able 6-19: CondlLlon of WaLer Sources ln Lhe SouLhern 8eglon of Lhe AlberLlne Craben .. 134
1able 6-20: WaLer Supply Challenges and 8ecommendaLlons from SLakeholders ............... 134
1able 6-21: Challenges and 8ecommendaLlons ..................................................................... 161
1able 6-22: 1he Lnergy ower oLenLlal ln uganda .............................................................. 163
1able 6-23: Lnergy Challenges and 8ecommendaLlons ......................................................... 167
1able 6-24: Lnergy Sources ln uganda ................................................................................... 168
1able 6-23: SlLuaLlon Analysls Lnergy .................................................................................. 169
1able 6-26: 8adlo SLaLlons ln Lhe AlberLlne Craben .............................................................. 171
1able 6-27: 1elevlslon SLaLlons ln Lhe AlberLlne Craben ....................................................... 172
1able 6-28: Challenges and 8ecommendaLlons ln Lhe CommunlcaLlon SecLor ..................... 173
1able 7-1: urban Plerachy ln uganda .................................................................................... 177
1able 7-2: MunlclpallLles and 1own Counclls ln Lhe AlberLlne Craben ................................. 178
1able 7-3: key leaLures of Lhe MunlclpallLles ln Lhe AlberLlne Craben ................................ 181
1able 7-4: SLaLus of lannlng of Lhe Ma[or 1owns ln Lhe AlberLlne Craben .......................... 182
1able 7-3: MunlclpallLles uevelopmenL lssues, CpporLunlLles and ConsLralnLs ................... 196
1able 8-1: ConservaLlon Areas ln Lhe AlberLlne Craben ........................................................ 212
1able 8-2: rlmary oLenLlal C&C LffecLs on LnvlronmenL ................................................... 214
1able 8-3:Secondary oLenLlal C&C LffecLs on LnvlronmenL ............................................... 213
1able 8-4: WeLlands SenslLlvlLy .............................................................................................. 222
1able 9-1: lnsLlLuLlonal, ollcy & Legal lramework - naLural 8esources ManagemenL ........ 236
1able 10-1: roducLlon of Ma[or Crops (meLrlc Lonnes), 2008/09 ........................................ 274
1able 10-2: Summary of lood roducLlon (1onnes) - Polma ulsLrlcL 2013 ........................... 274
1able 12-1: uganda and LasL Afrlcan CommunlLy arLner SLaLes ......................................... 296
1able 12-2: Lase of uolng 8uslness 8anklng, 2014 ................................................................ 307
1able 13-1: ro[ecLs ln Lhe AlberLlne ..................................................................................... 312
1able 14-1: AcLlvlLles/SLakeholders ....................................................................................... 319
1able 14-2: AcLlvlLy AssessmenL ............................................................................................. 322
1able 13-1: AlberLlne Summary lssues, CpporLunlLles and ConsLralnLs ................................ 327


SI1UA1ICN ANALSIS kLCk1 | reparaLlon of a hyslcal uevelopmenL lan
for Lhe AlberLlne Craben, uganda

CCS 8ef: 12243




| l

!"/%$0+-1!22/(345,4%$-
ALC Area Land CommlLLee
A8Su AlberLlne 8eglon SusLalnable uevelopmenL ro[ecL
8C 8roadcasLlng Councll
88L 8ulldlng 8esLrlcLlon Llne
CAA Clvll AvlaLlon AuLhorlLy
CAC Chlef AdmlnlsLraLlve Cfflcer
CA8 CommunlLy Access 8oads
C8C CommunlLy 8ased CrganlzaLlons
CSC Clvll SocleLy CrganlsaLlons
CuC CommunlLy uevelopmenL Cfflces
Cl8 CenLral loresL 8eserve
CC CenLral CovernmenL
C Commlssloner for hyslcal lannlng
uu ulsLrlcL uevelopmenL lan
uLM ulglLal LlevaLlon Model
ul8 ueparLmenL of llsherles 8esources
uL8 ulsLrlcL Land 8oard
u8C uemocraLlc 8epubllc of Congo
uWu ulrecLoraLe of WaLer ueparLmenL
uWC ulsLrlcL WaLer Cfflce
uW8M ulrecLoraLe of WaLer 8esources ManagemenL
LA8S LasL Afrlcan 8lfL SysLem
L8A LlecLrlclLy 8egulaLory AuLhorlLy
l? llscal ?ear
Cu Cross uomesLlc roducL
ClS Ceographlc lnformaLlon SysLem
Cou CovernmenL of uganda
km kllomeLre
kv kllovolLs
LC Local Councll
Ll8 Local loresL 8eserve
LC Llquefled eLroleum Cas
MAAll MlnlsLry of AgrlculLure, Anlmal lndusLry and llshery
MC Munlclpal Councll
MLMu MlnlsLry of Lnergy and Mlneral uevelopmenL
MlCA Murchlson lalls ConservaLlon Areas
Mln Murchlson lalls naLlonal ark
MlS1 ManagemenL lnformaLlon SysLem 1echnology
MLPuu MlnlsLry of Lands, Pouslng and urban uevelopmenL
MLC MlnlsLry of Local CovernmenL
MoW1 MlnlsLry of Works and 1ransporL
MW Mega WaLLs
SI1UA1ICN ANALSIS kLCk1 | reparaLlon of a hyslcal uevelopmenL lan
for Lhe AlberLlne Craben, uganda

CCS 8ef: 12243




| ll

MWL MlnlsLry of WaLer and LnvlronmenL
MWLL MlnlsLry of WaLer, Lands and LnvlronmenL
nall88l naLlonal llsherles 8esources 8esearch lnsLlLuLe
nu naLlonal uevelopmenL lan
nLMA naLlonal LnvlronmenL ManagemenL AuLhorlLy
nlA naLlonal loresLry AuLhorlLy
nl88l naLlonal llsherles 8esources 8esearch lnsLlLuLe
nCC non-CovernmenLal CrganlzaLlons
nCC naLlonal Cll and Cas ollcy
n naLlonal ark
nu naLlonal hyslcal uevelopmenL lan
n8 naLlonal hyslcal lannlng 8oard
n8SC naLlonal 8oad SafeLy Councll
nWSC naLlonal WaLer and Sewerage CorporaLlon
As roLecLed Areas
CL ollcy CommlLLee on LnvlronmenL
u hyslcal uevelopmenL lan
Lu eLroleum LxploraLlon and roducLlon ueparLmenL
u hyslcal lannlng ueparLmenL
ubllc rlvaLe arLnershlp
CLCA Cueen LllzabeLh ConservaLlon Areas
CLn Cueen LllzabeLh naLlonal ark
8LA 8ural LlecLrlflcaLlon Agency
8CW 8lghL of Way
8v8 8lfL valley 8allway
u8CS uganda 8ureau of SLaLlsLlcs
uCC uganda CommunlcaLlons Commlsslon
uLuCL uganda LlecLrlclLy ulsLrlbuLlon Company LLd.
uLCCL uganda LlecLrlclLy CeneraLlon Company LLd.
uL1CL uganda LlecLrlclLy 1ransmlsslon Company LLd.
ulA uganda lnvesLmenL AuLhorlLy
ulC1 uganda lnsLlLuLe of lnformaLlon and CommunlcaLlons 1echnology
uLA uganda Land Alllance
uLC uganda Land Commlsslon
uM uganda Museums
unL unlLed naLlons LnvlronmenL ManagemenL rogramme
unPC8 1he unlLed naLlons 8efugee Agency
unPS uganda naLlonal Pousehold Survey
unAC uganda naLlonal lan of AcLlon
un8A uganda naLlonal 8oads AuLhorlLy
uPC uganda opulaLlon and Pouslng Census
u8l uganda 8oad lund
uWA uganda Wlldllfe AuLhorlLy
WCS Wlldllfe ConservaLlon SocleLy
Wl World lood rogramme (un)
WMu WeLlands ManagemenL ueparLmenL
WWl World Wlde lund lor naLure
SI1UA1ICN ANALSIS kLCk1 | reparaLlon of a hyslcal uevelopmenL lan
for Lhe AlberLlne Craben, uganda

CCS 8ef: 12243




| 1

67("8,43( 98++5/0
Introduct|on and Cb[ect|ve

1he AlberLlne Craben ls one of uganda's mosL lmporLanL and dynamlc reglons. lL lncludes x
of Lhe land, houses x of Lhe populaLlon, produces more Lhan lLs share of food, generaLes
over 70 of Lhe counLry's Lourlsm revenue, shares borders wlLh Lwo unsLable nelghbours,
and ls now cenLre Lo uganda's emerglng peLroleum lndusLry. WlLh all of Lhls comes a
complex mlx of developmenL lssues, opporLunlLles and consLralnLs. 1o help esLabllsh a
framework for Lhe fuLure, Lhe CovernmenL of Lhe 8epubllc of uganda, Lhrough Lhe MlnlsLry
of Lands, Pouslng and urban uevelopmenL (MLPuu) commlssloned Lhe preparaLlon of a
prlorlLy AlberLlne Craben hyslcal uevelopmenL lan (u) wlLh Lhe ob[ecLlve Lo:

!"#$%&'( * +,-.&/*0 '(%(0$+1(23 +0*22&24 5#*1(6$#7 3$ +#$1$3( *2' 48&'(
3,( '(%(0$+1(23 +#$/(.. &2 3,( 90:(#3&2( ;#*:(2 #(4&$2 &2 * .8.3*&2*:0(
1*22(# 3,#$84, +#(+*#*3&$2 $5 * <= -(*# &23(4#*3(' ",-.&/*0 >(%(0$+1(23
"0*2?!

Approach

1he Canadlan consulLlng flrm, CCS 1ranscom lnLernaLlonal LLd. was conLracLed and
commenced work on Lhls 6-monLh asslgnmenL ln March, 2014. lollowlng a 3-week lncepLlon
hase, Lhls SlLuaLlon Analysls 8eporL was prepared durlng an lnLense 6-week perlod ln Aprll
and May, 2014, and ls presenLed here as Lhe basls for Lhe nexL phase preparaLlon of Lhe
urafL AlberLlne Craben hyslcal uevelopmenL lan.

1he approach Lo Lhe work ls based on Lwo key prlnclples:

1. hyslcal lannlng musL be lncluslve and mulLl-secLoral lnLegraLlng: soclal, culLural,
economlc, envlronmenLal, lnsLlLuLlonal, physlcal and flnanclal conslderaLlons,

2. hyslcal lannlng musL be based on hlghly parLlclpaLory processes lnvolvlng a full range
of publlc, prlvaLe and communlLy sLakeholders.

Cf greaL beneflL Lo Lhe work Lo daLe ls Lhe hlgh level of collaboraLlve supporL and Llmely
response belng accorded Lhe 1eam by MLPuu offlclals.

Strateg|c Cb[ect|ves

ln addlLlon Lo Lhe overall pro[ecL ob[ecLlve, a number of SLraLeglc Cb[ecLlves are ldenLlfled:

uevelopmenL ConLrol and lnsLlLuLlonal CapaclLy requlre prlorlLy aLLenLlon as Lhe keys
Lo susLalnable plannlng and developmenL.

SI1UA1ICN ANALSIS kLCk1 | reparaLlon of a hyslcal uevelopmenL lan
for Lhe AlberLlne Craben, uganda

CCS 8ef: 12243




| 2

A comprehenslve long-Lerm vlew of soclal, economlc and envlronmenLal susLalnablllLy
ls requlred Lo balance Lhe shorL and medlum-Lerm peLroleum beneflLs.

AgrlculLure, Lhe LradlLlonal economlc base, musL be safeguarded and enhanced for
long-Lerm susLalnablllLy.

1he AlberLlne's world-class proLecLed areas and blodlverslLy whlch conLrlbuLe Lo Lhe
counLry's envlronmenLal healLh, and supporL an lmporLanL Lourlsm lndusLry, musL be
proLecLed and susLalnably consldered wlLh all oLher developmenL plans.

8oles of ubllc and rlvaLe SecLors ln reglonal and local developmenL musL be clearly
deflned, communlcaLed and lnLegraLed lnLo plannlng, lmplemenLaLlon and
managemenL of all developmenL componenLs.

art|c|pat|on

ln addlLlon Lo exLenslve documenL revlew and numerous sLakeholder lnLervlews ln kampala
and LhroughouL Lhe AlberLlne, a key source of lnformaLlon for Lhls 8eporL ls a serles of hlghly
parLlclpaLory SLakeholder Worklng Sesslons (SWS) held ln kampala and Lhe 3 AlberLlne
cenLres of Arua, Ad[uman, Polma, lorL orLal and lshaka-8ushenyl. 1hese lnvolved a mlx of
publlc, prlvaLe and nCC parLlclpanLs engaged ln Mlnd-Mapplng, hyslcal Mapplng and
dlscusslon exerclses of Lhelr percelved lmporLanL lssues, opporLunlLles and consLralnLs for
Lhe AlberLlne. lull deLalls are presenLed ln ChapLer 3. 1hese formed an lmporLanL parL of Lhe
on-golng lnformaLlon, LducaLlon and CommunlcaLlon (lLC) rogramme belng carrled on
LhroughouL. MLPuu offlcers accompanled Lhe 1eam for lLs SWS work as parL of hands-on
Lralnlng.

A Summary of the S|tuat|on

1he followlng comblnes hlghllghLs of Lhe many research flndlngs and commenLs gaLhered
from sLakeholders durlng Lhls hase, and forms Lhe foundaLlon for recommendaLlons Lo be
made ln Lhe forLhcomlng AlberLlne Craben hyslcal uevelopmenL lan:

Soc|a| and Cu|tura| Context

1he AlberLlne's dlverse mlx of eLhnlc groups has a LoLal esLlmaLed populaLlon of 9 mllllon,
whlch could as much as Lrlple durlng Lhe 23-year plannlng perlod based on currenL growLh
raLes. 1he challenges of dellverlng baslc servlces and ensurlng adequaLe food, waLer and
shelLer wlll be lmmense. AlmosL 23 of Lhe populaLlon remaln below Lhe poverLy llne wlLh
93 of LhaL ln rural areas rely largely on subslsLence agrlculLure. CurrenL developmenL
prlorlLles lnclude:

lmproved access Lo reglonally-based posL-secondary educaLlonal lnsLlLuLes.

uevelopmenL of hlgher level ulsLrlcL PealLh Care faclllLles.

SI1UA1ICN ANALSIS kLCk1 | reparaLlon of a hyslcal uevelopmenL lan
for Lhe AlberLlne Craben, uganda

CCS 8ef: 12243




| 3

ConLrol and addlLlonal servlces Lo address hlgh levels of refugee lnflux, parLlcularly ln
Lhe norLhern areas.

lnsLlLuLlonallsed boLLom-up parLlclpaLlon and communlLy senslLlsaLlon for all
developmenL lnlLlaLlves.

Land Use, Management and Sett|ement atterns

Land ls Lhe basls of all developmenL, and how lL ls planned, managed, used and Lransferred
has ma[or lmpacLs on Lhe susLalnable fuLure of any reglon. numerous land lssues have been
ldenLlfled ln addlLlon Lo Lhe concern LhaL land wlll run ouL as Lhe populaLlon grows:

CusLomary land Lenure and Lhe sLrong culLural Lles Lo lLs use and conLrol lmpede
orderly and economlc developmenL and servlclng, parLlcularly ln urban areas.

lan lmplemenLaLlon and uevelopmenL ConLrol are almosL non-exlsLenL ln Lhe
AlberLlne's urbanlslng cenLres. unconLrolled urban sprawl ls Lhe norm Lo Lhe deLrlmenL
of servlce provlslon, envlronmenLal managemenL and agrlculLural susLalnablllLy.

lnformal seLLlemenL paLLerns domlnaLe everywhere, buL are of greaLesL concern ln
urbanlslng areas where Lhe economlc provlslon of lnfrasLrucLure and servlces become
Lechnlcally and flnanclally prohlblLlve.

CreaLer communlLy parLlclpaLlon ls needed ln Lhe preparaLlon of all lans and
regulaLlons Lo ensure agreemenL, undersLandlng, ownershlp and supporL for
lmplemenLaLlon.

Infrastructure and Serv|ces

1ransport and Connect|v|ty

1ransporL lnfrasLrucLure forms Lhe physlcal framework for developmenL wlLh a number of
key lssues ldenLlfled ln Lhe AlberLlne:

Concerns are ralsed LhaL oll lndusLry acLlvlLy wlll desLroy exlsLlng road lnfrasLrucLure Lo
Lhe deLrlmenL of local governmenLs and resldenLs lf adequaLe and Llmely lnLervenLlons
are noL made by boLh governmenL and Lhe prlvaLe secLor.

lnfrasLrucLure Lhrough Lhe souLhern and cenLral parLs of Lhe AlberLlne should be
lnLegraLed lnLo Lhe proposed norLhern Corrldor developmenL llnklng 8wanda Lhrough
uganda Lo kenya wlLh posslble SouLh Sudan connecLlons.

All lnfrasLrucLure componenLs should be developed ln lnfraLrucLure Corrldors Lo
consolldaLe servlces, mlnlmlze local dlsrupLlon and land loss, and mlnlmlze
compensaLlon and reseLLlemenL needs.

SI1UA1ICN ANALSIS kLCk1 | reparaLlon of a hyslcal uevelopmenL lan
for Lhe AlberLlne Craben, uganda

CCS 8ef: 12243




| 4

1he norLh parL of Lhe AlberLlne parLlcularly needs lmproved road and rall access Lo
Lake advanLage of lmporLanL SouLh Sudan and u8C Lrade opporLunlLles, noL Lo menLlon
Lhe resL of uganda and Lhe LA CommunlLy.

lmproved rall connecLlons LhroughouL Lhe AlberLlne wlll provlde an efflclenL and
economlc alLernaLlve Lo road LransporL.

MulLl-modal LransporL opporLunlLles should be developed maklng besL use of road, rall
and waLer opLlons. akwach and 8uLlaba are Lwo key locaLlons.

lmproved Lake AlberL waLer LransporL wlll provlde a needed llnk from Lhe norLhern
AlberLlne Lo Lhe resL of Lhe Craben.

Water Supp|y

ShorLages and concerns exlsL LhroughouL Lhe AlberLlne.

ercelved large poLenLlal sources such as Lhe nlle 8lver and Lake AlberL have llmlLs, are
ln rlsk of over-explolLaLlon, and need subsLanLlal lnvesLmenLs Lo move waLer Lo where
lL ls needed.

SusLalnable managemenL of Lhls key naLural 8esource musL rank as one of Lhe
counLry's Lop prlorlLles, and ls Lled Lo good land managemenL, conLrol of oll lndusLry
acLlvlLles, communlLy senslLlsaLlon, weLland and foresL conservaLlon, and pollLlcal wlll.

San|tat|on and So||d Waste Management

8oLh servlces rank hlgh among urban concerns. none of Lhe AlberLlne urban cenLres
have cenLrallsed sewerage sysLems and lncreased slze and denslflcaLlon lncreases
communlLy healLh rlsks. lnsLalllng such sysLems ls exLremely expenslve and dlfflculL Lo
manage dependlng on locaLlon, LreaLmenL and dlsposal opLlons.

Solld wasLe managemenL ls a much easler servlce Lo lmplemenL aL far less cosL wlLh
opLlons for lmplemenLaLlon. Powever, lL also needs pollLlcal wlll, Lechnlcal lnpuLs
and communlLy senslLlsaLlon.

Lnergy

ower shorLages are a key consLralnL Lo aLLracLlng prlvaLe lnvesLmenL lnLo lndusLrlal
developmenL wlLh Lhe accompanylng opporLunlLles for economlc dlverslflcaLlon.
numerous hydro slLes have been ldenLlfled, and many llcensed for developmenL,
LhroughouL Lhe AlberLlne. Powever, care musL be Laken Lo noL develop Lhese wlLhouL
due aLLenLlon Lo Lhe poLenLlal wlde-spread envlronmenLal damage Lhese can cause lf
waLer resources are mlsmanaged, dralnage paLLerns shlfLed, blo-dlverslLy hablLaLs
sacrlflced, eLc. 1hese are parLlcular concerns along Lhe nlle whlch lnfluences a 10-
counLry basln.

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Charcoal remalns Lhe domlnanL cooklng fuel and ls devasLaLlng Lhe envlronmenL.
ueforesLaLlon and loss of Lhls key naLural resource ls fuelllng eroslon, local cllmaLe
change lncludlng ralnfall paLLerns, loss of blodlverslLy hablLaL and degradlng alr quallLy.

AbundanL opporLunlLles exlsL Lo uLlllse alLernaLlve renewable energles, buL Lhe lnlLlal
caplLal cosLs of many, such as solar, puL lL beyond Lhe means of mosL wlLhouL exLernal
supporL.

Mun|c|pa||t|es, 1owns and the A|bert|ne

urban cenLres accounL for only x of Lhe AlberLlne's populaLlon, buL are Lhe cenLres of
economlc acLlvlLy and governance, and growlng aL almosL double Lhe naLlonal
populaLlon growLh raLe. 8ural-urban mlgraLlon ls Lhe maln drlver.

1here are 7 MunlclpallLles ln Lhe AlberLlne and anoLher 43 1own Counclls. SLrucLure
lans exlsL for mosL of Lhe MunlclpallLles and many of Lhe 1own Counclls, buL
lmplemenLaLlon and developmenL conLrol are almosL non-exlsLenL. urban sprawl,
lnfrasLrucLure challenges, envlronmenLal degradaLlon, llmlLed hlgher-level soclal
faclllLles, and llmlLed employmenL are among Lhe key lssues.

ollLlcal expedlency over-rldlng Lechnlcal guldance ls frequenLly clLed as a furLher
lmpedlmenL Lo order growLh.

CommunlLy senslLlsaLlon and sLakeholder parLlclpaLlon are recognlzed as key Lo
meanlngful plannlng and susLalnable lmplemenLaLlon.

Arua, Polma and lorL orLal are parLlcularly ldenLlfled as key 8eglonal CenLres
supporLlng reglonal Lrade, Lhe oll lndusLry, and Lourlsm ln Lhelr respecLlve areas.

LlmlLed cenLral governmenL flnanclal supporL, and llmlLs Lo Local CovernmenL's
capaclLy Lo collecL and manage local revenue are LouLed as crlLlcal consLralnLs.

undersLandlng Lhe dynamlcs of formal and lnformal seLLlemenL wlLh Lhelr
accompanylng paLLerns of lncremenLal growLh wlLhln a largely "Lrlckle" economy ls
essenLlal for proposlng reallsLlc plannlng and developmenL sLraLegles.

Lnv|ronmenta| S|tuat|on

1he physlcal envlronmenL ls Lhe basls of all soclal and economlc well-belng, and has
clearly been elevaLed from Lhe perlpheral aLLenLlon lL recelved ln Lhe pasL Lo belng a
key underlylng concern.

uganda has ample leglslaLlon, regulaLlons, lnLernaLlonal proLocol agreemenLs,
waLchdog overslghL, and much of Lhe Lechnlcal knowledge lL requlres for susLalnable
envlronmenLal managemenL. AdequaLe pollLlcal wlll, communlLy senslLlsaLlon, and Lhe
ablllLy Lo lmplemenL and enforce Lhese are, however, lacklng.

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1radlLlonal envlronmenLal managemenL knowledge and Lechnlques were susLalnable.
1hese Lend Lo be losL and over-rldden by conLemporary asplraLlons, buL should be
broughL back lnLo play by lnvolvlng local communlLles ln envlronmenLal managemenL.

Concerns and examples of oll lndusLry envlronmenLal damage are ralsed by many
lncludlng waLer polluLlon, loss of wlldllfe hablLaL, desLrucLlon of foresL and farm land.
Some clalms are undoubLedly real, many may be Lled Lo compensaLlon hopes.

CverpopulaLlon ls welghlng heavlly on Lhe healLh of land, waLer, flsh sLocks, foresLs
and blodlverslLy ln general.

WlLh Lhe ma[orlLy of Lhe populaLlon conLlnulng Lo subslsL on LradlLlonal agrlculLure,
Lhere ls llmlLed scope for lndlvldual acLlon beyond dally feedlng of Lhe famlly.

Natura| kesource Management

1he foundaLlon of uganda's economy ls lLs naLural resources: soll, foresL, waLer, and Lhe
mlnerals, blomass, flsh and wlldllfe Lhey conLaln. MosL of uganda's naLural resources are
under LhreaL of serlous degradaLlon or compleLe loss.

1he soll ls Lhe naLural resource base for uganda's economlc survlval. ueforesLaLlon and
overuse leadlng Lo eroslon need conLrolllng Lo ensure food for a growlng populaLlon.

loresL cover ls a fracLlon of whaL lL once was, and belng rapldly depleLed by converslon
Lo farmland and charcoal producLlon.

8eforesLaLlon wlLh monoculLure planLaLlons ls an lmporLanL economlc conLrlbuLlon,
buL addresses only parL of Lhe susLalnable envlronmenL and resource problem.

WaLer resources are poLenLlally abundanL for consumpLlon, as flsh hablLaL, and for
hydro power generaLlon, buL Lhey are under LhreaL from over-use, lndusLrlal and
domesLlc polluLlon, and a growlng populaLlon. 8road reglonal cooperaLlon Lhrough
such lnlLlaLlves as Lhe nlle 8asln AuLhorlLy ls needed, as waLer ls noL [usL a local
resource.

underground aqulfers are belng depleLed from over-rellance on boreholes, and loss of
lmporLanL weLland re-charge zones.

Wlldllfe, whlch supporLs an lmporLanL Lourlsm lndusLry and conLrlbuLes Lo essenLlal
blodlverslLy, ls sufferlng from hablLaL loss lncludlng encroachmenL ln proLecLed areas
by a growlng populaLlon and Lhe oll lndusLry.

Cll and gas reserves, and probably Lo a lesser exLenL oLher mlneral resources, have Lhe
poLenLlal Lo conLrlbuLe poslLlvely Lo uganda's economlc healLh and are now belng
developed. lL ls a new advenLure for uganda and conslderable efforL, care and cauLlon
are belng applled Lo Lhelr susLalnable explolLaLlon as knowledge and experlence are
galned.
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As wlLh all developmenL componenLs, Lhe key Lo susLalnablllLy ls lnsLlLuLlonal capaclLy,
communlLy parLlclpaLlon, and pollLlcal commlLmenL. SufflclenL leglslaLlon, pollcy and
lnLernaLlonal proLocols llkely exlsL, agaln lL ls Lhe wlll and ablllLy Lo lmplemenL and
enforce LhaL are key.

Agr|cu|ture - 1he Lconom|c 8ase

uganda has, does and wlll rely on agrlculLure as lLs economlc base for Lhe foreseeable
fuLure. 1hls musL noL be forgoLLen ln Lhe brlghL llghLs of such Lhlngs as Lhe emerglng
peLroleum secLor.

lears have been expressed LhroughouL Lhe AlberLlne LhaL agrlculLure wlll be forgoLLen
and sacrlflced as Lhe peLroleum lndusLry develops and urbanlsaLlon beglns Lo
domlnaLe.

Popes exlsL LhaL oll revenue wlll be re-lnvesLed Lo help modernlse Lhe agrlculLural
secLor.

Communal land ownershlp, agrlculLure and Lhe LradlLlonal farmlng llve are lnLegrally
woven lnLo Lhe culLure of Lhe counLry and wlll be slow Lo change wlLhouL greaLer
educaLlon and senslLlsaLlon.

CpporLunlLles are ldenLlfled Lo lncrease local agro-processlng lndusLrles Lo add value
and generaLe local employmenL before producLlon ls shlpped ouL.

ConslderaLlon ls belng glven Lo experlmenLlng wlLh consolldaLlon of rural resldenLs lnLo
more urban cenLres Lo ease Lhe provlslon of servlces, and allow greaLer agrlculLural
mechanlsaLlon. 8wanda ls currenLly underLaklng Lhe same Lhrough lLs omoJoqoJo
programme. lL remalns Lo be seen how Lhls wlll be accepLed, and how Lhe Lles Lo Lhe
land can be reLalned.

lmproved physlcal cenLral markeLs and sLorage faclllLles are suggesLed as ways of
addlng value, supporLlng hlgher prlces Lo farmers, and lncreaslng ouLslde Lrade.

lmproved LransporL and access Lo waLer - lrrlgaLlon ls relaLlvely unknown, buL seen as a
pendlng necesslLy - are ldenLlfled as prlorlLy requlremenLs.

1he etro|eum Industry |n the A|bert|ne

1he AberLlne u ls belng glven naLlonal prlorlLy because of Lhe emergence of Lhe
peLroleum lndusLry. numerous concerns are ralsed and conslderable efforLs are belng made
Lo ensure a smooLh lnLegraLlon of Lhe lndusLry wlLh governmenL, Lhe lndusLry wlLh
communlLy, Lhe governmenL wlLh communlLy, communlLles wlLh communlLles, and Lhe
whole developmenL wlLh global besL pracLlces.

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uganda's oll reserves are modesL by global sLandards and of relaLlvely shorL duraLlon,
perhaps 20-23 years.

1he 3 currenL key players, 1ullow, 1oLal and CnCCC are all ma[or, experlenced and
responslble parLlclpanLs, operaLlng on shareholder reLurn, buL equally aware of Lhe
lmporLance of belng good corporaLe clLlzens.

lears are ralsed LhaL long-Lerm susLalnable lndusLrles such as agrlculLure and Lourlsm
wlll be forgoLLen ln Lhe scramble for shorL-Lerm unsusLalnable oll galns.

Managlng expecLaLlons by boLh Lhe governmenL and Lhe lndusLry ls a ma[or challenge.
1he percepLlon of wealLh for all and Lhe end Lo all oLher problems ls noL reallsLlc, buL a
wldely held expecLaLlon.

SpeculaLlon and populaLlon mlgraLlon lnLo Lhe key oll areas, such as Polma, are
escalaLlng real esLaLe prlces Lo Lhe deLrlmenL of local resldenLs.

ConLroversy always surrounds Lhe exLracLlve resource lndusLrles, and Lhey are carefully
waLched locally and lnLernaLlonally. AcLlvlLles such as allowlng developmenL wlLhln
uganda's naLlonal arks and oLher proLecLed areas ls addlng fuel Lo Lhe flre. AnecdoLal
reporLs, and prellmlnary (unofflclal) World 8ank survey flndlngs, all polnL Lo negaLlve
lmpacLs on wlldllfe and Lourlsm ln Murchlson lalls n as one example.

uganda's oll lndusLry players are experlenced ln meeLlng Lhelr CorporaLe Soclal
8esponslblllLy (CS8) roles and expecLaLlons. Conslderable efforLs are belng made ln Lhls
dlrecLlon, buL full governmenL and communlLy parLlclpaLlon ls needed. lndusLry lessons
learned from pasL experlence polnL Lo numerous poLenLlal plLfalls lf CS8 acLlvlLles are
noL susLalnably LargeLed. Plghly vlslble caplLal lnvesLmenLs ln brlcks and morLar ofLen
creaLe more llablllLles Lhan credlLs, and Lhe lndusLry ls aware of Lhls. Changed
approaches Lo address Lhls are belng experlmenLed wlLh.

Lconom|c Deve|opment

AL Lhe macro-level uganda ls [usL holdlng lLs own ln Lhe LasL Afrlca CommunlLy wlLh some
warnlng flags vlslble.

AgrlculLure ls Lhe foundaLlon, buL uganda's per caplLa producLlon ls falllng behlnd.

Plgh opLlmlsm ls belng aLLached Lo Lhe fuLure of oll and gas, buL Lhe reserves are small
by global sLandards and only 1/3 of nelghbourlng kenya's. 8eneflLs may be llmlLed and
relaLlvely shorL-llved. An "LxlL SLraLegy" ls needed.

uganda ranks poorly reglonally and globally ln Lerms of "Lase of uolng 8uslness"
accordlng Lo annual Work 8ank reporLs. Changes are needed lf crlLlcal forelgn
lnvesLmenL ls Lo be aLLracLed and reLalned.

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1ourlsm ls lmporLanL and has growLh poLenLlal lf lLs underlylng naLural resource
aLLracLlons are susLalnably malnLalned. CpporLunlLles exlsL Lo aLLracL more of Lhe
LradlLlonal kenyan LourlsL Lrafflc as condlLlons ln kenya become less aLLracLlve.
SLandards and lnfrasLrucLure are key.

lanned ma[or lnfrasLrucLure developmenLs ln LransporL/connecLlvlLy and power,
comblned wlLh reglonal lnLegraLlon plans, should make poslLlve conLrlbuLlons Lo
economlc growLh.

Plgher educaLlon, parLlcularly aL Lhe posL-secondary vocaLlonal level, wlll allow greaLer
parLlclpaLlon ln new lndusLry and supporL needed economlc dlverslflcaLlon.

1he ILC rogramme

lnformaLlon, LducaLlon and CommunlcaLlon (lLC) are underlylng necesslLles lf Lhe AlberLlne
u ls Lo reflecL Lhe reallLles of Lhe reglon, lLs needs and asplraLlons, and see lLself LranslaLed
lnLo on-Lhe-ground reallLy. lLC remalns a key componenL of Lhe preparaLlon of Lhe u and
wlll be esLabllshed as a backbone of lmplemenLaLlon:

LxLenslve fleld Worklng Sesslons LhroughouL Lhe AlberLlne wlLh a full cross-secLlon of
sLakeholders have and wlll conLlnue Lo be held.

MulLl-medla programmes are proposed (and some have sLarLed) lncludlng press
releases, press conferences, radlo shows, drama, soclal medla, quesLlonnalres, eLc.

1ralnlng commenced aL Lhe beglnnlng wlLh hands-on lnvolvemenL of MLPuu and local
governmenL offlclals. new (apparenLly for Lhe reglon) Lechnlques of lnLeracLlve
parLlclpaLlon were uLlllsed ln analyslng local condlLlons and needs.

1he exLremely shorL Llmeframe for preparaLlon of Lhe u ls resulLlng ln a loss of
opporLunlLy Lo fully lmplemenL Lhe early lLC proposals. A proposed serles of regular
press releases, press conferences and radlo shows have all been delayed by
governmenL/cllenL proLocols and lndlvlduals' busy agendas. Awareness and
parLlclpaLlon opporLunlLles are belng losL.

CommunlLy senslLlsaLlon and parLlclpaLlon have been ralsed everywhere as crlLlcal lf
plans are Lo accepLed and lmplemenLaLlon supporLed.

lormal hyslcal lannlng 1ralnlng for MLPuu and Local CovernmenL offlclals forms an
lmporLanL parL of Lhls asslgnmenL.

An early assessmenL of Lhe varlous acLlvlLles ls presenLed ln ChapLer 14.





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Next Steps

1hls SlLuaLlon Analysls 8eporL was submlLLed Lo MLPuu on 16 May 2014 for an agreed
2-week revlew perlod.

MLPuu ls lnvlLlng oLher sLakeholders Lo also revlew and conLrlbuLe Lo wrlLLen
commenLs Lo be provlded Lo Lhe ConsulLanL aL Lhe end of Lhe revlew perlod.

Sub[ecL Lo recelpL of wrlLLen commenLs, work wlll commence 1 !une 2014 on a 2-
monLh perlod Lo prepare Lhe urafL AlberLlne Craben hyslcal uevelopmenL lan.

arL of revlewlng Lhe urafL u wlll be a serlous of presenLaLlons/consulLaLlons by Lhe
ConsulLanLs ln kampala and Lhe AlberLlne Lo galn addlLlonal commenLs, and ensure
LhaL whaL was communlcaLed has been capLured.

MLPuu and Local CovernmenL Lralnlng wlll be lnLegraLed wlLh Lhe urafL u
consulLaLlons.

1he llnal AlberLlne Craben hyslcal uevelopmenL lan wlll be dellvered Lo MLPuu by
Lhe end of AugusL 2014.

Conc|us|on

1he AlberLlne Craben has some of uganda's greaLesL developmenL poLenLlal. 1he lnslghLful
declslon of governmenL Lo prlorlLlse long-Lerm plannlng for Lhe reglon Lo maxlmlse
opporLunlLles and mlnlmlze negaLlve lmpacLs bodes well for Lhe fuLure. 1he lssues are
complex, lnLerwoven and ofLen wlLhouL clear soluLlons LhaL wlll saLlsfy all. Powever, Lhe
commlLmenL and collaboraLlon of MLPuu and oLher governmenL agencles, Lhe enLhuslasm,
borderlng ln cases on passlon, of Lhe many sLakeholders encounLered hlghllghLs Lhe facL LhaL
people are concerned abouL Lhelr lmproved fuLure and wanL a say ln lLs dlrecLlon and
susLalnablllLy. 1hereln lles Lhe key Lo Lhe successful reallsaLlon of Lhe goals of Lhls exerclse.
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:;$,/%)8",4%$

Introduct|on
1he CovernmenL of Lhe 8epubllc of uganda ls aware of
Lhe lmporLance of comprehenslve plannlng for Lhe
fuLure of Lhe AlberLlne Craben as a resulL, prlmarlly, of
Lhe emerglng peLroleum secLor acLlvlLles and relaLed
lmpacLs. uganda has recelved flnanclal supporL from Lhe
World 8ank Lo underLake preparaLlon of Lhls AlberLlne
Craben hyslcal uevelopmenL lan Lhrough Lhe MlnlsLry
of Lands, Pouslng and urban uevelopmenL (MLPuu). ln
Lurn, MLPuu engaged Lhe servlces of CCS 1ranscom
LLd. Lo underLake Lhe work. 1hls SlLuaLlon Analysls hase
ls key Lo galnlng an undersLandlng of Lhe area's lssues
and prlorlLlsed fuLure plannlng needs.
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1.1 ro[ect 8ackground

1he AlberLlne Craben has commerclally vlable oll deposlLs, currenLly esLlmaLed aL abouL 3.3
bllllon barrels. CurrenL acLlvlLles are revolvlng around exploraLlon of oll and plans are
underway for producLlon. ConsequenLly declslons are belng made abouL locaLlons for
faclllLles such as a reflnery, plpellnes, processlng cenLres, relaLed lndusLrlal esLabllshmenLs,
lmproved road neLwork, alrporLs as well as relaLed seLLlemenL growLh lncludlng resldenLlal,
commerclal, and soclal and economlc amenlLles. 1he reglon ls anLlclpaLed Lo experlence hlgh
growLh raLes as a resulL of Lhe oll dlscovery and producLlon. AL Lhe same Llme, Lhe AlberLlne
conLalns a dlverse range of hlsLorlc and well esLabllshed economlc acLlvlLles lncludlng
agrlculLure and Lourlsm, as Lwo examples, along wlLh vasL proLecLed areas. All of Lhese wlll
be lmpacLed ln varlous ways by oll acLlvlLles. ConsequenLly, Lhe CovernmenL of uganda
recognlzes Lhe need for an A|bert|ne Graben hys|ca| Deve|opment |an Lo provlde a
developmenL framework for Lhe reglon coverlng a 23-year perlod Lo 2040.
1.2 ro[ect Goa|s and Cb[ect|ves

1.2.1 ro[ect Cb[ect|ves
1he sLaLed prlmary ob[ecLlve of Lhls asslgnmenL ls Lo:

"ltovlJe o pbyslcol Jevelopmeot ploooloq ftomewotk to ptomote ooJ qolJe tbe
Jevelopmeot ptocess lo tbe Albettloe Ctobeo teqloo lo o sostolooble moooet
tbtooqb ptepototloo of o 25 yeot loteqtoteJ lbyslcol uevelopmeot lloo."

1he lnlLlaLlve ls consldered parLlcularly lmporLanL Lo maxlmlse poslLlve lmpacLs and mlnlmlze
negaLlve lmpacLs from recenLly dlscovered oll deposlLs ln Lhe AlberLlne Craben.

Speclflc Cb[ecLlves of Lhe AsslgnmenL lnclude:

lormulaLlon of a hyslcal uevelopmenL lans LhaL ls compaLlble and complemenLary Lo
Lhe soclo-economlc asplraLlons of Lhe people ln Lhe reglon and Lhe developmenL
pollcles and asplraLlons of Lhls counLry,

lnLegraLlon of ecologlcal prlnclples as an lmporLanL componenL of Lhe land use
plannlng and envlronmenLal managemenL processes wlLhln Lhe AlberLlne Craben,

AdopLlon of approprlaLe physlcal developmenL plannlng approaches Lo malnLaln Lhe
ecologlcal lnLegrlLy of Lhe blophyslcal envlronmenL, and also malnLaln Lhe lnLegrlLy of
Lhe culLural landscape - lncludlng LradlLlonal economlc acLlvlLles (such as agrlculLure,
flshlng, hunLlng, eLc), slgnlflcanL hlsLorlcal and archaeologlcal slLes and Lhe form and
soclal characLer of Lhe local (lndlgenous) people,

lan and safeguard sulLable land for affordable houslng, vlable agrlculLure and
lndusLrlal developmenLs eL ceLera, ln fuLure.

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ArLlculaLlon of sLraLeglc acLlons LhaL are necessary Lo enhance susLalnable producLlvlLy
of Lhe AlberLlne Craben uslng Lhe avallable resources.

1.3 Strateg|c Cb[ect|ves

ln addlLlon Lo Lhe pro[ecL ob[ecLlves descrlbed above, a number of SLraLeglc Cb[ecLlves have
been developed Lo gulde preparaLlon of Lhe AlberLlne Craben hyslcal uevelopmenL lan
(u).

uevelopmenL ConLrol and lnsLlLuLlonal CapaclLy requlre prlorlLy aLLenLlon as Lhe keys
Lo susLalnable plannlng and developmenL. lannlng and uevelopmenL ConLrol ls
requlred Lo resLrlcL/reverse ad hoc urban sprawl, Lo halL unconLrolled deforesLaLlon
and encroachmenL and relaLed envlronmenLal damage, and Lo provlde lnvesLors wlLh
Lhe confldence Lo lnvesL.

1he AlberLlne Craben u wlll focus on a comprehenslve long-Lerm vlew of soclal,
economlc and envlronmenLal susLalnablllLy Lo balance Lhe shorL and medlum-Lerm
lnLeresL ln peLroleum beneflLs.

Cll company CS8 lnvesLmenLs musL be carefully monlLored and gulded by CovernmenL,
MLPuu ln parLlcular, along wlLh beneflclary communlLles Lo ensure maxlmum locally
approprlaLe and susLalnable beneflLs are achleved. MLPuu ls key.

lnfrasLrucLure lnvesLmenLs wlll be planned Lo provlde a maxlmum range of economlc
and soclal developmenL beneflLs lnLegraLed wlLh solld envlronmenLal managemenL.

1he shorL-Lerm mlcro-economlcs/caplLal cosL of an lnfrasLrucLure pro[ecL should noL
Lake precedence over Lhe macro-economlc, long-Lerm naLlonal susLalnablllLy lnLeresLs.

AgrlculLure, as Lhe LradlLlonal economlc base upon whlch Lhe vasL ma[orlLy of AlberLlne
do and wlll conLlnue Lo rely upon long afLer Lhe peLroleum ls gone wlll be safeguarded
and enhanced.

1he AlberLlne's world-class proLecLed areas and blodlverslLy whlch conLrlbuLe Lo Lhe
counLry's envlronmenLal healLh and supporL an lmporLanL Lourlsm lndusLry musL be
proLecLed and susLalnably consldered wlLh all oLher developmenL plans.

8oles of ubllc and rlvaLe SecLors ln reglonal and local developmenL wlll be clearly
deflned, communlcaLed and lnLegraLed lnLo plannlng, lmplemenLaLlon and
managemenL of all developmenL componenLs.





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1.4 Components of an Integrated hys|ca| Deve|opment |an

I|gure 1-1: Integrated hys|ca| |ann|ng Components



1.S S|tuat|on Ana|ys|s Approach and Methodo|og|es

A full descrlpLlon of Lhe overall Approaches and MeLhodologles uLlllsed ln Lhls asslgnmenL ls
presenLed ln Lhe lncepLlon 8eporL. 1he followlng ls a summary for Lhls hase.

1.S.1 1eam and ko|es
A mulLl-dlsclpllnary 1eam of naLlonal and lnLernaLlonal speclallsLs, along wlLh a long llsL of
sLakeholders, have all conLrlbuLed Lo Lhls SlLuaLlon Analysls work. 1ab|e 1-1 presenLs a
summary.

1ab|e 1-1: Consu|tant 1eam and ko|es

Name os|t|on

G|ory Ionga CCS ro[ecL ulrecLor
kob Story ro[ecL Manager (M), 1eam Leader (1L), Sr. hyslcal lanner
eter Mugenz| uepuLy M, ClS SpeclallsL
G|ovana 8e|trao Sr. hyslcal lanner, SLakeholder arLlclpaLlon, lLC SpeclallsL
kato kagga lnfrasLrucLure Lnglneer
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Dr. Iames Ssengendo
(ass|sted by Am|na kyabang|)
SoclologlsL
kebecca Ssabaganz| AgrlculLural SpeclallsL
Iu||et k|ta hyslcal lanner
Dr. 8ruce 1hompson LnvlronmenLal SpeclallsL
Dr. Caro||ne nenderson naLural 8esources SpeclallsL
M|ho Ihara uevelopmenL Lconomlcs SpeclallsL
L||zabeth Ckwen[e Sr. ClS SpeclallsL
Ieff I|ood eLroleum lndusLry SpeclallsL


1.S.2 Informat|on Sources
lnformaLlon for Lhls 8eporL has been derlved from a wlde range of sources lncludlng Lhe
documenLaLlon llsLed ln Annex 1, formal sLakeholder dlscusslons (Annex 2), lnformal
dlscusslons wlLh a wlde range of mosLly unnamed resldenLs, alr phoLo/saLelllLe lmage
analysls, and Lhe consulLanLs' local knowledge, fleld observaLlons and prevlous experlence.

1.S.3 I|e|d Work
arLlclpaLory fleld work ln Lhe AlberLlne by ConsulLanL 1eam members lnLeracLlng wlLh as
many sLakeholders as posslble ls Lhe key Lo preparlng an approprlaLe hyslcal uevelopmenL
lan. lleld work forms a ma[or componenL of Lhe ConsulLanL's approach Lo Lhe asslgnmenL.
1ravel, formal and lnformal lnLervlews and formal Worklng Sesslons have been conducLed
LhroughouL Lhe AlberLlne. CompleLe deLalls are presenLed ln Chapter 3, Chapter 14 and
Annex 2 buL ln summary lncludes:

1. lncepLlon hase road Lravel by 4 1eam members accompanled by a MLPuu hyslcal
lanner Lo:
Murchlson lalls n: lnLervlews, observaLlons
Arua: meeLlngs wlLh Munlclpal and ulsLrlcL offlclals
8hlno Camp: meeLlng wlLh ulsLrlcL offlclals
Polma: formal lnLroducLory workshop
lorL orLal: formal lnLroducLory workshop
Cueen LllzabeLh n: observaLlons
lshaka-8ushenyl area: observaLlons
8oad Lravel observaLlons beLween all polnLs

2. SlLuaLlon Analysls hase
lndlvldual fleld work by lnfrasLrucLure, Soclology, AgrlculLural, naLural 8esources,
Lconomlc uevelopmenL and eLroleum lndusLry SpeclallsLs Lo varlous parLs of
Lhe AlberLlne: formal and lnformal meeLlngs, observaLlons
lormal, hlghly parLlclpaLory Worklng Sesslons held ln Arua, Ad[umanl, Polma,
lorL orLal and lshaka-8ushenyl accompanled by hyslcal lanners from MLPuu.

ln addlLlon Lo Lhe AlberLlne Craben fleld work, exLenslve meeLlngs were held wlLh a range of
governmenL, prlvaLe secLor and nCC sLakeholders ln kampala.

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1.S.4 Stakeho|der art|c|pat|on
SLakeholder parLlclpaLlon ls sLressed by boLh MLPuu and Lhe ConsulLanL 1eam as Lhe key Lo
a successful and accepLable AlberLlne u. Chapters 3 and 16 descrlbe deLalls of sLakeholder
parLlclpaLlon underLaken so far.

1.S.S GIS and A|r hoto Data
LxLenslve use ls made of ClS mapplng complemenLed by alr phoLo/saLelllLe lmagery Lo
analyse and presenL daLa and proposals. 1he ma[or sources of Lhls maLerlal are Lhe uganda
8ureau of SLaLlsLlcs (u8CS) and Lhe naLlonal loresLry AuLhorlLy (nlA).

1.6 Structure of th|s keport

1hls SlLuaLlon Analysls 8eporL ls sLrucLured as follows:

Chapter 1|t|e

Chapter 1 Introduct|on
Chapter 2 Nat|ona| and keg|ona| Context
Chapter 3 Stakeho|ders' V|ews
Chapter 4 Soc|o-Lconom|c and Cu|tura| S|tuat|on
Chapter S Land Use, Management and Sett|ement atterns
Chapter 6 Infrastructure and Serv|ces
Chapter 7 Mun|c|pa||t|es, 1owns and the A|bert|ne
Chapter 8 Lnv|ronmenta| S|tuat|on
Chapter 9 Natura| kesource Management
Chapter 10 Agr|cu|ture - 1he Lconom|c 8ase
Chapter 11 1he etro|eum Industry |n the A|bert|ne
Chapter 12 Lconom|c Deve|opment
Chapter 13 Cn-go|ng and |anned ro[ects
Chapter 14 ILC rogramme
Chapter 1S Issues, Cpportun|t|es and Constra|nts
Chapter 16 Next Steps
Annexes
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<=5,4%$5' > ?(*4%$5'
@%$,(7,

Introduct|on
1hls ChapLer summarlses Lhe physlcal and lnsLlLuLlonal
conLexLs wlLhln whlch Lhe AlberLlne Craben hyslcal
uevelopmenL lan ls seL. lannlng and acLlvlLles ln an area
of Lhls slze musL conslder Lhe Lwo-way lnfluences of
condlLlons and declslons on Lhe resL of uganda and lLs
nelghbourlng counLrles.
.
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2.1 ro[ect Locat|on & hys|ca| Descr|pt|on
As lllusLraLed ln Map 2-1 Lhe AlberLlne Craben occuples Lhe enLlre wesLern quarLer of
uganda, a large and dlverse reglon. 1he LoLal lannlng Area ls 67,886 km
2
sLreLchlng from
SouLh Sudan souLh Lo 8wanda, and bounded on Lhe wesL by Lhe uemocraLlc 8epubllc of
Congo.

1he AlberLlne Craben forms Lhe norLhern mosL parL of Lhe LasL Afrlcan 8lfL SysLem coverlng
an area 300km long and ranglng from 30 km Lo 100 km wlde. 1he reglon ls anchored around
Lakes AlberL and Ldward, Lhe nlle 8lver ln Lhe norLh, and Lhe lmpresslve 8wenzorl
MounLalns ln Lhe cenLre. Large expanses of LradlLlonal, subslsLence agrlculLural lands, foresL
reserves, and several naLlonal parks of world-class sLaLure wlLh prollflc wlldllfe resources all
conLrlbuLe Lo Lhe reglon's geographlc dlverslLy, ecologlcal lmporLance and soclo-economlc
opporLunlLles. Many of Lhese asseLs are shared wlLh nelghbourlng counLrles and musL be
looked aL wlLhln Lhe reglonal conLexL.

2.2 Soc|o-Lconom|c Context
uganda's LoLal populaLlon ln 2014 ls esLlmaLed aL abouL 36 mllllon based on exLrapolaLlons
from Lhe lasL offlclal census ln 2002. 1he AlberLlne's porLlon of LhaL ls abouL 23 (9.1 mlllon)
closely correspondlng Lo Lhe AlberLlne's land area proporLlon. Chapter 4 presenLs deLalls and
source references. 1he urban porLlon of Lhe populaLlon of sLands aL abouL 26 of Lhe LoLal
wlLh over 81 of Lhe populaLlon lnvolved ln agrlculLure of some sorL. uesplLe a general
growLh ln Lhe economy Lhe naLlonal per caplLa lncome ls only uS$ 334 leavlng a large
proporLlon of Lhe populaLlon ln poverLy. ConLlnued rural-urban mlgraLlon wlll pose an on-
golng challenge for governmenLs aL all levels Lo keep pace wlLh Lhe demand for planned land
and lnfrasLrucLure.

1he AlberLlne Craben's geo-pollLlcal locaLlon also has ma[or lmpacLs. Cn-golng pollLlcal
lnsLablllLy and relaLed confllcLs ln nelghbourlng SouLh Sudan and Lhe uemocraLlc 8epubllc of
Congo resulL ln large numbers of refugees fleelng lnLo Lhe area puLLlng pressure on local
resources and generaLe lnevlLable resenLmenLs. unPC8 and numerous nCCs malnLaln a
sLrong presence ln Lhe area. 8ebel groups of varlous facLlons from nelghbourlng counLrles
always pose a LhreaL Lo local securlLy. 1he relaLlve prosperousness and securlLy of uganda
also draws a large number of economlc refugees. AL Lhe same Llme, Lhe AlberLlne's eLhnlc
groups are noL deflned by pollLlcal borders and lncomlng refugees may well share a common
eLhnlclLy wlLh Lhelr new hosLs.

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Map 2-1: Study Area Locat|on


Source: u8CS
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Map 2-2: A|bert|ne hys|ca| Descr|pt|on

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2.3 Inst|tut|ona| Context

2.3.1 Government Structure
ln summary, governmenL ln uganda ls sLrucLured as follows:

naLlonal CovernmenL: MlnlsLrles and Agencles
ulsLrlcL Local CovernmenL
CounLy and Sub-CounLy
MunlclpallLy
1own Councll

8elow 1own Counclls are a varleLy of smaller 1radlng CenLres, ln addlLlon, Lhere ls Lhe
LradlLlonal leadershlp provldlng clan governance, and a varleLy of locally-based CommunlLy
CrganlsaLlons provldlng lnformal, non-sLaLuLory guldance Lo communlLles. 1he lnLerface
beLween conLemporary and LradlLlonal governmenL causes some confllcLs, parLlcularly wlLh
respecL Lo land ownershlp, plannlng and managemenL.

2.3.2 Inst|tut|ona| Context - hys|ca| |ann|ng
I|gure 2-1 lllusLraLes Lhe Covernance/lnsLlLuLlonal conLexL wlLhln whlch preparaLlon of a
reglonal hyslcal uevelopmenL lan slLs. 1he sLrucLure wlll be assessed for lLs capaclLy aL
each level Lo carry ouL Lhe responslblllLles offlclally asslgned Lo lL. 8ulldlng Lhls capaclLy ls Lhe
reason for Lhe 1ralnlng componenL of Lhls asslgnmenL and wlll llkely emerge as Lhe key Lo
long-Lerm susLalnable developmenL ln Lhe AlberLlne. ln Lhe absence of lnsLlLuLlonal capaclLy
Lhe largely ad hoc form of developmenL prevalenL Loday wlll conLlnue, drlven by Lhe
prlorlLles of varlous lndlvldual lnLeresL groups raLher Lhan a concern for Lhe naLlonal good.

AL naLlonal level Lhe hyslcal lannlng ueparLmenL ln Lhe MlnlsLry of Land Pouslng and
urban uevelopmenL ls responslble for carrylng ouL naLlonal land-use plans and pollcles wlLh
conLrlbuLlons from oLher relaLed mlnlsLrles and deparLmenLs. CurrenLly Lhe M|n|ster ln
charge of Lhe MlnlsLry of Lands, Pouslng and urban uevelopmenL approves recommended
plans by Lhe naLlonal hyslcal lannlng 8oard.

1he D|rectorate of hys|ca| |ann|ng and Urban Deve|opment comprlses of Lhese
deparLmenLs: Lhe Cfflce of ulrecLor, Lhe ueparLmenL of hyslcal lannlng, Lhe ueparLmenL of
urban uevelopmenL and Lhe ueparLmenL of Land use 8egulaLlons and Compllance. 1he
ma[or alm of Lhls dlrecLoraLe ls Lo aLLaln an orderly, progresslve and susLalnable urban and
rural developmenL as a framework for lndusLrlallzaLlon, provlslon of soclal and physlcal
lnfrasLrucLure, agrlculLural modernlzaLlon and poverLy eradlcaLlon.

Nat|ona| hys|ca| |ann|ng 8oard
lormulaLe drafL plannlng pollcles, sLandards, guldellnes and manuals for conslderaLlon
by Lhe MlnlsLer,
Lo approve reglonal, urban or dlsLrlcL physlcal developmenL plans and recommend Lo
Lhe MlnlsLer naLlonal plans for approval,
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Lo sLudy and glve guldance and recommendaLlons on lssues relaLlng Lo physlcal
plannlng whlch Lranscend more Lhan one local governmenL for purposes of co-
ordlnaLlon and lnLegraLlon of physlcal developmenL,

Secretary to the Nat|ona| hys|ca| |ann|ng Department
1he key roles of Lhe secreLary Lo Lhe naLlonal hyslcal lannlng ueparLmenL are as follows:
lnlLlaLe drafL naLlonal and reglonal physlcal developmenL pollcles, guldellnes and
sLraLegles for conslderaLlon by Lhe 8oard,
be responslble for Lhe preparaLlon of all naLlonal, dlsLrlcL and local physlcal
developmenL plans, and
asslsL dlsLrlcLs and lower local governmenLs Lo prepare dlsLrlcL and local physlcal
developmenL plans. LLc.

D|str|ct hys|ca| |ann|ng Comm|ttee
Lo cause Lo be prepared local physlcal developmenL plans, Lhrough lLs offlcers, agenLs
or any quallfled physlcal planners,
Lo ensure Lhe lnLegraLlon of physlcal plannlng lnLo Lhe Lhree year lnLegraLed
developmenL plan of Lhe dlsLrlcL,
Lo exerclse supervlsory powers over all lower plannlng commlLLees,
Lo ensure lnLegraLlon of soclal, economlc and envlronmenLal plans lnLo Lhe physlcal
developmenL plans.

Urban hys|ca| |ann|ng Comm|ttees
Lo cause Lo be prepared urban and local physlcal developmenL plans and deLalled
plans,
Lo recommend developmenL appllcaLlons Lo Lhe 8oard for change of land use,

Loca| hys|ca| |ann|ng Comm|ttees
lnlLlaLlng Lhe preparaLlon of local physlcal developmenL plans,
recommendlng local physlcal developmenL plans Lo Lhe dlsLrlcL physlcal plannlng
commlLLee for conslderaLlon,
recommendlng Lo Lhe dlsLrlcL physlcal plannlng commlLLee Lhe approval of local
physlcal developmenL plans,
lmplemenLlng sLrucLure plans, ln close consulLaLlon wlLh Lhe dlsLrlcL physlcal planner,
and
lmplemenLlng, ln close consulLaLlon wlLh Lhe dlsLrlcL physlcal planner, deLalled plans
and area acLlon plans whlch shall address Lhe maLLers speclfled ln Lhe 1hlrd Schedule.

Whlle ln Lhe pasL Lhe hyslcal lannlng ueparLmenL was responslble for preparaLlon of
sLrucLure and deLalled plans aL all plannlng levels, wlLh decenLrallzaLlon pollcy, local
auLhorlLles are mandaLed Lo prepare sLrucLure and deLalled plans ln Lhelr areas of
[urlsdlcLlon. Powever approval of Lhese plans ls a sole responslblllLy of Lhe llne MlnlsLer wlLh
Lechnlcal advlce from Lhe naLlonal hyslcal lannlng 8oard. 1he role of Lhe ueparLmenL and
Lhe 8oard however remalns ln preparaLlon of naLlonal and reglonal plans.
1he flgure below summarlzes Lhe plannlng hlerarchy:

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I|gure 2-1: |ann|ng Inst|tut|ona| n|erarchy




2.3.3 Loca| Government |n the A|bert|ne
1he AlberLlne Craben conslsLs of 23 ulsLrlcLs wlLhln whlch are CounLy and Sub-CounLy
dlvlslons Map 2-3: AlberLlne AdmlnsLraLlve 8oundarles

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Cfflclally deslgnaLed urban areas lnclude 7 MunlclpallLles and 32 1own Counclls as lllusLraLed
ln. 1here ls no reglonal local governmenL, so plannlng and managemenL of Lhe AlberLlne
Craben relles on Lhe lnLegraLed coordlnaLlon and collaboraLlon of Lhese smaller local
governmenL auLhorlLles under Lhe guldance of Lhe naLlonal governmenL. 1hls u wlll
provlde a Lool Lo sLrengLhen LhaL cooperaLlon. ulsLrlcL level local governmenL offlclals are
employees of Lhe naLlonal governmenL and provlde local represenLaLlon. 1he AlberLlne
Craben ls Lhe flrsL of serles of 8eglonal uevelopmenL lans and Lhe concepL of 8eglonal
CoordlnaLlon Counclls, or some such enLlLy may be worLh conslderlng as an lmplemenLaLlon
and monlLorlng coordlnaLlon body.

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Map 2-3: A|bert|ne Adm|nstrat|ve 8oundar|es

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2.4 Lega| and Inst|tut|ona| Iramework
1here are several leglslaLlons or AcLs of arllamenL LhaL have belng puL ln place over Lhe
years Lo gulde plannlng ln uganda. Among Lhe key leglslaLlons LhaL relaLe Lo spaLlal plannlng
lnclude: 1he ConsLlLuLlon of Lhe 8epubllc of uganda, 1he hyslcal lannlng AcL, 1he Local
CovernmenL AcL, 1he Land AcL, 1he ubllc PealLh AcL, 1he LnvlronmenL AcL also key Lo Lhe
preparaLlon of Lhe AlberLlne Craben lan wlll be Lhe eLroleum Supply AcL, 1he eLroleum
(LxploraLlon and roducLlon) (ConducL of LxploraLlon CperaLlons) 8egulaLlons, 1993 among
oLhers LhaL wlll be dlscussed hereln.

2.4.1 1he Const|tut|on of the kepub||c of Uganda, 199S
1he consLlLuLlon ls Lhe prlme law on whlch all oLhers are based, lL ls also Lhe fundamenLal
legal basls of land managemenL ln uganda. Accordlng Lo Lhls 1993 consLlLuLlon, ArLlcle 237
clause (1), Land ln uganda belongs Lo Lhe clLlzens of uganda and shall vesL ln Lhem ln
accordance wlLh Lhe land Lenure sysLems provlded for ln Lhe ConsLlLuLlon. 1he consLlLuLlon
also recognlzes LhaL CovernmenL or a local governmenL may, sub[ecL Lo arLlcle 26 of Lhls
ConsLlLuLlon, acqulre land ln Lhe publlc lnLeresL, and Lhe condlLlons governlng such
acqulslLlon shall be as prescrlbed by arllamenL. 1he CovernmenL or a local governmenL as
deLermlned by arllamenL by law, holds ln LrusL for Lhe people and proLecL, naLural lakes,
rlvers, weLlands, foresL reserves, game reserves, naLlonal parks and any land Lo be reserved
for ecologlcal and LourlsL purposes for Lhe common good of all clLlzens. ln clause 3 of ArLlcle
237, Land in Uganda is owned in accordance with the customary, freehold, Mailo and
leasehold land Lenure sysLems. 1hls legal framework ls useful for furLher sLresslng Lhe roles
of Lhe 1own Councll ln land managemenL and conservaLlon of envlronmenLally senslLlve
areas.

2.4.2 1he hys|ca| |ann|ng Act, 2010
1hls ls among Lhe prlnclple AcL LhaL has belng prepared Lo gulde Lhe plannlng process. 1he
8eglonal hyslcal uevelopmenL lan shall be prepared by Lhe naLlonal hyslcal lannlng
8oard as per S.19 of Lhe AcL. 1hls also sLaLes LhaL:

lo tbe ptepototloo of tbe ootloool ooJ teqloool pbyslcol Jevelopmeot ploo, tbe 8ootJ sboll
toke loto occooot tbe secotloq of soltoble ptovlsloo fot oqtlcoltotol Jevelopmeot,
loftosttoctote, loJosttlol Jevelopmeot, eovltoomeotol ptotectloo, oototol tesootce
moooqemeot, otboolsotloo, bomoo settlemeots coosetvotloo, tootlsm, tbe mottets speclfleJ
in the Fourth Schedule and other relevant matters.
1he AcL furLher sLlpulaLes maLLers Lo be dealL wlLh ln Lhe 8eglonal hyslcal uevelopmenL
lans ln Lhe lourLh Schedule:

Ak1 IANALSIS
1. opulaLlon growLh, dlsLrlbuLlon and movemenL.
2. Land poLenLlal, lncludlng dlsLrlbuLlon of agrlculLural land poLenLlal, Lhe relaLlve
values, populaLlon and land lmbalance, land Lenure, land use and oLher naLural
resource endowmenLs.
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3. LmploymenL and lncomes, lncludlng characLerlsLlcs of employmenL, lncome
dlsLrlbuLlon, Lhe labour force, poLenLlal of Lhe lnformal secLor and Lhelr locaLlons.
4. Puman seLLlemenLs, lncludlng dlsLrlbuLlon of exlsLlng servlces, growLh and
paLLern of urbanlzaLlon cause of rural-urban mlgraLlon.
3. MaLLers affecLlng more Lhan one dlsLrlcL whlch requlre cenLral governmenL co-
ordlnaLlon.
Ak1 IILAN kCCSALS
6. AlLernaLlve developmenL paLLerns, lncludlng rural developmenL, urban
developmenL and lnLerrelaLlons beLween urban and rural developmenL.
7. SLraLegles for human seLLlemenLs ln Lhe area, lncludlng developmenL of servlce
cenLres, growLh cenLres, LransporL and communlcaLlon neLworks and rural
developmenL.
Ak1 IIIIMLLMLN1A1ICN
8. 1he secLor approach Lo developmenL and measures for lmplemenLaLlon and co-
ordlnaLlon ln Lhese secLors, namely lndusLrlal developmenL, houslng,
LransporLaLlon, healLh servlces, educaLlon, waLer supply, sewerage, elecLrlclLy
supply and envlronmenL.
A naLlonal or reglonal physlcal developmenL plan, ln relaLlon Lo an area, shall conslsL of
1. A Lechnlcal reporL on Lhe condlLlons, resources and faclllLles ln Lhe area,
2. A sLaLemenL and proposals wlLh regard Lo Lhe allocaLlon of resources and locaLlons
for developmenL wlLhln Lhe area,
3. A descrlpLlon and analysls of Lhe condlLlons of developmenL ln Lhe area as may be
necessary Lo explaln and [usLlfy Lhe sLaLemenL of pollcles and proposals,
4. 8elevanL sLudles and reporLs concernlng physlcal developmenL of Lhe area.
1he AcL also empowers Lhe MlnlsLer on recommendaLlons by Lhe naLlonal hyslcal lannlng
8oard Lo declare Speclal lannlng Areas. 1he AlberLlne Craben was declared and gazeLLed as
a Speclal lannlng Area. 1hls wlll be Lhe plannlng area for Lhls reglonal physlcal developmenL
plan.

2.4.3 1he Loca| Government Act
1he Local CovernmenL AcL 1993 ls Lhe legal framework LhaL mandaLes Local CovernmenLs Lo
prepare or cause Lo prepare plannlng schemes for Lhe lower local governmenL. 1hls AcL also
ouLllnes Lhe mandaLe of Lown counclls ln respecL of Lhe servlces Lhey are supposed Lo dellver
Lo Lhe populaLlon lncludlng roads openlng and malnLenance, sLreeL llghLlng, and oLher
servlces. 1hls AcL ls Lhe basls on whlch local auLhorlLles carry ouL plannlng on Lhelr area of
[urlsdlcLlon.

arL lv of Lhe local CovernmenL AcL secLlons 31(3) and 36(1,3) glves urban Counclls plannlng
auLonomy and furLher deflnes Lhe plannlng auLhorlLy ln Lhe dlsLrlcL as Lhe dlsLrlcL councll and
SI1UA1ICN ANALSIS kLCk1 | reparaLlon of a hyslcal uevelopmenL lan
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how lL shall carry ouL plannlng ln relaLlon Lo gulde llnes of 1he naLlonal lannlng AuLhorlLy
whlch provldes:

31 (3) urban counclls shall have auLonomy over Lhelr plannlng and flnanclal
managemenL when carrylng ouL Lhe funcLlons and servlces speclfled under parL 3 of
Lhe second schedule.

36(1) Lhe dlsLrlcL councll shall be Lhe plannlng auLhorlLy of a dlsLrlcL.

36(3) Lhe dlsLrlcL councll shall prepare comprehenslve and lnLegraLed developmenL
plans lncorporaLlng plans for lower local governmenLs for submlsslon Lo Lhe naLlonal
plannlng auLhorlLy, and lower local governmenLs shall prepare plans lncorporaLlng
plans of lower counclls ln Lhelr respecLlve areas of [urlsdlcLlon.

arL 3 of Lhe Local CovernmenLs AcL provldes for Lhe luncLlons and servlces, for whlch urban
counclls are responslble Lo lnclude buL noL llmlLed Lo:

1. LsLabllsh, acqulre, erecL, malnLaln, promoLe, asslsL or conLrol wlLh parLlclpaLlon of Lhe
clLlzens:
LlghLlng of sLreeLs and publlc places,
Cllnlcs, dlspensarles, healLh and lnoculaLlon cenLers,
SanlLary servlces for Lhe removal and dlsposal of nlghL soll, rubblsh and carcasses
of dead anlmals and all klnds of refuse.

2. LsLabllsh, malnLaln or conLrol publlc parks, gardens and recreaLlon grounds on any land
vesLed ln connecLlon wlLh or for purposes of LhaL publlc park, garden, or recreaLlon
ground Lo: - 8eserve any porLlon of Lhe ubllc ark, garden, or recreaLlon ground for
any speclflc purposes, exclude Lhe publlc from Lhose porLlons and provlde for Lhe
renLlng and hlrlng Lo Lhe publlc, clubs or oLher organlzaLlons.

2.4.4 1he Land Act, 1998
1hls AcL provldes Lhe framework for Lhe varlous land Lenure sysLems ln uganda and provldes
for Lhe managemenL of land. Accordlng Lo secLlon 42, Lhe governmenL or local governmenL
may acqulre land ln accordance wlLh arLlcles 26 and 237 (2) of Lhe consLlLuLlon. 1hls secLlon
ls especlally relevanL Lo compulsory acqulslLlon of land as spelL ouL ln Lhe 1993 consLlLuLlon
of Lhe 8epubllc of uganda.

SecLlon 43 provldes for a person who owns or occuples land Lo manage and uLlllze Lhe land
ln accordance wlLh Lhe loresL AcL, Lhe mlnlng AcL, Lhe naLlonal LnvlronmenL AcL, Lhe WaLer
acL, Lhe uganda wlldllfe AcL and any oLher law.

As regards secLlon 44, Lhe governmenL or local governmenL shall hold ln LrusL for Lhe people
and proLecL naLural lakes, rlvers, ground waLer, naLural ponds, naLural sLreams, foresL
reserves, naLlonal park sand any oLher land reserved for ecologlcal and LourlsLlc purposes for
Lhe common good of Lhe clLlzens of uganda. hyslcal plannlng ls one of Lhe prellmlnary sLeps
Lhrough whlch Lhls mandaLe can be exerclsed.
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2.4.S 1he Land Acqu|s|t|on Act, 196S
1hls AcL provldes Lhe compulsory acqulslLlon of land by governmenL lf lL ls deemed essenLlal
for a publlc good such as a ma[or plece of lnfrasLrucLure. 1hls AcL ls of parLlcular lnLeresL ln
Lhe AlberLlne wlLh Lhe slgnlflcanL amounLs of peLroleum lndusLry lnfrasLrucLure planned. A
deLalled descrlpLlon of Lhls AcL ls presenLed ln Sect|on S.3.

2.4.6 1he ub||c nea|th Act
1hls AcL consolldaLes and provldes a framework wlLh regards Lo conservaLlon and
preservaLlon of publlc healLh ln parLlcular, lL deals wlLh bulldlng regulaLlons, sanlLaLlon and
Lhe conLrol of nulsances. 1he AcL empowers Lhe local auLhorlLles Lo ensure LhaL Lhe general
healLh sLandards sLlpulaLed by Lhe AcL are adhered Lo Lhrough speclflc regulaLlons.

1he AcL empowers Lhe mlnlsLer of healLh Lo prohlblL erecLlon of premlses, whlch do noL
meeL Lhe mlnlmum sLandards sLlpulaLed ln Lhe AcL and oLher regulaLlons. 1he AcL ls of
relevance Lo lannlng because lL spells ouL mlnlmum sLandards and ensures proper publlc
healLh Lhrough Lhe varlous secLlons.

2.4.7 1he Nat|ona| Lnv|ronment Act, Cap 1S3
1he naLlonal LnvlronmenL AcL provldes Lools for envlronmenLal managemenL LhaL hlLherLo
had noL been deployed, lncludlng LlAs. 1he naLlonal LnvlronmenL AcL (nLA), Cap. 133,
stipulates the Mandate of NEMA as the principal Agency in Uganda responsible for the
managemenL of Lhe envlronmenL by coordlnaLlng, monlLorlng, regulaLlng, and supervlslng all
activities in the field of environment.

Accordlng Lo Lhls sLaLuLe, parL vll secLlons 34 Lo 33 ouLllnes all Lhe relevanL envlronmenLal
managemenL mandaLes of nLMA ln collaboraLlon wlLh Lhe CovernmenL and Local
CovernmenLs. More speclflcally secLlons 49 and 46 concern land use plannlng and foresL
resource managemenL, ln parLlcular secLlon 7 (b) under parL lll speclfles LhaL nLMA,
Ensures the integration of environmental concerns in overall national planning through co-
ordlnaLlon wlLh Lhe relevanL mlnistries, departments and agencies of Government.

SecLlon 33 of Lhe LnvlronmenL AcL prohlblLs any acLlvlLy noL belng a LradlLlonal acLlvlLy, ln a
weLland wlLhouL Lhe prlor wrlLLen approval of Lhe AuLhorlLy glven ln consulLaLlon wlLh Lhe
lead agency responslble. 1he naLlonal LnvlronmenL (WeLlands, 8lver 8anks and Lake Shores
ManagemenL) 8egulaLlons, 2000 sLlpulaLes ln regulaLlon 34 LhaL a developer who deslres Lo
conducL a pro[ecL whlch may have adverse lmpacLs on a weLland, rlver bank or lake shore
shall carry ouL an envlronmenLal lmpacL assessmenL ln accordance wlLh Lhe provlslons of Lhe
LnvlronmenL AcL. Such developer ls requlred ln Lerms of regulaLlon 34(2) Lo carry ouL annual
audlLs and monlLorlng on such acLlvlLles. A permlL musL be obLalned before any of Lhe
acLlvlLles llsLed ln Lhe Second Schedule Lo Lhe 8egulaLlons can be underLaken (regulaLlon 12).
CulLlvaLlon, dralnage, commerclal explolLaLlon of weLland resources and sewerage fllLraLlon
are some of Lhe acLlvlLles llsLed ln Lhe second schedule. 8lver banks and lake shores are held
ln LrusL by CovernmenL for Lhe common good of Lhe clLlzens of uganda (regulaLlon 18).
CovernmenL ls prohlblLed from leaslng or oLherwlse allenaLlng any rlver bank or lake shore.
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Accordlng Lo regulaLlon 19, Lhe provlslons of Lhese regulaLlons seek Lo glve effecL Lo ArLlcle
237(2) of Lhe ConsLlLuLlon.

2.4.8 1he W||d||fe Act, 1996
1hls AcL provldes for susLalnable managemenL of wlldllfe and consolldaLes all efforLs Lo
conserve wlldllfe ln Lhe counLry by esLabllshlng a monlLorlng and supervlsory body- uganda
Wlldllfe AuLhorlLy. 1hls AcL ls lmporLanL ln Lhe preparaLlon of Lhe AlberLlne Craben 8eglonal
hyslcal uevelopmenL lan as Lhe reglon ls rlch ln wlldllfe and conservaLlon areas such as Lhe
Murchlson lalls naLlonal arL, and Cueen LllzabeLh naLlonal ark among oLhers.

2.4.9 1he Iorest Act, 1999
1hls AcL provldes for Lhe proLecLlon, managemenL and proper uLlllzaLlon of foresL resources.
SecLlon 3 of Lhe AcL empowers Lhe mlnlsLer by sLaLuLory order Lo declare any area Lo be a
cenLral foresL reserve or a local foresL reserve or Lo have an adequaLe foresL esLaLe afLer
lnsLlLuLlng such lnqulrles, as he or she may deem flL.
SecLlon 9(2) empowers Lhe local auLhorlLy wlLh Lhe approval of Lhe mlnlsLer Lo make rules
for proLecLlon, managemenL and uLlllzaLlon of any vlllage foresL reserve wlLhln lLs area of
[urlsdlcLlon.

2.4.10 1he etro|eum Supp|y Act, 2003
1he AlberLlne Craben has rlch deposlLs of commerclally vlable oll and Lhe counLry has
enacLed varlous laws on peLroleum and gas, Lhe eLroleum Supply AcL ls one of Lhem and lL
provldes for Lhe supervlslon and monlLorlng, Lhe lmporLaLlon, exporLaLlon, LransporLaLlon,
processlng, supply, sLorage, dlsLrlbuLlon and markeLlng of peLroleum producLs. 1he AcL
mandaLes Lhe MlnlsLer ln charge of Lhe peLroleum secLor Lo provlde Lhe llcenslng and conLrol
of acLlvlLles and lnsLallaLlons, for Lhe safeLy and proLecLlon of publlc healLh and Lhe
envlronmenL ln peLroleum supply operaLlons and lnsLallaLlons so as Lo encourage and
proLecL falr compeLlLlon ln Lhe peLroleum supply markeL.

1he AcL provldes for Lhe esLabllshmenL of Lhe naLlonal eLroleum lnformaLlon SysLem whlch
shall conslsL of an lnLegraLed and cenLrallzed daLabase and lnformaLlon sysLem coverlng all
peLroleum supply operaLlons and lnsLallaLlons, Lhe prlnclpal markeL acLlvlLles and sLaLlsLlcs of
uganda as well as lnLernaLlonal reference daLa. 1he Commlssloner ls ln charge of Lhls and he
ls requlred Lo publlsh Lhe daLa conLalned ln Lhe sysLem ln aggregaLe form wlLh excepLlon Lo
daLa consldered confldenLlal. 1he Commlssloner ls also Lo esLabllsh and malnLaln a CenLral
eLroleum 8eglsLry for Lhe purpose of monlLorlng Lhe supply chaln.

2.4.11 1he etro|eum (Lxp|orat|on, Deve|opment and roduct|on) 8|||, 2012
1he maln ob[ecLlve of Lhls 8lll ls Lo reallze Lhe naLlonal Cll and Cas pollcy for uganda. lL seeks
Lo regulaLe peLroleum exploraLlon, developmenL and producLlon, and Lo esLabllsh Lhe
eLroleum AuLhorlLy of uganda and Lhe naLlonal Cll Company as well as regulaLe Lhe
llcenslng and parLlclpaLlon of commerclal enLlLles ln peLroleum acLlvlLles, Lo provlde for an
open, LransparenL and compeLlLlve process of llcenslng, Lo creaLe a conduclve envlronmenL
for the promotion and exploration of Ugandas petroleum potential, to provide for efficient
and safe peLroleum poLenLlal, Lo provlde for efflclenL and safe peLroleum acLlvlLles, Lo
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provlde for Lhe cessaLlon of peLroleum acLlvlLles and decommlsslonlng of lnfrasLrucLure , Lo
provlde for Lhe paymenL arlslng from peLroleum acLlvlLles, Lo provlde for Lhe condlLlons for
Lhe resLoraLlon of derellcL lands and any oLher relaLed maLLer. 1he 8lll provldes for Lhe
esLabllshmenL of Lhe eLroleum AuLhorlLy of uganda

2.4.12 1he etro|eum (kef|n|ng, Gas rocess|ng and Convers|on, 1ransportat|on
and Storage) 8|||, 2012
1hls ls Lhe second 8lll LhaL was passed Lo reallze Lhe naLlonal Cll and Cas ollcy for uganda
as well as effecL arLlcle 244 of Lhe ConsLlLuLlon. 1he 8lll seeks Lo: regulaLe peLroleum
reflnlng, gas processlng and converslon, LransporLaLlon and sLorage of peLroleum, Lo
promoLe pollcy formulaLlon, coordlnaLlon and managemenL of peLroleum reflnlng, gas
processlng and converslon, LransporLaLlon and sLorage, Lo provlde for Lhlrd parLy access Lo
lnfrasLrucLure, Lo provlde for an open LransparenL and compeLlLlve process of llcenslng by
Lhe MlnlsLer responslble for peLroleum, Lo provlde for healLh and safeLy envlronmenL, Lo
provlde for cessaLlon of peLroleum acLlvlLles and decommlsslonlng of peLroleum faclllLles
and lnfrasLrucLure and Lo provlde for relaLed maLLers.
2.S 1he |ann|ng Context and n|erarchy

I|gure 2-2 lllusLraLes Lhe hlerarchy of plans LhaL are offlclally requlred Lo manage land use
and developmenL ln uganda. 1he AlberLlne Craben hyslcal uevelopmenL lan should fall
dlrecLly under Lhe naLlonal hyslcal uevelopmenL lan, buL wlLh LhaL umbrella plan noL yeL
ln place, Lhe AlberLlne ls deslgnaLed a Speclal lannlng Area Lo be laLer lnLegraLed. lor Lhe
purposes of Lhls exerclse we wlll be focused on Lhe 8eglonal level, wlLh reference Lo
avallable ulsLrlcL lans and lndlvldual Munlclpal SLrucLure lans. Samples of Lhe smaller
1own Councll SLrucLure lans musL also be evaluaLed, as wlll unlque proLecLed area/naLlonal
ark plans and speclal economlc developmenL plans (e.g. peLroleum secLor developmenLs)
where Lhese are avallable. lannlng ln uganda ls done aL Lhree levels: naLlonal, reglonal and
local level. I|gure 2-2 lllusLraLes Lhe Lypes of plans prepared ln uganda as per Lhe hyslcal
lannlng AcL, 2010.

I|gure 2-2: hys|ca| Deve|opment |an n|erarchy


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2.6 Sub-keg|ons Cverv|ew

lor Lhe purposes of Lhls plannlng exerclse, Lhe AlberLlne Craben ls belng analysed ln Lhree
SLudy Areas, or sub-reglons, Lo enable more deLalled aLLenLlon Lo locally relevanL facLors.
1hese dlvlslons have no admlnlsLraLlve basls and serve only Lhe needs of Lhls u
preparaLlon, alLhough each does have unlque characLerlsLlcs. Map 2-3.

2.6.1 North Study Area
ln many respecLs Lhls ls a somewhaL lsolaLed parL of uganda belng locaLed ln Lhe far
norLhwesL of Lhe counLry wlLh llmlLed access across Lhe nlle 8lver, one brldge and one ferry.
lor years lL was furLher lsolaLed by rebel acLlvlLy, and ls now heavlly lnfluenced by lnsecurlLy
across lLs borders ln nelghbourlng SouLh Sudan and Lhe Congo. AL Lhe same Llme, proxlmlLy
Lo Lhese Lwo counLrles ls drlvlng a sLrong Lradlng economy. SubslsLence agrlculLure ls Lhe
malnsLay, buL wlLh a growlng lnLeresL ln developlng a sLronger agrlculLural processlng
lndusLry. 1here ls only one good road connecLlon Lo faclllLaLe Lrade wlLh Lhe resL of uganda,
buL only one aL presenL. A rall llne ls belng upgraded Lo akwach on Lhe AlberL nlle, wlLh
plans Lo exLend LhaL Lo Arua. A shorLage of adequaLe and rellable power supply ls also
hamperlng lndusLrlal developmenL. 1he munlclpallLy of Arua ls Lhe commerclal hub and ls
home Lo uganda's second buslesL alrporL. Cll exploraLlon ls underway, parLlcularly ln Lhe
Murchlson lalls naLlonal ark and furLher norLh along Lhe AlberL nlle.

2.6.2 Centra| Study Area
1hls parL of Lhe AlberLlne borders Lake AlberL and cenLres around Polma and Lhe oll and gas
lndusLry. Polma, wlLh a populaLlon of 242,000 ls only 3 hours from kampala on a good road.
Ma[or oll acLlvlLles are locaLed along Lake AlberL aL kalso, 1onya and klngflsher wlLh a
reflnery Lo be bullL aL Lhe Lop of Lhe rlfL escarpmenL. AgrlculLure ls Lhe LradlLlonal malnsLay
as elsewhere ln Lhe counLry buL lncreaslng affecLs of Lhe oll lndusLry are belng felL. 1he
CenLral Area ls experlenclng Lhe hlghesL level of lnward mlgraLlon by Lhose seeklng new
employmenL, and speculaLors are buylng of land ln expecLaLlon of oll-drlven developmenL.
uevelopmenL ls Laklng place, buL local resldenLs are feellng Lhe lmpacLs of re-locaLlon and
escalaLlng land prlces. As elsewhere ln Lhe AlberLlne, a lack of waLer supply ls an lssue for
domesLlc, agrlculLural and lndusLrlal uses.

2.6.3 South Study Area
1he souLh parL of Lhe AlberLlne ls Lhe mosL densely populaLed and mosL urbanlsed wlLh a
number of slgnlflcanL MunlclpallLles and 1own Counclls. lorL orLal ls a ma[or cenLre wlLh a
populaLlon of abouL 33,000. 1he area ls a ma[or agrlculLural producLlon zone lncludlng 60
of uganda's Lea, and food crops for local consumpLlon as well as kampala and beyond. 1he
area ls also Lhe maln Lourlsm desLlnaLlon ln uganda aLLracLed by Lhe 8wenzorl MounLalns,
Cueen LllzabeLh naLlonal ark, 8wlndl loresL and oLher eco-locaLlons. Cll producLlon,
mlnlng and numerous proposed mlnl-hydro pro[ecLs also add Lo Lhe area's lmporLance. 1wo
good quallLy roads connecL lorL orLal, Lhe Lourlsm cenLre, and 8ushenyl/Mbarara wlLh
kampala aL dlsLances of 3-7 hours.

1ab|e 2-1 provldes furLher overvlew of Lhe Lhree SLudy Areas.
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1ab|e 2-1: Study Area - key Ieatures

Study Area opu|.
2002
opu|.
2014
hys|ca| Descr|pt|on Ma[or Lconom|c Act|v|t|es
1. North- Sub-Study Area 1
Ad[umanl, Amuru , Arua,
,nebbl, nwoya,
Moyo,?umbe









2,094,873

2,983,314

1hls sub-sLudy area ls locaLed aL Lhe norLheasLern parL
of uganda and borders Lhe SouLh Sudan and u8C
Congo. lL lncludes 7 dlsLrlcLs. Moyo and ?umbe dlsLrlcLs
are locaLed aL Lhe norLh mosL end borderlng SouLh
Sudan. Moyo Lown ls approxlmaLely 433km from
kampala. nebbl Lown ls accesslble by road, rall and by
alr. Arua dlsLrlcL headquarLers ls one of Lhe blggesL
Lown ln Lhe sub-sLudy reglon. Arua ls served by Lhe 2
nd

buslesL alrporL ln uganda afLer LnLebbe. Arua also
serves as a base for rellef and ald efforLs Lo u8C Congo
and SouLh Sudan.


Maln economlc acLlvlLy ln Lhls sub-sLudy reglon ls
agrlculLure wlLh Lhe maln cash crops belng: Lobacco,
coffee, Lea, sunflower, cashew nuL and malze. Anlmal
husbandly ls also predomlnaLe as well as flshlng
especlally for Lhose communlLles llvlng along Lhe nlle
8lver.

1he planned nlle Lco-ClLy on Lhe 8arlfa loresL ls
expecLed Lo boosL Lhe economy of Lhls reglon by
aLLracLlng lnvesLors.

1hls area ls predomlnaLely low lncome and economlc
developmenL was adversely affecLed by lnsecurlLy
caused by Lhe Lords 8eslsLance Army. 1he area sLlll
holds Lhe ma[or refugee camps malnly for Lhose fleelng
u8C Congo and SouLh Sudan.
2. Centra|]Sub-Study Area
8ulllsa, Polma, klbaale,
kamwenge, klryandongo,
Maslndl, nLoroko








1,323,789

2,623,439

1hls Sub-SLudy Area or CenLral comprlses of 7 dlsLrlcLs
around Lhe Lake AlberLlne. MosL of Lhe dlsLrlcLs are
approxlmaLely 200-300km from kampala Lown. 1he
new dlsLrlcLs lnclude 8ulllsa whlch was creaLed ln 2006
and klryandongo creaLed ln 2010 boLh from Maslndl
ulsLrlcL, and nLoroko whlch was creaLed from
8undlbudgyo dlsLrlcL. Access ls mosLly by road and Lo
some exLenL waLer LransporL for Lhose resldlng around
Lhe Lake AlberLlne.
1he area ls also endowed by numerous weLlands and
waLer bodles such as: 8lver Mpanga and 8ushango,
and parLs of Lake Ceorge.
1he area has huge amounLs of oll deposlLs and
exploraLlon efforLs are ongolng. 1he oll reflnery ls
planned somewhere ln Polma and Lhls has aLLracLed a
loL of economlc acLlvlLy ln Lhe area and led Lo an lnflux
ln populaLlon.
lndusLrles are malnly small scale mllllng lndusLrles wlLh
Lhe ma[or lndusLry ln Lhe area belng Lhe klyara Sugar
Works LLd.
1he oLher economlc acLlvlLy ls flshlng malnly aL Lhe
Lake AlberLlne and Lhere are also numerous flsh ponds
ln Lhe area. SubslsLence farmlng ls prlmarlly Lhe source
of llvellhood for ma[orlLy of Lhe rural populaLlon wlLh
crops lncludlng: coffee, Lea, coLLon, sunflower, malze,
sorghum, banana eLc.
1hls sLudy area ls well endowed wlLh Lourlsm
SI1UA1ICN ANALSIS kLCk1 | reparaLlon of a hyslcal uevelopmenL lan for Lhe AlberLlne Craben, uganda
CCS 8ef: 12243




| 23

aLLracLlon slLes such as: Lhe Murchlson lalls naLlonal
ark, 8ugungu Wlldllfe 8eserve, 8udongo loresL
Reserve, Lake Albertine, Omukamas Palace, Masindi
naLlonal ark, parLs of Cueen LllzabeLh naLlonal ark,
8wenshama lalls ln kyambura Came 8eserve among
oLhers.
3. South] Sub-Study Area
8uhwe[u, 8undlbugyo,
8ushenyl, lbanda,kabarole,
kanungu, kasese, kyen[o[o,
MlLooma, 8ublrlzl,
8ukunglrl








2,986,733

3,496,793

1hls sub-sLudy area lles around Lake Ldward and
borders Lhe u8C Congo. lL comprlses of 11 dlsLrlcLs.
Some of Lhe new dlsLrlcLs lnclude Lhe 8uhwe[u ulsLrlcL
and 8ublrlzl whlch were creaLed ln 2010 from Lhe
8ushenyl ulsLrlcL, lbanda ulsLrlcL creaLed ln 2003 from
Mbarara ulsLrlcL.
Ma[or geographlcal and ecologlval slLes lnclude: Lhe
Cueen LllzabeLh naLlonal ark, 1he 8wlndl
lmpeneLrable loresL naLlonal ark, Lhe kyambura
Corge and 8wenzorl MounLalns.

AcceslblllLy Lo Lhe area ls malnly by road, Lhe exlsLlng
rallway neLwork ls hardly used. 1here are alrsLrlps ln
Lhe area malnly for Lourlsm ln naLlonal parks.
Maln economlc acLlvlLy llke ln Lhe resL of uganda ls
agrlculLure. 1he area has ferLlle solls and good cllmaLlc
condlLlons LhaL favours cash crops such as Lea and
coffee oLher subslsLence crops grown lnclude: cassava,
bananas, groundnuLs and varlous frulLs. Anlmal
husbandly malnly comprlses of caLLle and some parLs
of Lhls area such as 8ukunglrl are knows for supplylng
Lhe bulk of mllk for naLlonal consumpLlon.
llshlng ls carrled ouL on Lhe numerous craLer lakes ln
Lhe area and resldenLs are also embraclng flsh ponds.
1ourlsm ls a ma[or ln Lhls area whlch has many naLlonal
parks and many places of aLLracLlon such as: 1he
Cueen LllzabeLh naLlonal ark, klbale naLlonal ark,
1he Semllkl Wlldllfe 8eserve and Lhe 8wenzorl
MounLaln naLlonal ark among oLhers.
lndusLrlal acLlvlLles are malnly small scale wlLh only
large scale lndusLrles on Lea processlng llke Lhe
kanyonza 1ea lacLory.
1here are a few places ln Lhe area whlch have belng
earmarked for oll and gas exploraLlon.
SI1UA1ICN ANALSIS kLCk1 | reparaLlon of a hyslcal uevelopmenL lan
for Lhe AlberLlne Craben, uganda

CCS 8ef: 12243




| 26

A9,5#(B%')(/-C D4(&-
Introduct|on
1hls ChapLer presenLs Lhe flndlngs of Lhe key plece of
sLakeholder parLlclpaLlon work conducLed ln flve cenLres
LhroughouL Lhe AlberLlne ln a serles of full day lnLeracLlve
Worklng Sesslons. 1he lncorporaLlon of SLakeholders'
percepLlons and local knowledge of key plannlng lssues,
opporLunlLles and consLralnLs ls fundamenLal Lo esLabllshlng
ownershlp as Lhe basls for susLalnable lmplemenLaLlon.

SI1UA1ICN ANALSIS kLCk1 | reparaLlon of a hyslcal uevelopmenL lan
for Lhe AlberLlne Craben, uganda

CCS 8ef: 12243




| 27

3.1 Introduct|on

SLakeholder parLlclpaLlon ln Lhe preparaLlon of Lhe AlberLlne hyslcal uevelopmenL lans ls
paramounL. We undersLand Lhe lmporLance of engaglng mulLl-sLakeholders ln Lhe plannlng
process so Lo achleve besL resulLs whlle creaLlng ownershlp. 1hls undersLandlng ls also
shared wlLh Lhe MLPuu who ls dlrecLly lnvolved ln and supporLlng our parLlclpaLory
approach.

1he MLPuu made very clear Lhe lmporLance of approachlng Lhe preparaLlon of Lhe
AlberLlne hyslcal uevelopmenL lan from an lnLegraLed plannlng and parLlclpaLory
approach. Nevertheless, the MLHUDs previous experiences with practices such as large
workshops have proved lneffecLlve wlLh very llmlLed resulLs achleved. 1hls ls a slLuaLlon LhaL
can be recLlfled Lhrough Lhe use of approprlaLe meLhods Lo achlever speclflc resulLs.

participation is a key prerequisite to successful implementation of Physical Development
Plans in Uganda.(ro[ecL 1o8)

1he AlberLlne Craben ls a dlverse, dynamlc and vasL (23,000 km2) reglon LhaL encompasses
7 MunlclpallLles (Arua, Maslndl, Polma, lorL orLal, kasese, 8ukunglrl and 8ushenyl-lsaka)
and 32 1own Counclls. romoLlng parLlclpaLlon durlng Lhe preparaLlon of Lhe AlberLlne
hyslcal uevelopmenL lan ls a challenge we are embraclng wlLh serlous buL reallsLlc
expecLaLlons. We musL well plan and execuLe parLlclpaLory evenLs ln close collaboraLlon
wlLh all levels of sLakeholders.

1he SLakeholders Worklng Sesslon (SWS) meLhod falls under Lhe lnformaLlon, LducaLlon and
CommunlcaLlon SLraLegy (lLC) LhaL ls based on four crlLerla: relevancy, efflcacy,
effecLlveness and susLalnablllLy. lL follows Lhe lLC guldellnes for lnformaLlon dlssemlnaLlon,
creaLlng awareness and educaLlng governmenL offlclals and Lhe socleLy ln general regardlng
Lhe lan. Moreover, Lhe SWS slgnlflcanLly conLrlbuLes Lo Lralnlng and capaclLy bulldlng a
key componenL of Lhls ro[ecL.

1he overall goal of Lhe SWSs was Lo promoLe parLlclpaLlon Lhrough lnformaLlon sharlng
whlle engaglng ln a Lrue parLlclpaLory, hands-on and lnLeracLlve process. revlous
appllcaLlon of Lhls meLhod suggesLs lmmedlaLe resulLs LhaL poslLlvely lmpacL Lhe on-golng
plannlng process and fuLure ones. 1he learnlng curve from SWSs ls sLeep and should lmpacL
Lhe lmplemenLaLlon of Lhe varlous phases of Lhls ro[ecL and LhereafLer, Lhe shorL, medlum
and long Lerm susLalnablllLy of Lhe AlberLlne Craben.

1hls chapLer presenLs an overvlew of SLakeholders Worklng Sesslon (SWS) Lo undersLand Lhe
meLhodology ln preparaLlon for lmplemenLlng 3 SWSs ln 3 MunlclpallLles, Arua, Ad[umanl,
Polma, lorL orLal and lshaka-8ushenyl. 1he selecLlon of Lhese Lowns was based on
dlverslLy, reglonal economlc sLrengLh/lmporLance and geographlc cover ln Lhe Craben.

SI1UA1ICN ANALSIS kLCk1 | reparaLlon of a hyslcal uevelopmenL lan
for Lhe AlberLlne Craben, uganda

CCS 8ef: 12243




| 28

3.2 Stakeho|ders Work|ng Sess|ons - |ann|ng art|c|pat|on rocess

SLakeholder parLlclpaLlon ls key Lo locally approprlaLe, accepLed and lmplemenLable
plannlng. A serles of hlghly parLlclpaLory, hands-on Worklng Sesslons were held ln 3
AlberLlne cenLres wlLh a cross-secLlon of publlc secLor, nCC and prlvaLe secLor aLLendees
lnvlLed. 1hese sesslons almed aL ldenLlfylng key plannlng and developmenL Loplcs, lssues,
recommendaLlons and prlorlLles. 1he Leam of parLlclpanLs explored Lhe mulLlLude of soclal-
culLural, economlc, lnfrasLrucLure, envlronmenLal, physlcal, flnanclal and lnsLlLuLlonal lssues
affecLlng Lhelr areas and Lhe AlberLlne as a whole. MeLhodologles uLlllsed, ln addlLlon Lo
open-ended dlscusslons lncluded Mlnd-Mapplng exerclses and connoLaLed SpaLlal Mapplng.
1hls secLlon presenLs and lllusLraLes Lhe meLhodologles used, a summary of key Loplcs
ldenLlfled, and ldenLlfled plannlng and developmenL lssues, recommendaLlons and
prlorlLlsaLlon all sLrucLured around I|gure 3-1 whlch ls accepLed as Lhe summary sLrucLure of
an lnLegraLed hyslcal uevelopmenL lan.

I|gure 3-1: Integrated |ann|ng Approach




3.2.1 Summary of key 1op|cs Ident|f|ed
1ab|e 3-1 summarlses key Loplcs of dlscusslon LhaL arose durlng each of Lhe Worklng
Sesslons. Many of Lhese were Lhen developed lnLo plannlng and developmenL
recommendaLlons. lollowlng LhaL a summary of Lhe parLlclpaLlon processes, work produced
and AlberLlne Craben u lnpuLs derlved from Lhe flve parLlclpaLory SLakeholders Worklng
Sesslons held ln Arua, Ad[umanl, Polma, lorL orLal and lshaka-8ushenyl.
SI1UA1ICN ANALSIS kLCk1 | reparaLlon of a hyslcal uevelopmenL lan for Lhe AlberLlne Craben, uganda
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| 29

1ab|e 3-1: Summary - key 1op|cs Ident|f|ed

Arua Ad[uman| no|ma Iort orta| Ishaka-8usheny| kampa|a MLnUD
- CommunlLy
senslLlzaLlon
- CommunlLy-based
plannlng
-8oLLom-up bylaw
developmenL
- 8esearch/Lduc.
faclllLles
- CulLural recognlLlon of
land ownershlp/use
- Sacred hlllLops
- lnsLlLuLlonal
challenges key
- 8ural consolldaLlon Lo
afford servlces
- 8efugee lnflux
challenges
- no plannlng for
faclllLles
- uecenLrallse healLh
research and LreaLmenL
- urban sanlLaLlon
sysLems
- urban waLer shorLage
- urylng boreholes
- 8order Lown
squaLLers
- S. Sudan Lrade
- u8C Lrade
- 8all access
- ower shorLages
- 1ourlsm - naLure,
- oor road/connecLlon
condlLlons
- lerry schedules
- 8efugee lnflux -
dlverLlng resources
- ower shorLage
- urban sanlLaLlon
- urban waLer supply
- Llnk Lo cenLral and
souLh AlberLlne
- 8eLLer houslng -
modern, gov'L roles
- new land ownershlp
needed
- CenLral markeLs Lo
boosL farmer reLurns
- Sudan Lrade - key
- WaLershed worrles
- lasL-Lrack new road,
rall connecLlons
- 8lver sLeamer
LransporL - Luropean
llnkage
- 8oLLom-up
consulLaLlon needed on
all lssues
- 8esL cassava ln
counLry
- Lower land
producLlvlLy
- 8enewable energy
- 8efugee led cosL
- SecurlLy/War confllcLs
- 8efugees
- Puman rlghLs
- 8ehavlour/aLLlLude
- MlgraLlon
- opulaLlon lncrease
- CommunlLy spllL
- Cross border Lrade
- PealLh and educaLlon
- Llvellhood
- urban agrlculLure
- Covernance
- CapaclLy bulldlng
- CommunlLy
parLlclpaLlon
- Cll wells , plpellnes,
reflnery and processlng
faclllLles
- 8eseLLlemenL (oll
lndusLry relaLed)
- lnfrasLrucLure
- Land lnformaLlon
sysLem
- hyslcal plannlng
- Land and use
- uenslflcaLlon
- roLecLed areas and
encroachmenLs
- CllmaLe change
- naLural resources
managemenL
- llshlng lndusLry
- 8efugee camp
- Cver populaLed areas
- Mlxed eLhnlc groups
- 8ural-urban mlgraLlon
- Cross border SouLh
Sudan and Congo -
uganda
- naLlonal parks
- Wlldllfe/8lodlverslLy
- Carbon slnklng
- Servlce lndusLry
- 1ransporL
- Soclal amenlLles
(hosplLals, schools,
churches)
- lnfrasLrucLure (waLer
and sanlLaLlon, roads)
- Land speculaLlon
- Land confllcLs
- 8lvers
- CulLural lnsLlLuLlons/
values
- MlgraLlon
- LmploymenL
- 1ourlsm
- 8eseLLlemenL
- Covernance
- lndlgenous people
-CommunlcaLlon/ubllc
Medla
- 8wensorl MounLalns
- asLorallsm
- Cll lndusLry people
dlsplacemenL
- MlgraLlon
- Pouslng
- LducaLlon
- lamllles
- Cender
- Savlngs
- SLandards of llvlng
- 8ecreaLlon
- 8ellglon
- ?ouLh lssues
- SecurlLy
- Cll lndusLry (resources
and pollcles)
- Clobal warmlng
- Wlldllfe preservaLlon
- 8lodlverslLy (aquaLlc
and LerresLrlal)
- WaLer bodles/ground
waLer
- Local lncome
generaLlon
- 1ourlsm
- 8wenzorl
Claclers/ark
- CulLural slLes and
values
- WeLlands
- 8efugees
(overcrowdlng)
- lood securlLy
- CommunlLy
compensaLlon (gender
lssues)
- ConservaLlon/
Land confllcLs
- CreaLe coherenL
communlLles
- Land Lenure sysLem
(challenge)
- uevelopmenL vlslon
- lan and
lmplemenLaLlon
connecLlon
- Devt. control
- ollLlclans approaches
- Lack of conLlnulLy
from governmenL Lo
governmenL
- Chana good pracLlce
for land compensaLlon
- Llvellhood
- Not only the oil
industry
- 8oad connecLlvlLy
- CS8
- naLlonal ConLenL
ollcy
- lan enforcemenL
SI1UA1ICN ANALSIS kLCk1 | reparaLlon of a hyslcal uevelopmenL lan for Lhe AlberLlne Craben, uganda
CCS 8ef: 12243




| 30

culLure
- osL secondary
schools
- WeLlands
- ueforesLaLlon
- llnanclal llLeracy
- Commerclallse
resources
- l1Z
- Cov'L. $$$ supporL
- ollLlcal wlll
- CllmaLe change
- CredlL - caplLal access
- ulsLrlcL CenLres
- Legal framework
- CulLural herlLage
mgmL.
- lmmlgraLlon conLrol
- C&C reserve fund
- 8ank supporL
-
- Solld wasLe
managemenL
- Mlnl hydro
- AgrlculLural fuLure
- lndusLrlal parks
- AlLernaLlve energles
lncreases
- nCC employmenL
- vocaLlonal schools
- WeLlands
- 1ourlsm - nlle
- nlle brldge
- Alr connecLlon
- 8order markeLs
- Pydro
- l1Z
- 8ulldlng sLandards
- Cov'L $$$ supporL
- lannlng resources
- ollLlcal wlll
- Aqulfers
- CllmaLe change
- ulsLrlcL CenLres
- oLhers
- PunLlng
- ueforesLaLlon
- Wlldllfe
- PlsLorlcal/culLural
asseLs
- AgrlculLure
- lndusLrlal
developmenL
- llnanclal lnsLlLuLlons
and credlL
- CS8
- urug abuse
-
ConnecLlvlLy/1ransporL
- eLro chemlcal
lndusLry
- lndusLrlal
developmenL
- 8oles of nCCs
- LnLerLalnmenL
- lnLernaLlonal lnLeresL
ln our oll
- Awareness &
Cwnershlp
- 8AMSA8 slLes
encroachmenLs
- 8lodlverslLy
- Pydro power
- AgrlculLure
- lndusLrlallsaLlon
- SafeLy
- 8ebels acLlvlLles
- Lelsure and hosplLallLy
- WasLe managemenL
- Creen/8eaLlflcaLlon
- ueforesLaLlon
- lans
- naLural resources
- CllmaLe change
- Plv/AluS
- Commerclal sex
- 8alnforesLs/WaLer
bodles
- LlS & SLA (SLraLeglc)
- Legal lramework
- lood processlng
- oLhers
- AgrlculLure
- lnvesLmenLs
- lnfrasLrucLure
- lndusLrles
- llnanclal lnsLlLuLlons
- Covernance
- 8eglonal lnLegraLlon
- 1ralnlng/C8
- uevelopmenL conLrols
and plannlng
- naLlonal parks
- naLural resources
- olluLlons
- WasLe managemenL
- 8eforesLaLlon
- oLhers


SI1UA1ICN ANALSIS kLCk1 | reparaLlon of a hyslcal uevelopmenL lan
for Lhe AlberLlne Craben, uganda

CCS 8ef: 12243




| 31

3.2.2 Arua |ann|ng art|c|pat|on Work|ng Sess|on
Arua |ann|ng art|c|pat|on rocess

M|nd Mapp|ng


1eam D|scuss|ons ] Map Deta||s



SI1UA1ICN ANALSIS kLCk1 | reparaLlon of a hyslcal uevelopmenL lan for Lhe AlberLlne Craben, uganda
CCS 8ef: 12243




| 32

1ab|e 3-2: Arua SWS - Issues, kecommendat|on & r|or|t|zat|on

|ann|ng Component Issue kecommendat|on r|or|t|sat|on
Short 1erm Med|um 1erm Long 1erm
Soc|a| Deve|opment LducaLlon: need employmenL-
LargeLed Lech educaLlon

- oll company scholarshlps for Lhe
reglon
- develop 1ech Schools LargeLlng
supporL Lo local economlc
developmenL
- needs based and applled Lralnlng
- branch unlverslLy needed


CommunlLy senslLlsaLlon and
parLlclpaLlon ls lacklng.

- more boLLom-up requlred for all
plannlng and developmenL
acLlvlLles
- communlLy-level needs
assessmenLs requlred


PealLh: lack of faclllLles and
resources
- ulsLrlcL hosplLals needed
- decenLrallse Medlcal 8esearch
and 1reaLmenL facllLles

8efugees: lnflux puLLlng pressure
on local resources.
- crlsls managemenL raLher Lhan
pre-plannlng
- growlng lssue
- pre-plannlng requlred for
seLLlemenL, schools, healLh,
markeLs, eLc.


8eseLLlemenL: a dlfflculL Clan lssue
when forced from LradlLlonal
lands
- lnLegraLed 8As (8eseLLlemenL
AcLlon lan) needed
ulsasLer reparedness lacklng - need 8eslllence sLraLegles for all
secLors

Cu|tura| ner|tage
Management
CusLomary Land ownershlp
lmpedes developmenL.
- ouLslders noL welcome
- land ls sacred for pasL and fuLure
generaLlons
- need new ownershlp forms
especlally for urban areas
- beLLer compensaLlon
- beLLer parLlclpaLlon and boLLom-
up approach
- ouLslders need greaLer

SI1UA1ICN ANALSIS kLCk1 | reparaLlon of a hyslcal uevelopmenL lan for Lhe AlberLlne Craben, uganda
CCS 8ef: 12243




| 33

|ann|ng Component Issue kecommendat|on r|or|t|sat|on
Short 1erm Med|um 1erm Long 1erm
senslLlzaLlon re: local culLural
LradlLlons
1ourlsm developmenL - promoLe culLural Lourlsm -
vlllages, cusLoms, LradlLlonal
Lechnologles, eLc.



1radlLlonal Leader consulLaLlon - need greaLer local communlLy
leader senslLlzaLlon, lnvolvemenL ln
all acLlvlLles - key Lo local
developmenL
- make use of LradlLlonal
lnsLlLuLlonal sLrucLures raLher Lhan
developlng new


Managlng exLernal lnfluences - need Lo address exLernal C&C and
refugee culLural lnfluences -
poslLlve and negaLlve

Lconom|c Deve|opment SLrengLhen local employmenL - LargeLed 1ech. schools Lo provlde
Lo local lndusLry


SLrengLhen reglonal Lrade - border markeLs
- rall llnkage from akwach
- lmproved roads Lo Sudan, u8C
- develop lree 1rade Zone ln Arua

Sharlng of resource, developmenL
beneflLs
- need mechanlsms for beLLer
sharlng beLween clans, counLy,
ulsLrlcL and 8eglon

SusLalnable resource managemenL - deLalled analysls of all weLlands,
foresLs, eLc. for lndlvldual cosL-
beneflL developmenL declslons

Cll & Cas developmenL and
revenue
- delay C&C developmenL unLll
gov'L and communlLles are
prepared Lo manage, parLlclpaLe
and beneflL
- esLabllsh a 8eserve lund for long-
Lerm beneflLs


SI1UA1ICN ANALSIS kLCk1 | reparaLlon of a hyslcal uevelopmenL lan for Lhe AlberLlne Craben, uganda
CCS 8ef: 12243




| 34

|ann|ng Component Issue kecommendat|on r|or|t|sat|on
Short 1erm Med|um 1erm Long 1erm
- re-lnvesL revenue lnLo agrlculLure
whlch supporLs 90 of populaLlon
- use 8eserve lund Lo dlverslfy
economy for fuLure
- need an "LxlL SLraLegy" when C&C
ends
- quoLe "So far Lhe norLhern areas
have been blessed by dry wells!"
AgrlculLural susLalnablllLy - Lhe LradlLlonal and fuLure
economlc base LhaL cannoL be losL
Lo shorL-Lerm C&C lnLeresLs
- lnvesL C&C revenue lnLo
modernlzlng agrlc.
- provlde markeL lnformaLlon
- develop markeL llnkages: local -
reglonal
- promoLe speclallzed producLs
-

8emember LhaL agrlculLure was, ls
and wlll be Lhe base of Lhe
economy
- proLecL agrlc. lands
- lnvesL ln agrlc educaLlon,
lnfrasLrucLure and Lechnologles
- remember economy before and
afLer C&C



uevelop lndusLrlal arks ln all
ma[or cenLres
- provlde plannlng, land,
lnfrasLrucLure, lnvesLmenL supporL
- rall llnk needed

1ourlsm - develop hlgh poLenLlals
- beLLer lnfrasLrucLure and access
- lnfo CenLres
- museum
- promoLe culLural herlLage
- nlle acLlvlLles
- flora, fauna



SI1UA1ICN ANALSIS kLCk1 | reparaLlon of a hyslcal uevelopmenL lan for Lhe AlberLlne Craben, uganda
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| 33

|ann|ng Component Issue kecommendat|on r|or|t|sat|on
Short 1erm Med|um 1erm Long 1erm
- PlsLorlc slLes - proLecL and add
value
- acLlve lelsure - golf, eLc.
llshlng - ln decllne on nlle
- consLrucL more flsh cages/farms
- develop oLher nlle opporLunlLles -
Lourlsm, recreaLlon

CooperaLlves - develop for greaLer markeLlng
power

rlvaLe SecLor - noL parLlclpaLlng ln conferences
buL complalnlng abouL resulLs

Infrastructure
Deve|opment
lmproved connecLlvlLy ls needed - fasL-Lrack road lmprovemenLs and
border connecLlons
- fasL-Lrack rall llnkage from
akwach Lo Arua, on norLh and lnLo
u8C
- lmprove alrsLrlp(s) Lo promoLe
Lourlsm
- alrporL upgrade

uralnage and weLlands - urban dralnage can use weLlands,
buL may desLroy - lmporLanL Lo
proLecL and preserve

Solld WasLe ManagemenL - develop composL, landflll and
llquld dlsposal slLes for all urban
cenLres

WaLer supply - needed especlally for urban
cenLres


Compulsory land acqulslLlon - legal for publlc works buL requlres
good consulLaLlon and adequaLe
compensaLlon
- Cov'L valuer has role buL raLes and
capaclLy lnadequaLe - sLrengLhen

ulspersed populaLlon and - rural populaLlons should be re-
SI1UA1ICN ANALSIS kLCk1 | reparaLlon of a hyslcal uevelopmenL lan for Lhe AlberLlne Craben, uganda
CCS 8ef: 12243




| 36

|ann|ng Component Issue kecommendat|on r|or|t|sat|on
Short 1erm Med|um 1erm Long 1erm
lnfrasLrucLure/servlce cosLs locaLed and concenLraLed for ease
of provldlng servlces - 8wanda
example
- lssue of cusLomary land
ownershlp, ancesLral seLLlemenL
paLLerns, reslsLance Lo re-locaLlon
and access Lo flelds wlll be
consLralnLs
8efugees and reseLLlemenL
overloadlng exlsLlng lnfrasLrucLure
- pre-plannlng and provlslon of
servlces ln advanc- border posL
developmenL


WasLe waLer & sewerage sysLems
needed for all urban cenLres



ower supplles - lnadequaLe - lmprove neLwork and generaLlon
Lo provlde for new lndusLrlal as well
as domesLlc needs
- develop mlnl-hydro resources


WeaLher sLaLlons - needed for farmer supporL



I|nanc|a| Management llnanclal llLeracy needed.
CompensaLlon reclplenLs wasLlng
money and leavlng famllles
landless wlLhouL llvellhood
- have Cov'L, nCCs and flnanclal
lnsLlLuLlons supporL for local
resldenLs Lo make besL use of C&C
compensaLlon funds
- Lle Lo communlLy-based needs
assessmenL



CommunlLy, resldenL senslLlsaLlon - lmprove llnanclal LlLeracy
LsLabllsh C&C 8eserve lund - long-Lerm susLalnable
developmenL, dlverslfy economy

Lack of bank flnanclng - lmprove loan access
- Lle Lo 8eserve lund?

- make beLLer use of for
lnfrasLrucLure developmenL- needs
communlLy parLlclpaLlon

SI1UA1ICN ANALSIS kLCk1 | reparaLlon of a hyslcal uevelopmenL lan for Lhe AlberLlne Craben, uganda
CCS 8ef: 12243




| 37

|ann|ng Component Issue kecommendat|on r|or|t|sat|on
Short 1erm Med|um 1erm Long 1erm
Inst|tut|ona|
Deve|opment
lnsLlLuLlonal challenges are ma[or
developmenL consLralnL
- bulld capaclLy ln all
- lmprove boLLom-up processes
- need lmmlgraLlon conLrols for
refugees
- lnsLlLuLlons need Lo know Lhelr
roles
- need Lo bulld communlLy LrusL ln
governmenL - boLLom-up
communlcaLlon

Legal lramework - need up/down parLlclpaLlon ln law
preparaLlon for enforcemenL
- popularlze so general publlc can
undersLand

ollce preparedness - address C&C lnfluences
- manage refugee lssues

AgrlculLural exLenslon servlces - need Lo be lmproved
- lmprove access Lo markeLs and
lmprove markeLs

LnvlronmenLal laws - noL belng lmplemenLed lncluded
nlle buffer zones
- uevelop CommunlLy
LnvlronmenL/8each managemenL
commlLLees - arlsh Lnvlr.
CommlLLees on-Lhe-ground

8order posLs & lmmlgraLlon
conLrol
- beLLer faclllLles and lnsLlLuLlonal
capaclLles needed


hys|ca| |ann|ng need communlLy-based approach - lmplemenL full parLlclpaLlon form
boLLom-up Lo ensure all needs
lncorporaLed
- supporLs susLalnablllLy

uevelopmenL conLrol - lacklng
ConcenLraLe rural seLLlemenL - for beLLer servlce provlslon and
land use

SI1UA1ICN ANALSIS kLCk1 | reparaLlon of a hyslcal uevelopmenL lan for Lhe AlberLlne Craben, uganda
CCS 8ef: 12243




| 38

|ann|ng Component Issue kecommendat|on r|or|t|sat|on
Short 1erm Med|um 1erm Long 1erm
WeLland 8uffer zones - need Lo plan and enforce
- need mlcro-level plannlng for real
deLalled conLrol

CulLural land use managemenL -
Lrlcky for developmenL
- needs senslLlzaLlon, parLlclpaLlon

Land ownershlp - LradlLlonal sysLem hard Lo flnd
real owners for LransacLlons

Lnv|ronmenta|
Management
CommunlLy senslLlsaLlon - need Lo locallze responslblllLy,
awareness
- boLLom-up parLlclpaLlon
- key Lo local conLrol


WeLlands - lmporLanL for rural and urban and
need proLecLlon and managemenL
- conservaLlon lmporLanL for Lhe
enLlre envlronmenL
- noL all are lmporLanL for savlng -
need mlcro assessmenL - caLegorlze
- gov'L removlng people already
seLLled ln weLlands - needs pre-
plannlng lnsLead

lannlng conLrol - very weak everywhere
ulsasLer managemenL - need "reslllence plannlng" for
dlsasLer preparedness

CommunlLy-8ased - envlronmenLal managemenL has
Lo sLarL wlLh communlLy - need Lo
boLLom-up laws and regulaLlons

AlLernaLlve energy - Lo replace charcoal
ueforesLaLlon - AfforesLaLlon - develop Lree nurserles
- develop alLernaLlve energles Lo
replace charcoal


ln-mlgraLlon lmpacLs - need Lo conLrol refugee and
lnLernal dlsplacemenL Lo proLecL
envlronmenL

SI1UA1ICN ANALSIS kLCk1 | reparaLlon of a hyslcal uevelopmenL lan
for Lhe AlberLlne Craben, uganda

CCS 8ef: 12243




| 39

3.2.3 Ad[uman| |ann|ng art|c|pat|on Work|ng Sess|on

Ad[uman| |ann|ng art|c|pat|on rocess


M|nd Mapp|ng

M|nd Map Deta||s & 1eam D|scuss|on











SI1UA1ICN ANALSIS kLCk1 | reparaLlon of a hyslcal uevelopmenL lan
for Lhe AlberLlne Craben, uganda

CCS 8ef: 12243




| 40

Mapp|ng & r|or|t|s|ng


Issues r|or|t|sat|on


SI1UA1ICN ANALSIS kLCk1 | reparaLlon of a hyslcal uevelopmenL lan for Lhe AlberLlne Craben, uganda
CCS 8ef: 12243




| 41

1ab|e 3-3: Ad[uman| SWS - Issues, kecommendat|on & r|or|t|zat|on

|ann|ng Component Issue kecommendat|on
r|or|t|sat|on

Short 1erm Med|um 1erm Long 1erm
Soc|a| Deve|opment PealLh and 8eglonal 8eferral
PosplLals
- needed along wlLh sub-reglonal
hosplLal ln Madl sub-reglon


8efugee lssues - overloadlng servlces
- brlnglng lncreased cosLs Lo locals
- buL brlnglng economlc
developmenL
- generaLlng local nCC employmenL

LducaLlon - unlverslLy - develop branch unlverslLy perhaps
ln Moyo


vocaLlonal Schools - needed Lo address local
employmenL opporLunlLles
- planned/exlsL for Moyo,
Ad[umanl, ?umbe - need
sLrengLhenlng

Pouslng sLock lnadequaLe - shorL ln all cenLres
- should promoLe
- suggesLlon LhaL gov'L. should
develop
- need Lo encourage "beLLer"
houslng (away from LradlLlonal) -
Lled Lo economlc developmenL and
affordablllLy
- an lnsLlLuLlonal problem - gov'L
should brlng pollcy and houslng
supporL Lo smaller cenLres

Cu|tura| ner|tage
Management
1radlLlonal land ownershlp and
seLLlemenL paLLerns
- need Lo recognlze ln plannlng and
developmenL
- culLures evolve over Llme leadlng
Lo change ln houslng Lechnologles
- communal land ownershlp
"Langles" developmenL and should

SI1UA1ICN ANALSIS kLCk1 | reparaLlon of a hyslcal uevelopmenL lan for Lhe AlberLlne Craben, uganda
CCS 8ef: 12243




| 42

|ann|ng Component Issue kecommendat|on
r|or|t|sat|on

Short 1erm Med|um 1erm Long 1erm
be revlsed
1radlLlonal houslng - see above
- "push facLors" - LhaLch becomlng
scarce and wlll force Lech change

Lconom|c Deve|opment Sudan Lrade - a key componenL of Lhe reglon
and should be supporLed wlLh
beLLer lnfrasLrucLure

Mlneral developmenL - gold
- llmesLone buL llmlLed
developmenL - cemenL facLory


1ourlsm - Lake advanLage of nlle poLenLlal
- hlsLorlc colonlal slLes, colonlal
rouLes, Lmln asha hlsLory



C&C beneflLs - expecLlng C&C beneflLs Lo be
dlsLrlbuLed for beLLer reglonal
lnfrasLrucLure

CenLral markeLs - agrlculLure - need Lo consLrucL cenLral markeLs
Lo help agrlculLural beneflLs - value
added
- need cenLral sLorage faclllLles
- need more abaLLolrs
- bulld border markeLs Lo Lake
advanLage of reglonal Lrade


Agrlc. value added - develop ag-processlng lndusLrles


lree 1rade Zone - should develop a local one Lo
aLLracL lnvesLors and Lraders wlLh
no Laxes
- lndusLrlal parks


8eglonal Lrade - develop border markeLs


Commerclallse 8esources - need Lo make beLLer commerclal
use of land LhaL ls ofLen
consLralned by LradlLlonal

SI1UA1ICN ANALSIS kLCk1 | reparaLlon of a hyslcal uevelopmenL lan for Lhe AlberLlne Craben, uganda
CCS 8ef: 12243




| 43

|ann|ng Component Issue kecommendat|on
r|or|t|sat|on

Short 1erm Med|um 1erm Long 1erm
ownershlp and seLLlemenL paLLerns
Infrastructure
Deve|opment
ConnecLlvlLy - need alr connecLlon ln sub-reglon
- Moyo
- conslder a brldge over Lhe nlle
- expecL a rall llne Lo connecL from
kampala Lhru akwach, along nlle
or Lhru Culu Lo S. Sudan
- need Larmac road loop deslred
Lhrough norLh llnklng Culu,
akwach Lhrough Ad[umanl, Moyo,
?umbe, kobolo, Arua
- lmprove ferry Llmes and
frequency
- need Lo "fasL-Lrack" road and rall
buL see lnsLlLuLlonal confllcLs slnce
declslon makers also conLrol road
LransporL compeLlLlon



Lack of power LhroughouL reglon - develop mlnl-hydro capaclLy - 10
slLes
- promoLe alLernaLlve energles,
solar, blomass



MarkeL and SLorage laclllLles - see also Lconomlc uevelopmenL
- need cenLral sLorage faclllLles for
agrlc producLs
- loLs of physlcal markeL
lnfrasLrucLure developed by gov'L
or nCCs, buL noL used due Lo poor
locaLlon, hlgh fees, no consulLaLlon,
eLc.



WaLer Supply - should lnvesL ln pumplng from Lhe
nlle Lo ma[or cenLres - only real
source and more cosL effecLlve Lhan
mulLlLude of small boreholes


SI1UA1ICN ANALSIS kLCk1 | reparaLlon of a hyslcal uevelopmenL lan for Lhe AlberLlne Craben, uganda
CCS 8ef: 12243




| 44

|ann|ng Component Issue kecommendat|on
r|or|t|sat|on

Short 1erm Med|um 1erm Long 1erm
- need daLa on aqulfer re-charge
raLes - boreholes
- weLlands lmporLanL for aqulfer re-
charge
- lack of lnsLlLuLlonal managemenL -
need Lo Lhlnk long Lerm
Lack of Sewerage sysLems - should develop ln all ma[or
cenLres for lmproved healLh and
envlronmenL


Solld wasLe managemenL - poor sysLems and faclllLles need
lmprovemenL



I|nanc|a| Management SecurlLy of Lenure for banks - LradlLlonal/communal land
wlLhouL LlLles ls of low value as
collaLeral llmlLlng developmenL
flnance

Inst|tut|ona|
Deve|opment
Servlce provlders need updaLlng
Lo meeL currenL supply and
demand needs
- old census sLaLs are used for
fundlng lnsLead of updaLlng a needs
change - e.g. refugee lnflux has
greaLly lncreased populaLlon wlLh
no lncrease ln servlce provlslon

Land reglsLraLlon cosLs Loo hlgh
hyslcal plannlng capaclLles - planners have skllls and capaclLy
buL no supporLlng fundlng provlded
by gov'L.
- lack capaclLy Lo do adequaLe
deLalled plannlng

ollLlcal wlll needed Lo supporL
smaller lnvesLmenLs


8ulldlng and plannlng sLandards
are Loo hlgh
- need Lo be revlsed Lo reflecL local
condlLlons
- should be developed wlLh local
lnpuLs

ollcy and by-law enforcemenL - capaclLles Lo enforce need
SI1UA1ICN ANALSIS kLCk1 | reparaLlon of a hyslcal uevelopmenL lan for Lhe AlberLlne Craben, uganda
CCS 8ef: 12243




| 43

|ann|ng Component Issue kecommendat|on
r|or|t|sat|on

Short 1erm Med|um 1erm Long 1erm
sLrengLhenlng
- emphaslse developmenL of locally
approprlaLe boLLom-up by-laws
Cov'L and Pouslng - gov'L dlvesLed lLself of houslng
responslblllLles buL a role ls needed

1oo many gov'L commlLLees - need consolldaLlng for beLLer
lnLegraLlon and human resource
use
- many non-funcLlonal as members
lack Lralnlng

lnadequaLe local sLaff - only hys
lanners
- need Lo lnLegraLe oLher secLor
experLlse

hys|ca| |ann|ng lnfrasLrucLure plannlng - noL adequaLely consldered ln
SLrucLure lannlng
- prepare hys. uev. lan


lannlng sLandards Loo hlgh - see noLe above
CusLomary land problems - dlfflculL Lo lmplemenL plans
because of cusLomary land
ownershlp consLralnLs - maybe
needs more parLlclpaLory plannlng

CurrenL plannlng approaches noL
comprehenslve enough
- need Lo lnclude dralnage, uLlllLles
- develop urban deslgn schemes
- plans need Lo exLend beyond
Lown/munlclpal plannlng

urban 8enewal and sprawl conLrol - Lowns/governmenL Loo slow ln
Laklng up urban renewal pro[ecLs Lo
lncrease denslLy and llmlL sprawl

uevelopmenL ConLrol - lack of publlc developmenL
conLrol awareness
- lack of lnsLlLuLlonal capaclLy
- ad hoc developmenL ls a ma[or
problem LhaL needs conLrol
- need gazeLLed zonlng

SI1UA1ICN ANALSIS kLCk1 | reparaLlon of a hyslcal uevelopmenL lan for Lhe AlberLlne Craben, uganda
CCS 8ef: 12243




| 46

|ann|ng Component Issue kecommendat|on
r|or|t|sat|on

Short 1erm Med|um 1erm Long 1erm
Lack of plannlng and developmenL
coordlnaLlon
- need Lo coordlnaLe beLween
planners, englneers, pollLlclans, and
envlronmenL concerns


Lnv|ronmenta|
Management
WeLlands & waLersheds - are belng damaged ln Lhe reglon
by human encroachmenL and
affecLlng dralnage, aqulfer re-
charge
- need Lo look aL whole waLershed
managemenL
- need Lo lnvolve local communlLles
and respecL LradlLlonal auLhorlLy

CllmaLe change and
deserLlflcaLlon
- aware Lhese global facLs are golng
Lo hlL Lhls reglon hard - already
seelng dramaLlc changes ln ralnfall.
no longer predlcLable for farmers

nlle - levels seem Lo be dropplng
- fear of proposed Sudan dams Lo
creaLe floodlng

AlLernaLlve energles - such as blo-mass should be
lnLroduced
- good solar poLenLlal buL caplLal
cosLs hlgh

SI1UA1ICN ANALSIS kLCk1 | reparaLlon of a hyslcal uevelopmenL lan
for Lhe AlberLlne Craben, uganda

CCS 8ef: 12243




| 47

3.2.4 no|ma |ann|ng art|c|pat|on Work|ng Sess|on

no|ma |ann|ng art|c|pat|on rocess

M|nd Mapp|ng


nands-on Mapp|ng


SI1UA1ICN ANALSIS kLCk1 | reparaLlon of a hyslcal uevelopmenL lan
for Lhe AlberLlne Craben, uganda

CCS 8ef: 12243




| 48

keg|ona| Mapp|ng





Issues r|or|t|sat|on






SI1UA1ICN ANALSIS kLCk1 | reparaLlon of a hyslcal uevelopmenL lan for Lhe AlberLlne Craben, uganda
CCS 8ef: 12243




| 49

1ab|e 3-4: no|ma SWS - Issues, kecommendat|on & r|or|t|zat|on

|ann|ng Component Issue kecommendat|on r|or|t|sat|on
Short 1erm Med|um 1erm Long 1erm
Soc|a| Deve|opment War confllcLs (norLhern area)

MlgraLlon (from SouLh Sudan)
employmenL pushed ouL, eople
from nelghbourlng counLrles
ConLrol Lo reduce depleLlon

opulaLlon lncrease
encroachmenL of arable lands
uenslflcaLlon

8eseLLlemenL ueflne proper areas

8efugees 8efugee camps

CommunlLy spllL lmpacLs on
anlmals movemenL


LducaLlon developmenL More schools (prlmary/secondary
Maslndl, Polma and klbaale),
Lechnlcal vocaLlonal lnsLlLuLlons
and unlverslLles ln all dlsLrlcLs,
rovlde houslng for Leachers,
lan schools for dlsable people,

urban agrlculLure CazeLLlng areas for urban
agrlculLure, lncenLlves, promoLlon
and capaclLy bulldlng

urug abuse 8ehablllLaLlon CenLres Lo deal wlLh
youLh and oLhers lnvolved ln drug
abuse and oLher acLs

CommunlcaLlon 8eglonal medla cenLre ln urban
cenLres for daLa base,
Medla LngagemenL lan

CemeLerles

SecurlLy need more army and pollce
barracks for securlLy of resources

PealLh rovlde houslng for sLaff,

SI1UA1ICN ANALSIS kLCk1 | reparaLlon of a hyslcal uevelopmenL lan for Lhe AlberLlne Craben, uganda
CCS 8ef: 12243




| 30

|ann|ng Component Issue kecommendat|on r|or|t|sat|on
Short 1erm Med|um 1erm Long 1erm
8esources (sLaff, bulldlng,
ambulances),
lan for hosplLals (8eglonal hosplLal
(Polma) and healLh faclllLles ln
general),
LnLerLalnmenL 8eglonal leaders framework Lo
ensure leadershlp

lnLernaLlonal lnLeresL ln our oll

arLlclpaLlon CommunlLy awareness

Cu|tura| ner|tage
Management
ScaLLered culLural slLes ldenLlflcaLlon and demarcaLlon,
mapplng

PlsLorlcal slLes and culLural
herlLage
SlLes proLecLlon and preservaLlons
of culLural herlLage - make fundlng
avallable, ldenLlflcaLlon and
demarcaLlon, poLenLlal source of
Lourlsm and revenue, plan for eco-
frlendly acLlvlLles LhaL do noL harm
culLural aspecLs, paLenLlng of rare
culLural norms, awareness creaLlon

CulLural values reserve values, norms and bellefs,
prevenL Lhem from exLlncLlon

CommunlLy moblllzaLlon

Lconom|c Deve|opment Cross border Lrade

Llvellhood SusLalnablllLy

8eflnery WasLe managemenL faclllLles,
CompensaLlon Lo Lhe affecLed
people ln Lhe form of physlcal
asseLs

llshlng lndusLry LsLabllshmenL of flsh processlng
facLory, proLecL flshlng areas (200
m buffer) for economlc galns,

SI1UA1ICN ANALSIS kLCk1 | reparaLlon of a hyslcal uevelopmenL lan for Lhe AlberLlne Craben, uganda
CCS 8ef: 12243




| 31

|ann|ng Component Issue kecommendat|on r|or|t|sat|on
Short 1erm Med|um 1erm Long 1erm
AdopL approprlaLe flshlng meLhods
8uslness CreaLlon of buslness assoclaLlons
llke farmers and enLrepreneurs,
lan for buslness cenLres

lndusLrlal developmenL rovlslon of lndusLrlal parks Lo be
locaLed near Lhe reflnery,
processlng cenLres, energy
developmenL, food processlng,
boosLlng oll lndusLry by producLs
(l.e. plasLlc)

eLro chemlcal lndusLry LsLabllsh for aLLracLlng workers and
lnvesLmenL

8ural agrlculLure LnLlre Craben promoLe lncenLlves
blgger and beLLer CovernmenL
lnvesLmenLs,
osL-harvesL: Lea growlng,
employmenL,

1ourlsm lndusLry lnformaLlon cenLres,
Cable cars (MounLaln 8Wenzorl
lorL orLal-kasese-8undlbu[yo)

Agro lndusLry Agro processlng lndusLrles,
promoLlon of commerclal farmlng
(Maslndl, Polma, klbaale almosL
all sub-counLles)

Infrastructure
Deve|opment
8oads More access roads from Lhe
exlsLlng cenLres for easy
accesslblllLy, wldenlng,
demarcaLlon, sLandard roads,
8y pass road connecLlng kalso
1onya Lo kapala 8d dlverL heavy
Lrucks from Lhe cenLre of Lown

AlrporL kasese, Saaka and kamwenge

SI1UA1ICN ANALSIS kLCk1 | reparaLlon of a hyslcal uevelopmenL lan for Lhe AlberLlne Craben, uganda
CCS 8ef: 12243




| 32

|ann|ng Component Issue kecommendat|on r|or|t|sat|on
Short 1erm Med|um 1erm Long 1erm
Well planned plpellne
lnfrasLrucLure
underground, avold seLLlemenL
areas, avold conservaLlon areas

Cll cenLral process faclllLles

Pydro power lncorporaLlon of Lhe exlsLlng on-
golng developmenLal pro[ecL llke
hydro-power pro[ecL ln karuma

ConnecLlvlLy 8allway llne connecLlng Lhe Craben

1ransporL WaLer LransporL (ferrles, boaLs) for
cross border

WasLe managemenL CazeLLe areas for wasLe
managemenL faclllLles cenLral
locaLlon, LransporLaLlon, LreaLmenL
and dlsposal

WaLer & SanlLaLlon lmprove/provlde sysLems and
supply,

Lnergy LxLend Lhe grld, provlde for power
corrldors

I|nanc|a| Management llnanclal lnsLlLuLlons ulsLrlbuLlon of lnsLlLuLlons: banks,
lC8Lx, SACCCS & CooperaLlves
malnly ln Lhe ClLy CenLres,

llnanclal managemenL capaclLy
bulldlng


Affordable servlces & flnance 8elevanL flnanclal producLs, 8educe
lnLeresL raLes, access Lo affordable
flnanclal servlces, mlcro flnance,
SACL (Llderlles), lnsurance cosLs

Inst|tut|ona|
Deve|opment
unlverslLles lew reglonal unlverslLles,
vocaLlonal Lralnlng, esLabllsh
courses relevanL Lo lndusLrles

nCCs SLrengLh Lhe role of LCCs ln servlce
dellvery

CapaclLy bulldlng 1ralnlng local human resource ln

SI1UA1ICN ANALSIS kLCk1 | reparaLlon of a hyslcal uevelopmenL lan for Lhe AlberLlne Craben, uganda
CCS 8ef: 12243




| 33

|ann|ng Component Issue kecommendat|on r|or|t|sat|on
Short 1erm Med|um 1erm Long 1erm
relaLed oll lndusLry,
ManagemenL of oll resources sklll
devt, transparency and
accounLablllLy
1raln physlcal planners ln Lhe
reglon wlLh skllls of ClS, hardware
and sofLware componenLs

hys|ca| |ann|ng CompaLlble land use ueflne speclflc locaLlons,
coordlnaLed plannlng (Polma,
Maslndl and klbaale, plan for
bulldlngs

lan lmplemenLaLlon Comprehenslve monlLorlng and
evaluaLlon plan LhaL wlll gulde and
govern proper plan lmplemenLaLlon
?
Legal framework

Land 1enure: harmonlzaLlon,
senslLlzaLlon,
AvallablllLy: lncrease space/
denslfy: verLlcal/underground
developmenL,
Land lnformaLlon sysLem:
uevelopmenL, sysLemaLlc
demarcaLlon,
AllocaLlon and ownershlp,
AllocaLlon of land use: approval of
bulldlng plans

lans Provision of physical devt plans for
upcomlng Lradlng cenLres (l.e
parlsh level)

lnfrasLrucLure developmenL 8oads, sewer sysLem

lnLegraLlon hyslcal uevelopmenL lan should
conslder Lhe on-golng blg pro[ecLs

SI1UA1ICN ANALSIS kLCk1 | reparaLlon of a hyslcal uevelopmenL lan for Lhe AlberLlne Craben, uganda
CCS 8ef: 12243




| 34

|ann|ng Component Issue kecommendat|on r|or|t|sat|on
Short 1erm Med|um 1erm Long 1erm
(e.g. hydro-power ln karuma
affecLlng klryandongo dlsLrlcL,
Ayago power pro[ecL affecLlng
nwoya dlsLrlcL, planned saLelllLe
clLy ln karuma)
lnLegraLe Lhe AlberLlne u wlLh
the National Devt Plan and district
local devt plans to avoid
anLagonlsm aL plan lmplemenLaLlon

Awareness & Cwnershlp Lngage key sLakeholders

Lnv|ronmenta|
Management
naLlonal arks Murchlson lalls naLlonal ark
need for plannlng Lo preserve,
conserve and proLecL Lhrough
bufferlng for Lourlsm lncrease Lo
Cu

Came 8eserves uemarcaLlon and preservaLlon of
game reserves

loresLs roLecLlon of CenLral loresL
8eserve

8lodlverslLy Corrldor/LxLlncLlon of
wlldllfe
roLecL anlmals corrldors
senslLlsaLlon of communlLles - $
counLy lncenLlves,
8lodlverslLy buffer corrldor cross
cuLLlng from 8ugungu C8 near
8udongo Cl8 Lhrough kabwoga C8
near 8ugoma Cl8 Lowards klbaale
M

8AMSA8 SlLe encroachmenL



llsherles resources (overflshlng)



Cngolng hunLlng More conLrol



ueforesLaLlon



SI1UA1ICN ANALSIS kLCk1 | reparaLlon of a hyslcal uevelopmenL lan for Lhe AlberLlne Craben, uganda
CCS 8ef: 12243




| 33

|ann|ng Component Issue kecommendat|on r|or|t|sat|on
Short 1erm Med|um 1erm Long 1erm
Anlmal movemenLs

Solld wasLe Lagoons and landfllls

Creen belLs Map and develop

loresLs 1roplcal hlgh foresL need for
proLecLlon & conservaLlon Lo
promoLe Lourlsm and blo-dlverslLy
conservaLlon

CllmaLe change AdopLlve pollcles: solar, blogas,
charcoal brlgueLLes

naLural resource managemenL Awareness rlslng - youLh
lnvolvemenL, learn Lo conserve:
radlo programmes, faclllLaLe
communlLy dlalogues, puppeL
drlven lllusLraLlons

Covernance Legal framework: env. ollcles,
human rlghLs,
CollaboraLlve parLnershlps beLween
governmenLs, prlvaLe secLor and
Lhe local people LhaL are
nelghborlng naLural resources


lndusLry polluLlon, over polluLlons
and employmenL



SI1UA1ICN ANALSIS kLCk1 | reparaLlon of a hyslcal uevelopmenL lan
for Lhe AlberLlne Craben, uganda

CCS 8ef: 12243




| 36

3.2.S Iort orta| |ann|ng art|c|pat|on Work|ng Sess|on

Iort orta| |ann|ng art|c|pat|on rocess

M|nd Mapp|ng


nands-on Mapp|ng



SI1UA1ICN ANALSIS kLCk1 | reparaLlon of a hyslcal uevelopmenL lan
for Lhe AlberLlne Craben, uganda

CCS 8ef: 12243




| 37


keg|ona| Mapp|ng






Issues r|or|t|sat|on






SI1UA1ICN ANALSIS kLCk1 | reparaLlon of a hyslcal uevelopmenL lan for Lhe AlberLlne Craben, uganda
CCS 8ef: 12243




| 38

1ab|e 3-S: Iort orta| SWS - Issues, kecommendat|on & r|or|t|zat|on

|ann|ng Component Issue kecommendat|on r|or|t|sat|on
Short 1erm Med|um 1erm Long 1erm
Soc|a| Deve|opment 8efugee comp 8eseLLlemenL (8wamwan[a)

Areas Loo populaLed

opulaLlon lncrease human
wlldllfe confllcLs


Mlxed eLhnlc groups (6)

8ural-urban mlgraLlons crlme
lncrease raLe
lmprove securlLy

Cross border lssues confllcLs,
buslness and crlmes


PealLh faclllLles 8esources: flnanclal, human

LducaLlon Teachers; teachers housing
Leachlng maLerlals,
lnsLlLuLlons: schools, unlverslLles,
polyLechnlcs, vocaLlonal Lralnlng
and lAL (luncLlonal AdulL LlLeracy)

Lelsure and hosplLallLy SLadlums, enLerLalnmenL places

8eseLLlemenL areas ueal wlLh mlgraLory movemenL

Covernance

ubllc relaLlng Medla cenLres

SecurlLy Army barracks, pollce sLaLlons
posLs, prlsons, Lralnlng faclllLles

Indigenous peoples rights Soclal developmenL, proLecL Lhem
from allenaLlon and explolLaLlon
(l.g. 8aLwa)

8ebels acLlvlLles LnforcemenL of securlLy

Plv/AluS commerclal sex

SI1UA1ICN ANALSIS kLCk1 | reparaLlon of a hyslcal uevelopmenL lan for Lhe AlberLlne Craben, uganda
CCS 8ef: 12243




| 39

|ann|ng Component Issue kecommendat|on r|or|t|sat|on
Short 1erm Med|um 1erm Long 1erm
Cu|tura| ner|tage
Management
CulLural lnsLlLuLlons sLruggle Lo
repossess losL properLy (1ooro vs
8ukon[o vs 8undlbu[o[o vs
nLoroko. lrom 8umyo[o 1ooro-
8ukon[o are culLural lsnLlLuLlons
malnLenance, power lssues,
resource sharlng quesLlons


CulLural SlLe roLecL,

8esLore 8arrolo slLes

Lconom|c Deve|opment LmploymenL Skllled and seml-skllled
employmenL,
lormal and lnformal secLor
opporLunlLles, lmprove worklng
condlLlons

8uslness assoclaLlons CrafLs

Servlce provlslon consLralns

AgrlculLure Mechanlze, commerclal culLlvaLlon
(Lea planLlng),
Cocoa farmers access Lo markeLs
seL up vlllage facLorles), kasese
lrrlgaLlon farmlng

asLorallsm

lndusLrlallzaLlon (CemenL lacLory)

Econ. Devt: 8esLore Lhe quarry sLone lndusLry,

Mlnlng of salL, flshlng, sand mlnlng

1ourlsm Sempaya hoL waLer sprlng, hoLel,
recreaLlons servlces developmenL,

Cable carL (8wezorl MounLalns)

8uslness parks Cpen 8 ln Lhe urban cenLres

SI1UA1ICN ANALSIS kLCk1 | reparaLlon of a hyslcal uevelopmenL lan for Lhe AlberLlne Craben, uganda
CCS 8ef: 12243




| 60

|ann|ng Component Issue kecommendat|on r|or|t|sat|on
Short 1erm Med|um 1erm Long 1erm
lndusLrlal parks LsLabllsh

lood processlng uevelop food processlng planLs for
value addlLlon

Infrastructure
Deve|opment
WaLer LransporL communlcaLlon
poor
lmprove waLer LransporL cross
border (help Lradlng), lncrease
waLer ferrles and boaL rldes


AlrporL SupporL Lo lnLernaLlonal Lrade,
alrsLrlp (Saaka), lnLernaLlonal
alrporL ln kasese

oor provlslon of hosplLals,
schools, churches, waLer, sewer
and road


CommunlcaLlon

Industrial Devt. 8eflnery: lnfrasLrucLure
employmenL Laxes

WaLes LreaLmenL faclllLles
employmenL - Laxes

CenLral processlng faclllLles

eLro chemlcal lndusLrles

8oads Cpen road ln Lhe Craben and Lo Lhe
border wlLh u8C

lpellnes

8allway ropose a rallway neLwork Lhrough
Lhe enLlre Craben for Lhe lncreased
populaLlon and lncreased Lrade
movemenL

1ransporL uevelop an elecLrlcal rall sysLem Lo
llnk Lhe enLlre Craben, plan
alLernaLlve rouLes avoldlng human
seLLlemenLs

SI1UA1ICN ANALSIS kLCk1 | reparaLlon of a hyslcal uevelopmenL lan for Lhe AlberLlne Craben, uganda
CCS 8ef: 12243




| 61

|ann|ng Component Issue kecommendat|on r|or|t|sat|on
Short 1erm Med|um 1erm Long 1erm
ower llne CreaLe buffer for hlgh power
volLage Lhrough kasese, 8enl,
8undlbugyo and kabarole

I|nanc|a| Management 8anks & Mll CredlL cards Lourlsm
lnfrasLrucLure hoLels,
Loans lnvesLlng,

SACCCS & CooperaLlves savlng -
lnvesLmenL

lC8Lx 8ureaus exchange
currency promoLe local buslness

CaplLal markeLs shares [olnL
venLure lnvesLmenLs

Inst|tut|ona|
Deve|opment
Covernance LffecLlve leadershlp

Legal lramework Land Lenure land LaLLllng loan
access - lnvesLmenLs

Laws and by laws

8esources Puman, flnanclal,
CapaclLy bulldlng

8wensorl MounLalns Leaders forum

AdmlnlsLraLlve offlces LffecLlve offlces locaLed ln Lhe
urban cenLres

hys|ca| |ann|ng Land speculaLlon (prlce rlslng)

Land confllcLs

8ulldlngs Ware houses, reflnery hoLels
industrial related devt.;

CazzeLed arklng

PumanlzaLlon SLreeL furnlLure sLreeL llghLs and
chalrs

Creen/8eaLlflcaLlon 1rees/ornamenLals ln sLreeLs

SI1UA1ICN ANALSIS kLCk1 | reparaLlon of a hyslcal uevelopmenL lan for Lhe AlberLlne Craben, uganda
CCS 8ef: 12243




| 62

|ann|ng Component Issue kecommendat|on r|or|t|sat|on
Short 1erm Med|um 1erm Long 1erm
WasLe managemenL lndusLrlal and domesLlc wasLe
composLlng planLs, re-use/recycllng
planLs for lndusLrlal wasLe

CemeLerles MorLuarles

Land CompaLlble uses,
1enure sysLem ownershlp vs
plannlng: compensaLlons, ref Lo
hyslcal lan AcL 2010: whole,
senslLlzaLlon, CusLomary
CerLlflcaLes, sysLemaLlc
demarcaLlons and developmenL,
Land lnformaLlon SysLems

lans ropose and enforce

Lnv|ronmenta|
Management
8lver Semullkl shlfLlng boundary
due Lo human acLlvlLles
ConLrol human acLlvlLles along rlver
banks

naLlonal arks/loresL
8eserves/Came
8eserves/LnvlronmenLal
ConservaLlon
reserve, creaLe buffers (gazzeLed),
Wlldllfe proLecLlon, Lrenches,
physlcally demarcaLed,
Conservlng n and game reserves
proLecLlng rlver banks of Mpanga
8lver,
8esLoraLlon of weLlands and naLural
vegeLaLlon,
LnforcemenL of leglslaLlons, more
paLrolllng (flnance), more pollLlcal
wlll

Carbon slnklng

CS8

naLural resources reservaLlon and conservaLlon

8alnforesLs/WaLer bodles 1reaLmenL

SI1UA1ICN ANALSIS kLCk1 | reparaLlon of a hyslcal uevelopmenL lan for Lhe AlberLlne Craben, uganda
CCS 8ef: 12243




| 63

|ann|ng Component Issue kecommendat|on r|or|t|sat|on
Short 1erm Med|um 1erm Long 1erm
lmplemenL green belLs

Sewage and WasLe managemenL
faclllLles
CollecLlon, LransporLaLlon,
LreaLmenL and dlsposal llcense &
gazeLLe employmenL of
communlLy

LlS & SLA (SLraLeglc) monlLorlng
and evaluaLlon/audlLs revlew and
conducL assessmenLs

LSM (Lnv. Soclal MgL. lan)

Cll conLlngency plans oll splll
plans provlde equlpmenL &
capaclLy bulldlng

8evlew SenslLlve ALlas for fraglle
ecosysLems conLlnuous
monlLorlng

ueforesLaLlon (by locals) ConLrol human acLlvlLles

Mlnlng acLlvlLles

CllmaLe change: floods, landslldes,
polluLlon, droughLs ln Lhe
mounLalns areas


8wenzorl MounLalns CreaLe a Leaders lorum

lndusLrlal slLes lmpacLs should be mlLlgaLed on
lndusLrlal slLes proLecL llvellhood

SI1UA1ICN ANALSIS kLCk1 | reparaLlon of a hyslcal uevelopmenL lan
for Lhe AlberLlne Craben, uganda

CCS 8ef: 12243




| 64

3.2.6 Ishaka-8usheny| |ann|ng art|c|pat|on Work|ng Sess|on

Ishaka-8usheny| |ann|ng art|c|pat|on rocess

M|nd Mapp|ng


nands-on Mapp|ng



SI1UA1ICN ANALSIS kLCk1 | reparaLlon of a hyslcal uevelopmenL lan
for Lhe AlberLlne Craben, uganda

CCS 8ef: 12243




| 63

keg|ona| Mapp|ng







Issues r|or|t|sat|on






SI1UA1ICN ANALSIS kLCk1 | reparaLlon of a hyslcal uevelopmenL lan for Lhe AlberLlne Craben, uganda
CCS 8ef: 12243




| 66

1ab|e 3-6: Ishaka-8usheny| SWS - Issues, kecommendat|on & r|or|t|zat|on

|ann|ng Component Issue kecommendat|on r|or|t|sat|on
Short 1erm Med|um 1erm Long 1erm
Soc|a| Deve|opment ulsplacemenL of people who llve
ln Lhe oll lndusLry planned areas


Soclal servlces lan for Lhem

Pouslng lan for houslng for oll lndusLry
workers (8ulllsa)

MlgraLlon 8esourceful person my mlgraLe

SecurlLy lan for securlLy aL Lhe border, lack
of securlLy scares away lnvesLors,
provlslon of pollce and securlLy
organlzaLlons, provlde securlLy for
all clLlzens aL all levels

8efugees - Cvercrowdlng

lood securlLy Lncourage growlng enough food,
sLorage faclllLles for dry food

PealLh ulsease prevenLlon sysLem,
hyglene, provlslon of ambulances,
all Llme medlclnes, lnsLalllng
hosplLals, programmes llke Plv and
lmmunlzaLlon, Lraln personnel,
provlslon of flrsL ald, upgrade
faclllLles ln Lhe Craben

Plv/AluS conLrol programs Lhrough
communlLy senslLlzaLlon across Lhe
Craben

LducaLlon 1raln Leachers, bulld Lechnlcal
schools aL secondary levels,
bulldlng sLandards schools boLh
levels up Lo unlverslLy, upgrade
faclllLles ln Lhe Craben

SI1UA1ICN ANALSIS kLCk1 | reparaLlon of a hyslcal uevelopmenL lan for Lhe AlberLlne Craben, uganda
CCS 8ef: 12243




| 67

|ann|ng Component Issue kecommendat|on r|or|t|sat|on
Short 1erm Med|um 1erm Long 1erm
CommunlLy senslLlzaLlon abouL Lhe
pro[ecL

lamllles breakdown SenslLlzaLlon/awareness
programmes,

Cender Cender malnsLreamlng and
empowermenL, equal opporLunlLles
and speclflc plans

WasLed worklng hours CreaLe pollcy sLraLegles LhaL make
lL mandaLory for people Lo work
and revlve graduaLed Lax Lo avold a
slLuaLlon where people engage ln
playlng cards, pool Lable and
gambllng durlng worklng hours

8eseLLlemenL lan for reseLLlemenL areas for
people LhaL wlll be affecLed by Lhe
pro[ecL (oll) ln Lhe enLlre reglon

SLandards of llvlng lmprove by creaLlng lncome
generaLlon acLlvlLles

8ecreaLlonal cenLres lannlng/creaLe open spaces Lo
beauLlfy Lhe places

8ellglon ConsLrucL worshlp cenLres

?ouLh lssues 8ulld a remand/reformaLory home

Cu|tura| ner|tage
Management
ulsLracLlon of herbs and hoL
sprlngs
SLop lL

People believe in trees and
rocks
reserve culLural values, plan for
culLural preservaLlon

CulLural slLe reserve culLural slLes ln lorL orLal

8ellglous/CulLures 8elleves and cenLres promoLe
culLure Lhrough consLrucLlon of
culLural cenLres and promoLlng
compeLlLlon beLween dlfferenL
culLures

SI1UA1ICN ANALSIS kLCk1 | reparaLlon of a hyslcal uevelopmenL lan for Lhe AlberLlne Craben, uganda
CCS 8ef: 12243




| 68

|ann|ng Component Issue kecommendat|on r|or|t|sat|on
Short 1erm Med|um 1erm Long 1erm
laclllLles Museums for conservlng and
proLecLlng herlLage slLes/culLure





Lconom|c Deve|opment 1ourlsm wlll dlsappear lf we do
noL plan properly
lan effecLlvely

lan for Lourlsm slLes ln 8ublrlzl,
kasese, kanungu and lorL orLal
(e.g. hoLels, recreaLlon cenLres,
securlLy and road lnfrasLrucLure

Local lncome wlll be affecLed lf
foresL are cuL down


LncroachmenL on our
oll/smuggllng
SecurlLy for oll reserves

AgrlculLure areas wlll be
affecLed by Lhe oll lndusLry
lan effecLlvely, creaLe new
opporLunlLles, access Lo loan
faclllLles, plan for commerclal
agrlculLure and promoLlng
speclallzaLlon lndusLrles

Land ln blg chunks owned by
lndlvlduals noL uslng lL should be
taxed or govt. should acquire it to
engage ln large scale agrlculLure

uL ln place agro-processlng planLs
(maLooke, Lea, coLLon, dalry, rlce,
coffee)

opularlze lrrlgaLlon aL household
and commerclal levels Lo lncrease
food producLlon on all year basls

MarkeLs lan for Lhem

lndusLrles SeL up small and large scale
lndusLrles Lo add value Lo producLs

SI1UA1ICN ANALSIS kLCk1 | reparaLlon of a hyslcal uevelopmenL lan for Lhe AlberLlne Craben, uganda
CCS 8ef: 12243




| 69

|ann|ng Component Issue kecommendat|on r|or|t|sat|on
Short 1erm Med|um 1erm Long 1erm
lerLlllsed producLlon food
lndusLry

uevelop mlneral lndusLry, by
formally Lapplng oLher mlneral
resources oLher Lhan oll (cobalL,
llme sLone ln kases) and gold
(kanungu and 8uhne[u ulsLrlcLs)

CreaLe a reglonal lndusLrlal zone

Infrastructure
Deve|opment
WaLer for:
ConsumpLlon, food producLlon-
lrrlgaLlon, lndusLrles, llvesLock,
envlronmenL and Lourlsm +
servlce lndusLry
lnLegraLe waLer resources
managemenL, develop waLer supply
and sanlLaLlon sysLem, consLrucL
waLer sysLem for mulLlpurpose
uses, consLrucL wasLe waLer
LreaLmenL sysLems for
rural+urban/sewage lagoons,
develop lrrlgaLlon sysLem
susLalnable agrlculLure
developmenL, puL ln place gravlLy
flow & schemes whlch are more
affordable

ollcy measure Lo conLrol use of
waLer bodles

LlecLrlclLy ConsLrucL renewable elecLrlclLy
sysLems: solar (all households),
wlnd, blogas,
ConsLrucL local dams (e.g 8lver
Chwera)

ower grld

8oads upgrade and wlden exlsLlng maln
roads, and open up more Lo a
reasonable slze, proLecL road
reserves, consLrucL all weaLher

SI1UA1ICN ANALSIS kLCk1 | reparaLlon of a hyslcal uevelopmenL lan for Lhe AlberLlne Craben, uganda
CCS 8ef: 12243




| 70

|ann|ng Component Issue kecommendat|on r|or|t|sat|on
Short 1erm Med|um 1erm Long 1erm
roads Lo reach Local Councll l
All reglonal roads Lo be upgraded
(murrum)

8epalr road from 8ushenyl Lo
kaLunguro

Local roads need Lo be Larmarc

1ransporL WaLer LransporL developmenL

CverLradlng lnfrasLrucLure

arks lan for blg vehlcles/Lrucks
loadlng/offloadlng

I|nanc|a| Management ro[ecLs lmplemenLaLlon repare proper/reallsLlc budgeLs
and work plans

Savlngs Lncourage Lhe savlng culLure
Lhrough communlLy senslLlzaLlon

lncome Lncourage lncome generaLlon
pro[ecLs

8anklng rovlde rellable and susLalnable
banks, lnsLlLuLlons provldlng
knowledge on banklng

Puman resources Lngage approprlaLe P8 for boLh
pro[ecLs and banks

Managers 1raln flnanclal managers:
accounLanLs, sLaLlsLlclan and
audlLors

CommunlLy flnanclal managemenL SeL up speclflc programmes for
rural communlLles (SACCCS)

llnanclal lnsLlLuLlons Lncourage and sLrengLhenlng

Inst|tut|ona|
Deve|opment
LeglslaLlons 8evlse Lhe counLry consLlLuLlon
malnly on lssues regardlng physlcal
plannlng (land
managemenL/ownershlp )

SI1UA1ICN ANALSIS kLCk1 | reparaLlon of a hyslcal uevelopmenL lan for Lhe AlberLlne Craben, uganda
CCS 8ef: 12243




| 71

|ann|ng Component Issue kecommendat|on r|or|t|sat|on
Short 1erm Med|um 1erm Long 1erm
ollcles Cross border pollcles (oll lndusLry)

Covernance Cood governance ln declslon
maklng aL all levels

SecurlLy

8eglonal lnLegraLlon

1ralnlng 1raln bodles for all professlons,
Lralnlng lnsLlLuLlon focus on Lhe
Lourlsm lndusLry, capaclLy bulldlng
Lhrough workshops

lnsLlLuLlons lan for churches, schools





hys|ca| |ann|ng Pouslng lan for houslng under land use
plannlng ln all Lowns Lo supporL
rural-urban mlgraLlon

lnLegraLlon Lncourage reglonal lnLegraLlon

opulaLlon growLh hyslcal lans, provlslon of soclal
susLalnable servlces (proLecL
sprlngs, gravlLy flow, shallow wells),
planning for new devt centres

uevelopmenL conLrol uevelopmenL permlsslon seek lL
from owners

Zonlng Land uses

lans repare sLrucLure and deLalled
plans

CompensaLlon

Lnv|ronmenta|
Management
8wenzorl Claclers wlll dlsappear lf
we do noL plan properly
lans effecLlvely

8wenzorl ark SLop encroachmenL

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| 72

|ann|ng Component Issue kecommendat|on r|or|t|sat|on
Short 1erm Med|um 1erm Long 1erm
naLlonal arks roLecL (proLecLlon agencles),
buffers, make boundarles

Cround waLer/WaLer bodles
polsons
lL should noL be depleLed,
formaLlon of beach mgL. unlLs,
speclflc pollcles for proLecLlon

Wlldllfe reservaLlon, proLecLlon of gorlllas
ln 8wlndl naLlonal ark

roLecLlon of klbale loresL
chlmpanzees and oLher wlldllfe by
provldlng buffers and wlldllfe
reserves,
Lmpower uWA

Clobal warmlng

WeLland resources roLecLlon, susLalnable use

8lodlverslLy

8eseLLlemenL lan for reseLLlemenL

8lvers 8lver nlle plannlng

loresLs 8e-foresLaLlon, LlAs, resLrlcL cuLLlng
Lrees, conserve naLural foresLs,
reforesLaLlon ln Lechnlcal forms,
roLecLlon of klbale loresL

Cll exploraLlon Selsmology effecLs lncluded ln
plannlng

nudaLlon (around oll wells) lan shrubs, re-foresLaLlon

Lakes/SenslLlve areas reservaLlon/8uffer zones

8are hllls loresL plaLlng on all

ConsLrucLlon roles 8ack fllllng

8uffer zones lan for buffer zone around lakes,
swamps,

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| 73

|ann|ng Component Issue kecommendat|on r|or|t|sat|on
Short 1erm Med|um 1erm Long 1erm
olluLlon CreaLlon of barrlers Lo conLrol
polluLlon

8eforesLaLlon 8eforesLaLlon of areas where
planLs wlll be affecLed durlng
escalaLlons (oll) enLlre reglon

WasLe managemenL 8y segregaLlng wasLe: lnclneraLlon
and recycllng

Plma cemenL facLory manage
cemenL dusL (fllLers)

CobalL and coffee-consLrucL speclflc
wasLe planLs

rovlde urban and reglonal wasLe
dlsposal cenLres (kanungo/Plma)

8aln WaLer ParvesL AL each household


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| 74

3.2.7 MLnUD |ann|ng art|c|pat|on Work|ng Sess|on

M|n|stry of Lands nous|ng & Urban Deve|opment |ann|ng art|c|pat|on rocess

M|nd Mapp|ng


nands-on Mapp|ng



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| 73

1ab|e 3-7: MLnUD SWS - Issues, kecommendat|on & r|or|t|zat|on


|ann|ng
Component
Issue kecommendat|on r|or|t|sat|on
Short 1erm Med|um 1erm Long 1erm
Soc|a| Deve|opment Soclal sLrucLures and seLLlemenL
paLLerns musL change as
developmenL evolves

- on-golng senslLlsaLlon,
educaLlon, parlLlclpaLlon needed
aL all communlLy levels

oor use of C&C compensaLlon
leadlng Lo soclal/famlly unresL,
dlsplacemenL

- more boLLom-up flnanclal
llLeracy needed and parLlclpaLlon
ln reseLLlemenL/compensaLlon
plannlng

Women lack land Lenure - sLrengLhened lnsLlLuLlonal
sLrucLures and culLural change
needed for more [olnL declslon
maklng, gender equallLy

ScaLLered rural seLLlemenL and
newly dlsplaced creaLe servlclng
problems
- proposlng new communlLles be
planned and lmplemenLed for
reseLLlemenL

C&C CS8 presenLs good
opporLunlLles buL communlLles
lack LrusL and wllllngness Lo
cooperaLe
- lnLegraLed 8As (8eseLLlemenL
AcLlon lan) needed
- beLLer communlcaLlon,
parLlclpaLlon and clear
programmes
-Llmely paymenLs essenLlal

oor houslng ls a ma[or healLh
lssue
- provlde more gov'L supporL Lo
houslng pollcy and relaLed urban
developmenL

Cu|tura| ner|tage
Management
CusLomary Land ownershlp and
percepLlons of rlghL Lo use
regardless of plans lmpedes
developmenL.
- need new ownershlp forms
especlally for urban areas
- beLLer compensaLlon
- beLLer parLlclpaLlon and boLLom-

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| 76

|ann|ng
Component
Issue kecommendat|on r|or|t|sat|on
Short 1erm Med|um 1erm Long 1erm
up approach

Cender LradlLlons regardlng land
ownershlp creaLe confllcLs as
developmenL progresses
- need greaLer local communlLy
leader senslLlzaLlon, parLlclpaLlon,
educaLlon
- need mechanlsms for beLLer
sharlng of famlly resources

Lconom|c Deve|opment vlslon 2040: AgrlculLure ls
paramounL
- new plannlng musL ensure long-
Lerm susLalnablllLy and noL lose Lo
shorL-Lerm C&C

lnLegraLe llvellhood developmenL
wlLh reseLLlemenL programmes
- 8AS musL be fully lnLegraLed,
mulLl-secLoral programmes
- new Lralnlng an essenLlal parL

Sharlng of resource,
developmenL beneflLs
- need mechanlsms for beLLer
sharlng beLween clans, counLy,
ulsLrlcL and 8eglon

AgrlculLure and 1ourlsm are Lwo
susLalnable long-Lerm economlc
acLlvlLles
- plannlng musL safeguard Lhe
naLural resources LhaL are Lhe
basls of Lhese secLors
- develop lmproved lnfrasLrucLure
for boLh

roposed consolldaLed
seLLlemenLs may provlde for
more efflclenL, proflLable
agrlculLure & economlc
dlverslflcaLlon
- prepare lnLegraLed and
susLalnable new seLLlemenL
sLraLegles and plans
Infrastructure
Deve|opment
lmproved connecLlvlLy ls needed - road
- rall
- L. AlberL waLer
- C&C relylng on rall Lo akwach
and waLer Lo 8uLlaba or oLher L.
AlberL porLs

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| 77

|ann|ng
Component
Issue kecommendat|on r|or|t|sat|on
Short 1erm Med|um 1erm Long 1erm
- alr for buslness and Lourlsm
- plpellnes for peLro & producLs
lnLegraLed lnfrasLrucLure
uevelopmenL Corrldors
- esLabllsh Lo consolldaLe servlces
ln one 8CW Lo mlnlmlze
dlsrupLlon Lo land and
communlLles
- servlce/road corrldors musL be of
adequaLe wldLh

norLhern Corrldor Llnk - connecLlng 8wanda Lhrough Lhe
AlberLlne and norLhern uganda Lo
kenya

WaLer - becomlng an lncreaslngly crlLlcal
supply lssue

Compulsory land acqulslLlon - legal for publlc works buL
requlres good consulLaLlon and
adequaLe compensaLlon
- Cov'L valuer has role buL raLes
and capaclLy lnadequaLe -
sLrengLhen
- need Llmely compensaLlon
paymenLs

ulspersed populaLlon and
lnfrasLrucLure/servlce cosLs.
ConsolldaLlon
- rural populaLlons should be re-
locaLed and concenLraLed for ease
of provldlng servlces - 8wanda
example


I|nanc|a| Management llnanclal llLeracy needed.
CompensaLlon reclplenLs wasLlng
money and leavlng famllles
landless wlLhouL llvellhood
- have Cov'L, nCCs and flnanclal
lnsLlLuLlons supporL for local
resldenLs Lo make besL use of C&C
compensaLlon funds
- Lle Lo communlLy-based needs
assessmenL

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| 78

|ann|ng
Component
Issue kecommendat|on r|or|t|sat|on
Short 1erm Med|um 1erm Long 1erm
8eLLer compensaLlon needed - pollcles need revlew
- raLes need Lo be updaLed
- paymenLs need Lo be Llmely once
agreed

Inst|tut|ona|
Deve|opment
Cov'L ls responslble Lo lead all
developmenL processes
- deflne approprlaLe roles for gov'L
and prlvaLe secLor
- ensure adequaLe capaclLy ln gov'L
agencles Lo underLake work ln
Llmely manner

ollLlclans ralse local
expecLaLlons LhaL Lechnlcal sLaff
have Lrouble meeLlng
- need for sLronger coordlnaLlon
beLween pollLlcal and Lech
- lmproved plannlng and
developmenL awareness aL
declslon maker level

Local hys lannlng offlces lack
capaclLy
- human resource may be Ck, buL
flnanclal and loglsLlcal supporL
lnadequaLe Lo carry ouL duLles -
developmenL conLrol ln parLlcular

need Lo lnLegraLe C&C fleld
developmenL plans wlLh
AlberLlne u
- lnLegraLlon ls essenLlal Lo avold
plannlng conLradlcLlons and
confllcLs
- maxlmum communlcaLlon and
Lransparency needed

CovernmenL musL gulde C&C
CS8 Lo ensure susLalnablllLy
- [olnLly plan CS8 lnvesLmenLs Lo
ensure Lhey provlde maxlmum
susLalnable beneflL Lo lnLended
communlLles and do noL become
anoLher gov'L llablllLy

Communal land ownershlp
challenges, compeLlng lnLeresLs.
Cverlapplnng clalms cause
confllcL and lmpede
- need beLLer LlS Lo ldenLlfy and
record leglLlmaLe lnLeresLs

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| 79

|ann|ng
Component
Issue kecommendat|on r|or|t|sat|on
Short 1erm Med|um 1erm Long 1erm
developmenL
hys|ca| |ann|ng need communlLy-based
approach
- lmplemenL full parLlclpaLlon form
boLLom-up Lo ensure all needs
lncorporaLed
- supporLs susLalnablllLy

CompeLlng land use lnLeresLs:
- lndusLry
- seLLlemenL
- proLecLed areas
- needs hlghly lnLegraLed, mulLl-
sLakeholder parLlclpaLlon and
good communlcaLlon
- lnvolve CommunlLy AssoclaLlons

CreaLe new consolldaLed
seLLlemenLs
- use C&C revenue
- lmprove servlce provlslon
- lmprove agrlculLural land use
efflclency
- lssue: need Lo address culLural
values regardlng locaLlon,
seLLlemenL forms, eLc.
- develop several as "Models"
- recognlze as a long process, noL
[usL a pro[ecL

Lnv|ronmenta|
Management
CommunlLy senslLlsaLlon - need Lo locallze responslblllLy,
awareness
- boLLom-up parLlclpaLlon
- key Lo local conLrol

C&C lnvolvemenL - dlrecLly lnvolve C&C ln long-Lerm
plannlng and managemenL

lannlng conLrol - very weak everywhere
ulsasLer managemenL - need "reslllence plannlng" for
dlsasLer preparedness

CommunlLy-8ased - envlronmenLal managemenL has
Lo sLarL wlLh communlLy - need Lo
boLLom-up laws and regulaLlons

SI1UA1ICN ANALSIS kLCk1 | reparaLlon of a hyslcal uevelopmenL lan
for Lhe AlberLlne Craben, uganda

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| 80

E9%"4%F6"%$%+4" >
@8',8/5' 94,85,4%$

Introduct|on
1hls ChapLer presenLs a synopLlc soclo-economlc analysls of
Lhe AlberLlne Craben ln Lerms of lLs physlcal, demographlc,
soclal, economlc and culLural characLerlsLlcs. 1hls
lnformaLlon ls almed aL conLrlbuLlng Lo lnformed plannlng
and declslon maklng, and ln addlLlon Lo envlronmenLal
conslderaLlons ls really Lhe basls of whaL developmenL ls all
abouL. lL should be noLed LhaL whlle Lhe ChapLer addressed
all ulsLrlcLs, some are admlnlsLraLlvely new and
dlsaggregaLed daLa ls noL yeL readlly avallable for Lhese.

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for Lhe AlberLlne Craben, uganda

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| 81

4.1 Demograph|cs

ln order Lo form a clear plcLure of Lhe soclo-economlc condlLlons ln Lhe AlberLlne 8eglon, lL ls
vlLal Lo analyze Lhe slze, spaLlal dlsLrlbuLlon, and composlLlon and growLh paLLerns of Lhe
populaLlon, along wlLh changes ln Lhese magnlLudes and posslble fuLure Lrends and
Lendencles desplLe Lhe lack of currenL populaLlon sLaLlsLlcs.

According to the most current 2002 UPHC, Ugandas population was 24,442,084 and the
growLh raLe esLlmaLed aL 3.3 per annum beLween Lhe perlods of 1991 Lo 2002. 1hls growLh
raLe place uganda as one of Lhe fasLesL growlng populaLlons ln Lhe world Lhen. 8y mld 2012,
Ugandas population was projected at 34.1 million
1
. 1he uganda 8ureau of SLaLlsLlcs (u8CS)
currenLly esLlmaLes Lhe populaLlon uganda aL approxlmaLely 37.9 mllllon.

1ab|e 4-1 below shows LhaL, Lhe LoLal populaLlon ln Lhe AlberLlne Craben ls esLlmaLed aL
approxlmaLely 9.138.203 mllllon
2
people based on pro[ecLlng Lhe 2002 Census number of 6.4
mllllon. 1hls represenLs approxlmaLely 23 of uganda's LoLal populaLlon ln 2012 of
approxlmaLely 36 mllllon (dependlng on source). 1hls represenLs an average annual growLh
raLe of 4 whlch ls hlgher Lhan Lhe naLlonal average of 3.3
3
. 1hls puLs Lhe average
seLLlemenL denslLy ln Lhe AlberLlne aL 4 p/ha whlch ls conslderably hlgher Lhan Lhe naLlonal
average of 1.4 p/ha. 1he reglon ln general had more females esLlmaLed aL 3,103,462 Lhan
male esLlmaLed aL 2,962,780 males ln 2002. 1he Lable also lndlcaLes LhaL, sLudy area norLh
had Lhe hlghesL esLlmaLed average growLh raLe aL 3.7, cenLral 4.3 and SouLh 2.8 hlgher
Lhan Lhe average growLh raLe esLlmaLed aL 3.3. Powever, Lhe 2014 esLlmaLed populaLlon
pro[ecLlons lndlcaLe LhaL, Lhe sLudy area souLh ls more populaLed wlLh abouL 3,440,000
people, followed by Lhe norLh aL (2,938,000 mllllon people) and cenLral aL (2,760,203 mllllon
people). 1hls could be aLLrlbuLed Lo Lhe facL LhaL, Lhe sLudy area souLh has more dlsLrlcLs
compared Lo Lhe oLhers as caLegorlsed ln Lhls assessmenL. ConsulLaLlons wlLh varlous key
sLakeholders conflrm LhaL, Lhere has been rapld lncrease ln populaLlon ln Lhe AC reglon over
Lhe lasL flve year lncludlng forelgners.

Map 4-1 lndlcaLes LhaL, Lhe souLhern reglon of Lhe AlberLlne Craben has Lhe hlghesL
populaLlon denslLy or seLLlemenLs and Lhe cenLral has Lhe leasL ln Lhe reglon.

uganda's eLhnlc dlverslLy ls well known aL Lhe pollLlcal level, buL also plays a slgnlflcanL role
ln developmenL as a resulL of LradlLlonal governance sysLems, dlfferlng values, and
cusLomary land ownershlp sLrucLures and uses. lannlng and developmenL lnlLlaLlves musL
all be sure Lo lnLegraLe Lhese lmporLanL naLlonal basellne conslderaLlons. Map 4-3 lllusLraLes
Lhe eLhnlc dlverslLy of Lhe AlberLlne.

1
u8CS S1A1lS1lCAL A8S18AC1 2014
2
u8CS lnulCA1lvL LAnnlnC llCu8LS l? 2014/13
3
2002 uCAnuA CuLA1lCn Anu PCuSlnC CLnSuS
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| 82


1ab|e 4-1: Demograph|c Informat|on of the A|bert|ne Graben

No.

D|str|ct Area sq
km
1980 opn
Dens|ty
19804
1991 2002 nn 2002 Ma|e 2002 Iema|e
2002
Growth
kate
ro[ecte
d 2014
op.
ro[ected.
op.
Dens|ty
2014
overty
Count
()200S
Northern Study Area
1 Ad[umanl 3,128 48,789 16 96,264 202,290 31,837 100,081 102,209 6.4 423,000 133.9 68.2
2 Amuru 4,832 - - -

188,600 38.9 76.3
3 Arua 3,209 394,303 123 338,147 833,928 74,027 401,396 432,332 3.8 826,900 237.7 34.2
4 nebbl 2,917 23,300 8 316,866 433,360 90,040 208,036 227,304 2.7 324,900 111.4 63.1
3 nwoya 4,171 -

-

36,900 13.6 63.3
6 Moyo 2,069 37,703 28 79,381 194,778 38,922 99,263 93,313 7.7 479,200 231.6 62.2
7 ?umbe 2,403 77,980 32 - 99,794 42,376 126,226 338 7.9 636,300 264.9 62.9
1ota|s

22,748 602,07S 26 1,030,6S8 1,766,1S0 277,422 93S,224 982,916 S.7 2,938,000 1S0.6 64.9
Centra| Study Area
8 8ulllsa 2,166.0 - 63,363 12,378 86,900 40.1 33.8
9 Polma 3,932.8 142,247 24.0 197,831 343,618 70,286 172,046 171,372 4.7 602,300 101.6 33.2
10 klbaale 4,246.0 132,034 33.8 220,261 403,882 83,038 200,131 203,731 3.2 887,003 208.9 33.8
11 kamwenge 2,411.2 129,022 33.3 201,634 263,730 37,138 126,819 136,911 2.3 347,100 144.0 37.7
12 klryandongo

3,629.3
- -

332,600

97.2

24.9
13 Maslndl

7,277.1

223,230

30.7

260,796

439,490

79,221

229,372

229,918

4.9

391,300

33.8

42.3
14
nLoroko

1,413.2
-
92,800

63.7

27.7

4
opulaLlon uenslLy=opulaLlon/Area sqkm
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| 83

No.

D|str|ct Area sq
km
1980 opn
Dens|ty
19804
1991 2002 nn 2002 Ma|e 2002 Iema|e
2002
Growth
kate
ro[ecte
d 2014
op.
ro[ected.
op.
Dens|ty
2014
overty
Count
()200S

1ota|

27,07S.6

646,SS3

24.0

880,S62

1,S36,083

304,261

728,S68

744,1S2

4.3

2,760,203

101.6

33.9
Southern Study Area
13
8uhwe[u

688.3

0

0.0

-

-

-

-

103,300

133

20.6
16 8undlbugyo
2,261.70

112,216

49.6

116,366

209,978

43,130

101,326

108,632

3

289,100

128

43.6
17
8ushenyl

4,293

403,663

94.3

379,137

731,392

142,970

331,266

380,126

2

261,300

61

30.2
18
lbanda

963.9
-
0.0

-

268,300

278

17.1
20
kabarole

1,814.40

328,737

181.2

299,373

336,914

76,833

178,334

178,360

1.3

427,700

236

28.8
21
kanungu

2,292.10

118,638
31.8
160,708
204,732
43,466
98,627 106,103 2.1
224,300

98

33.2
22
kasese

3,390

277,697
81.9
343,601
322,033
98,839
232,792 270,241 3.6
802,300

237

48.4
23
kyen[o[o

4,034.40

166,161
41.0
243,373
243,373
80,401
186,371 190,600 3.7
412,100

102

18.0

MlLooma

343.3

0

0.0

204,200

374

18.1

8ublrlzl

1,472.70

0

0.0

113,200

78

20.3

8ukunglrl

1366.8

177901

113.3

230072

273163

36222

131032

144110

0

330,600

211

28.1

1ota|

23,34S

1,S87,0S3

SS.8

1,97S,230

2,S4S,787

S43,881

1,299,988

1,378,394

2.8

3,440,400

178

27.9
Source: 2002 uPC, Plgher Local CovernmenL 8eporL 2009, u8CS opulaLlon ro[ecLlon 2014 ro[ecLlons of demographlc Lrends 2007-2017, volume 1 u8CS.
SI1UA1ICN ANALSIS kLCk1 | reparaLlon of a hyslcal uevelopmenL lan
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| 84

Map 4-1: opu|at|on Dens|ty

SI1UA1ICN ANALSIS kLCk1 | reparaLlon of a hyslcal uevelopmenL lan
for Lhe AlberLlne Craben, uganda

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|83

4.2 M|grat|on and Urban|sat|on 1rends

urbanlzaLlon ls deflned as Lhe lncrease ln Lhe proporLlon of Lhe populaLlon llvlng ln urban
areas
3
. Powever, lL was noLed LhaL, Lhe deflnlLlon of urban areas has been changlng over
Llme. 1he 2002 Census deflned urban areas as only Lhe gazeLLed ones whlle Lhe earller
censuses lncluded non gazeLLed Lradlng cenLres wlLh more Lhan 1,000 people as parL of Lhe
urban areas. lor Lhe purpose of Lhls sLudy Lhe laLLer was consldered.

naLlonal SLudles lndlcaLe LhaL Lhe urban populaLlon ln uganda has lncreased rapldly from
less Lhan 0.8 mllllon persons ln 1980 Lo 3.0 mllllon persons ln 2012, represenLlng an lncrease
of more Lhan slx Llmes. 1hls 323 lncrease ls malnly aLLrlbuLed Lo Lhe creaLlon of new urban
admlnlsLraLlve unlLs, naLural growLh, demographlc facLors such as (excess of ferLlllLy over
morLallLy) and 8ural - urban MlgraLlon. See also Sect|on S.7.

1he currenL LoLal populaLlon of urban cenLres ln Lhe AlberLlne Craben ls esLlmaLed aL
approxlmaLely 1,318,300 mllllon
6
as shown ln 1ab|e 4-2 of munlclpallLles and 1ab|e 4-3 Lown
counclls. 1hls represenLs approxlmaLely 26 of uganda's LoLal urban populaLlon ln 2014 of
Lhe esLlmaLed 3.0 mllllon (dependlng on source).

1ab|e 4-2: ro[ected 2014 Mun|c|pa| opu|at|on w|th|n the A|bert|ne keg|on

Area of
Study
Mun|c|pa||ty No. of
nn
(2002)
Ma|e
(2002)
Iema|e
(2002)
1ota|
opu|at|on
(2002)
2014
opu|at|on
ro[ect|ons
norLhern Arua 7,443 21,S88 22,341 43,929 6S,000
CenLral Polma 7,177 12,944 14,990 27,934 106,000
Maslndl 6,409 14,224 14,076 28,300 119,400
1ota| 13,S86 27,168 29,066 S6,234 336,S00
SouLhern 8ukunglrl 2,921 6,217 6,348 12,763 33,700
8ushenyl 4,704 11,179 11,243 22,422 48,000
kasese 11,389 26,627 27,280 33,907 131,300
lorL porLal 10,273 10,273 20,442 30,717 46,100
1ota| 29,489 S4,298 6S,S13 119,811 213,200
5ootce. unlc 2002, loJlcotlve lloooloq llqotes l 2014/15

1ab|e 4-3: ro[ected 2014 1own Counc||s |n the A|bert|ne keg|on

Area of
Study
D|str|ct 1own Counc|| No. of
nn
(2002)
Ma|e
(2002)
Iema|e
(2002)
1ota|
opu|.
(2002)
ro[ected
2014
opu|.
Northern Ad[umanl Ad[umanl 4,244 9,343 10,333 19,876 41,800
Amuru Amuru - - - 0 10,900

3
u8CS S1A1lS1lCAL A8S18AC1 2012
6
u8CS lnulCA1lvlL LAnnlnC llCu8LS l?2014/13
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nebbl nebbl 4,713 10,312 12,388 23,100 27,900
akwach - - 0 21,800
nwoya Anaka - - - 0 11,400
Moyo Moyo 2,143 3,919 6,133 12,074 29,800
?umbe ?umbe 2,313 - - - 38,900
1ota| 13,617 2S,974 29,076 SS,0S0 182,300
Centra| 8ulllsa 8ulllsa - - - - 13,100
Polma klgorobya - - - - 6,800
klbaale klbaale 1,136 3,842 6,114 11,936 8,800
kagadl - - - - 29,900
kakumlro - - - - 13,600
Muhoro - - - - 24,700
klryandongo klryandongo - - - - 27,300
8weyale 24,600
klgumba - - - - 14,600
nLoroko 8weblsengo - - - - 4,100
kanara - - - - 7,400
karuguLu - - - - 17,300
klbuku - - - - 8,600
1ota| 1,136 S,842 6,114 11,9S6 20S,000
Southern lbanda lbanda 4,969 10,882 11,846 22,728 30,900
lshongororo - - - - 6,100
8ushango - - - - 7,700
lgorora - - - - 6,300
kabarole

klbllLo - - - - 16,700
8wlml - - - - 13,300
kl[ura - - - - 11,700
8ubona - - - - 6,600
klko - - - - 11,800
karago - - - - 11,200
kamwenge kamwenge 3,116 6,392 6,108 12,700 17,600
kanungu kanungu 2,637 6,231 6,632 12,883 13,800
klhlhl - - - - 16,900
8uLogoLa - - - - 6,900
kambuga - - - - 2,000
kasese Plma - - - - 10,800
kaLwe-
kabaLoro
1,616 3,016 2,803 3,821 9,000
Mpondwe-
Lhublrlha
- - - - 48,400
kyen[o[o kyen[o[o 3,346 7,340 7,498 13,038 23,300
kaLooke - - - - 14,300
8uLunduzl - - - - 10,600
kyarusozl -- -- -- -- 16,300
MlLooma MlLooma - - - - 3,000
kashensero - - - - 7,100
8ublrlzl 8ublrlzl - - - - 6,000
kaLerera - - - - 7,800
1ota| 1S,704 34,281 34,889 69,170 338,100
5ootce. unlc 2002, loJlcotlve lloooloq llqotes l 2014/15



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lL ls anLlclpaLed LhaL, Lhe AlberLlne Craben wlll see lncreased populaLlon growLh ln Lhe nexL
23 years and beyond. 8ased on a currenL esLlmaLe of 9,138,203 mllllon and assumlng a
conLlnuaLlon of currenL growLh raLes, Lhe populaLlon could reach 27,303,668 mllllon people
by 20407 assumlng a consLanL growLh raLe. Powever, global Lrends are Lowards lower
populaLlon growLh raLes, and parLlcularly as populaLlons urbanlse, galn hlgher educaLlon,
and reallse Lhe cosL lmpllcaLlons of large famllles. AlLernaLlve growLh scenarlos wlll be
explored ln Lhe u. uemands for servlces such as waLer, elecLrlclLy, healLh, educaLlon,
LransporL, sanlLaLlon, recreaLlon, markeLs eLc. wlll pose a Lremendous challenge Lo fulfll wlLh
waLer already becomlng a llmlLed resource. uue Lo Lhe 323 lncrease of urban populaLlon ln
uganda, lL wlll be Lhe urban areas LhaL face Lhe real challenges.

4.3 Loca| Lconomy & Lmp|oyment

AgrlculLure ls Lhe backbone of Lhe economy ln Lhe enLlre AlberLlne Craben reglon. 1he ma[or
acLlvlLles ln Lhe area are: crop farmlng, llvesLock husbandry, flshlng, hunLlng, lumberlng and
commerce (malnly domlnaLed by Lrans-boundary Lradlng) wlLh crop farmlng belng Lhe maln
source of local revenue. See Chapter 10 for a full dlscusslon.

llshlng ls anoLher prlme source of llvellhood for people ln Lhe AlberLlne Craben. revlous
sLudles have shown LhaL Lhe reglon conLrlbuLes 18.7 of Lhe LoLal naLlonal flsh caLch. AbouL
13 ls conLrlbuLed by Lake Albert alone, which is the richest of the regions lakes in terms of
flsh blodlverslLy. CLher flshlng areas lnclude Lhe Lake Ldward, Ceorge, and along Lhe nlle.
1herefore flshlng and flsh processlng ls an lmporLanL source of employmenL for people
8
.

ConsulLaLlons wlLh key sLakeholders such as CnCCC operaLlng ln Lhe klngflsher area
hlghllghLed Lhe need for promoLlng susLalnable flshlng ln Lhe reglon and value addlng
Lechnologles Lo ensure LhaL Lhe communlLles wlLhln Lhe AlberLlne Craben beneflL from
flshlng susLalnably along wlLh Lhe upcomlng oll and gas changes ln Lhe reglon.

However, despite the general growth of the Countrys economy at a real per capita income
of uS$ 334 (unu,2007), conLrolled lnflaLlon, and CovernmenL and donor lnLervenLlons ln
Lhe form of infrastructural development, over 42% of the regions population is still living
below Lhe poverLy llne.

1herefore, due Lo Lhe ma[orlLy 83 populaLlon wlLhln Lhe AlberLlne Craben belng dependanL
on crop farmlng and baslng on Lhe ob[ecLlves and funcLlons of Lhe nAAuS, Agro processlng
faclllLles coupled wlLh a good connecLlve LransporL neLwork aL naLlonal and communlLy
levels wlll be needed Lo lmprove farmers' access Lo markeLs and also lmprove farmers
lncomes by ralslng farm gaLe prlces, creaLlng on-farm and off-farm employmenL. 1he
dlsLrlbuLlon of agro processlng faclllLles wlll need Lo be based on Lhe ma[or crops grown ln

7
Assumlng growLh raLe ls consLanL. Source: 8en !arabl, CeomeLrlc LxLrapolaLlon MeLhod of opulaLlon
ro[ecLlons, opulaLlon SLudles & 8esearch lnsLlLuLe, unlverslLy of nalrobl.

8
uganda AlerL Governance and Livelihood in Ugandas Oil rich Albertine Graben 2013
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Lhe dlfferenL reglons of Lhe AlberLlne Craben. MarkeLlng polnLs wlll also need Lo be gazeLLed
Lo avold congesLlon especlally wlLhln Lhe urban cenLres.

4.3.1 Iorma| Sector
ulsLrlcL offlclals ln Polma and kabarole dlsLrlcL noLed LhaL, slnce sLarL of oll exploraLlon, Lhe
reglon has aLLracLed a number of formal buslnesses such as banks, hoLels (roLea, kolplng
eLc), prlvaLe schools and Lelecom buslness. 1hese buslnesses were lndlcaLed Lo have
lncreased employmenL opporLunlLles ln Lhe reglon.

lL ls however, anLlclpaLed LhaL beLween 100,000 and 130,000 [obs are sLlll Lo be generaLed as
Lhe oll secLor LranslLlons from exploraLlon and appralsal Lo developmenL and evenLual
producLlon, accordlng Lo a sLudy conducLed by Lhree [olnL venLure parLners. 1oLal, 1ullow Cll
lc and Chlna naLlonal Cffshore Cll CorporaLlon (Cnooc) sponsored Lhe survey whlch was
conducLed beLween March and !uly lasL year
9
. lL also lndlcaLed LhaL, Lhe demand for dlrecL
[obs rlslng Lowards Lhe second year of developmenL and peaklng aL 13,000 dlrecL [obs ln Lhe
Lhlrd year, before gradually falllng Lo 3,000 [obs ln Lhe flfLh year. Clearly, Lhe vasL ma[orlLy of
Lhe pro[ecLed [obs are Lhe resulL of generous mulLlpller effecLs belng used Lo calculaLe ln-
dlrecL spln-off employmenL.

WlLh 83 of Lhe populaLlon ln Lhe AlberLlne belng farmers, lL ls llkely LhaL Lhe ma[orlLy of Lhe
esLlmaLed [obs wlll be Laken by new comers from dlfferenL walks of llfe hence boosLlng Lhe
formal sector. However, despite boosting the regions economy, this influx implies that, the
exlsLlng soclal amenlLles such as schools, hosplLal, recreaLlon cenLres, eLc wlll be slgnlflcanLly
affecLed. 1hls lnflux wlll also resulL ln negaLlve soclal lmpacLs such as prosLlLuLlon whlch
could also conLrlbuLe Lo Lhe lncrease of crlme and Plv/Alus ln Lhe reglon. CommunlLy
pollclng wlll Lherefore be requlred ln reglon Lo promoLe morals and safeLy.

4.4 Lducat|on

4.4.1 Lnro|ment
1here ls a general naLlonal lmprovemenL ln Lhe number of persons [olnlng educaLlon
lnsLlLuLlons aL all levels, and slgnlflcanLly hlgher for hlgher educaLlon levels. 1hls suggesLs
LhaL Lhere ls demand for educaLlonal lnfrasLrucLure ln uganda. naLlonal CL8 ls 120. 1able
4-4 shows LhaL, Lhe CL8 of Lhe norLh ls 83, cenLral aL 86 and souLh aL 91 meanlng LhaL
Lhe CL8 of Lhe AlberLlne Craben ls lower Lhan Lhe naLlonal CL8, and Lhe norLh sLudy area ls
Lhe lowesL.



9
hLLp://www.monlLor.co.ug/news/naLlonal/More-Lhan-100-000-[obs-Lo-be-creaLed-ln-uganda-s-oll/-
/688334/2299312/-/cb3Lku/-/lndex.hLml
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for Lhe AlberLlne Craben, uganda

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|89


1ab|e 4-4: Lducat|on Lnro|ment Informat|on - A|bert|ne Graben

No. D|str|ct GLk
10
NLk
11
No. SL No. SSL
North Study Area
1 Ad[umanl 63 47 41,406 6,690
3 Amuru
2 nwoya 116 94 33,333 3,726
3 Arua 166 137 184,421 19,099
4 nebbl 136 110 139,121 9,773
6 Moyo 17 12 41,406 6,690
7 ?umbe 100.9 82 82,994 6,140
Average 100 80.3 94,117 8,687
Centra| Study Area
8 8ulllsa 107.3 0.9 18,046 1,079
9 Polma 96 76 93,008 14,412
10 klbaale 108.9 90 134,467 12,699
11 kamwenge 108.9 84 73,810 6,239
12 Maslndl 96.3 74 12 4,422
13 klryandongo 0 0 0 0
Average 104 6S 64669 7770.2
South Study Area
13 8ushenyl 118 0.96 196,131 33,998
14 8undlbugyo 86 67 7,337,971 934,328
13 lbanda 121 93 63,803 9,231
16 kabarole 108.9 82 99,322 13,801
17 kanungu 116.9 89 62,601 6,379
18 kasese 109.6 91 138,832 18,749
19 kyen[o[o 103.8 80 108,836 6,619
20 8uhwe[u 0 0 0 0
21 MlLooma 0 0 0 0
22 nLoroko 0 0 0 0
23 8ukunglrl 118.3 91 83,383 14,310
Average 110 74.S 1,038,913 132,177
Source: MlnlsLry of LducaLlon

As presenLed ln Lhe 1able 4-4 above, Lhere ls a general reducLlon ln Lhe number of sLudenLs
enrolllng for secondary school as compared, Lo Lhose enrolllng for prlmary school. 1he
reduced number ls malnly aLLrlbuLed Lo lncreased dropouL raLes, lnadequaLe secondary
schools, poor performance aL secondary level LhaL mosL prlmary leavers Lravel Lo beLLer
performlng schools ln dlfferenL dlsLrlcLs and lncreased poverLy levels.

4.4.2 D|stance to Nearest Schoo| Iac|||ty
1ab|e 4-S shows LhaL over 70 walk less Lhan 3 km Lo school. 1here are no slgnlflcanL
dlfferences beLween 2003/6 and 2009/10 daLa ln Lhe pro[ecL reglons. Powever, ln Lhe

10
The ratio of pupils in primary school (regardless of age) to the country total population aged 6-12 years.
11
The ratio of pupils in primary school aged 6 12 years to the country total population aged 6 -12 years
SI1UA1ICN ANALSIS kLCk1 | reparaLlon of a hyslcal uevelopmenL lan
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|90

norLhern reglon, a relaLlvely blgger proporLlon of 8.3 more Lhan 3km Lo reach school
compared Lo cenLral reglon of 4.9.

1ab|e 4-S:D|stances to Lducat|ona| Iac|||ty



200S-06 2009]2010
keg|on < 3 km 3-S km >S km < 3 km 3-S km > S km
CenLral 73.0 20.2 6.7 73.9 21.2 4.9
norLh 74.8 19.3 3.6 73.4 20.0 6.6
SouLh 71.8 23.0 3.2 70.3 21.3 8.3
uganda 71.1 20.3 3.4 72.8 20.8 6.3
Source: unPS 2009_2010 Soclo-Lconomlc 8eporL

Polma and kabarole dlsLrlcL offlclal noLed LhaL, closure and movlng of schools near oll flelds,
has lncreased drop ouL cases, poor and lnadequaLe LransporLaLlon faclllLles for hard Lo reach
areas, few secondary schools.

1he above educaLlon slLuaLlon lndlcaLes LhaL prlorlLy of educaLlon lnfrasLrucLure should be
focused ln Lhe norLhern reglon of Lhe AlberLlne Lo promoLe balanced reglonal developmenL.
1he norLh wlll or can accommodaLe spaclous hlgher leanlng lnsLlLuLlons such as a unlverslLy
or vocaLlonal lnsLlLuLlon due Lo Lhe avallablllLy of land. 1here ls also need Lo focus on Lhe
dlsLrlbuLlon of secondary educaLlon schools. Map 4-2.ns
4.S nea|th and San|tat|on

4.S.1 nea|th Infrastructure
Cver Lhe years, Lhe governmenL of uganda has developed several pollcles and programmes
wlLh Lhe alm of lmprovlng Lhe healLh sLaLus and llves of lLs people ma[orly Lhrough reduclng
morbldlLy and morLallLy ln order Lo aLLaln good sLandards of healLh among ugandans
Lhrough Lhe naLlonal PealLh ollcy (nP) and PealLh SecLor SLraLeglc lan (PSS). ubllc
healLh servlces ln uganda are dellvered Lhrough PC lls, PC llls, PC lvs, general hosplLals,
88Ps and n8Ps. 1he range of healLh servlces dellvered varles wlLh Lhe level of care and ln all
publlc healLh faclllLles curaLlve, prevenLlve, rehablllLaLlve and promoLlve healLh servlces are
free.

1he PSS ll (2003-2010) ob[ecLlve for Lhe healLh lnfrasLrucLure developmenL was Lo ensure
LhaL 83 of Lhe populaLlon lles wlLhln 3km walklng dlsLance Lo access a well equlpped healLh
faclllLy regardless of level. ln 2004 only 49 of households had access Lo healLh care faclllLles
ln uganda. CurrenLly Lhe naLlonal average of healLh faclllLy access wlLhln 3km ls 73.2 wlLh
69.6 for Lhe rural populaLlon and 93.8 for Lhe urban populaLlon
12
.


12
u8CS, unPS 2009/10, nSuS 2008

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|91

Powever Lhe revlew of Lhe PSS ll ln preparaLlon for PSS lll revealed LhaL, alLhough 72 of
Lhe households ln uganda llve wlLhln 3km from a healLh faclllLy, uLlllzaLlon ls llmlLed due Lo
poor lnfrasLrucLure such as roads, lack of medlclnes and oLher healLh supplles, shorLage of
human resource ln Lhe publlc secLor, low salarles, lack of accommodaLlon aL healLh faclllLles
and oLher facLors LhaL furLher consLraln access Lo quallLy servlce dellvery. 1he naLlonal
PosplLal ollcy also sLresses LhaL, llmlLed managemenL capaclLy ln mosL hosplLals,
lnadequaLe LransporL and communlcaLlon sysLems, lnadequaLe baslc emergency
lnfrasLrucLure, supplles, equlpmenL and flnance, and Lhe shorLage of human resources affecL
Lhe efflclency and effecLlveness of Lhe exlsLlng hosplLal operaLlons.

1ab|e 4-6 shows LhaL, souLh sLudy area has mosL healLh faclllLles ln Lhe reglon and Lhe cenLral
reglsLer Lhe lowesL. Powever, analyslng Map 4-2, Lhe dlsLrlbuLlon of Ma[or hosplLals wlLh Lhe
sLudy area souLh and norLh ls uneven. 1he cenLral whlch ls anLlclpaLed Lo aLLracL Lhe mosL
lmmlgranLs has Lhe leasL PosplLals.

1ab|e 4-6:nea|th Iac|||t|es |n the A|bert|ne Graben

Study Area D|str|ct nCSI1AL nC-IV nC-III nC-II % of Popn
w|th|n Skm
norLh







Ad[umanl 1 1 9 22 90
Amuru 1 1 7 19
Arua 1 0 0 4
nebbl 3 1 26 27
Amuru 1 1 7 19
nwoya - - - - -
Moyo 1 1 12 23
?umbe 1 1 10 11
1ota| 9 6 71 12S
Centra|





8ulllsa 0 1 1 6
Polma 1 1 21 27 80
klbaale 1 4 19 22 60
kamwenge 3 2 18 31
klryandongo - - - - -
Mas|nd| 2 1 1S 33
1ota| 7 9 74 119
South








8ushenyl 3 3 34 62 70
8uhwe[u - - - -
MlLooma - - - -
8undlbugyo 1 3 6 18
nLoroko
lbanda 1 3 16 30
kabarole 1 6 16 61
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Study Area D|str|ct nCSI1AL nC-IV nC-III nC-II % of Popn
w|th|n Skm
kanungu 1 1 10 34
kasese 3 3 28 63
kyen[o[o 0 3 18 19
8ukunglrl 2 3 17 38
1ota| 12 27 14S 34S

Source: MlnlsLry of PealLh 2006 as quarLered ln Lhe roflles of Lhe Plgher Local CovernmenLs 2009?

ConsulLaLlons wlLh Lhe dlsLrlcL offlclals ln kabarole and Polma however, revealed LhaL
alLhough Lhe dlsLrlcLs have referral hosplLals, Lhere ls sLlll a hlgh need for PC lls.
ApproxlmaLely 33 and 33 ln Polma and kabarole respecLlvely do noL have access Lo
healLh faclllLles. 1he challenges below were also ralsed durlng Lhe consulLaLlons.

lnadequaLe access Lo safe waLer provlslons, mosL of Lhe PCll and some PClll depend
on boreholes.
oor wasLe managemenL
Loose solls LhaL cannoL supporL and susLaln Lhe laLrlnes.
oor sanlLaLlon sysLems ln rural areas leadlng Lo ouLbreak of dlseases llke Lhe recenL
cholera ouLbreak.
Plgh sLaff Lurn over
lnadequaLe access Lo PCll

4.S.2 nIV]AIDs
Accordlng Lo Lhe Clobal Alds 8esponse rogress 8eporL 2012, Lhere has been a general
decllne ln Lrend of Plv prevalence ln Lhe counLry from a hlgh of beLween 22.0 and 27.3 ln
early 1990s to a low of between 5.2% and 7% in the population.

1he reporL also noLed LhaL, Lhere ls an urban-rural dlsparlLy ln Plv prevalence ln uganda
wlLh prevalence ln ma[or urban areas belng hlgher Lhan LhaL ln areas ouLslde ma[or urban
locaLlons.

ConsulLaLlons wlLh Lhe dlsLrlcL healLh offlcers of ln Polma and kabarole revealed LhaL Lhe Plv
Lrends have sky rockeLed ln Lhe recenL 3 years due Lo lncreased lnflux of people. Polma Plv
raLe ls currenLly esLlmaLed aL 6.7 and kabarole aL 8.3. WlLh Lhe naLlonal Plv raLe aL 6.7,
Lhls ls an lndlcaLlon LhaL Plv ls sLlll a LhreaL ln Lhe reglon and mosL llkely Lo lncrease wlLh Lhe
growLh of urban cenLres and populaLlon lnflux ln Lhe AlberLlne Craben reglon.

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Map 4-2: Soc|a| Iac|||t|es


SI1UA1ICN ANALSIS kLCk1 | reparaLlon of a hyslcal uevelopmenL lan
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WlLh Lhe above ln slghL (pro[ecLed populaLlon lncremenL, lncreased urbanlsaLlon, mlgraLlon,
employmenL opporLunlLles, challenges and PSS goals). uue Lo an almosL 300 pro[ecLed
populaLlon lncrease durlng Lhe plannlng perlod, over 18 mllllon people addlLlonal people wlll
requlre access Lo PClls as a mlnlmum.

8ased on a plannlng sLandard of 1 PCll per parlsh, an esLlmaLed LoLal of 306 new PClls wlll
be requlred over Lhe plannlng perlod. 1hese should be dlsLrlbuLed wlLh approxlmaLely 242 ln
Lhe SouLh lannlng Area, 132 ln Lhe CenLral, and 134 ln Lhe norLh. upgradlng of Lhe exlsLlng
healLh lnfrasLrucLure Lo Lhe requlred sLandards wlll be necessary and ln llne wlLh Lhe PSS Lo
avold dupllcaLlon.

1he upgradlng Lhe LransporL neLwork wlLhln Lhe reglon wlll be requlred Lo enable
communlLles Lo easlly access Lhe faclllLles. ueslgnaLlon of wasLe dlsposal slLes and dralnlng
wlll also be requlred aLLenLlon Lo promoLe publlc healLh.
4.6 Gender Lqua||ty

Cender ls a soclal consLrucL of Lhe dlfferenL roles, responslblllLles and beneflLs of males and
females, varylng from place Lo place and Lhese roles, responslblllLles, access and beneflLs
changes over Llme. Achlevlng gender equallLy and equlLy depends on Lhe exLenL Lo whlch Lhe
varlous secLors and developmenL agencles ln Lhe reglon, engage boLh women and men as
provlders and or producers and beneflclarles of servlces and developmenL programmes.

1he naLlonal Cender ollcy, adopLed ln 1997 and revlsed ln 2007, has lnsLlLuLlonallzed
gender as a key concepL ln developmenL work ln all secLors and llne mlnlsLrles. 1hls
commlLmenL ls supporLed by Lhe ConsLlLuLlon and Lhe naLlonal uevelopmenL lan (nu) of
Aprll 2010. ln reglonal and lnLernaLlonal commlLmenLs such as CLuAW, uganda has also
been a leader ln Sub-Saharan Afrlca ln recognlzlng Lhe llnkages beLween economlc growLh
and gender.
Powever, desplLe governmenL commlLmenL and efforL Lo malnsLreamlng gender ln all Lhe
varlous secLors, programmes and efforLs from developmenL parLners such as Lhe World
8ank. Llke oLher reglons ln uganda, Lhe AlberLlne Craben reglon ls sLlll domlnaLed by Lhe
male gender agalnsL local governmenL gender lndlcaLors such as,

Leadershlp roles of boLh sexes
arLlclpaLlon of boLh male and female
Lqual ownershlp of resources
arLlclpaLlon ln declslon
Lqual opporLunlLles Lo access servlces

Accordlng Lo Amuru uu Lhe dlsLrlcL ls conLlnulng Lo experlence an lmproved parLlclpaLlon of
boLh women and men ln leadershlp roles. 1here are 424 reglsLered C8Cs ln Lhe dlsLrlcL.
Women occupy 42 of Lhe execuLlve poslLlons and Lhe men 38. 1hls marked an lncrease
from 28 for women and 72 for men ln Lhe prevlous years. Whlle aL lower local councll,
Lhere ls also an lmprovemenL and Women now occupy 34 of Lhe execuLlve poslLlons whlle
Lhe men occupy 66.leadershlp roles. noLlng LhaL, Lhere ls a general lmprovemenL of
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women Laklng up leadershlp roles malnly due Lo lncreased awareness on women rlghLs and
oLher gender lssues.

1he reporL also lndlcaLed LhaL ownershlp and conLrol of properLles ls sLlll largely ln Lhe hands
of men, e.g. women have no conLrol and ownershlp of land yeL land remalns Lhe blggesL
facLor of producLlon. 1he men largely conLrol mosL house properLles whlch conLrlbuLe Lo
lncreased vlolence aL house hold levels. Powever, Lhe dlsLrlcL has reglsLered lmprovemenL ln
equal opporLunlLy ln Lhe educaLlon secLor as manlfesLed ln Lhe lncreased ln gross enrolmenL
by 3.6. Clrls reglsLered a hlgh percenLage lncrease of 3.6 compared Lo boys aL 3.0.1hls
lmplles Lhe Cender Cap has reduced.

ConsulLaLlons wlLh Polma dlsLrlcL offlclals lndlcaLed LhaL, desplLe Lhe local governmenL
efforLs ln malnsLreamlng gender, Lhere sLlll exlsLs gender dlsparlLy ln declslon maklng,
ownershlp, access Lo and conLrol over producLlve resources and asseLs, for example land and
household asseLs, access Lo educaLlon, roles aL household levels, ln galnful employmenL,
level of parLlclpaLlon ln developmenL acLlvlLles and rlghLs Lo assoclaLlon. And Lhe ma[or
causaLlve facLors noLed lncluded, soclally consLrucLed culLural roles, speclal culLural norms
LhaL llmlL women parLlclpaLlon ln some acLlvlLles, lnequallLy ln Lhe level of educaLlon,
economlc dlsparlLy, and lgnorance abouL equal rlghLs and rellglous dlscrlmlnaLlon.

1he revlew and consulLaLlon flndlng concur wlLh Lhe Covernance and llvellhoods in Ugandas
oll-rlch AlberLlne Craben sLudy, whlch reporLed LhaL, Lhere were slgnlflcanL gender
dlfferences. More women (41) Lhan men (23) dld noL own land. AL Lhe same Llme, more
men (23) Lhan women (13) owned dwelllng unlLs alone. 1he sLudy also revealed LhaL 39
of Lhe respondenLs owned llvesLock. Also, slgnlflcanL gender dlfferences were noLed ln
respecL Lo ownershlp of llvesLock. 8egardlng LransporL, more Lhan half (34) of Lhe
respondenLs dld noL own any means of LransporL. Powever, more men (24) Lhan women
(7) were Lhe sole owners of Lhelr LransporL means. 1he resulLs lndlcaLed slgnlflcanL gender
dlfferences ln access Lo and conLrol and ownershlp of producLlve resources. 1hese resulLs
lmplled LhaL, lf such gender lmbalances remaln unchanged, women are llkely Lo beneflL less
from Lhe proceeds of oll exploraLlon and explolLaLlon.

1herefore, all acLors ln Lhe AlberLlne Craben reglon need Lo Lake approprlaLe acLlons Lo
address gender lnequlLy and lnequallLles wlLhln Lhelr areas of mandaLe whlch wlll requlre
women as well as men Lo play an acLlve role ln shaplng Lhelr own developmenL and cholces
Lhrough Lconomlc arLlclpaLlon and CpporLunlLy, LducaLlonal ALLalnmenL, PealLh and Survlval
and ollLlcal LmpowermenL
13
.

4.7 overty

1he CovernmenL has made slgnlflcanL progress ln reduclng poverLy Lhrough varlous pollcles
and programmes such as Lhe naLlonal uevelopmenL lan (nu) LhaL sLresses Lhe need Lo
uplift the welfare of all Ugandans through the Prosperity for All policy that focuses on

13
Clobal Cender Cap 8eporL 2013
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lncreaslng producLlon and wealLh accumulaLlon. 1hese efforLs have seen Lhe poverLy Lrends
move from 36 ln 1992 Lo 24.3 ln 2009 meanlng LhaL approxlmaLely 7.3 mllllon ugandans
llvlng ln 1.2 mllllon households were consldered poor
14
ln 2009/10. 1he reporL also lndlcaLed
LhaL, Lhe lncldence of poverLy remalns hlgher ln rural areas Lhan ln urban areas. 1he poor ln
Lhe rural areas represenL 27.2 percenL of Lhe populaLlon and only 9.1 percenL ln Lhe urban
areas. 1he rural areas wlLh 83 percenL of Lhe populaLlon consLlLuLe 94.4 percenL of naLlonal
poverLy.

Cn Lhe oLher hand, Lhe urban areas represenL 13 percenL of Lhe populaLlon and consLlLuLe
3.6 percenL of naLlonal poverLy. 1hese resulLs suggesL LhaL Lhe ma[orlLy of Lhe poor are ln
rural areas, abouL 7.1 mllllon ouL of Lhe 7.3 mllllon poor ugandan.

Accordlng Lo u8CS (2010), Lhe average poverLy headcounL ln Lhe AlberLlne Craben norLhern
area of sLudy ls 63, CenLral area of sLudy 34 and SouLhern area of sLudy aL 28 compared
Lo Lhe poverLy headcounL raLlo aL naLlonal poverLy llne ( of populaLlon) ls 24.3. 1hls
shows LhaL Lhe percenLage of lndlvlduals esLlmaLed Lo be llvlng ln households wlLh real
prlvaLe consumpLlon per adulL equlvalenL below Lhe poverLy llne for Lhese dlsLrlcLs exceeds
Lhe naLlonal average. 1hus poverLy ls sLlll hlgh ln Lhe reglon, however, slgnlflcanLly hlgher ln
Lhe norLhern reglon of Lhe AlberLlne Craben.

1ab|e 4-7: overty neadcount by D|str|cts - A|bert|ne Graben

No. Study Area
overty
neadcount
()200S
Northern Study Area

1 Ad[umanl 68.2
2 Amuru 76.3
3 Arua 34.2
4 nebbl 63.1
3 nwoya 63.3
6 Moyo 62.2
7 ?umbe 62.9
1ota|s 6S



Centra| Study Area

8ulllsa 33.8
Polma 33.2
klbaale 33.8

14
A household ls sald Lo be poor lf lLs consumpLlon expendlLure per adulL equlvalenL ls
below Lhe mlnlmum lncome requlred Lo meeL Lhe baslc needs (food and non-foods)

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No. Study Area
overty
neadcount
()200S

kamwenge 37.7
kamwenge 37.7
klryandongo
24.9
Maslndl
42.3
nLoroko
27.7
1ota|
34
Southern Study Area

8uhwe[u
20.6
8undlbugyo
43.6
8ushenyl
30.2
lbanda
17.1
kabarole
28.8
kanungu
33.2
kasese
48.4
kyen[o[o
18
MlLooma
18.1
8ublrlzl
20.3
8ukunglrl
28.1
1ota|
28

Source:u8CS lndlcaLlve lannlng llgures l?2014/13

1hls lmplles LhaL access Lo resources and varlous lmporLanL faclllLles by communlLles ln Lhe
AlberLlne reglon ls dlfflculL and ofLen expenslve. 1herefore, affordablllLy of servlce such as
waLer and elecLrlclLy wlll need Lo be assessed Lo ensure approprlaLed lnfrasLrucLure
Lechnologles are adopLed.

4.8 Cu|tura| ner|tage

4.8.1 Lthn|c Groups
1he AlberLlne reglon has a dlverslLy of varlous eLhnlc groups. 1he norLh sLudy area ls a home
of 7 Lrlbes, 1 ln Lhe cenLral and 6 ln Lhe souLh. Map 4-3. 1hese lnclude Acholl, Madl, Alur,
Lendu, Lugbara, Allnga and kakwa ln Lhe norLh, 8anyoro ln cenLral and 8asongola, 8aLoro,
8amba, 8akon[o, 8ankyankole and 8aklga and ln Lhe souLh. Cne may urge LhaL Lhls eLhnlc
dlverslLy shows Lolerance of Lhe local communlLy Lo amlcably coexlsL wlLh people of
dlfferenL orlglns. Powever, Lhe sLudles conducLed ln Lhe reglon revealed LhaL, Lhere are
longsLandlng Lrlbal confllcLs beLween Lhe 8anyoro and Lhe 8aklga, and beLween Lhe 8alaalo
and 8agungu ln 8ulllsa). 1hese confllcLs are also relaLed Lo land ownershlp and land use and
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oll exploraLlon ls sald Lo have escalaLed already exlsLlng confllcLs. Such eLhnlc confllcLs are
llkely Lo pose land use challengs ln Lhe cenLral and souLh areas of Lhe AlberLlne.

1he reglon also holds a number of lmporLanL culLural and hlsLorlcal slLes. 1hese LradlLlonal
slLes comprlse palaces and llvlng culLure (LradlLlonal bellefs and pracLlces, culLural Lrees and
shrlnes) as shown ln Lable 1-9 below. 1hey are relaLlvely rlch archaeologlcal hlsLorlc and
culLural slLes llkely Lo be slgnlflcanLly affecLed by peLroleum exploraLlon and developmenL
acLlvlLles
13
. 1hese slLes wlLh close collaboraLlon wlLh local leadershlp can Lherefore, be
developed lnLo LourlsL aLLracLlon, recreaLlon, hlsLorlcal and culLural educaLlonal cenLres
Lhough lmproved accesslblllLy.

1ab|e 4-8: Cu|tura| S|tes w|th|n the A|bert|ne Graben keg|on

S|te Locat|on Descr|pt|on
Amaberega
nylnamwlru
nyakasuranear lorL
orLal
Craylsh waLery subsLances slowly Lrlckle from Lhe
hanglng plllars (breasLs) ln a space of every 30
seconds.Locally named Amobeteqo Nyloomwlto.
1he slLe ls of culLural lmporLance whereby Lhe local
Lrlbe of 8aLooro sLlll belleve LhaL Lhe place has Lhe
powers of Lhe 8achwezl, Lhe rulers of Lhe pasL
Lmplre of klLara.
kaLaslha lorL 3 km from Polma along
Polma-8uLlaba 8oad
lL ls surrounded by a defenslve Lrench esLabllshed ln
1894 by a 8rlLlsh Colonel Colvlle, when Lhe 8rlLlsh
led an expedlLlon agalnsL kabalega, Lhe Lhen
Cmukama of 8unyoro, whlle Lhe cave was used by
kabalega Lo flghL off Lhe colonlal lnvaslon of Lhe
klngdom.
lorL klLana klgorobya-klblroroad A former 8rlLlsh lorL.
klblro LradlLlonal
slLes and a salL
processlng vlllage
9km from klgorobya
Lown councll or,
22km from Polma
Munlclpal Lown.
1hls ls a sLone-age slLe, slLuaLed along Lhe LasLern
shore of Lake AlberL.
Mparo Lombs 2km from Polma Lown
on Polma-Maslndl road
1ombs for former 8unyoro klngs.
karambl Lombs 6km on lorL orLal-
kasese road
1ombs for former 1ooro klngs.
karuzlka (Polma
alace)
Polma Munlclpal Lown alace for 8unyoro klLara klngs.
kabarole alace kabarole hlll wlLhln
lorL orLal Munlclpal
1own
alace for Lhe klng of 1ooro.
4.8.2
Source: LnvlronmenLal SenslLlvlLy ALlas 2009

13
Polma dlsLrlcL consulLaLlons
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Map 4-3: A|bert|ne's Lthn|c Compos|t|on

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4.9 Issues ke|evant to the D

lL ls anLlclpaLed LhaL, Lhe AlberLlne Craben wlll see lncreased populaLlon grow ln Lhe nexL 23
years and beyond, wlLh Lhe currenL forecasL of 9,138,203 ln 2014 and 27,303,668 people ln
2040
16
. 1here wlll be a slgnlflcanL lncrease ln demand for soclal servlces such as waLer,
elecLrlclLy, healLh, educaLlon, LransporL, sanlLaLlon, recreaLlon, markeLs eLc. uue Lo Lhe 323
lncrease of urban populaLlon ln uganda, currenL urban and upcomlng cenLres wlll however
be affecLed unllke Lhe rural areas.

uue Lo Lhe ma[orlLy 83 populaLlon wlLhln Lhe AlberLlne Craben belng dependanL on crop
farmlng and baslng on Lhe ob[ecLlves and funcLlons of Lhe nAAuS, Agro processlng faclllLles
coupled wlLh a good connecLlve LransporL neLwork aL naLlonal and communlLy level wlll be
need Lo lmprove farmers access Lo markeLs and also improving farmers incomes by raising
farm gaLe prlces, creaLlng on-farm and off-farm employmenL. 1he dlsLrlbuLlon of agro
processlng faclllLles wlll need Lo be based on Lhe ma[or crops grown ln Lhe dlfferenL reglons
of Lhe AlberLlne Craben. MarkeLlng polnLs wlll also need Lo be gazeLLed Lo avold congesLlon
especlally wlLhln Lhe urban cenLres.

WlLh 83 of Lhe populaLlon ln Lhe AlberLlne belng farmers, lL ls llkely LhaL ma[orlLy of Lhe
esLlmaLed [obs wlll be Laken by new comers from dlfferenL walks of llfe hence boosLlng Lhe
formal sector. However, despite boosting the regions economy, this influx of implies that,
Lhe exlsLlng soclal amenlLles such as schools, hosplLal, and recreaLlon cenLres eLc wlll be
slgnlflcanLly affecLed. 1hls lnflux wlll also resulL ln Lo soclal evlls such as prosLlLuLlon whlch
could also conLrlbuLe Lo Lhe lncrease of Plv/Alus ln Lhe reglon and crlme. CommunlLy
pollclng wlll Lherefore be requlred ln reglon Lo promoLe morals and safeLy.

rlorlLy of educaLlon lnfrasLrucLure should be focused ln Lhe norLhern reglon of Lhe AlberLlne
Lo promoLe balanced reglonal developmenL. 1he norLh wlll or can accommodaLe spaclous
hlgher leanlng lnsLlLuLlons such as a unlverslLy or vocaLlonal lnsLlLuLlon due Lo Lhe avallablllLy
of land. 1here ls also need Lo focus on Lhe dlsLrlbuLlon of secondary educaLlon schools.

WlLh Lhe above ln slghL (pro[ecLed populaLlon lncremenL, lncreased urbanlsaLlon, mlgraLlon,
employmenL opporLunlLles, challenges and PSS goals). uue Lo a pro[ecLed 36 populaLlon
lncrease durlng Lhe plannlng perlod, over 3.6 mllllon people wlll requlre access Lo PClls as a
mlnlmum.

8ased on a plannlng sLandard of 1 PCll per parlsh, an esLlmaLed LoLal of 306 new PClls wlll
be requlred over Lhe plannlng perlod. 1hese should be dlsLrlbuLed wlLh approxlmaLely 242 ln
Lhe SouLh lannlng Area, 132 ln Lhe CenLral, and 134 ln Lhe norLh. upgradlng of Lhe exlsLlng
healLh lnfrasLrucLure Lo Lhe requlred sLandards wlll be necessary and ln llne wlLh Lhe PSS Lo
avold dupllcaLlon.


16
Assumlng growLh raLe ls consLanL. Source: 8en !arabl, CeomeLrlc LxLrapolaLlon MeLhod of opulaLlon
ro[ecLlons, opulaLlon SLudles & 8esearch lnsLlLuLe, unlverslLy of nalrobl.

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1he upgradlng Lhe LransporL neLwork wlLhln Lhe reglon wlll be requlred Lo enable
communlLles Lo easlly access Lhe faclllLles. ueslgnaLlon of wasLe dlsposal slLes and dralnlng
wlll also be requlred aLLenLlon Lo promoLe publlc healLh.

All acLors ln Lhe AlberLlne Craben reglon need Lo Lake approprlaLe acLlons Lo address gender
lnequlLy and lnequallLles wlLhln Lhelr areas of mandaLe whlch wlll requlre women as well as
men Lo play an acLlve role ln shaplng Lhelr developmenL and cholces Lhrough Lconomlc
arLlclpaLlon and CpporLunlLy, LducaLlonal ALLalnmenL, PealLh and Survlval and ollLlcal
LmpowermenL ln order Lo reduce gender lmbalances ln Lhe reglon.

uue Lo Lhe hlgh of poverLy, access Lo resources and varlous lmporLanL faclllLles by
communlLles ln Lhe AlberLlne reglon ls dlfflculL and ofLen expenslve especlally Lhe ln Lhe
norLh. 1herefore, affordablllLy of servlce such as waLer and elecLrlclLy wlll need Lo be
assessed Lo ensure approprlaLed lnfrasLrucLure Lechnologles are adopLed.

WlLh Lhe anLlclpaLed Cll producLlon relaLed lnfrasLrucLure developmenLs such as Lhe bulldlng
of an oll reflnery, oll plpellnes, roads eLc ln Lhe reglon, lL ls llkely LhaL land use wlll greaLly be
affecLed as well as Lhe llvellhoods of Lhe communlLles especlally ln Lhe cenLral area of Lhe
AlberLlne.

Cn Lhe oLher hand, governmenL ls llkely Lo spend heavlly Lowards land acqulslLlon, lndlvldual
pro[ecLs wlll face challenges assoclaLed Lo land ownershlp and land use confllcLs wlll lncrease
lf land for lnfrasLrucLural developmenL ls noL lnLegraLed. Also due Lo Lhe hlgh levels of
poverLy ln Lhe reglon, communlLles are llkely loose land Lo speculaLors and baslng on
ma[orlLy belng communal land, Lhere ls llkely lncrease ln communal confllcLs.

ConfllcLs relaLed Lo land ownershlp, land use and oll exploraLlon are llkely Lo escalaLe, poslng
land use challenges especlally ln Lhe cenLral and souLh areas of Lhe AlberLlne.

1ourlsm ls llkely Lo lncrease ln Lhe reglon lf dlverse exlsLlng culLural and hlsLorlcal slLes
developed lnLo LourlsL aLLracLlon, recreaLlon andeducaLlonal cenLres Lhough lmproved
accesslblllLy.
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GH5$) I-(J
K5$5*(+($, 5$)
9(,,'(+($, L5,,(/$-






















Introduct|on
1hls ChapLer presenLs dlscusslons on Lhe fundamenLal
sLarLlng polnL for all developmenL - land. Legal, physlcal and
seLLlemenL aspecLs of Lhe AlberLlne's land base are
presenLed. Managlng land Lenure, reglsLraLlon and Lransfers
are an essenLlal elemenL of all economlc developmenL, and
parLlcularly so ln urbanlslng cenLres. AL Lhe same Llme, Lhe
paLLerns ln whlch land ls seLLled also plays a key role ln
deLermlnlng how lnfrasLrucLure and oLher servlced can be
provlded.

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S.1 Introduct|on - Land

Land Lenure refers Lo Lhe manner ln whlch land ls owned, occupled, used and dlsposed of
wlLhln a communlLy. A properly deflned and managed land Lenure sysLem ls essenLlal Lo
ensure balanced and susLalnable developmenL. unLll 1973, Lhere were four Lypes of land
Lenure sysLems ln uganda: cusLomary, mallo, freehold and leasehold. lollowlng Lhe land
reform decree of 1973, all land was declared as belonglng Lo governmenL, people belng
allowed Lo seLLle wherever Lhey wlshed for as long as Lhey could manage Lhe land
effecLlvely. Powever, Lhe Lenure sysLems were resLored by 1993 ConsLlLuLlon.

Land ls a conLenLlous lssue ln uganda especlally ln resourceful are areas llke Lhe AlberLlne
reglon, as well as belng a very lmporLanL one Lo Lhe reglon and Lhe whole of uganda. uganda
on Lhe whole has varlous land Lenure sysLems consLlLuLlonally recognlsed. 1hey lnclude
CusLomary, lreehold, Leasehold and Mallo Lenure.

Accordlng Lo Lhe revlew of varlous dlsLrlcL developmenL plans (nwoya, Amuru,Polma eLc)
and Lhe consulLaLlons wlLh key sLakeholders, Land ln AlberLlne Craben ls predomlnanLly
communal wlLh very few free hold and leaseholders. 1he revlew flndlngs of Lhe uus
colnclde wlLh Lhe uLA reporL
17
whlch concluded LhaL, on Lhe whole cusLomary land holdlng
pervades all Lhe Lhree dlsLrlcLs alLhough mosL promlnenL ln Amuru dlsLrlcL. lL also lndlcaLed
LhaL, Lhe means of acqulslLlon expecLedly showed a relaLed paLLern wlLh lnherlLance of land
belng Lhe commonesL means of land acqulslLlon aL 41 followed by land purchase aL 33.

ConsulLaLlons wlLh key secLor and dlsLrlcL sLakeholder of Lhe reglon however, revealed LhaL,
Lhe reglon especlally Polma dlsLrlcL has aLLracLed a number of land speculaLors, desplLe Lhe
resldenL glvlng a dlrecLlve Lo sLop land LlLllng ln Lhe reglon. Pence lnflaLed cosLs of land ln
Lhe reglon desplLe and hlgh cosLs of buslness operaLlon. Also lnformaLlon exLracLed from Lhe
ulsLrlcL Land 8oards shows an lncreaslng Lrend ln converslon of land from cusLomary Lenure
Lo formal Lenures-leasehold and more recenLly freehold
18
. 1he Covernance and llvellhoods
in Ugandas oil-rlch AlberLlne Craben reporL esLabllshed LhaL 36 of Lhe sold land was Lo
lndlvlduals who are lndlgenous and from Lhe reglon, whlle 36 sold Lo lndlvlduals who are
lndlgenous buL llvlng ouLslde Lhe reglon. 1hls lmplles LhaL Lhe land speculaLors are
lndlgenous persons wlLhln AlberLlne Craben reglon. 1herefore, wlLh challenges such as
escalaLlng speculaLlon on land and properLy values and unclear land holdlngs especlally
where Lhey are mulLlple ln naLure (complex Lo assess), lL ls paramounL LhaL Lhere should be
coordlnaLed lnfrasLrucLural developmenL ln Lhe reglon especlally roads, elecLrlclLy, healLh,
waLer and sanlLaLlon Lo mlnlmlze governmenL flnances and soclal lmpacLs assoclaLed Lo land
lssues.

S.1.1 Genera| rob|ems in Ugandas Land Acquisition System
Lack of a proper compuLerlsed Land lnformaLlon SysLem. 1hls process ls currenLly
golng on buL ls noL compleLe for all Lhe ulsLrlcLs wlLhln Lhe AlberLlne Craben.
lenLy of Survey errors on ground

17
LAnu C8A88lnC Anu l1S LllLC1S Cn CCMMunl1lLS ln 1PL ClL 8lCP AL8L81lnL 8LClCn Cl uCAnuA
18
lbld
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oor survey MeLhods and lnsLrumenLs
Small percenLage of LlLled / surveyed and uemarcaLed Land.
Some of Lhe Land 1enure sysLems are noL solvlng Lhe Land use problem ln uganda
and hence are qulckly becomlng obsoleLe Lo Lhe ugandan Land SlLuaLlon.

S.1.2 kecommendat|ons to So|ve the Genera| Land Acqu|s|t|on rob|ems
1he CovernmenL should allow Lenure reglmes Lo evolve and develop approprlaLe
lncldenLs, ln response Lo changes ln soclal sLrucLures, Lechnologles of land use and
markeL demands ln response Lo Llme, clrcumsLance, durablllLy and more speclflcally
Lhe presence of Cll ln Lhe reglon whlch accordlng Lo Lhe Land AcL, belongs Lo Lhe
sLaLe.
1he CovernmenL should re-afflrm and sLrengLhen Lhe leglLlmacy of soclally and
culLurally accepLable Lenure sysLems as a means of preservlng access rlghLs Lo
common properLy resources by Lhe Locals leavlng wlLhln Lhe AlberLlne 8eglon,
1he CovernmenL should ensure recognlLlon, sLrengLhenlng and educaLlon on rlghLs of
women, chlldren and oLher vulnerable groups ln all exlsLlng and emerglng land
Lenure reglmes.
1he Survey 8egulaLlons of uganda should be sLrlcLly followed and un-quallfled
surveyors should qulckly be removed from Lhe MarkeL,
1he CovernmenL should provlde a conLlnuously updaLed compuLerlsed Land
lnformaLlon SysLem for uganda.

S.2 Land 1enure keg|mes |n Uganda

1he ConsLlLuLlon of Lhe 8epubllc of uganda and Lhe Land AcL (Cap 227) provlde LhaL land ln
uganda may be held ln four Lenure caLegorles only, namely cusLomary, freehold, mallo and
leasehold Lenure. 1he lncldenLs of Lhese Lenure reglmes (oLher Lhan leasehold) are deflned
ln Lerms of generallLles whlch esLabllsh no parLlcular fronLlers. 1he apparenL flnallLy wlLh
whlch Lhe lncldenLs of each Lenure caLegory ls deflned ln Lhe Land AcL (Cap 227) leaves llLLle
room for LranslLlonal or progresslve adapLaLlon ln response among oLher Lhlngs, Lo changlng
demands exerLed by populaLlon growLh, Lechnologlcal developmenL and rapld urbanlzaLlon.
1he resulL ls llkely Lo be Lhe growLh and expanslon of lnformal or secondary land rlghLs
reglmes ln boLh urban and rural areas.

S.2.1 Customary Land 1enure
1hls ls Lhe sysLem whereby land ls owned and dlsposed of ln accordance wlLh cusLomary
regulaLlons. Speclflc rules of cusLomary Lenure vary accordlng Lo eLhnlc groups and reglons.
CfLen cusLomary Lenure ls superlmposed on oLher sysLems llke mallo and freehold. 1hls
Lenure sysLem also exlsLs on lLs own as communal land ownershlp. 1he ma[orlLy of ugandans
hold Lhelr land ln Lhls complex sysLem of land relaLlons. 1hls sysLem of Land 1enure ls mosL
common ln Lhe norLhern and LasLern parLs of uganda. 1hls land Lenure sysLem wlll be
encounLered along mosL of Lhe AlberLlne Craben. lL ls very domlnanL norLh of Lhe AlberLlne
(WesL nlle) because llvlng ln communlLles and clans ls sLlll deeply rooLed lnLo Lhelr culLure.
ln Lhls area, Lhe cusLomary land ls owned by communlLles as opposed Lo Lhe oLher parLs of
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uganda where Lhe land ls owned by lndlvlduals. 1hls form of Land Lenure Lhen evolves ablL
SouLhwards where we have Lhe CusLomary land owners belng Lurned Lo squaLLers because
oLher lndlvlduals have some how goLLen LlLles Lo Lhe land on whlch Lhey and Lhere fore
faLhers have llved for cenLurles.

Cne advanLage of Lhls Lenurlal sysLem ls LhaL people have llved wlLh lL for a long Llme and
Lherefore undersLand lL.

CusLomary 1enure ls usually assoclaLed wlLh Lhe followlng problems.
lL does noL provlde securlLy of Lenure for land owners,
lL lmpedes developmenL because lL does noL allow Lhe advancemenL of land markeLs,
Lhrough whlch, Lhose who need land for developmenL can acqulre lL
lL dlscrlmlnaLes agalnsL women, and does noL accord Lhem land rlghLs.
lL does noL encourage record keeplng, ofLen maklng lL dlfflculL Lo resolve land use
confllcLs.
LnvlronmenLally, Lhe maln dlsadvanLage ls LhaL lL generaLes llLLle personal lnLeresL ln
Lhe sLaLus of land resources ("Lhe Lragedy of Lhe commons"), leadlng Lo
mlsmanagemenL and degradaLlon.

1he Land AcL (Cap. 227) and Lhe ConsLlLuLlon 1993 have been crlLlclzed for Lhelr aLLempLs Lo
formallze cusLomary Lenure Lhus desLablllzlng and undermlnlng lLs progresslve evoluLlon.
uesplLe Lhese aLLempLs, lL conLlnues Lo be:

regarded and LreaLed as lnferlor ln pracLlce, Lo oLher forms of reglsLered properLy
rlghLs, denylng lL opporLunlLy for greaLer and deeper LransformaLlon.
assessed as lesser Lo oLher Lenures LhaL have LlLles for proof of ownershlp ln courLs of
law ln Lhe admlnlsLraLlon of [usLlce,
converLed Lo freehold before lL aLLalns Lhe LoLallLy of Lhe bundle of rlghLs lnherenL ln
all oLher reglsLered Lenures LhaL are held ln perpeLulLy,
dlsparaged and saboLaged ln preference for oLher forms of reglsLered Lenures,
denylng lL Lhe opporLunlLy Lo progresslvely evolve.

kecommendat|ons to he|p so|ve prob|ems |n Customary Land 1enure
CovernmenL should Lake measures Lo:
deslgn and lmplemenL a land reglsLry sysLem Lo supporL Lhe reglsLraLlon of land rlghLs
under cusLomary Lenure,
lssue CerLlflcaLes of 1lLle of CusLomary Cwnershlp, based on a cusLomary land
reglsLry LhaL confer rlghLs equlvalenL Lo freehold Lenure,
faclllLaLe converslon of cusLomary land whlch ls already prlvaLlzed and lndlvlduallzed
lnLo freehold Lenure.
documenL cusLomary land Lenure rules appllcable Lo speclflc communlLles aL Lhe
dlsLrlcL or sub-counLy levels,
make an lnvenLory of common properLy resources owned by communlLles and vesL
Lhese resources ln Lhe communlLles Lo be managed under cusLomary law.

1o faclllLaLe Lhe deslgn and evoluLlon of a leglslaLlve framework for cusLomary
Lenure, CovernmenL should:
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amend Lhe ConsLlLuLlon and Lhe Land AcL (Cap 227) Lo permlL only lndlvldually owned
cusLomary land Lo be converLed Lo freehold,
amend Lhe 8eglsLraLlon of 1lLles AcL (Cap 230) Lo place cusLomary Lenure aL par wlLh
oLher Lenure sysLems,
modlfy Lhe rules of Lransmlsslon of land rlghLs under cusLomary land Lenure Lo
guaranLee gender equallLy and equlLy,
make provlslon for [olnL ownershlp of famlly land by spouses,
recognlze Lhe role of cusLomary lnsLlLuLlons ln maklng rules governlng land, resolvlng
dlspuLes and proLecLlng land rlghLs,
deflne famlly and lndlvldual land rlghLs, from communal rlghLs under cusLomary land
Lenure and dlsLlngulsh Lhe rlghLs and obllgaLlons of cusLomary lnsLlLuLlons vls-a-vls
Lhose of Lhe communlLy and lndlvlduals,
make provlslon for lssue of LlLles ln Lhe names of LrusLees ln areas wlLh cusLomary
land LrusLeeshlp.

1o sLrengLhen LradlLlonal land managemenL and admlnlsLraLlon lnsLlLuLlons, CovernmenL
should:
recognlze and enforce declslons of LradlLlonal land managemenL by local governmenL
and SLaLe lnsLlLuLlons,
ensure full [udlclal backlng for LradlLlonal lnsLlLuLlons as mechanlsms of flrsL lnsLance
ln respecL of land rlghLs allocaLlon, use regulaLlon and dlspuLe processlng for land
under cusLomary Lenure,
ensure LhaL Lhe declslons of LradlLlonal land managemenL lnsLlLuLlons uphold
consLlLuLlonal rlghLs and obllgaLlons wlLh regard Lo gender equallLy,
develop procedures ln conformlLy wlLh cusLomary land law for Lhe allocaLlon and
redlsLrlbuLlon of land wlLh conslderaLlon for lnequallLles and ln[usLlces.

S.2.2 Ma||o 1enure and Nat|ve Ireeho|d 1enure
Mallo Lenure was lnLroduced as a resulL of Lhe 1900 8uganda AgreemenL. under Lhls
agreemenL, land was dlvlded beLween Lhe kabaka (klng) of 8uganda, oLher noLables and Lhe
roLecLoraLe CovernmenL. 1he baslc unlL of sub-dlvlslon was a square mlle (hence Lhe name
mallo). Crlglnally, Lhere were Lwo caLegorles of ownershlp under Lhe mallo sysLem (prlvaLe
and offlclal mallo). Cfflclal mallo land was Lransformed lnLo publlc land ln 1967. under Lhls
sysLem, land ls held ln perpeLulLy and a cerLlflcaLe of LlLle ls lssued.

1hls land Lenure ls common ln Lhe CenLral 8eglon of uganda and comprlses abouL 70 of Lhe
Land ln Lhls reglon. 1hls ls Lhe leasL form of Land 1enure ln Lhe AlberLlne Craben. lL wlll be
encounLered ln areas of kabarole and kasese. 1hese are square mlles of land LhaL were glven
ouL by Lhe klng of 1ooro Lo hls Chlldren and sub[ecLs. 1hls land ls however full of squaLLers
because of absenLeelsm of Lhe Land Lords. 1hls has caused qulLe a sLand off beLween Lhe
1lLle Polders (Land Lords) and Lhe squaLLers and Lhe laLesL soluLlon LhaL has been fronLed by
Lhe CovernmenL ls LhaL CovernmenL purchases Lhe rlghLs of Lhe Land lord hence leavlng Lhe
LenanLs / squaLLers Lo sLay on Lhe land. 1hls exerclse ls currenLly ongolng.

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1he prlnclpal advanLage of Lhls sysLem ls LhaL lL provldes securlLy of Lenure, Lhus allowlng
long-Lerm lnvesLmenLs lncludlng Lhose relaLed Lo conservaLlon. Powever, Lhe Mallo Land
1enure sysLem ls plagued wlLh Lhe followlng problems:

AbsenLee landlordlsm and lack of access by regulaLory agencles are dlsadvanLages
LhaL llmlL sound envlronmenLal managemenL. AbsenLee landlordlsm encourages
squaLLers on mallo land. 1hese squaLLers have no lncenLlves for Lhe susLalnable
managemenL of a land resource Lhey do noL own, however, Mallo Lenure and
native freeholds, separaLe Lhe ownershlp of land from occupancy or ownershlp of
developments by lawful or bonafide occupanLs. 1hls creaLes confllcLlng lnLeresLs
and overlaps ln rlghLs ln Lhe same plece of land.

1he deflnlLlon of rlghLs accorded Lo boooflJe occupanLs ln Lhe Land AcL (Cap 227) and
all Lhe subsequenL amendmenLs, lack leglLlmacy on parL of Lhe land owners. 1he Land
(AmendmenL) AcL 2010 granLs sLaLuLory proLecLlon Lo Lhe boooflJe and lawful holder
and hls or her successors agalnsL any arblLrary evlcLlon as long as Lhe prescrlbed
nomlnal ground renL ls pald. Powever, Lhe nomlnal ground renL provlded for, as
opposed Lo economlc renL ls largely lgnored, creaLlng a land use deadlock beLween
Lhe LenanLs and Lhe reglsLered land owner, leadlng Lo confllcLs and many Llmes
evlcLlons. 1he landlord LenanL relaLlonshlp as legally regulaLed ls noL amlcable or
harmonlous and ls non-operaLlonal.

1he facL LhaL mallo land ls prlvaLe has led Lo resource managemenL regulaLory
agencles havlng llmlLed auLhorlLy over whaL happens on lL. lor lnsLance, much of Lhe
deforesLaLlon occurrlng ln Lhe dlsLrlcLs of 8uganda ls on mallo land. 1here are no
clear mechanlsms whlch allow Lhe uganda loresL ueparLmenL Lo regulaLe Lhe prlvaLe
foresLs on Lhese lands.

1he survey process ls prone Lo many errors slnce one can use any arblLrary sysLem of
measuremenL. 1hls has caused a loL of overlaps ln areas and a loL of confuslon on Lhe
ground.

kecommendat|ons to he|p so|ve prob|ems |n Ma||o Land 1enure
1he SLaLe should resolve and dlsenLangle Lhe mulLlple, overlapplng and confllcLlng lnLeresLs
and rights on mailo tenure and native freehold tenure.

1o resolve Lhe land use lmpasse beLween Lhe lawful and boooflJe occupanLs and
Lhe reglsLered land owners, CovernmenL shall Lake measures Lo:
lnsLlLuLlonallze and promoLe Lhe prlnclple and pracLlce of land sharlng and land re-
ad[usLmenL beLween Lhe reglsLered land owner and lawful or boooflJe occupanL,

promoLe free negoLlaLlons beLween Lhe Lwo parLles for one parLy Lo surrender
hls/her land rlghLs and lnLeresLs aL an agreed prlce,

faclllLaLe elLher parLy upon ascerLalnmenL (LenanL or reglsLered land owner) Lo access
Lhe Land lund Lo purchase Lhe lnLeresL of Lhe oLher parLy on a loan basls,

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make provlslon ln Lhe land law for falr and [usL compensaLlon ad[udlcaLed by courLs
of law/land Lrlbunals Lo be pald Lo Lhe occupanL ln Lhe case where Lhe land owner
wanLs Lo resume hls/her land,

purchase Lhe lnLeresL of Lhe reglsLered land owner ln Lhe land occupled by Lhe
lawful/bonaflde occupanLs uslng Lhe Land lund and sell Lhe lnLeresL Lo Lhe sald
occupanLs, based on soclal [usLlce and equlLy conslderaLlons.

1o ensure a [usL, equlLable and amlcable landlord-LenanL relaLlonshlp, CovernmenL, Lhrough
leglslaLlve measures, should:
re-deflne bonaflde occupanL and Lhe rlghLs accorded Lo such occupanLs, Laklng lnLo
accounL adverse possesslon prlnclples and dlsablllLy prlnclple,

ensure Lhe rlghL of Lhe reglsLered land owner Lo renL commensuraLe wlLh Lhe value of
Lhe land,

resLore Lhe rlghL of Lhe reglsLered land owner Lo negoLlaLe falr Lenancy Lerms wlLh Lhe
lawful or bonaflde occupanL,

flx renL by a compeLenL courL/Lrlbunal, ln Lhe evenL of amlcable negoLlaLlons falllng,
based on:
Lhe rlghL of Lhe reglsLered land owner Lo renL commensuraLe wlLh Lhe value of
Lhe land,
Lhe clrcumsLances of lnlLlal occupancy or enLry on Lhe land, and
slze of Lhe land occupled by Lhe LenanL.

S.2.3 Ireeho|d 1enure
ln Lhe freehold Lenure sysLem, ownershlp ls also ln perpeLulLy, and a cerLlflcaLe of LlLle ls
lssued. 1he sysLem was orlglnally esLabllshed Lo address llmlLed and qulLe speclflc
requlremenLs or requesLs, say by rellglous organlsaLlons. lreehold Lenure was also granLed
as a resulL of Lhe 1oro AgreemenL of 1900, Ankole AgreemenL of 1901 and 8unyoro
AgreemenL of 1933. 1he Crown Lands Crdlnance of 1903 gave Lhe 8rlLlsh colonlal auLhorlLles
power Lo allenaLe land ln freehold. 1hls sysLem ls malnly found ln parLs of easLern and
wesLern uganda. AparL from parcels of land under Lhe freehold sysLem belng smaller, lL has
a loL of slmllarlLles wlLh mallo Lenure and shares Lhe same envlronmenLal managemenL
problems. lL ls clear LhaL publlc pollcy regards freehold as Lhe properLy reglme of Lhe fuLure,
Lo Lhe exLenL LhaL currenL law provldes for converslon from leasehold Lenure or cusLomary
Lenure Lo freehold.

1he free hold Lenure sysLem wlll be encounLered wlLhln Lhe SouLhern ulsLrlcLs of Lhe
AlberLlne from Polma sLreLchlng down Lo kanungu?

lreehold 1enure ls usually assoclaLed wlLh Lhe followlng problems:
uue Lo heavler populaLlon pressures ln parLs of uganda where freehold land Lenures
exlsL, land fragmenLaLlon ls a common occurrence. Land fragmenLaLlon has
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conLrlbuLed Lo slgnlflcanL envlronmenLal degradaLlon, alLhough concreLe daLa ls
lacklng.
1he converslon from Leasehold and cusLomary Lenure Lo freehold ls conLenLlous ln
some areas of Lhe counLry. Where lL has been LesLed, lL has been expenslve, as lL
requlres subsLanLlal resources for ad[udlcaLlon, consolldaLlon, and reglsLraLlon. ln
some lnsLances, freehold poses challenges Lo publlc regulaLlon slnce lLs covenanLs are
noL condlLlonal.

kecommendat|ons to he|p so|ve the prob|ems |n Iree no|d Land 1enure
1he SLaLe, Lhrough lLs agencles, should exerclse regulaLory power on freehold Lenure ln
accordance wlLh land use plannlng and susLalnablllLy prlnclples. 1o ensure freehold Lenure
drlves fuLure developmenL, CovernmenL should:
lmpose, Lhrough an AcL of arllamenL, condlLlonal covenanLs on freehold land Lenure
Lo regulaLe lLs use and developmenL and develop concepLs and prlnclples lndlgenous
Lo uganda for ownlng land under freehold,

promoLe sysLemaLlc demarcaLlon as a measure Lo reduce Lhe cosL of land reglsLraLlon.

S.2.4 Leaseho|d 1enure
Leasehold Lenure ls a sysLem whereby land ls held based on an agreemenL beLween Lhe
lessor and Lhe lessee. 1here are Lwo Lypes of leasehold Lenure arrangemenLs, namely,
prlvaLe leases glven Lo lndlvldual landlords and offlclal or sLaLuLory leases glven Lo
lndlvlduals and/or corporaLe groups under publlc acL Lerms. 1he 1993 ConsLlLuLlon (under
ArLlcle 237 (3)) provldes LhaL any lease, whlch was granLed Lo a uganda clLlzen ouL of former
publlc land, may be converLed lnLo freehold. Slnce cusLomary Lenure ls now legally
recognlzed wlLh rlghLs ln perpeLulLy, Lhe converslon needs Lo be revlewed so LhaL (l)
leaseholds lssued Lo lndlvlduals who held land under cusLomary Lenure before Lhe 1993
ConsLlLuLlon and (ll) Lhose accldenLally granLed Lo cusLomary owners ln respecL of Lhelr
holdlngs afLer Lhe 1993 ConsLlLuLlon, auLomaLlcally converL Lo freehold. Powever, leaseholds
granLed ouL of former publlc land wlLhouL any cusLomary rlghLs should noL be converLed Lo
freehold, slnce Lhe land was noL cusLomarlly owned aL Lhe Llme of granL of Lhe lease and
should conLlnue Lo run as leaseholds wlLh Lhe clLlzens of uganda keeplng Lhe reverslonary
lnLeresL.

1he advanLage of Lhe leasehold sysLem ls LhaL Lhe lessor can aLLach condlLlons Lo Lhe leases
and has Lhe rlghL Lo revoke ownershlp ln case of abuse.

AnoLher advanLage ls LhaL Leaseholds promoLe sophlsLlcaLed forms of concurrenL ownershlp
such as condomlnlums and Llme-share arrangemenLs, Lhus open land Lo a much larger range
of users and use funcLlons.

AnoLher Lechnlcal advanLage ls LhaL Lhe survey process ls more accuraLe due Lo Lhe rlgorous
procedures LhaL have been puL ln place ln order Lo declare a lease hold survey correcL.
1he Lease hold Lenure sysLem wlll be encounLered wlLhln mosL of Lhe munlclpal and 1own
Counclls wlLhln Lhe AlberLlne 8eglon. MosL of Lhese LlLles are now belng converLed Lo lree
Pold land LlLles maklng land ownershlp wlLhln Lhe Lowns more sLable?
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Leaseho|d 1enure |s usua||y assoc|ated w|th the fo||ow|ng prob|ems

Leases are cosLly and cumbersome Lo obLaln, and hlLher Lo, Lhe leases awarded have
noL addressed envlronmenLal concerns.

1he Survey process for Lhe leasehold land Lenure sysLem ls more expenslve and
cumbersome Lo carry ouL due Lo Lhe need for uslng Lhe offlclal u1M Arc 1960 sysLem
only.

kecommendat|ons to he|p so|ve the prob|ems |n Lease no|d Land 1enure
1o maxlmlze Lhe poLenLlal of leaseholds, CovernmenL should Lake measures Lo:
converL all leaseholds, lssued Lo cusLomary LenanLs over Lhelr personal land holdlngs
before Lhe 1993 ConsLlLuLlon, Lo freehold,

converL all leaseholds, lssued Lo cusLomary owners over Lhelr personal land holdlngs
afLer Lhe 1993 ConsLlLuLlon Lo freehold,

dlsconLlnue Lhe converslon of leaseholds lssued ouL of publlc land whlch was noL
owned under cusLomary Lenure aL Lhe Llme of Lhe granL Lo freehold excepL for
degazeLLed lands,

encourage Lhe uLlllzaLlon of leasehold ln respecL of all land Lenure caLegorles Lhrough
Lhe provlslon of slmpllfled sLandard formaL,

llmlL Lhe duraLlon of leasehold over publlc land noL Lo exceed 99 years for clLlzens of
uganda and 49 years for non-clLlzens, or perlods conslsLenL wlLh speclflc developmenL
requlremenLs whlchever ls lesser,

provlde sLandards for exerclse of reverslonary rlghLs Lo comply wlLh flrsLopLlon- of-
renewal Lo Lhe currenL lessee on publlc land,

proLecL Lhe rlghLs of any lawful or boooflJe occupanLs on leaseholds ouL of publlc
land.
19


S.3 Compu|sory Land Acqu|s|t|on

1he process for compulsory acqulslLlon of land for publlc purposes by CovernmenL ls as
follows:
20




Sources: 1he naLlonal Land use ollcy (2007), 1he ConsLlLuLlon of Lhe 8epubllc of uganda (1993), 1he Land
AcL 1998
20
1he Land AcqulslLlon AcL of uganda 1963 consolldaLed and reprlnLed (2000)

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1. Dec|arat|on that |and |s needed for a pub||c purpose.
Whenever Lhe MlnlsLer ln charge of Lhe pro[ecL (ln Lhls case Lhe MlnlsLer of Lnergy and
Mlneral uevelopmenL) ls saLlsfled LhaL any land ls requlred by Lhe CovernmenL for a publlc
purpose, he or she may, by sLaLuLory lnsLrumenL, make a declaraLlon Lo LhaL effecL. 1he
sLaLuLory lnsLrumenL shall speclfy,
1he locaLlon of Lhe requlred land.
1he approxlmaLe area of Lhe land.
lf a plan of Lhe land has been made, a place and Llme aL whlch Lhe plan may be
lnspecLed.
1he MlnlsLer shall have a copy of Lhe declaraLlon served Lo Lhe reglsLered proprleLor
of Lhe land speclfled ln Lhe declaraLlon or, as Lhe case may be, on Lhe conLrolllng
auLhorlLy and, lf Lhe proprleLor ls noL Lhe occupler of Lhe land, on Lhe occupler.

2. Land |s Surveyed and marked out.
Cn Lhe publlcaLlon of Lhe declaraLlon by Lhe MlnlsLer, Lhe assessmenL offlcer (CovernmenL
Land valuer) shall cause Lhe land Lo be marked ouL and measured and a plan of Lhe land Lo
be made lf a plan of Lhe land has noL already been made.

3. Not|ce to persons hav|ng an |nterest.
As soon as Lhe publlcaLlon of a declaraLlon ln respecL of any land has been made, Lhe
assessmenL offlcer shall have a noLlce publlshed ln Lhe news apers (uganda CazeLLe) and
exhlblLed aL convenlenL places on or near Lhe land, sLaLlng LhaL Lhe CovernmenL lnLends Lo
Lake possesslon of Lhe land and LhaL clalms Lo compensaLlon for all lnLeresLs ln Lhe land may
be made Lo hlm or her. 1he noLlce publlshed shall glve Lhe parLlculars of Lhe land Lo whlch
Lhe noLlce relaLes and shall requlre all persons havlng an lnLeresL ln Lhe land Lo appear
personally or by agenL before Lhe assessmenL offlcer on a day and aL a Llme (noL earller Lhan
flfLeen days and, unless Lhe MlnlsLer oLherwlse dlrecLs, noL laLer Lhan LhlrLy days afLer Lhe
publlcaLlon of Lhe noLlce ln whlch lL ls speclfled) and place speclfled ln Lhe noLlce ln order Lo
sLaLe:
1he naLure of Lhelr respecLlve lnLeresLs ln Lhe land.
1he amounL and parLlculars of Lhelr clalms Lo compensaLlon for Lhose lnLeresLs, and
1helr ob[ecLlons, lf any, Lo any plan of Lhe land made under secLlon 4 or oLherwlse.

1he assessmenL offlcer may, whenever he or she Lhlnks lL convenlenL or deslrable Lo do so,
publlsh and exhlblL Lwo or more noLlces ln respecL of Lhe land, each noLlce relaLlng Lo a
separaLe parL of Lhe land.

4. Inqu|ry
1he assessmenL offlcer shall, on Lhe day speclfled ln Lhe noLlce, proceed Lo hold an
lnqulry lnLo clalms and ob[ecLlons made ln respecL of Lhe land and shall make an
award speclfylng:
1he Lrue area of Lhe land.
1he compensaLlon whlch ln hls or her oplnlon should be allowed for Lhe land, and
1he apporLlonmenL of LhaL compensaLlon among all Lhe persons known or belleved
by hlm or her Lo have an lnLeresL ln Lhe land, wheLher or noL Lhey have appeared
before hlm or her.
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1he ulsLrlcL Land 8oards where requlred could ald Lhls process lf sLandard raLes have been
proposed by Lhe ulsLrlcL Land 8oards.

lor Lhe purposes of Lhe lnqulry Lhe assessmenL offlcer shall have Lhe same power Lo
summon and enforce Lhe aLLendance of wlLnesses and Lo compel Lhe producLlon of
documents as is vested in a magistrates court in its civil jurisdiction.

S. Award
Where an assessmenL offlcer makes an award ln respecL of any land he or she shall
glve a copy of Lhe award Lo Lhe MlnlsLer and Lo Lhose persons havlng an lnLeresL ln Lhe
land.

1he CovernmenL shall Lhen pay compensaLlon ln accordance wlLh Lhe award.

6. 1ak|ng possess|on
1he assessmenL offlcer shall Lake possesslon of Lhe land as soon as he or she has
made hls or her award excepL lf Lhe MlnlsLer cerLlfles LhaL lL ls ln Lhe publlc lnLeresL
for hlm or her Lo Lake possesslon laLer.

Where Lhe assessmenL offlcer Lakes possesslon of land.

Lhe land shall lmmedlaLely, by Lhe operaLlon of Lhe Land acqulslLlon AcL, vesL ln Lhe
uganda Land Commlsslon free from all encumbrances, and

Lhe esLaLe and lnLeresL of every person havlng an lnLeresL ln Lhe land lmmedlaLely
before Lhe land so vesLed shall be deemed Lo have been converLed lnLo a clalm for
compensaLlon under Lhls AcL.

As soon as afLer Laklng possesslon of land, Lhe assessmenL offlcer shall forward Lo Lhe
reglsLrar of LlLles a copy of Lhe declaraLlon relaLlng Lo Lhe land endorsed wlLh a
cerLlflcaLe slgned by Lhe assessmenL offlcer, whlch shall sLaLe LhaL Lhe assessmenL
offlcer has Laken possesslon of Lhe land and speclfy Lhe daLe when he or she dld so.

Cn recelpL of Lhe endorsed declaraLlon, Lhe reglsLrar of LlLles shall, noLwlLhsLandlng
any lnconslsLency wlLh Lhe 8eglsLraLlon of 1lLles AcL, Lake such sLeps as may be
necessary Lo glve effecL ln Lhe 8eglsLer 8ook LhaL Lhe Land now belongs Lo Lhe uganda
Land Commlsslon and Lhere afLer effecL Lhe Lransfer of Lhe LlLle of Lhe Land Lo Lhe
uganda Land Commlsslon.

S.4 Land Va|ues

An ln-depLh analysls of land values has noL been conducLed. Powever, couple of lndlcaLlve
examples are presenLed here. ln 2008, 1acre of land was cosLlng beLween 200,000/= and
300,000/= buL now lL ls above 2m and 3m along Lhe oll roads. urban ploLs (30x100m) are aL
8m/= and above whlle and an acre ln Lhe vlclnlLy goes for over 6m uCx. 1here ls loomlng
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land scarclLy ln Lhe core AlberLlne Craben slnce Lhose prlces are affordable only Lo Lhe
mlddle and hlgh class clLlzens and lnvesLors. Cenerally Lhere ls lncreased value of land,
llvesLock and crops.

S.S Land-Use Gu|de||nes

Land-use guldellnes are crlLlcal ln Lhe preparaLlon of any plan, Lhey glve guldance noL only ln
Lhe preparaLlon of Lhe plans for land use zonlng, buL also Lhelr lmplemenLaLlon and
subsequenL developmenL conLrol. 1he land-use guldellnes ln uganda are conLalned ln Lhe
naLlonal lannlng SLandards and Culdellnes, 2011 by Lhe MlnlsLry of Lands Pouslng and
urban uevelopmenL.

1o ensure ease of servlce provlslon Lhe guldellnes requlre LhaL all ploLs be recLangular ln
shape wlLh Lhe shorLer slde belng Lhe fronLage. 1hls guldellne ls parLlcularly lmporLanL ln
urban areas where land ls scare and servlces such as waLer, sewerage and elecLrlclLy (where
formally supplled) are mosLly accessed from Lhe roads. 8aslc lnfrasLrucLure economlcs rely
on provldlng Lhe mosL households wlLh Lhe mlnlmum lengLhs of servlces. 1he rampanL,
unconLrolled rlbbon developmenL found around all urban cenLres ls ln compleLe
conLradlcLlon Lo Lhls prlnclple and makes servlclng dlfflculL or lmposslble and exLremely
cosLly. 8lbbon developmenL also compromises the road capacity as it cant be used as it was
deslgned for due Lo Lhe hlgh level of human Lrafflc crosslng and worklng along Lhe road.

1o promoLe prlvacy especlally ln hlgh denslLy urban areas lL ls requlred LhaL bulldlng llnes be
observed. Allowance should be observed of noL less Lhan 1m beLween bulldlngs wlLh no
wlndows and noL less Lhan 4m lf Lhere are wlndows. 8ulldlng separaLlons also help prevenL
Lhe spread of flres. Adherence Lo Lhe regulaLlons ls ofLen over looked ln hlgher denslLyurban
areas.

8ulldlng maLerlals should be permanenL. uganda ls malnly known for uslng soll brlcks ln
consLrucLlon as well as mud ln mosL of Lhe perl-urban and rural areas. 1hls dlrecLlve falls Lo
deflne Lhe exacL maLerlals LhaL are permanenL. lL ls resLrlcLlve as Lhe easlly accesslble and
affordable bulldlng maLerlal ln Lhe Craben ls soll, falllng Lo address Lhe soclo-economlc
aspecLs of Lhe people.

arklng requlred for low and medlum denslLy areas noL requlred for hlgh denslLy. 1he
economlc sLaLus of Lhe Craben ls changlng very fasL wlLh prospecLs of commerclal
producLlon of oll and conduclve envlronmenL for lnvesLors Lhe number of car ownershlp ls
llkely Lo ralse very fasL by Lhe end of Lhe plannlng perlod. 1he sLrucLure plans examlned
durlng Lhls exerclse followed provlslons made by Lhe guldellnes falllng Lo properly plan for
lncreased car ownershlp ln Lhe fuLure. Cn-sLreeL parklng provlded ln Lowns compromlses Lhe
safeLy and congesLlon as wlLnessed ln a Lown llke Arua whereby Lhere was also compeLlLlon
beLween Lhe moLorcycles and cars.

LxlsLlng Land-use Zonlng regulaLlons do noL embrace mlxed-use. 1own cenLres ln parLlcular
are percelved as areas of commerclal and lndusLrlal use compllmenLed by servlces from boLh
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publlc and prlvaLe secLors. 8esldenLlal uses surround Lhe cenLre. Powever, Lhe reallLy on
ground ls qulLe dlfferenL reflecLlng Lhe soclo-economlc reallLles of urban uganda. 1here ls a
hlgh level of lnformal mlxed-use wlLh people llvlng behlnd or above Lhelr shops, or
conducLlng buslness from Lhelr resldences. 1hls wlll conLlnue Lo be a reallLy and a necesslLy
and should be reflecLed ln Lhe regulaLlons. Some level of mlxed-use ls expecLed Lo meeL
developmenL needs ln Lhe fuLure especlally ln blg Lowns ln Lhe Craben.

1he guldellnes provlde for speclflc sLandards for a varleLy of urban land use deslgnaLlons. lor
example, all urban areas should have a deslgnaLed markeL place wlLh an enclosed area for
selllng, car parklng and servlce dellvery yard wlLh mlnlmum land slzes. 1he guldellnes also
recommend LhaL some land-uses be locaLed ouLslde of urban areas such as sanlLary land-
fllls, prlsons and rehablllLaLlon cenLres. 1hls however ls noL always followed ln pracLlce. A
conslderable parL of cenLral Maslndl ls occupled by a prlson and an army barracks.

1he guldellnes also seL speclflc sLandards for roads, rallway and alrporLs. MosL noLable are
Lhe deslgnaLed land-uses around Lhe alrporL. Powever, Lhe common lack of uevelopmenL
ConLrol resulLs ln Lhese sLandards noL belng observed wlLh encroachmenLs frequenLly
lnLerferlng wlLh LransporL faclllLles.

1he naLlonal lannlng SLandards and Culdellnes provlde some level of guldance for land-use
zonlng and developmenL conLrol ln Lhe counLry. Powever, some of Lhese are percelved Lo be
overly resLrlcLlve as Lhey fall Lo compllmenL Lhe soclo-economlc reallLles. lor example, Lhe
requirement for use of permanent building materials as well as overly generous road sizes
ln many locaLlons resulL ln elLher unaffordable cosLs, or slmple dlsregard for Lhe regulaLlons.
Cf parLlcular noLe Lo Lhe AlberLlne u ls LhaL Lhe guldellnes do noL address land-use zonlng
aL Lhe hlgher reglonal and naLlonal plannlng levels, Lhey are urban area speclflc. 1hls leaves
Lhe planners aL Lhe dlscreLlon of how Lo go abouL deslgnaLlon of hlgher level of land-uses
such as conservaLlon areas and agrlculLural lands. lL also falls Lo glve guldance as Lo how
cerLaln land-uses should be lnLegraLed aL a reglonal level Lo serve a wlde caLchmenL of
people. 1hese lssues wlll be addressed ln Lhe u.

S.6 Land Uses

Land uses of parLlcular lnLeresL ln preparaLlon of Lhe AlberLlne u fall lnLo Lhe general
caLegorles of:

1. roLecLed Areas: naLlonal arks, Wlldllfe 8eserves, 8amsar proLecLed weLland areas,
eLc.

2. loresL: ueslgnaLed loresL 8eserves and oLher governmenL and prlvaLe foresLed areas

3. AgrlculLure: for crop producLlon boLh formal commerclal and lnformal subslsLence

4. Crazlng: prlvaLe and communal

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3. 8ullL-up: urbanlslng areas lncludlng MunlclpallLles, 1own Counclls and smaller Lowns,
Lradlng cenLres and vlllages. Smaller vlllages are slmply lnLegraLed lnLo surroundlng
agrlculLural lands and do noL necessarlly requlre separaLe land use deslgnaLlon as boLh
occupy Lhe same communal lands. WlLhln bullL-up areas Lhere are, of course, a
number of deLalled land use zonlng caLegorles LhaL are noL of parLlcular lnLeresL Lo Lhe
AlberLlne u excepL ln how Lhey may have reglonal lmpacLs.

6. Speclal lndusLry or Ma[or laclllLy: rural lndusLrlal developmenLs, large governmenL
lnsLlLuLlonal developmenLs, mlllLary zones, eLc.

7. lnfrasLrucLure: roads, alrporLs, porLs

1hese are noL necessarlly offlclally deslgnaLed caLegorles, buL cover Lhe general range of
lnLeresL. Map S-1 lllusLraLes an offlclal serles of land uses as prepared by Lhe naLlonal
loresLry AuLhorlLy. 1hese may be Loo deLalled for Lhe purposes of an overall u and
consolldaLlons wlll be recommended ln Lhe lan. A summary of land uses ls presenLed ln
1ab|e S-1.

1ab|e S-1: A|bert|ne Graben Land Uses


Source: nlA
Land Use C|ass nectares (na) Sq km
8road Leaved lanLaLlons 6,040 60 0.1
8ullL up Area 12,133 122 0.2
8ush 786,930 7,869 11.1
Commerclal larmland 44,680 447 0.6
Conlferous lanLaLlon 8,349 83 0.1
uepleLed 1roplcal Plgh loresL 142,397 1,426 2.0
Crass Land 1,112,702 11,127 13.7
lmpedlmenLs 12,744 127 0.2
Cpen WaLer 471,697 4,717 6.7
1roplcal Plgh loresL - Well SLocked 410,893 4,109 3.8
WeL Land 233,324 2,333 3.6
Wood Land 1,132,463 11,323 16.0
SubslsLence larm Land 2,686,096 26,861 37.9
1ota| Area 7,080,693 70,807 100.0
rotected Areas nectares (na) Sq km
CenLral loresL 8eserves 421,918 4,219 6.0
Local loresL 8eserves 1,194 12 0.0
naLlonal arks 790,193 7,902 11.2
Wlld Llfe 8eserves 324,868 3,249 4.6
Managed by boLh uWA and nlA 33,080 331 0.3
1ota| rotected Areas 1,S73,2SS 1S,733 22.2
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Map S-1: A|bert|ne Graben Land Uses


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1ab|e S-1 lndlcaLes LhaL [usL over 22 of Lhe AlberLlne conslsLs of proLecLed areas, Lhe
hlghesL of any area ln uganda. lL ls Lherefore noL surprlslng LhaL Lhe AlberLlne also accounLs
for over 70 of Lourlsm revenue and clearly shows LhaL Lhls caLegory of naLural resource has
long-Lerm lmporLance.

1he mosL predomlnanL land use lf for subslsLence agrlculLure (37.9) whlch ls also noL
surprlslng glven Lhe hlgh level of rellance on farmlng for survlval. Comblned wlLh grass lands
and bush LhaL may serve for grazlng, Lhe LoLal ls almosL 63. Commerclal agrlculLure
accounLs for less Lhan 1 suggesLlng scope for lncrease as Lhe economy maLures. Cpen
waLer and weLlands accounL for over 10 of Lhe AlberLlne, whlle Lhe Lroplcal foresL LhaL
used Lo cover mosL of Lhe counLry, now accounLs for less Lhan 8 ln varlous sLaLes of
healLhlness. ueslgnaLed bullL-up areas barely reglsLer (0.2) and yeL are Lhe cenLres of
economlc acLlvlLy and governance. noLe LhaL Lhe LoLal area of 70,000 sq km varles sllghLly
from oLher daLa sources placlng Lhe AlberLlne aL 68,000 sq km. 1he dlfferences are
lnslgnlflcanL for Lhls exerclse.

S.7 Sett|ement atterns

S.7.1 Sett|ement atterns & Growth 1rends
An lmporLanL componenL of urban or rural conLexLs ls Lhe paLLern of seLLlemenL, a landscape
feaLure LhaL conLrlbuLes Lo Lhe characLer of a place. SeLLlemenLs can be dlspersed, clusLered,
orderly, organlc, dense or sparsely populaLed dependlng on numerous soclal-culLural,
economlc, envlronmenLal and pollLlcal facLors. SeLLlemenL paLLerns are ofLen a reflecLlon of
culLural LradlLlons each presenLlng lLs own seL of challenges ln provldlng access Lo
approprlaLe houslng and servlces, and developlng healLhy and susLalnable communlLles.
lnLernal populaLlon growLh and mlgraLlon are lmporLanL facLors ln changes Lo seLLlemenL
paLLerns. uemographlc movemenLs, elLher rural-urban or urban-rural are ofLen a resulL of
emerglng or movlng economlc acLlvlLles. As Lhe clLles may aLLracL people from Lhe rural
areas, Lhe green naLural envlronmenL of Lhe counLry slde may appeal Lo oLhers.
neverLheless, global lndlcaLors suggesL LhaL urbanlzaLlon ls an un-reverslble Lrend LhaL musL
be dealL wlLh. vlllages are Lurnlng lnLo Lowns, Lowns lnLo clLles and clLles lnLo mega-clLles
wlLh seLLlemenL paLLerns Lransformlng aL an unprecedenLed raLe. I|gure S-1 compares global
urban and rural populaLlon Lrends slnce 1930 Lo 2030.











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I|gure S-1: G|oba| Urban-kura| opu|at|on 1rends


Source: World 8ank (www.worldbank.org )

urban sprawl from Lhe urban cenLre ls Lhe maln form of urbanlzaLlon experlenced by Lhe
cenLres ln Lhe AlberLlne Craben. 1he cenLres are expandlng ln an unconLrolled, dlspersed
fashlon Lo absorb populaLlon growLh. Plgh denslLy ls noL an lssue ln Lhe urban cenLres
conslderlng Lhe culLural paLLern for slngle famlly dwelllngs. 8apld urbanlzaLlon can be
consldered a relaLlvely recenL phenomenon ln Lhe Craben buL presenLlng slgnlflcanL
progresslve lmpacLs lncludlng loss of agrlculLural land, encroachmenL on proLecLed and
envlronmenLally senslLlve areas, llmlLed or no access Lo proper lnfrasLrucLure, and more
lmpacLs are expecLed ln Lhe years ahead. 1he average annual urban populaLlon growLh raLe
ln Lhe Craben ls esLlmaLed aL 4.3 (2010, World 8ank).

As menLloned above, lnLernal populaLlon growLh comblned wlLh mlgraLlon slgnlflcanLly
affecLs seLLlemenL paLLerns. ln Lhe Craben, Lhls Lrend ls common wlLh cenLres absorblng
mlgranLs from SouLh Sudan, Congo, 1anzanla, 8wanda and 8urundl. 1hls populaLlon
mlgraLlon lncludes boLh Lemporary and permanenL. ln boLh cases, Lhe cenLres musL be
prepared Lo absorb Lhe large demand for houslng, servlces, [obs and so on. unprepared, Lhe
cenLres scramble and expanslon Lakes place ln an ad hoc manner.

1he exlsLlng land Lenure sysLem uganda has posed serlous consLralnLs for efflclenL plannlng
and developmenL (See Sect|on S.2). ln Lhe AlberLlne Craben Lhls slLuaLlon ls clearly noLlced
analyslng Lhe exlsLlng paLLern of growLh ln varlous cenLres. 1he land Lenure sysLem has
lnfluenced Lhe shape of developmenL paLLerns and spaLlal exLenL. 1he urban areas have
developed organlcally over Llme wlLh llmlLed vlslble evldence of aLLempLs Lo lnLervene wlLh a
planned urban sLrucLure, such as a grld developmenL. 1he resulL ls cenLres wlLhouL a sLrongly
arLlculaLed urban core.

Some cenLres urbanlse fasLer and furLher dependlng on Lhelr role as dlsLrlcL or reglonal
servlce cenLre, proxlmlLy Lo some key economlc opporLunlLy, or selecLlon as a ma[or local
governmenL cenLre. CLher cenLres remaln sLaLlc and some may never urbanlze. ln Lhe case
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of Lhe 7 MunlclpallLles (MCs) ln Lhe Craben, Lhey presenL a fasL growLh raLe due Lo Lhelr
lmporLance as reglonal cenLres wlLh sLrong economy and naLlonal and lnLernaLlonal
connecLlvlLy. 1he surroundlng Lowns/vlllages however generally have a llmlLed subslsLence
economy, dependenL on Lhe MCs and consequenLly growlng aL a much slower pace.

1he LransformaLlon from belng a rural Lo an urban seLLlemenL can happen fasL and leave Lhe
populations expectations behind. The incremental and slow process is much healthier
allowlng for planned lnLervenLlons LhaL susLaln soclal, economlc and envlronmenLal
development. The false impression that the cities can do magic by Lhemselves Lo lmprove
llves ls malnly caused by poor governance and llmlLed plannlng. 1he populaLlon ls lefL lacklng
Lhe undersLandlng LhaL Lhey are parL of Lhe process. Moreover, Lhey are lefL lacklng Lhe
understanding that this magic has high costs thaL people musL be prepared Lo pay.
1wo maln seLLlemenL paLLerns are consldered for analyslng Lhe slLuaLlon ln Lhe AlberLlne
Craben:

Iorma|]|anned growLh as new developmenLs Lake place ln a formally planned and
supposedly regulaLed fashlon. 1hese low-denslLy developmenLs offer houses, sLreeLs
and sLreeL llghLs. lnflll developmenL can also fall lnLo Lhls caLegory. neverLheless, lnflll
developmenL does noL happen Lo a hlgh degree leavlng exlsLlng lnfrasLrucLure
underuLlllsed ln many areas. 1hls paLLern ls noL commonly found ln Lhe Craben.

Informa|]Crgan|c]Uncontro||ed (urban sprawl) growLh ls Lhe maln Lrend found ln Lhe
Craben MunlclpallLles. 1hls growLh happens ln a very organlc and unconLrolled fashlon
wlLh a Lendency of ouLwards growLh pushlng Lhe clLy bullL-up area Lo any dlrecLlon and
ln mosL cases causlng unrepalrable envlronmenLal lmpacLs.

1he followlng presenLs speclflc examples of seLLlemenL forms, denslLy and growLh Lrends
analysls of varlous cenLres/Lowns wlLhln Lhe AlberLlne Craben, and addresslng boLh formal
and lnformal paLLerns wlLhln Lhe urban, perl-urban and rural conLexLs.

Urban urban areas consolldaLed wlLhln Lhe clLy boundarles normally presenLlng
hlgher levels of lnfrasLrucLure and servlces. 1he seLLlemenL paLLerns encounLered ln
Lhe Craben urban cenLres are a mlx of formal/planned and lnformal/organlc.

er|-urban - areas ln consolldaLlon or LranslLlon from rural Lo urban, beyond Lhe llmlLs
of Lhe munlclpallLy, Lhe surroundlng areas or ouL-sklrLs. ln Lhe case of Lhe Craben, Lhe
encounLered seLLlemenL paLLerns ln Lhese areas are lnformal, unconLrolled and organlc
malnly followlng Lhe roads.

kura| areas assoclaLed wlLh agrlculLure and seLLlemenLs scaLLered on Lhe landscape
or clusLered LogeLher ln small groups or larger vlllages. uenslLy ln Lhe rural seLLlemenL
varles dependlng on Lhe physlcal envlronmenL, soclo-culLural and economlc dynamlcs.

SeLLlemenL paLLerns are largely lnfluenced by developmenL pollcles. An example ls Lhe
umudugudu communlLy developmenL pollcy from 8wanda
21
where scaLLered seLLlemenLs

21
www.minaloc.gov.rw/fileadmin/.../Community_development.pdf
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are belng grouped Lo mlnlmlze seLLlemenL fooLprlnLs and maxlmlze avallablllLy of agrlculLural
land and lnfrasLrucLure.

S.7.2 Sett|ement Ana|ys|s
Lxamples of formal seLLlemenL paLLerns wlLhln Lhe Craben are llmlLed Lo Lhe urban core of
some of Lhe 7 MCs LhaL were orlglnally planned. ln mosL cases Lhe orlglnal formal plan
evenLually eroded Lhrough unconLrolled subsequenL developmenL or lack of lnfrasLrucLure
malnLenance. 1he laLLer paLLern of developmenL conLlnues Lo Lake place around Lhe core noL
followlng Lhe orlglnal paLLern creaLlng pockeLs of developmenL LhaL segregaLes even furLher
Lhe urban fabrlc. ln general, formal developmenLs are pushed Lo Lhe ouLsklrLs normally Lo
avold Lhe cumbersome land sysLem and hlgh cosLs leadlng Lo urban sprawl.

ln Lhe urban conLexL Lhere are examples of formal developmenLs as lllusLraLed on I|gure S-2,
an example of a formal paLLern ln lorL orLal of large loLs wlLh slngle famlly sLrucLures.

I|gure S-2: Iort orta| Iorma| attern


Source: Coogle

1he Craben cenLres are urbanlzlng fasL and presenL mosLly lnformal/organlc/unconLrolled
paLLerns of developmenL wlLh low denslLy LhroughouL. 1hls paLLern lnLenslfles Lhe expanslon
of perl-urban areas lacklng proper lnfrasLrucLure and connecLlvlLy Lo Lhe urban core. urban
sprawl ls an expenslve form of developmenL parLlcularly for low-lncome people who cannoL
afford hlgh cosLs of LransporL nor llvlng far away from Lhe cenLre of economlc acLlvlLles.

Local governments limited technical capacity and financial resources for planning and
servlclng land ln advance are ma[or lssues conLrlbuLlng Lo sprawllng lnformal/organlc
developmenLs. numerous Area SLrucLure lans and Local uevelopmenL lans (Lu) are
prepared, buL few reflecL real physlcal developmenLal needs and vlrLually none are
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lmplemenLed effecLlvely. 1hls slLuaLlon allows for lnformal/unconLrolled developmenL Lo
Lake place wlLhln and ouLslde Lhe urban core ln empLy publlc and prlvaLe lands leadlng Lo
land ownershlp confllcLs, unhealLhy llvlng envlronmenL lacklng baslc lnfrasLrucLure such as
access, waLer, sanlLaLlon, and dralnage.

I|gure S-3, I|gure S-4 and I|gure S-S lllusLraLe Arua, lorL orLal and Polma urban and perl-
urban areas respecLlvely. Analysls suggesLs slmllar spaLlal forms parLlcularly Lo Lhe urban
core. CurrenLly Lhese cores are malnly commerclal/buslness cenLres. I|gure S-6 lllusLraLes
Lhe seLLlemenL paLLern ln Lhe rural conLexL of 8hlno Camp, a sub-counLy of Arua. 1here ls a
slgnlflcanL presence of LradlLlonal seLLlemenL wlLh lndlgenous archlLecLure lnLegraLed ln Lhe
core.

I|gure S-3: Arua Sett|ement attern Ana|ys|s



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I|gure S-4: no|ma Sett|ement attern Ana|ys|s



I|gure S-S: Iort orta| Sett|ement attern Ana|ys|s


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I|gure S-6: kh|no Camp Sett|ement attern Ana|ys|s



2.2 Dens|ty Samp|es
uenslLy ls Lhe relaLlonshlp beLween people and area. uenslLy analysls allows for deLermlnlng
how efflclenLly and economlcally land and lnfrasLrucLure are uLlllzed. Low denslLles reduce
land use poLenLlal wlLh lnfrasLrucLure ofLen remalnlng underuLlllsed or uneconomlcal Lo
provlde. Low denslLles are noL ldeal for urban cenLres. Cn Lhe oLher slde, hlgh denslLles may
lead Lo unhealLhy envlronmenLs when noL properly planned, servlced or managed.

I|gure S-7 Lo I|gure S-10 presenL formal and lnformal denslLy examples ln Lhe urban, perl-
urban and rural conLexLs wlLhln Lhe AlberLlne Craben ln 1ha (100m x100m) samples. 1he
denslLy analysls conslders Lhe average household slze of 3 persons.














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I|gure S-7: Urban Iorma| Sett|ement - Dens|ty Samp|e



I|gure S-8: Informa| Urban Sett|ement - Dens|ty Samp|e




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I|gure S-9: er|-Urban Sett|ement - Dens|ty Samp|e




I|gure S-10: kura| Sett|ement - Dens|ty Samp|e


Sources: Coogle wlLh CCS analyls
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1ab|e S-2: Dens|ty Samp|es

Sett|ement
Context
Iorma| Sett. Dens|ty
(person/ha)
Informa| Sett. Dens|ty
(person]ha)

urban 40 130
erl-urban 83
8ural 30
Source: ConsulLanL esLlmaLes

1he denslLy slLuaLlon varles wlLh cenLres presenLlng relaLlvely low denslLles ln general for
boLh formal and lnformal ln all Lhree conLexLs. 1he low denslLy ln Lhe formal urban
seLLlemenL compared Lo Lhe lnformal suggesLs opporLunlLles, ln some cases, Lo denslfy and
make beLLer economlcal use of land and lnfrasLrucLure ln Lhe urban cenLres. varlous facLors
may conLrlbuLe Lo such a slLuaLlon: LradlLlonal land Lenure sysLem/cumbersome acqulslLlon
process, land speculaLlon, llmlLed economlc/flnanclal ablllLy, lack of lnfrasLrucLure, cool
houslng markeL, llmlLed demand, eLc. 1hls may also conflrm LhaL Lhe larger cenLres conLlnue
Lo aLLracL mlgranLs LhaL are commonly forced Lo llve lnformally due Lo llmlLed houslng supply
alLernaLlves, and lack of personal resources.

1he hlgher denslLy raLe ln Lhe urban conLexL ls expecLed due Lo Lhe facL LhaL Lhe brlghL llghLs
of Lhe clLles conLlnue Lo be very aLLracLlve. 1he polnL of concern ls LhaL Lhe exlsLlng
urbanlzaLlon Lrend may push urban populaLlon much furLher aparL from Lhe rural. Are Lhe
clLles prepared for absorblng Lhls Lrend ln Lhe very near fuLure?




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M;$N/5-,/8",8/( 5$)
9(/34"(-

Introduct|on
1hls ChapLer addresses Lhe key lnfrasLrucLure componenLs
LhaL make up Lhe physlcal developmenL framework of Lhe
AlberLlne. 1he ChapLer looks aL Lhe exlsLlng physlcal
condlLlons, lnsLlLuLlonal sLrucLures, planned pro[ecLs, and
fuLure needs regardlng 1ransporL (road, rall, alr, waLer),
WaLer Supply, SanlLaLlon, Lnergy (power and alLernaLlves),
SolldWasLe ManagemenL and l1C. More deLalled and
expanded recommendaLlons for fuLure lnfrasLrucLure
developmenL wlll be presenLed ln Lhe subsequenL AlberLlne
Craben hyslcal uevelopmenL lan.

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6.1 1ransportat|on

6.1.1 koad 1ransport
8oads are of vlLal lmporLance Lo Lhe growLh and developmenL of a naLlon. ln developlng
counLrles such as uganda, good malnLalned roads enhance poverLy reducLlon by lmprovlng
access beLween reglonal and rural communlLles and ulLlmaLely, enhanclng soclo-economlc
growLh and developmenL.

8oads ln uganda are managed by Lhe uganda naLlonal 8oads AuLhorlLy (un8A) for naLlonal
8oads and 8rldges, MlnlsLry of Works & 1ransporL for ulsLrlcL, urban 8oads and CommunlLy
Access 8oads (uuCA8).ulsLrlcL and urban roads are Lhe responslblllLy of dlsLrlcL and urban
counclls, whlle local counclls are responslble for communlLy roads. MlnlsLry of Works &
1ransporL, however, asslsL by provldlng a range of Lechnlcal servlces lncludlng plannlng and
asslsLance ln procuremenL. 1he LoLal road lengLh and relaLed Lrafflc ls shown ln 1ab|e 6-1
and 1ab|e 6-2 respecLlvely.

1ab|e 6-1: Length of Uganda's koad Network

koad
Network
Nat|ona| D|str|ct Mun|c|pa||ty 1own
Counc||
CAk (Commun|ty
Access koads)
1ota|
aved 3,343 - 996 263 - 4,802
Grave| 17,009 26,443 2,474 1,043 3,131 S2,123
Larth - 1,173 743 1,693 70,399 74,214
1ota| 20,SS1 27,620 4,21S 3,004 7S,7S0 131,139
5ootce. uNkA Jotobose 201J, ukl Jotobose ooJ An coosoltloq tepott 2012.


1ab|e 6-2: Average 2013 Da||y 1raff|c on the Uganda koad Network (|n veh|c|es]day)

koad
Network
Nat|ona| D|str|ct Mun|c|pa||ty
1own
Counc||
CAk (Commun|ty
Access koads)
1ota|
aved 3,116 - 4,794 1,920 0 11,831
Grave| 724 103 102 86 24 1,041
Larth 0 11 41 33 6 91
1ota| S,840 116 4,937 2,039 31 13,901
5ootce. uNkA Jotobose 201J ooJ An coosoltloq tepott 2012.

AlLhough paved roads accounL for only 3.6 of Lhe enLlre neLwork, Lhey carry 83 of Lhe
1rafflc. Map 6-1 presenLs an overvlew of uganda's road neLwork.

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Map 6-1: Uganda's Ma[or koad L|nks



Source: uganda vlslon 2040 wlLh CCS Analysls
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Status of koad Infrastructure |n the A|bert|ne Graben
1here are four prlmary road llnks from Lhe caplLal clLy kampala Lo Lhe AlberLlne reglon,
kampala Lo Arua, vla klgumballnklng kampala Lo Lhe norLhern reglon,
kampala Lo Polma llnklng kampala Lo Lhe CenLral reglon
kampala Lo 8ushenyl and lbanda vla Mbarara, and
kampala Lo lorL orLal and kyen[o[o vla Mubende llnklng Lhe kampala Lo Lhe SouLhern
reglon of sLudy, as shown ln Lhe Map 6-2 below.

WlLhln Lhe reglon, Lhere are paved and unpaved naLlonal roads llnklng maln Lowns and
dlsLrlcL roads, and unpaved roads connecLlng mlnor Lowns and vlllages. lurLhermore, oll
companles have consLrucLed Lemporary roads Lo access Lhelr drllllng areas.

8r|dges and Cu|verts
8rldges along Lhe road llnks from kampala lnLo Lhe AlberLlne are ln falr sLaLe Lo handle Lrafflc
as long as proper dlsLrlbuLlon of loads ls carrled ouL, and axle load llmlLs are observed.
Powever, Lhe brldges wlLhln Lhe roads ln Lhe AlberLlne reglon are ln poor sLaLe Lo handle
large anLlclpaLed cargo and as such wlll have Lo be sLrengLhened or replaced.

Current ] rospect|ve koad Deve|opment ro[ects
1ab|e 6-3 presenLs Lhe sLaLus of naLlonal roads ln Lhe AberLlne reglon LhaL are belng /
planned for upgradlng:

1ab|e 6-3: Cngo|ng and rospect|ve koad ro[ects

ro[ect Name rogress as of Ieb 2014
lorL orLal - 8undlbugyo (104km) CumulaLlve 99.3
kazo kamwenge (73km) CumulaLlve 100.
Mbarara klkagaLl Murongo 8rldge (74km) CumulaLlve 76
Polma kalso 1onya (92km) CumulaLlve 64
vurra Arua koboko Craba (92km) CumulaLlve 60
Culu ALlak (74km) CumulaLlve 37
lshaka-kagamba (33.4km) CumulaLlve 31
ALlak nlmule (33km) CumulaLlve 6
kamwenge lorL orLal (63km) CumulaLlve 10
nLungamo Mlrama Pllls (37km) 1ender award sLage
Mbarara 8ypass (40km) Works commenced
klgumba Maslndl Polma kabwoya (133km) 8lds evaluaLlon
Mubende kakumlro klbale kagadl (104km) 8lds evaluaLlon
kyen[o[o kabwoya (103km) 8ld evaluaLlon
Mbarara (8uLeranlro) nLungamo (8wenLobo) (39km) CumulaLlve 74.2
nLungamo(8wenLobo) kaLuna (74km) CumulaLlve 32.9
kyen[o[o - lorL orLal (30km) rocurlng conLracLor
lshaka - 8ugazl - kaLunguru (33km) rocurlng conLracLor
akwach - nebbl (30km) ConLracLor moblllzlng
8ukunglrl klhlhl lshasha kambuga/ klhlhl kanungu
kambuga (112km)
rocuremenL of deslgn revlew consulLanL
ongolng
Polma Wanseko (111km) ueslgns CompleLed
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kayunga Callraya (88km) ueslgn ongolng
kabwohe - 8wlzlbwera/ nslka - lbanda-kabu[ogera-
Masyoro-8wen[aza/kyambura (83km),
ueslgn ongolng
kashozl-8uremba-karlro (33km) rocurlng deslgn consulLanL
kashwa-kashongl-8uhumba (33km) rocurlng deslgn consulLanL
Muhanga - klsllzl 8washamalre. rocurlng deslgn consulLanL

Accordlng Lo vlslon 2040, a 8lng 8oad ls proposed around Lhe counLry. 1he road wlll connecL
Lhrough Lowns of nLungamo, kabale, kasese, kyen[o[o, Polma, Maslndl and ALura. 1hls wlll
lead Lo developmenL of a hlghly lnLerconnecLed LransporL neLwork from Lhe AberLlne reglon
Lo Lhe resL of Lhe counLry. Map 6-1.

Movement of Goods w|th|n the A|bert|ne
MovemenL of goods and persons wlLhln Lhe AlberLlne ls malnly Lhrough road LransporL. 1he
oll companles move mosL of Lhelr cargo uslng road LransporL and locally, waLer LransporL
along L. AlberL. AparL from enLry lnLo Polma from kampala, all Lhe movemenL of goods ls by
100 use of gravel roads. 1he ma[or LransporL companles LhaL move goods for Lhe oll
companles lnclude 1hreeways Shlpplng Croup, 1ransLrac, 1ransLasL, 8emuga lowarders eLc.
however, Lhere wlll be low capaclLy when fleld developmenLs commence.

ub||c 1ransport
8oad LransporL ls Lhe maln form of publlc LransporL sysLem ln Lhe AlberLlne reglon. 1here ls
no publlc ownershlp of road publlc LransporL, and 100 ls prlvaLely owned. 8uses and mlnl-
buses are Lhe maln means Lo connecL Lhe AlberLlne reglon Lo Lhe ma[or Lowns, especlally
kampala. 1he bus coverage ls aL approxlmaLely 70, and Lhe mlnl bus coverage ls aL
approxlmaLely 80 of Lhe ma[or Lowns. 1he maln buses plylng rouLes ln Lhe AlberLlne reglon
are shown below:

1ab|e 6-4: Ma[or 8uses from kamapa|a to the A|bert|ne reg|on

keg|on Northern Centra| Southern
8uses Caaga, kk 1ravellers,
Callfornla, WhlLe nlle and
nlle Coach eLc.
Polma Coach, Llnk, !unlor,
8lsmarkan, and CLada eLc.
kalllLa, opoko
and Llnk eLc.
Mlnl-8uses and 8oda-
bodas
rlvaLely and lndlvldually Cwned.
Average CosLs (ugx.
000)
40 - 30 23 - 30 23 - 30
eak Season
CosLs (ugx. 000)
60 - 100 40 - 80 40 - 80
1rlps Cnce a uay, reLurn Lrlp Lo Lhe reglon.

ConnecLlvlLy beLween Lhe norLhern, CenLral and SouLhern reglons uslng buses ls very poor,
however, Lhls ls compensaLed by use of mlnl buses whlch have Lhe ablllLy Lo navlgaLe Lhe
poor road neLwork. Powever, wlLh Lhe lmprovemenL of Lhe road neLwork and hlgh demand,
Lhere wlll be lmprovemenL of connecLlvlLy.

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Map 6-2: Ma[or koad L|nks to and W|th|n the A|bert|ne Graben



Source: u8CS
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Lx|st|ng and Cngo|ng]Iuture Works on the ro[ect koads w|th|n each of the keg|on

I|gure 6-1 presenLs a descrlpLlon of Lhe exlsLlng road neLwork and ongolng / fuLure works Lo be carrled ouL.

I|gure 6-1: koad Networks - Lx|st|ng and Iuture Works


5ootce. llve yeot ltlotlty ttoospott ltojects 201J/14 2017/18, uNkA
koad Network |n the Northern keg|on of study.

1he roads lnLo Lhe norLhern area of Lhe AlberLlne malnly orlglnaLe from
kampala Lhrough Culu Lo Arua. 1hls secLlon of Lhe road ls a paved and ln good
condlLlon. AL karuma [uncLlon, Lhe road branches off Lo akwach and flnally Lo
Arua Lown. 1hls ls Lhe only secLlon of Lhe road ln Lhe norLhern reglon LhaL ls
paved. Powever, Lhere are ongolng works on Lhe vurra Arua koboko
Craba (92km) Lhereby llnklng Lhe norLhern reglon wlLh a paved secLlon Lo
Congo aL koboko and vurra, and Lhe Culu ALlak nlmule (102km) Lhereby
llnklng norLhern reglon wlLh a paved road Lo SouLh Sudan.

1he resL of Lhe roads ln norLhern are Cravel and LarLh sLandards.

lL ls planned LhaL upgradlng of Lhe Anaka Culu klLgum road wlll be paved ln
Lhe l? 2013 /14. lL ls also proposed LhaL Lhe koboko ?umbe Moyo, and Lhe
ALlak Ad[uman Moyo 8oad be upgraded Lhereby creaLlng a clrcular road
round Lhe norLhern reglon.

1he only lnLerconnecLlon beLween Lhe norLhern reglon and Lhe CenLral reglon
ls Lhrough Lhe paved road secLlon of Lhe Culu kampala hlghway aL klgumba.
A dlrecL rouLe would affecL Lhe Murchlson lalls naLlonal ark.


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5ootce. llve yeot ltlotlty ttoospott ltojects 201J/14 2017/18, uNkA
koad Network |n the Centra| keg|on

1he roads lnLo Lhe cenLral reglon of Lhe AlberLlne malnly orlglnaLe from
kampala Lhrough Lhe kampala Lo Polma Plghway and Lhe kampala kafu
Maslndl 8oad. 1hls secLlon of Lhe road ls paved and ln good condlLlon. 1here ls
ongolng works on Lhe Polma kalso 1onya 8oad Lhereby llnklng Lhe CenLral
reglon Lo Lhe area around Lake AlberL wlLh a paved road.

lL ls planned LhaL upgradlng of Lhe klgumba Maslndl Polma kabwoya
(133km) and Lhe kabwoya Lo kyen[o[o 8oad (103km) wlll be paved ln Lhe l?
2013 /14, Lhereby creaLlng lnLerconnecLlvlLy beLween Lhe norLhern Lhrough
Lhe CenLral Lo Lhe SouLhern 8eglon.

1he deslgns for Polma-8lso-Wanseko have been compleLed and lL ls envlsaged
LhaL Lhe road wlll be developed shorLly.

1he resL of Lhe roads ln CenLral reglon are Cravel and LarLh sLandards.
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5ootce. llve yeot ltlotlty ttoospott ltojects 201J/14 2017/18, uNkA
koad Network |n the southern keg|on

1he roads lnLo Lhe souLhern area of Lhe AlberLlne are Lhe mosL developed ln
Lhe AlberLlnereglon. 1hey malnly orlglnaLe from kampala Lhrough Lhe
kampala-kyen[o[o- lorLorLal-kasese Plghway and Lhe kampala-Masaka-
Mbarara 8oad. AL Mbarara, Lhere ls a branch off Lo nLugamo-kabaleklsoro
8oad and Mbarara8usheyl-8ublrlzl-kasese 8oad. 1hls road forms a round
loop wlLh Lhe kampala-kasese 8oad. 1hls secLlon of Lhe road ls paved and ln
good condlLlon, excepL for Lhe kyen[o[o-lorL orLal road secLlon and Lhe
8ushenyl-kaLunguru road secLlon whlch are ln poor condlLlon. 8ehablllLaLlon of
Lhese secLlons wlll ls scheduled Lo be commenced ln l? 2013 / 2014.

1he oLher paved secLlons ln Lhe souLhern reglon are Mbararalbanda 8oad,
and nyakahlLa-kamwenge 8oad.

1here ls slgnlflcanL amounL of ongolng works ln Lhe souLhern reglon lncludlng
Lhe lorL orLal-8undlbu[[o 8oad (104km), lshaka-kagamba8oad, (33km),
MbararaklkagaLlMurongo 8rldge (74km),Mbarara 8ypass (40km),
nLungamo(8wenLobo)kaLuna (74km) and Lhe nLugamo-kaklLumba 8oad.
ConLracLor faclllLaLed flnanclng wlll be used Lo consLrucL Lhe 8uklnglrl-klhlhl-
kanungu-lshaha 8oad and Lhe kaLunguru-lshasha 8oad.

lnLerconnecLlvlLy beLween CenLral reglon of Lhe AlberLlne and Lhe SouLhern
reglon ls achleved Lhrough Lhe kyen[o[o -lorLporLal 8oad, Lhereby effecLlvely
connecLlng Lhe souLhern reglon Lo boLh Congo Lhrough Lhe kasese-Mpondwe
8oad and Lhe kaLuguru-lshasha 8oad and 8wanda Lhrough Lhe kyen[o[olorL
orLalkasese-lshaka-kagamba-nLugamo-kaklLumba 8oad.


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1ransport Cha||enges and kecommendat|ons

1ab|e 6-S: Cha||enges and kecommendat|ons by koad 1ransport Stakeho|ders Consu|ted

Cha||enges Imp||cat|on kecommendat|ons
under fundlng of operaLlonal acLlvlLles. ueLorlaLlon of
lnfrasLrucLure
lncrease fundlng meanL for
operaLlonal expense.
Plgh cosL of operaLlons due Lo Lhe lack of
raw maLerlals or long haulage dlsLance of
maLerlals. 1he Came arks under uganda
Wlldllfe AuLhorlLy (uWA) furLher make
Lhe acqulslLlon of raw maLerlals dlfflculL.
Plgher cosLs of road
consLrucLlon.
SLudy should be commlssloned for
alLernaLlve raw maLerlals and
proLocols for malnLenance of roads.
ScarclLy of WaLer as Lhe furLher away
from Lake AlberL, Lhe more dlfflculL lL ls
Lo acqulre waLer, hence long haulage
dlsLance.
Plgher cosLs of road
consLrucLlon.
LxploraLlon of oLher sources of waLer
llke bore holes and sprlngs.
Lack of raw maLerlal exLracLlon llcenses
for Lhe local communlLy who provlde raw
maLerlals Lo Lhe oll companles.
LnvlronmenLal
degradaLlon
8esearch alLernaLlve raw maLerlal for
road consLrucLlon and malnLenance
as opposed Lo Lhe LradlLlonal
maLerlals
Lack of vehlcle operaLlons ouLslde Lhe
operaLlonal areas of Lhe oll companles
Low economlc acLlvlLy ConsLrucLlon of roads wlll aLLracL
vehlcle operaLlons Lo Lhese areas
Plgh cosL of acqulrlng land. lncreased cosL of
consLrucLlon and soclal
and communlLy lssues.
uevelop an lnLegraLed meLhod of
acqulrlng land where all Lhe land
requlred for lnfrasLrucLure ls acqulred
aL Lhe same Llme.

lurLher, a proper lnfrasLrucLure
physlcal plan should be esLabllshed,
where lnfrasLrucLure land
encroachmenL ls well managed.
lallure Lo adequaLely prepare for Lhe oll
exploraLlon ln Lhe AlberLlne reglon. 1he
LransporL sysLems ln place are noL able Lo
Lake on Lhe mass cargo LhaL wlll come
from Lhe oll producLlon ln Lhe reglon.
1here wlll be lmmedlaLe desLrucLlon of
real sysLems ln place due Lo Lhe mass
cargo/Lrafflc.
1he oll wlll be exLracLed aL
a very hlgh cosL Lo Lhe
economy and companles
due Lo lack of enabllng
lnfrasLrucLure ln Lhe
reglon.
1here ls need for alLernaLlve
LransporLaLlon such as rall and
plpellne lnfrasLrucLure Lo relleve Lhe
roads from Lhe bulk cargo.

Lack of an organlzaLlon ln place Lo caLer
forLhe challenges LhaL are llkely Lo accrue
from Lhe mlnlng of oll ln from Lhe reglon.
Slow progress ln declslon
maklng.
Crganlsed and coordlnaLed
lnsLlLuLlonal sLrucLures should be
sLrongly puL ln place Lo avold
plannlng gaps.

Commlsslonlng of Lhe hyslcal lannlng
sLudy before flnal approval by Cou of Lhe
lleld uevelopmenL lans (lus) and
compleLlon of Lhe lronL Lnd Lnglneerlng
ueslgns (lLLu) ConsulLanLs for all Lhe oll
companles.
oor plannlng and Lhe
producLlon of an
lncomprehenslve sLudy.
Lnsure harmonlzaLlon of Lhe hyslcal
lans afLer Lhe approval of Lhe lus
and compleLlon of Lhe lLLu.
unsLable fuel prlces, yeL LransporL fares
Lo Lhe reglons are falrly consLanL.

Plgh cosLs of dolng
buslness.
WlLh Lhe developmenL of oll, lL ls
hoped LhaL lower fuel prlces wlll be
adopLed.
SI1UA1ICN ANALSIS kLCk1 | reparaLlon of a hyslcal uevelopmenL lan
for Lhe AlberLlne Craben, uganda

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| 137


6.1.2 ka||way 1ransport
Cne of Lhe crlLlcal LransporLaLlon modes for bulk cargo wlLhln Lhe AlberLlne Craben wlll
greaLly depend on rall lnfrasLrucLure due Lo Lhe poLenLlal economlc developmenL wlLhln Lhls
oll reglon. ln Lhe pasL, uganda had a rall neLwork of 1,266 km, exLendlng wlLh branches from
Lhe kenyan border aL Malaba Lo kasese ln Lhe wesL and Lo akwach ln Lhe norLh. Powever,
servlces were Lemporarlly wlLhdrawn from Lhe akwach and kasese exLenslons, and Lhe
Busoga Loop north and east of Jinja, in the late 1990s, and the currently operating network
ls of some 330 km only, lncludlng Lhe maln llne from Malaba Lo kampala, Lhe llnes from
1ororo Lo Mbale and from kampala Lo orL 8ell, and some oLher shorL branches.

A long-Lerm concesslon for Lhe sysLem was offered Lo a [olnL long-Lerm concesslon Lo 8lfL
valley 8allways (8v8) Lo run Lhe Lwo neLworks for a perlod of 23 years from 2006. 8allway
llnes currenLly belng operaLed under Lhe 8v8 Concesslon lnclude Lhe Malaba !ln[a
kampala, Lhe !ln[a !ln[a ler, Lhe kampala orL 8ell, Lhe kampala nalukolongo and Lhe
1ororo Mbale rouLes. Map 6-3.

Map 6-3: ka||way 1ransport |n Uganda


5ootce. ost Aftlcoo kollwoy Mostet lloo 5toJy, llool kepott, clc5, Iooooty 2009

Cond|t|on of the ka||way Infrastructure |n the A|bert|ne keg|on
resenLly, Lhe rallway lnfrasLrucLure Lo Lhe AlberLlneCraben8eglon (l.e. kampala Lo kasese
and 1ororo-akwach) ls dllapldaLed, vandallzed and has been non-funcLlonal for a very long
Llme. AfLer years of deLerloraLlon, Lhe condlLlon of Lhe exlsLlng rallway llne cannoL serve Lhe
AlberLlneCrabenreglon.

SI1UA1ICN ANALSIS kLCk1 | reparaLlon of a hyslcal uevelopmenL lan
for Lhe AlberLlne Craben, uganda

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kampa|a kasese L|ne
ConsLrucLed durlng 1932-1936 Lo LransporL copper ore from Lhe kllembe mlnes Lo Lhe
reflnery aL !ln[a, Lhls llne ls almosL none exlsLenL due Lo vandallsm of Lhe llne. SLudles Lo
resLore Lhls llne are ongolng.

1ab|e 6-6: Lx|st|ng Cond|t|on of kampa|a to kasese ka||way L|ne

1rack Component Lx|st|ng
lormaLlon ! CompleLely overgrown wlLh vegeLaLlon
! Washed ouL ln secLlons
8allasL ! acked wlLh dlrL
Sleepers ! SLeel Sleepers wlLh wood sleepers on brldges
! very poor condlLlon
! Many mlsslng sleepers and fasLeners
8all ! Mlsslng 8alls
! !olnLed 40lb Lo 30lb
5ootce. ost Aftlcoo kollwoy Mostet lloo, llool kepott, Iooooty 2009.

1ororo-akwach L|ne
1hls 300-kllomeLer llne was bullL ln 1926 Lo SoroLl and Lhen exLended norLh Lo akwach ln
1964. 1hls rallway llne ls presenLly belng rehablllLaLed.

1ab|e 6-7:Lx|st|ng Cond|t|on of 1ororo - akwach ka||way L|ne

1rack Component Lx|st|ng
lormaLlon ! CompleLely overgrown wlLh vegeLaLlon
! Washed ouL ln secLlons
8allasL ! Cravel
Sleepers ! SLeel Sleepers wlLh wood sleepers on brldges
! very poor condlLlon
! Many mlsslng sleepers and fasLeners.
8all ! Mlsslng 8alls
! !olnLed 40lb Lo 30lb
5ootce. ost Aftlcoo kollwoy Mostet lloo, llool kepott, Iooooty 2009

|anned ka||way Infrastructure
1he SLraLeglc lannlng, for hase l for Lhe uganda 8allway CorporaLlon (u8C) by 2018 ls Lo
rehablllLaLe/consLrucL Lhe Lrunk llnes from uouble Cauge Lo SLandard Cauge for Lhe
followlng rouLes:
norLhern Llne - 1ororo Lo akwach, 300km (currenLly under rehablllLaLlon),
WesLern Llne kampala Lo kasese (344km), and Lhe
roposed kasese akwach.

SI1UA1ICN ANALSIS kLCk1 | reparaLlon of a hyslcal uevelopmenL lan
for Lhe AlberLlne Craben, uganda

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| 139

1he proposed rallway lnfrasLrucLure Lo access Lhe oll areas has been proposed Lo run from
kasese Lo kalso along Lake AlberL and vla Lhe alrsLrlps akuba, 8ugungu, 8uLlaba, kabwoya
and Maslka Lo akwach under Lhe MlnlsLry of Works and 1ransporL, Lhe SLandard Cauge
kasese-awach Llne. (8ef: 4tb ost ooJ ceottol Aftlco kooJs ooJ koll 5ommlt, 201J).

1he kasese-akwach rallway llne wlll cover 330 km wlLh an esLlmaLed pro[ecL cosL value of
uSu $ 1 8llllon. 1he planned lnfrasLrucLure wlll run along Lhe planned oll plpellnes as well as
Lhe 8eflnery area, as lndlcaLedln llgure 1-4, (rouLe 4) on Lhe Map above. Care should be
Laken Lo ensure LhaL Lhe rall llne does noL pass Lhrough Murchlson ark.

Cnce consLrucLed, Lhls wlll form a compleLe rallway neLwork for Lhe heavy cargo wlLhln Lhe
AlberLlne reglon and uganda as a whole.

1he MoW&1 has also proposed Lhe consLrucLlon of Lhe followlng llnes:
Lhe 8lhanga - kabale - klgall 8allway llne llnklng Lhe neLwork Lo 8wanda,
Lhe MlLyana Masaka 8ukoba (1anzanla) llne off Lhe kampala Lo kasese 8allway
llne llnklng Lhe rallway llne Lo norLhern 1anzanla,
Culu Lo nlmule llnklng Lhe rallway llne Lo SouLhern Sudan.

SI1UA1ICN ANALSIS kLCk1 | reparaLlon of a hyslcal uevelopmenL lan
for Lhe AlberLlne Craben, uganda

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| 140

Map 6-4: roposed Uganda ka|| ro[ects


5ootce. 4tb ost ooJ ceottol Aftlco kooJs ooJ koll 5ommlt, 201J
SI1UA1ICN ANALSIS kLCk1 | reparaLlon of a hyslcal uevelopmenL lan
for Lhe AlberLlne Craben, uganda

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| 141

ka||way 1ransport Cha||enges and kecommendat|ons

1ab|e 6-8: Cha||enges |n the ka||way 1ransport

Cha||enges
Imp||cat|ons kecommendat|ons
vandallsm and LhefL of Lhe rallway
sleepers ls hlgh.

Plgher cosLs of
rehablllLaLlng vandallsed
rallway llnes.
uLln place measures Lo prevenL
LhefL and vandallsm of rallway
sleepers.
use of old 1920 8allway leglslaLlon
whlch ls no longer appllcable Lo
presenL slLuaLlon.

lnefflclenL regulaLlon of Lhe
rallway LransporL sub-
secLor.

Change Lhe old 1920 rallway
leglslaLlon Lo beLLer reflecL Lhe
presenL Llmes,

WlLh Lhe new developmenLs ln
Lhe rall lndusLry, a new AcL ls
requlred.
LncroachmenL on Lhe rallway
reserves by peasanLs.
uangerous Lo communlLles
llvlng ln rallway reserves,
Lhey are prone Lo accldenLs
and oLher healLh relaLed
effecLs.
lace sLrlcL measures ln place Lo
mlnlmlse encroachmenL of Lhe
u8C land. 1he 8oW for u8C land
should be 60m and clearly
demarcaLed.
1he exlsLlng rall lnfrasLrucLure ls
old and Lherefore malnLenance ls
a challenge. Agelng and under-
powered locomoLlves, and also
weak coupllngs, LhaL llmlL Lraln
lengLhs.
lrequenL breakdown of Lhe
rallway lnfrasLrucLure.


lncrease fundlng Lo Lhe rallway sub-
secLor Lo rehablllLaLe Lhe llnes.
lncrease fundlng Lo Lhe rallway
secLor.

lnadequaLe fundlng Lo Lhe
LransporL sub-secLor.
lnefflclency ln
admlnlsLraLlon, and
malnLenance of rallway
lnfrasLrucLure.
unsaLlsfacLory performance of Lhe
concesslon under Lhe 8lfL valley
8allways.
oor dellvery of servlces. 8evlew Lhe performance of Lhe
concesslonalre Lo lmprove on Lhe
efflclency and operaLlon of Lhe
rallway sysLem.


6.1.3 A|r 1ransport
Alr 1ransporL provldes Lhe mosL efflclenL and qulckesL LransporL means. Whlle alr LransporL
carrles only a small proporLlon of passengers and cargo, lL provldes a ma[or speclallsL servlce
ln hlgh-speed carrlage of Llme consclous buslnessmen, LourlsLs and emergency servlces,
and perlshable producLs. Ugandas ma[or alr LransporL ls domlnaLed by Lhe lnLernaLlonal
secLor wlLh low levels of domesLlc usage. lL ls faclllLaLed by one lnLernaLlonal alrporL aL
LnLebbe and upcounLry alrsLrlps lncludlng Culu, Arua, kaseseand akuba ln Lhe
AlberLlnereglon and kldepo, !ln[a, Llra, SoroLl, 1ororo, klsoro, Mbarara and MoroLo ln Lhe
resL of Lhe counLry.

SI1UA1ICN ANALSIS kLCk1 | reparaLlon of a hyslcal uevelopmenL lan
for Lhe AlberLlne Craben, uganda

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| 142

Lx|st|ng A|r transport Infrastructure
1he AlberLlne reglon has four (4) alrsLrlps namely Arua, kasese, klhlhl, and akuba regulaLed
by Lhe Clvll AvlaLlon AuLhorlLy (CAA) Lhough are more alrsLrlps whlch are prlvaLely owned ln
Lea esLaLes and ln naLlonal parks by uganda Wlld llfe AuLhorlLy (uWA).

8elow are Lhe ma[or alrsLrlps ln Lhe reglon, Lhelr locaLlon, runway characLerlsLlcs and
servlces avallable.

Arua A|rf|e|d
Arua alr fleld ls locaLed ln Lhe norLhern reglon of Lhe sLudy area, ln Arua dlsLrlcL, WesL nlle. lL
ls a deslgnaLed LnLry and LxlL olnL.

1ab|e 6-9: Ieatures of Arua A|rstr|p

Locat|on: Arua
CoordlnaLes: 0303N3054E.
lCAC: PuA8
lA1A Code: 8uA
ulsLance from Arua 1own: 3 km
kunway Character|st|cs:
CrlenLaLlon: 18/36
LengLh: 1800 meLers
WldLh: 30 meLers
Surface: Murram
AlLlLude: 3200 lL
Serv|ces:
Alr navlgaLlonal Servlces: noL Avallable
navlgaLlonal Alds: Wlndsock
llre and 8escue: Avallable
SecurlLy: AvlaLlon ollce
1ermlnal Servlces: Avallable
luel: Cn arrangemenL
avlaLlon Avallable
lmmlgraLlon: Cn ArrangemenL
CusLoms: Cn arrangemenL
AccommodaLlon and PoLels: Avallable ln Arua 1own
1ransporL: Avallable

kaseseA|rf|e|d
kasese alr fleld ls locaLed ln Lhe souLhern reglon of Lhe AlberLlne. lL ls four (4) km from
kasese 1own. lL ls a deslgnaLed LnLry and LxlL olnL.





SI1UA1ICN ANALSIS kLCk1 | reparaLlon of a hyslcal uevelopmenL lan
for Lhe AlberLlne Craben, uganda

CCS 8ef: 12243




| 143

1ab|e 6-10: Ieatures of kasese A|rstr|p

Locat|on: kasese
CoordlnaLes: 0010N3004E.
lCAC Code: kSL
lA1A Code: PukS
ulsLance from 1own: 4 km
kunway Character|st|cs:
CrlenLaLlon: 01/19
LengLh: 1730 meLers
WldLh: 30 meLers
Surface: Crass
AlLlLude: 3146 lL
Serv|ces:
Alr navlgaLlonal Servlces: noL Avallable
navlgaLlonal Alds: nu8, Wlndsock
llre and 8escue: noL Avallable
SecurlLy: AvlaLlon SecurlLy and AvlaLlon ollce
1ermlnal Servlces: Avallable
luel: noL Avallable
MeLeorology: Avallable
lmmlgraLlon: Cn ArrangemenL
CusLoms: Cn ArrangemenL
AccommodaLlon and PoLel: Avallable ln kasese 1own
1ransporL: ubllc

akuba A|rstr|p
akuba alr fleld ls locaLed ln Lhe norLhern reglonsLudyof Lhe AlberLlne.
1he alrfleld ls locaLed ln Murchlson lalls naLlonal ark. lL ls a deslgnaLed LnLry and LxlL polnL.

1ab|e 6-11: Ieatues of akuba A|rstr|p

Locat|on: akuba
CoordlnaLes: 0220N3130E.
lCAC Code: PuA
lA1A Code: Al
ulsLance from 1own: 26 km
kunway Character|st|cs:
CrlenLaLlon: 07/23
LengLh: 1760 meLers
WldLh: 30 meLers
Surface: Murram
AlLlLude: 2363 lL
Serv|ces:
Alr navlgaLlonal Servlces: noL Avallable
navlgaLlonal Alds: Wlndsock
llre and 8escue: noL Avallable
SI1UA1ICN ANALSIS kLCk1 | reparaLlon of a hyslcal uevelopmenL lan
for Lhe AlberLlne Craben, uganda

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SecurlLy: AvlaLlon SecurlLy
1ermlnal Servlces: Avallable
luel: noL Avallable
MeLeorology: noL Avallable
lmmlgraLlon: noL Avallable
CusLoms: noL Avallable
AccommodaLlon and PoLel: Avallable ln Murchlson lalls naLlonal ark
1ransporL: noL Avallable

Stakeho|ders
1he maln sLakeholders ln Alr 1ransporL ln Lhe AlberLlne reglon are Clvll AvlaLlon AuLhorlLy
(CAA), uganda Wlldllfe AuLhorlLy (uWA) and prlvaLely owned AlrsLrlps.

C|v|| Av|at|on Author|ty (CAA)
Alr LransporL ln uganda ls regulaLed by Lhe Clvll AvlaLlon AuLhorlLy (CAA). CAA was creaLed ln
1994 as a sLaLe agency of Lhe MlnlsLry of 1ransporL, Pouslng and CommunlcaLlon. 1he
mandaLe of Lhe CAA ls Lo coordlnaLe and oversee uganda's avlaLlon lndusLry, lncludlng
llcenslng, regulaLlon, alr search and rescue, alr Lrafflc conLrol, ownershlp of alrporLs and
aerodromes.
I|gure 6-2: assenger traff|c at CAA managed Aerodromes
Source: CAA uganda (Annual SLaLlsLlcs 2012)







SI1UA1ICN ANALSIS kLCk1 | reparaLlon of a hyslcal uevelopmenL lan
for Lhe AlberLlne Craben, uganda

CCS 8ef: 12243




| 143

1ab|e 6-12: 1rans|t assenger 1raff|c - CAA Aerodromes |n A|bert|ne (2003-2012)

AIkCk1 2003 2004 200S 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
Arua 2838 2203 1941 1838 1409 1633 2790 2677 1340 2120
Culu 2601 1306 993 308 382 303 191 246 62 133
kasese 30 174 303 241 72 34 24 4 7 1
akuba 301 363 663 287 337 632 396 23 13 27
SoroLl 109 203 308 181 161 193 110 244 310 74
MoroLo 184 240 448 313 383 282 404 102 96 81
Mbarara 10 17 12 19 37 29 36 0 9 0
Maslndl 0 4 0 0 0 0 6 31 33 13
!ln[a 0 0 0 0 10 39 29 292 478 448
Llra 33 173 100 34 101 99 116 20 209 377
klsoro 1 0 12 17 37 18 6 0 0 11
kldepo 8 0 63 67 184 191 186 60 14 19
1ororo 0 0 0 0 4 0 0 10 62 60
1C1AL 611S 4849 S047 334S 3S03 3699 4314 3711 30S3 3386
5ootce. cAA uqooJo (Aooool 5totlstlcs 2012)

As can be observed, alr Lrafflc has been conslsLenLly hlgh for Arua, and has been dropplng for
oLher alrporLs. 1he drop for oLher areas ls due Lo Lhe facL LhaL Lhere has been lmproved
securlLy and lmprovemenL ln alLernaLlve LransporL lnfrasLrucLure.

Uganda W||d||fe Author|ty
1he uganda Wlldllfe AuLhorlLy (uWA) ls one of Lhe governlng bodles LhaL regulaLe wlldllfe
conservaLlon ln uganda. uWA ls ln charge of managlng10 naLlonal arks, 12 Wlldllfe
8eserves, 14 Wlldllfe SancLuarles and provldes guldance for 3 CommunlLy Wlldllfe Areas. lL ls
governed by a 8oard of 1rusLees appolnLed by mlnlsLer responslble for wlldllfe.
1o lmprove Lhe Lourlsm subsecLor, uWA has a number of alrsLrlps ln naLlonal parks
parLlcularly Lhose ln Lhe AlberLlne reglon and some of Lhe AlrsLrlps and Lhelr respecLlve
alrsLrlps lnclude Mweya Alrfleld ln Cueen LllzabeLh naLlonal ark, 8ugunga and Chobe
AlrsLrlps ln Murchlson falls and Semllkl ln Semullkl game reserve.

r|vate|y Cwned A|rstr|ps
1here are a number of prlvaLely owned and operaLed alrsLrlpsln Lhe reglon, some of Lhese
are locaLed aL nebbl, lorL orLal, Ad[umanl, kyamuhunga 1ea esLaLe (ln 8ushenyl) and
Maslndl.

|anned A|r 1ransport Infrastructure
1he MlnlsLry of Lnergy and Mlneral uevelopmenL (MLMu) has proposed alrsLrlps ln Lhe
AlberLlne reglon Lo faclllLaLe LransporL durlng exploraLlon acLlvlLles. ueLalls of Lhelr locaLlon
are lllusLraLed ln Map 6-S.
SI1UA1ICN ANALSIS kLCk1 | reparaLlon of a hyslcal uevelopmenL lan
for Lhe AlberLlne Craben, uganda

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| 146

Map 6-S: roposed A|rstr|ps


5ootce. lettoleom xplototloo ooJ ltoJoctloo uepottmeot
SI1UA1ICN ANALSIS kLCk1 | reparaLlon of a hyslcal uevelopmenL lan
for Lhe AlberLlne Craben, uganda

CCS 8ef: 12243




| 147


1he governmenL of uganda Lhrough MlnlsLry of Works and 1ransporL has a program Lo
upgrade kasese and Arua alrsLrlps Lo lnLernaLlonal sLandards (deslgns for kasese, have been
compleLed, accordlng Lo a presenLaLlon on uganda 1ransporL lnfrasLrucLure and ubllc
rlvaLe parLnershlps by Lng. 1ony 8 kavuma, MlnlsLry of Works and 1ransporL, 2013).

Accordlng Lo uganda vlslon 2040 chapLer 14, Lo effecLlvely faclllLaLe Lhe Lourlsm lndusLry ln
lmprovlng Lourlsm supporL lnfrasLrucLure and servlces, upgradlng of ldenLlfled alrsLrlps
lncludlng kasese and akuba alrsLrlps ls of paramounL lmporLance.

Map 6-S lndlcaLes Lhe upcounLry Aerodromes planned for upgradlng based on lnformaLlon
conLalned ln Lhe uganda vlslon 2040.

A|r 1ransport Cha||enges and kecommendat|ons

1ab|e 6-13: Cha||enges Iaced |n A|r 1ransport Sector

Cha||enges Imp||cat|on kecommendat|ons
LlmlLed connecLlvlLy beLween
alrsLrlps.
lncreased Lravel Llme
because alLernaLlve modes
of LransporL.
uevelop an lnLegraLed 1ransporLaLlon
MasLer lan.
LlmlLed Puman resource ln
regulaLory bodles.
lnefflclency ln regulaLlon of
alr LransporL.
SeLup more lnsLlLuLlons Lo Lraln
aeronauLlc sclence, Lhere ls only one
lnsLlLuLlon ln Lhe counLry l.e. SoroLl flylng
school.
Lack of regulaLlon and
governmenL acLlons.
1he Cou Lhrough Lhe responslble
lnsLlLuLlons llke CAA should enforce laws
and pollcles Lo regulaLe alr LransporL ln
Lhe counLry.
Plgh CosL of Alr Lravel use alLernaLlve cheaper
modes of LransporL
oor lnfrasLrucLure (runways
and Lermlnal bulldlngs) aL
alrsLrlps
oor servlce dellvery. Moblllse for fundlng ln order Lo lmprove
faclllLles llke runways and Lermlnal
bulldlngs, and servlces (meLeorology,
fuel, alr navlgaLlon servlces) aL AlrsLrlps.
Lack of adequaLe alrsLrlps
wlLhln Lhe AlberLlne reglon.
Plgh assenger Lrafflc on
some alr sLrlps llke Arua.
SeLup more alr sLrlps as planned ln Lhe
AlberLlne reglon.


6.1.4 Water 1ransport
lnland waLer LransporL offers lower LransporL unlL cosLs when compared Lo land-based
models, and Lhe mode of LransporL plays a slgnlflcanL and someLlmes lndlspensable role ln a
counLry llke uganda where one slxLh of Lhe surface area ls covered by waLer bodles (l.e.
lakes, rlvers and swamps).

orts and Ierr|es
orLs ln Lhe AlberLlne reglon are malnly locaLed along Lhe 8lver nlle. 1here are Lwo (2) porLs
/ ferry crosslng polnLs wlLhln Lhe AlberLlne locaLed ln Lhe norLhern and cenLral reglons of Lhe
AlberLlne. 1he porLs LhaL used Lo be locaLed on Lake AlberL have slnce been abandoned and
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are belng used by Lhe prlvaLe secLor. Cll companles have seL up landlng slLes and are uslng
Lhe abandoned faclllLles for Lhelr operaLlons, for example Lhe 8uLlaba porL. Map 6-6
lllusLraLes exlsLlng and proposed waLer LransporL servlces.

1ab|e 6-14: Status of Water 1ransport Infrastructure |n the A|bert|neGraben

Area] keg|on of
Study
Descr|pt|on
norLhern Larop|-Um| ferry cross|ng
Lhe ferry aL Lhls crosslng has been recenLly replaced
lL crosses rlver nlle from Ad[umanl Lo Moyo,
lL can ferry up Lo 120passengers
lL can carry 113Lonnes of cargo
lL ls scheduled for 12 Lrlps ln a day, each Laklng 13mlnuLes Lo cross Lhe rlver.

Cbong|-Ad[uman| ferry
lL crosses from Cbon[l ln Ad[umanl dlsLrlcL Lo Slnyanga ln Moyo dlsLrlcL.
Can carry 80 passengers, 30Lonnes of cargo and makes 6 Lrlps dally.

CenLral Wanseko-any|mur ferry
1hls ls an old ferry LhaL ls ln Lhe process of belng replaced.
lL crosses from Wanseko ln 8ulllsa dlsLrlcL Lo anylmur ln akwach dlsLrlcL.
lL can carry 100passengers, 90Lonnes of cargo for 3hours. lL crosses Lhe nlle
and Lake AlberL, flows lnLo Lake AlberL wlLh Lhe nlle.
ulsLance would be shorLer, however, LhaL shallow secLlons wlLhln Lhe waLer
requlre longer rouLes Lo be underLaken.
1here ls no land aL Lhe Wanseko slde due Lo Lhe facL LhaL all Lhe land has
been occupled by flshermen. Cn Lhe anylmur slde, Lhere are faclllLles
(LolleLs, offlces, accommodaLlon, eLc.) of Lhe crosslng.

Mas|nd| kungu ort ferry
lrom Maslndl ln Maslndl dlsLrlcL Lo kungu ln Apac dlsLrlcL.
lL can carry up Lo 60 Lonnes, 30pasengers and Lakes 20 mlnuLes Lo cross,
1here are exlsLlng faclllLles aL kungu slde of Lhe porL, however, Lhese need
ma[or lmprovemenL.

8ut|aba ort
1he 8uLlaba porL was abandoned and ls noL belng used by MoW1. lL ls belng
used by Lhe prlvaLe secLor as a connecLlon Lo u8C, Lrade and flshlng and oll
companles Lo carry ouL Lhelr acLlvlLles. Powever, Lhere has been a poor
safeLy record durlng Lhe crosslng of Lhe lake wlLh faLallLles.

Mbegu and 8ugoma orts
1hls porL ls locaLed on Lake AlberL where a barge used by oll companles ls
used Lo LransporL goods.

Ntoroko ort
1hls porL ls locaLed on Lhe souLhern end of Lake AlberL where a barge used
by oll companles ls used Lo LransporL goods.

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Map 6-6: A|bert|ne Ierry Serv|ces


Source: u8CS
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kegu|at|on ] Stakeho|der
8egulaLlon ls carrled ouL by Lhe MlnlsLry of Works and 1ransporL (MoW1) Lhrough Lhe
1ransporL Llcenslng 8oard (1L8). All vessels ln commerclal servlce are requlred Lo be
reglsLered wlLh and regularly lnspecLed by 1L8. 1he board suffers from serlous shorLages of
fundlng and personnel, Lherefore llmlLed acLlvlLles can be carrled ouL.

AlLhough, Lhere ls also marlne pollce, charged wlLh enforclng regulaLlons such as conLrol of
overloadlng. 1hls force ls slmllarly deflclenL ln capaclLy and Lherefore unable Lo exerclse Lhe
requlred level of conLrol.

1ab|e 6-1S: Water 1ransport Cha||enges Iaced by Stakeho|ders Met

Cha||enges Imp||cat|on kecommendat|ons
lnadequaLe fundlng lallure Lo carry ouL
servlces.
8eLLer fundlng whlch wlll lmprove sLafflng
levels, seL up Marlne 1ralnlng school,
adequaLely sLaff Lhe lndusLry, lncrease
awareness of Lhe marlne lndusLry,
provlde spares ln Llmely manner, an
lmprove Lhe capaclLy of vessels ln use.
Lack of marlne spares
oorly 1ralned SLaff
oor servlce dellvery.
under sLafflng
Lack of a Marlne 1ralnlng School
ln Lhe counLry
LlmlLed skllled personnel
Cld ferrles ln use oor SafeLy 8ecord lmprovlng of Lhe lnfrasLrucLure of Lhe
LxlsLlng vessels and provlslon of new
lerrles.
Low capaclLy vessels ln use Low levels of servlce Lo
Lhe communlLles
Cpen up new rouLes Lo accommodaLe
lncrease ln Lrafflc
Lack of lnspecLlon by Lhe
1ransporL Llcenslng 8oard (1L8)
Lack of regulaLlon of ferry
servlces ln Lhe reglon.
1he 1L8 should ensure adequaLe
regulaLory and monlLorlng framework
wlLhln Lhe lndusLry, alLhough MoW1 ls ln
Lhe process of seLLlng up a Marlne
1ransporL 8oard.
8ecedlng WaLer Levels aL crosslng
polnLs, especlally for Lhe
anylmur Wanseko ferry.
Longer Crosslng Llmes
and posslblllLy of damage
Lo Lhe vessels.
Carry ouL baLhymeLrlc surveys of posslble
alLernaLlve rouLes wlLhln Lhe nlle and Lhe
Lake AlberL.
under-uLlllzaLlon of L. AlberL 8ulld orLs on Lake AlberL, especlally aL
8uLlaba where Lhe old porL was locaLed.
1he capaclLy of search and rescue
ls poor.
lncreased marlne deaLh
accldenLs.
rovlslon of Search and 8escue laclllLles
and lncreased Lralnlng of Lhe human
resource.
navlgaLlon rouLes are archalc and
need Lo be resurveyed.
1hls may cause accldenLs
slnce navlgaLors are noL
able Lo deLermlne Lhelr
poslLlon or safe course, or
Lo warn Lhem of dangers
or obsLrucLlons.
Moblllse fundlng Lo carry ouL surveys for
navlgaLlon rouLes.
navlgaLlon alds are ofLen
damaged or mlsslng, or lf exlsLlng
may no longer mark Lhe mosL
approprlaLe channels.
8e-esLabllshmenL of new navlgaLlon alds
where Lhey are mlsslng of damaged.

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6.1.S |pe||ne
uue Lo Lhe dlscovery of oll ln Lhe AlberLlne 8eglon, Lhe Cou has proposed Lhe consLrucLlon
of lnfrasLrucLure Lo supporL Lhe lndusLry. Map 6-7 shows Lhe proposed lnfrasLrucLure
(plpellne and reflnery) ln close proxlmlLy Lo Lhe AlberLlne basln.

Map 6-7: roposed Locat|on of C|| Infrastructure


Source: MLMu

6.1.6 1ransportat|on Needs
Introduct|on
1he slLuaLlon analysls has been done based on daLa from key sLakeholders and Lhe fleld
lnvesLlgaLlons. lL ls also based on shorL, medlum and long Lerm developmenL ob[ecLlves. 1he
AlberLlne reglon and Lhe counLry as a whole need an lnLegraLed LransporL lnfrasLrucLure
neLwork Lo spur lLs own economlc growLh enLalls developmenL of a hlghly lnLerconnecLed
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LransporL neLwork and servlces opLlmlzlng Lhe use of rall, road, waLer and alr LransporL
modes ln Lhe Lhree reglons.

1ab|e 6-16:S|tuat|on Ana|ys|s 1ransportat|on

Area] keg|on of
Study
Ana|ys|s
Northern koad 1ransport
1he Arua?umbe-Moyo 8oad, Lhe AnakaCulu 8oad, and Lhe ALlak-Moyo 8oad
should be upgraded Lo paved sLandards Lo lmprove LransporL ln Lhe norLhern
reglon of AberLlne. 8ehablllLaLlon of exlsLlng paved roads should conLlnue,

lundlng should be lncreased for erlodlc and 8ouLlne malnLanance of roads ln
Lhe reglon parLlcularly ulsLrlcL roads. 1hls wlll ensure LhaL Lhe asseL value of
roads ls preserved and alsomaLalned ln a moLorlsed sLaLe unllke currenLly
some roads llke araa akwach road whlch lslmpassable durlng ralny
seasons.

Water 1ransport
ConsLrucLlon of faclllLles aL Ad[umanl, Cbongl, Laropl and uml porLs.

A|r transport
upgrade Lhe Arua and akuba Alrflelds as proposed by MoW1 Lo ease
LransporL Lo oll exploraLlon areas of Lyec, aara and 8ullsa.

ka||way
8ehablllLaLe Lhe 1ororo Lo akwach 8all Llne and exLend Lhe 8allway llne from
ackwach Lo Arua Lo koboko (8order wlLh Congo) and Culu Lo nlmule (8order
wlLh SouLh Sudan).

Centra| koad 1ransport
As a maLLer of urgency, upgrade klgumba Polma kyen[o[o road and Polma-
8uLlaba-Wansekoroad Lo faclllLaLe oll exploraLlon acLlvlLles ln Lhe reglon,
SLrengLhen kampala Polma road whlch ls Lhe maln rouLe llnklng Lhe cenLral
AberLlne reglon Lo Lhe counLry`s CaplLal clLy.Peavy cargo ls expecLed Lo be
moved lnLo Lhe reglon malnly uslng Lhe rouLe,
upgrade Lhe nLoroko - lorLporLal ka[ura road.

A|r 1ransport
ConsLrucLlon of an alrporL ln Polma (on Lhe proposed slLe for Lhe oll
reflnery)due Lo an envlsaged need for a qulck and rellable Lype LransporL Lo Lhe
reglon.

Water 1ransport
8eplacemenL of Lhe Wanseko-anylmur ferry,
Carry ouL surveys for navlgaLlon rouLes especlally Lhe rouLe from u8C Lo
8uLlaba orL whlch has a poor safeLy record,
Cpen up new rouLes Lo accommodaLe Lhe lncreaslng Lrafflc ln Lhe cenLral
reglon.

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ka||way
ConsLrucL Lherallway llne from kasese Lhrough Lhe oll flelds Lo akwach.

Southern ka||way
8ehablllLaLe Lhe kampala Lo kasese llne and exLend Lhe llne Lo Mpondwe
(border wlLh u8C).
ConsLrucL Lhe 8lhanga - kabale - klgall 8allway llne, off Lhe kampala Lo kasese
8allway llne as planned by MoW&1.


6.1.7 1ransport Lega| and kegu|atory framework
koad 1ransport
1he 1raff|c and koad Safety Act, 1998, ls Lhe maln law governlng road LransporL ln uganda.
A large parL of Lhe AcL provldes for Lhe admlnlsLraLlon of reglsLraLlon and llcenslng of moLor
vehlcles and lssue of drlvlng permlLs. lL regulaLes Lhe use of moLor vehlcles on Lhe road and
Lhe conLrol of Lrafflc. 1he law esLabllshes Lhe 1ransporL Llcenslng 8oard (1L8) and Lhe
naLlonal 8oad SafeLy Councll (n8SC). 1L8 regulaLes Lhe use of publlc servlce vehlcles, prlvaLe
omnlbuses and goods vehlcles Lhrough lssue of llcenses. vehlcle reglsLraLlon ls performed by
Lhe uganda 8evenue AuLhorlLy (u8A). 1he maln funcLlons of Lhe n8SC lnclude Lhe
promoLlon of road safeLy Lhrough senslLlzaLlon and awareness of Lhe publlc.

1he Uganda Nat|ona| koads Author|ty Act, 2007, provldes for Lhe esLabllshmenL, funcLlons
and operaLlon of a naLlonal 8oads AuLhorlLy. 1he AuLhorlLy ls esLabllshed as a body
corporaLe and mandaLed, among oLher funcLlons, Lo manage Lhe naLlonal road neLwork ln
an economlc, efflclenL, cosL effecLlve and buslnessllke manner. 1he AuLhorlLy ls managed by
a 8oard of ulrecLors whlch ls responslble for managlng Lhe day Lo day operaLlons of Lhe
AuLhorlLy.

1he Uganda koad Iund Act, 2008, esLabllshes a 8oad lund for Lhe purpose of flnanclng
rouLlne and perlodlc malnLenance of publlc roads ln uganda, lncludlng naLlonal, dlsLrlcL, and
communlLy access roads. 1he pollcy law esLabllshes a 8oad lund as parL of a sLraLegy Lo
commerclallze Lhe roads sub-secLor. 1he lund ls Lo be managed by a 8oard conslsLlng of
persons from boLh Lhe publlc and Lhe prlvaLe secLors, and wlll have a SecreLarlaL responslble
for Lhe day Lo day operaLlons.

ka|| 1ransport
1he Uganda ka||ways Corporat|on Act, 1992, ls Lhe maln law currenLly governlng Lhe rall
secLor ln uganda. 1he law esLabllshes Lhe u8C as a body corporaLe and provldes for lLs
managemenL, flnances and operaLlons.

A|r 1ransport
1he C|v|| Av|at|on Author|ty Act ls Lhe maln law governlng clvll avlaLlon ln Lhe counLry. lL
esLabllshes Lhe Clvll AvlaLlon AuLhorlLy as a body corporaLe wlLh Lhe maln ob[ecLlve of
promoLlng safe, secure, regular and efflclenL use and developmenL of clvll avlaLlon. 1he
funcLlons of CAA lnclude llcenslng of alr LransporL, regulaLlon of safeLy and securlLy, and
esLabllshmenL, operaLlon and ownershlp of aerodromes. ln Lhe long Lerm, CovernmenL
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lnLends Lo prlvaLlze alrporL operaLlons funcLlons once a mlnlmum alr Lrafflc mass has been
reallzed. unLll such a Llme, Lhe currenL leglslaLlon regulaLlng avlaLlon wlll noL be affecLed.

Water 1ransport
WaLer LransporL ln Lhe AlberLlne and uganda aL large ls governed by Lhe lnland WaLer
1ransporL AcL, Lhe vessels 8eglsLraLlon AcL, and Lhe lerrles AcL. A key guldlng prlnclple ls
LhaL Lhe operaLlons of waLer LransporL should be prlvaLe secLor-drlven.

1he In|and Water 1ransport (Contro|) Act, 1964, conLrols Lhe carrlage of goods and
passengers by waLer on Lhe lnland waLers of uganda. 1he law requlres owners of shlps
operaLlng LransporL buslness on Lhe waLers Lo be llcensed by Lhe 1ransporL Llcenslng 8oard.
1he Vesse|s keg|strat|on Act, 1964, provldes for reglsLraLlon of all vessels and requlres every
vessel used ln navlgaLlon ln any lnland waLers of uganda Lo be reglsLered unless Lhe vessel ls
exempLed by Lhe MlnlsLer.

1he Ierr|es Act, 1964, regulaLes markeL enLry of publlc ferry servlces Lhrough Lhe use of ferry
boaLs. MarkeL enLry ls regulaLed Lhrough a llcenslng reglme, alLhough Lhe AcL ls shorL on
deLalled procedures on sLandards, crlLerla, and llcenslng procedures.

6.2 Water Supp|y

ln Lhe AlberLlneCraben, Lhere are Lhree maln lakes, Lake AlberL, Lake Ldward, and Lake
Ceorge and Lhere are a number of sLreams. ln Lhe oll blocks under conslderaLlon, Lhe ma[or
water source is Lake Albert (Africas seventh largest lake) whose principal affluenL sLreams
are Lhe Semllkl, whlch comes from Lake Ldward Lhrough Lhe wesLern edge of Lhe greaL lLurl
raln foresL ln u8 Congo and Lhe vlcLorla nlle, whlch enLers ln uganda very close Lo Lhe
norLhern end. 8oLh rlvers have bullL delLas lnLo Lhe lake, LhaL of Lhe Semllkl ls Lhe larger and
90 of lL ls ln uganda. AlLhough Lhe nlle carrles more waLer Lhan Lhe Semllkl, lL has llLLle
lnfluence on Lhe ecology of Lhe lake, oLher Lhan Lo malnLaln waLer levels. 1here are oLher
numerous small sLreams enLerlng Lhe Lake from boLh uganda and u8 Congo, some of whlch
are hlghly seasonal and of only mlnor lmporLance Lo Lhe hydrology of Lhe lake.

lLs ouLleL, aL Lhe norLhernmosL Llp of Lhe lake, ls Lhe AlberL nlle, whlch becomes known as
Lhe MounLaln nlle when lL enLers Sudan. SenslLlvlLy of Lhe rlvers ls ln regard Lo Lhelr
proxlmlLy Lo Lhe oll wells, Lhe closer Lhe wells are Lo Lhe rlver, Lhe more senslLlve Lhe rlver ls
and vlce versa. Several classes are Lherefore formed based on Lhe proxlmlLy of Lhe wells Lo
Lhe rlvers.

6.2.1 Lx|st|ng Infrastructure
WaLer ln Lhe AlberLlne reglon ls malnly supplled by Lake AlberL and 8lver nlle whlch feed Lhe
smaller rlvers, sprlngs and wells ln Lhe reglon. 1o a small exLenL, glaclers from mounLaln
8wenzorl also provlde waLer LhaL feeds Lhe sprlngs and wells.

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1he people ln Lhe AlberLlne reglon are able Lo access waLer from shallow undug wells,
boreholes, sprlngs and Lhe plped waLer LhaL ls malnly found ln Lhe ma[or Lowns/Lradlng
cenLers.

ParvesLlng of raln waLer ln Lhe AlberLlne reglon ls on a small scale and its mainly done at
lnsLlLuLlons llke schools and hosplLals.

AlLhough Lhere are waLer supply sysLems ln all Lhe dlsLrlcLs of Lhe AlberLlne area, general
coverage ls qulLe low. MosL of Lhe rural areas ln Lhe AlberLlne are waLer sLressed and Lhe
women and chlldren have Lo Lravel a dlsLance of more Lhan a kllomeLre Lo Lhe nearesL waLer
source.

6.2.2 Cond|t|on of the Water Sources
MosL of Lhe waLer sources ln Lhe reglon are sLandalone sysLems LhaL serve a small porLlon of
Lhe populaLlon around Lhem. 1he areas around Lhe lake geL waLer from Lhe Lake AlberL,
whlle ma[or Lradlng cenLers ln Lhe norLhern, CenLral and SouLhern reglons of Lhe
AlberLlneCrabenfor example, lorLporLal ln kabarole dlsLrlcL, Polma Lown ln Polma dlsLrlcL,
and Arua Lown are supplled wlLh plped waLer.

1ab|e 6-17: Cond|t|on of Water Sources |n the Northern keg|on of the A|bert|ne Graben

Water Iac|||t|es |n Northern keg|on State]Descr|pt|on of the Iac|||t|es
1ap/plped waLer Cnly presenL ln ma[or Lowns/Lradlng cenLers llke Arua
munlclpallLy.
8oreholes, roLecLed wells/sprlngs Ma[or waLer supply ln Lhe reglon, alLhough unsusLalnable.
8aln waLer 8alnwaLer harvesLlng ls pracLlsed aL household levels and
lnsLlLuLlons such as schools, hosplLals, cllnlcs, communlLy
halls eLc.
CravlLy flow schemes LocaLed ln some Lowns, however, Lhe schemes are
lnadequaLe especlally durlng dry season when waLer levels
recede.
Cpen waLer sources llke dams, wells,
sprlngs, sLreams and rlvers
1hese are mosLly used ln Lhe rural areas and are prone Lo
conLamlnaLlon by anlmals, aerlal sprays and humans eLc.

1he Centra| keg|on of the A|bert|neGraben
1he cenLral reglon of Lhe AlberLlne ls Lhe cenLer of aLLracLlon of Lhls sLudy where oll was flrsL
dlscovered. 1he waLer sources ln Lhe reglon lnclude boreholes, sprlngs/sLreams, open waLer
sources llke shallow undug wells and Lake AlberL.

1ab|e 6-18: Cond|t|on of Water Sources |n the Centra| keg|on of the A|bert|ne Graben

Water Iac|||t|es |n the Centra| keg|on State]Descr|pt|on of Iac|||t|es
1ap/plped waLer resenL ln Lowns/ma[or Lradlng cenLers buL unrellable due Lo
power supply.
8oreholes ln use buL some have been abandoned due Lo sallnlLy of Lhe
waLer.
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roLecLed wells/sprlngs Serve ma[orlLy of Lhe rural populaLlon alLhough people have
Lo Lravel over longer dlsLances Lo access waLer.
8aln waLer ParvesLlng ls mlnlmal, malnly done aL lnsLlLuLlons llke
schools, hosplLals.
CravlLy flow schemes resenL ln Lhe reglon buL waLer sources are unrellable due
changlng seasons
Cpen waLer sources llke shallow undug
wells, sprlngs, sLreams and swamps
Are used by a ma[orlLy of Lhe rural populaLlon buL very
prone Lo conLamlnaLlon and unrellable ln Lhe dry season.

Southern keg|on of the A|bert|neGraben

1ab|e 6-19: Cond|t|on of Water Sources |n the Southern keg|on of the A|bert|ne Graben

Water Iac|||t|es |n Southern
keg|on
State]Descr|pt|on of the Iac|||t|es
1ap/plped waLer resenL ln ma[or Lowns, alLhough unrellable due Lo
unrellable elecLrlclLy Lo run Lhe pumps.
8oreholes Mlnlmal as Lhe reglon ls ln Lhe rlfL valley and Lhese would
desLablllze Lhe earLh movemenLs ln Lhe reglon.
roLecLed wells/sprlngs resenL ln Lhe reglon buL unrellable and prone Lo
conLamlnaLlon due Lo llmlLed monlLorlng and supervlslon.
8aln waLer ParvesLlng ls malnly aL lnsLlLuLlonal level and very mlnlmal aL
house hold level.
CravlLy flow schemes Avallable ln Lhe reglon buL wlLh llmlLed waLer source
Cpen waLer sources llke sprlngs,
shallow wells, swamps and sLreams
1he rural populaLlon ls malnly dependenL on Lhese sources
alLhough Lhe level recedes durlng Lhe dry season. Are also aL
hlgh rlsk of conLamlnaLlon.


6.2.3 Water Supp|y Cha||enges and kecommendat|ons
1abulaLed below are Lhe challenges faced wlLhln Lhe AlberLlneCraben8eglon and Lhe
proposed recommendaLlons.

1ab|e 6-20: Water Supp|y Cha||enges and kecommendat|ons from Stakeho|ders

Cha||enges Imp||cat|on kecommendat|ons
lnsufflclenL fundlng Lo Lhe
waLer supply secLor
lnadequaLe waLer supply Moblllze funds for waLer supply
lnfrasLrucLure developmenL.
Cver dependency on a few
waLer sources.
Seasonal waLer supply Lxplorlng alLernaLlve sources of waLer
such as bore holes, raln waLer harvesL
and sprlngs.
Plgh sLaff Lurnover ln
waLer supply regulaLory
lnsLlLuLlons.
rovlslon of poor quallLy
Lechnlcal servlces due Lo under
sLafflng.
lmprove worklng condlLlons ln Lhe
waLer supply secLor.
oor urban plannlng Plgh cosLs of lmplemenLlng waLer
supply pro[ecLs.
roper urban plannlng Lo lncorporaLe
waLer supply neLworks.
LlmlLed lnLerconnecLlvlLy
of waLer supply schemes
Plgh malnLenance cosLs of
lndlvldual supply schemes.
lnLerconnecL waLer supply schemes Lo
mlnlmlse operaLlonal and
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ln Lhe AlberLlne reglon. malnLenance cosLs such pumplng
cosLs.
8lockages wlLhln Lhe
exlsLlng sysLem
unrellable waLer supply. 1here ls need Lo Lraln Lhe communlLles
ln Lhe use of waLer borne sysLems Lo
mlnlmlse on blockages.
lnadequaLe elecLrlclLy
supply.
rovlde enough and rellable energy
supply Lo Lhe reglon.

6.2.4 Water Supp|y S|tuat|on Ana|ys|s
I|gure 6-3 summarlsed Lhe sLaLe of waLer supply ln Lhe AlberLlne Craben. noLe LhaL Lhe
cenLral area, abouL Lo become Lhe focus of Lhe peLroleum lndusLry ls Lhe mosL underserved
parL of Lhe AlberLlne.

Cenerally, Lhe AlberLlne reglon has safe waLer coverage beLween 61-80wlLh some areas ln Lhe
norLhern and souLhern reglon over 80 safe waLer coverage. AlLhough waLer coverage on average ls
good for all Lhe reglons, plped waLer coverage ln Lhe cenLral reglon ls Lhe leasL covered followed by
Lhe norLhern reglon. 1he SouLhern reglon ls well covered wlLh plped waLer sysLems. lped waLer
sysLems ln Lhe CenLral 8eglon of Lhe AlberLlne would have Lo be lncreased wlLh anLlclpaLed
populaLlon lncrease. lurLhermore susLalnable sources of waLer would have Lo be developed, malnly
ln Lhe norLhern and CenLral areas.

6.2.S Water Inst|tut|ona| Iramework
Water o||cy Comm|ttee (WC) was esLabllshed under Lhe WaLer AcL ln 1998 Lo asslsL and
advlse MWL and Lo promoLe lnLer-mlnlsLerlal and lnLer-secLoral coordlnaLlon.

M|n|stry of Water and Lnv|ronment (MWL) ls mandaLed Lo manage all waLer and
envlronmenL resources ln uganda. lL has Lhree dlrecLoraLes: Lhe ulrecLoraLe of WaLer
8esources ManagemenL (uW8M), Lhe ulrecLoraLe of WaLer uevelopmenL (uWu) and Lhe
ulrecLoraLe of LnvlronmenLal Affalrs (uLA).

D|rectorate of Water Deve|opment (DWD) ls responslble for Lhe overslghL and dellvery of
urban and rural waLer and sanlLaLlon. uWu comprlses Lhree deparLmenLs: 8ural WaLer
Supply and SanlLaLlon, urban WaLer Supply and SanlLaLlon, and WaLer for roducLlon.

Loca| governments (d|str|cts, town counc||s, sub-count|es) are empowered by Lhe Local
CovernmenL A2000) Lo provlde waLer servlces and manage Lhe envlronmenL and naLural
resource base.

D|str|ct water off|ces (DWCs) manage waLer and sanlLaLlon developmenL and oversee Lhe
operaLlon and malnLenance of exlsLlng waLer supplles ln Lhe dlsLrlcL.

D|str|ct water and san|tat|on coord|nat|on comm|ttees (DWSCCs) conslsL of admlnlsLraLlve
and pollLlcal leaders, LechnocraLs and non-governmenLal/communlLy-based organlsaLlon
(nCC/C8C) represenLaLlves aL dlsLrlcL level. 1he role of Lhe uWSCC ls Lo oversee Lhe
lmplemenLaLlon of WSS programmes.

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Water and san|tat|on comm|ttees (WSCs)]water user comm|ttees (WUCs) are esLabllshed,
ideally, at water point at community level for the planning, operating and maintaining of
8WSS faclllLles.

I|gure 6-3: A|bert|ne Water Supp|y Coverage

Access Lo Safe WaLer Coverage lped WaLer SysLems




5ootce. wotet 5opply Atlos Notloool kepott, 2012 (to be teploceJ)

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6.3 San|tat|on

6.3.1 Lx|st|ng Infrastructure
1he nWSC currenLly has plped sewerage coverage of abouL 6.4 naLlonally. 1hls ls due Lo
Lhe low neLwork coverage whlch has sLagnaLed over Lhe years due Lo lack of flnance on one
hand, buL also due Lo Lhe low demand and unfavourable Lerraln whlch does noL enable Lhe
lnsLallaLlon of plped sewerage.

1he ma[orlLy of Lhe communlLles wlLhln Lhe AlberLlne reglon use on-slLe sanlLaLlon, malnly
due Lo lack of waLer supply, lnfrasLrucLure and Lhe hlgh cosLs of malnLalnlng Lhe sewerage
sysLems.

Sewage wlLhln Lhe oll & gas companles ls LransporLed by Lrucks back Lo kampala by suppllers
appolnLed by Lhe dlfferenL oll companles. 1he Polma Sewage lanL has lnsufflclenL capaclLy
Lo LreaL Lhe sewage.

lL ls reporLed LhaL areas LhaL have no plped sewerage servlces wlLhln Lhe reglon lnclude
kasese, 8ushenyl, and Arua (Notloool wotet & 5ewetoqe cotpototloo, 2012 2015
cotpotote lloo - oboocloq lloooclol 5ostolooblllty ooJ loftosttoctote Ctowtb).

6.3.2 San|tat|on |n the A|bert|ne reg|on
ln summary, Lhe condlLlon of Lhe sewerage lnfrasLrucLure wlLhln Lhe AlberLlneLowns ls old,
low capaclLy and poorly malnLalned due Lo Lhe lack of flnance. MosL of Lhe households use
onslLe sanlLaLlon sysLems.

6.3.3 |anned ro[ects ]Strateg|es
SanlLaLlon servlces have always dragged behlnd WaLer servlce dellvery. Powever Lhere ls
growlng advocacy for ralslng Lhe SanlLaLlon proflle ln waLer and sewerage uLlllLles. AlLhough
lnvesLmenL cosLs ln plped sewerage servlces are enormous, Lhe nWSC has an opporLunlLy Lo
expand sanlLaLlon servlces ln Lhe growlng urban areas where lL operaLes, whlch currenLly
rely heavlly on on-slLe sanlLaLlon opLlons llke LaLrlnes and SepLlc Lanks. 1here are plans Lo
upgrade Lhe SanlLaLlon sysLems for Arua and 8ushenyl Lowns, as parL of Lhe larger waLer
supply pro[ecLs.

6.3.4 San|tat|on Cha||enges and kecommendat|ons

Cha||enges Imp||cat|ons kecommendat|ons
lnsufflclenL fundlng Lo Lhe
sewage secLor. Some fundlng ls
spenL on waLer supply lnLo Lhe
communlLles, however, very
llLLle ls spenL on Lhe ouLpuL
(sewage) of Lhls waLer.
unsaLlsfacLory sanlLary
condlLlons whlch lead Lo waLer
conLamlnaLlon Lhus lncrease of
waLer borne dlseases Lhus
lncreased expendlLure on
medlcal bllls.
8alse sewerage servlces proflle
Lhrough upllfLlng Lhe
lnsLlLuLlonal seLup of Lhe
deparLmenLs.

8aLlonallse caplLal expendlLure
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on sewerage servlces raLher
Lhan concenLraLlng on waLer
supply servlces.
Low wllllngness Lo pay by Lhe
users as they dont appreciate
paymenL for sanlLaLlon sysLems.
1hey belleve ln onslLe
sanlLaLlon whlch ends up
polluLlng Lhe groundwaLer
sources.
CroundwaLer polluLlon for
poorly englneered sanlLaLlon
faclllLles.
romoLe well englneered on-
slLe sanlLaLlon pracLlces
(venLllaLed lmproved lL
1olleLs, SepLlc 1anks, and
Lagoons/SLablllsaLlon onds
eLc.) should be enforced by Lhe
lnsLlLuLlons, Lo avold ground
waLer polluLlon.
lallure Lo quanLlfy sanlLaLlon
ouLpuL. lL ls pald as a
percenLage on addlLlon of Lhe
waLer blll.

oor revenue collecLlon,
Lherefore lnsufflclenL plannlng,
malnLenance and developmenL
of plped sewerage sysLems.
lmplemenL Lhe
recommendaLlons of Lhe Larlff
sLudy ln relaLlon Lo sewerage
servlces.

oor wasLe dlsposal meLhods,
especlally aL Lhe flshlng vlllages.
1hey Lend dlspose of sewage
lnLo Lhe lake.
Surface and ground waLer
ConLamlnaLlon
ConsLrucLlon of affordable and
susLalnable communal wasLe
waLer dlsposal faclllLles ln
densely populaLed areas.
lallure Lo consLrucL sanlLaLlon
sysLems ln densely populaLed
areas llke Lhe landlng slLes and
flshlng vlllages along lake
AlberL.

oor sanlLary condlLlons lnsLlLuLlons should carry ouL
beLLer plannlng Lo ensure LhaL
densely populaLed areas have
secLlons demarcaLed for
sanlLary dlsposal and
LreaLmenL.
oLenLlal of polluLlng Lake
AlberL as lL ls locaLed aL Lhe
lowesL polnL of Lhe AlberLlne
basln.

oor sanlLary condlLlons WasLewaLer LreaLmenL process
and faclllLles should be
lmproved wlLhln Lhe reglon Lo
mlnlmlse on waLer
conLamlnaLlon.
8lockages wlLhln Lhe exlsLlng
sysLem.

unsaLlsfacLory sanlLary faclllLles
and an lncrease ln operaLlon
and malnLenance cosLs.
1here ls need Lo Lraln Lhe
communlLles ln Lhe use of
waLer borne sysLems Lo
mlnlmlse on blockages.
Low capaclLy of Lhe exlsLlng
sewerage sysLems. 1here has
been populaLlon growLh,
however, Lhe sysLems are very
old, wlLh mosL of Lhem havlng
been bullL over 30 30years
ago.
1he sanlLaLlon sysLems are
sLressed, Lhey cannoL handle
Lhe sewerage capaclLles, Lhus
blockages, splllages.
lunds for Lhe upgradlng of Lhe
sewerage lnfrasLrucLure, Lo
cope wlLh Lhe populaLlon
lncrease
Carry ouL a well-planned sewer
neLwork expanslon
programmes.

6.3.S San|tat|on S|tuat|on Ana|ys|s
Sewerage Servlces conLlnue aL a relaLlvely low proflle, ma[orly because of Lhe large sums of
lnvesLmenL funds requlred Lo address Lhls problem. 1hls ls compounded by Lhe facL LhaL
mosL domesLlc users preference for on-slLe sanlLaLlon as opposed Lo publlc sewerage sysLem
whlch ls consldered expenslve by ma[orlLy of our cusLomers.

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6.3.6 San|tat|on Inst|tut|ona| Iramework
Nat|ona| Water & Sewerage Corporat|on (NWSC)
1he nWSC ls a ubllc uLlllLy Company and sLaLeowned CorporaLlon whose mandaLe, as
deflned ln Lhe nWSC AcL SecLlon 3(1), ls Lo operaLe and provlde waLer and sewerage servlces
ln areas enLrusLed Lo lL on a sound commerclal and vlable basls.

D|rectorate of Water Deve|opment (DWD)
AL Lhe naLlonal level, ls Lhe ulrecLoraLe of WaLer uevelopmenL (uWu) ls responslble for
provldlng overall Lechnlcal overslghL for Lhe plannlng, lmplemenLaLlon and supervlslon of Lhe
dellvery of urban and rural waLer and sanlLaLlon servlces across Lhe counLry, lncludlng waLer
for producLlon. uWu ls also responslble for regulaLlon of provlslon of waLer supply and
sanlLaLlon and Lhe provlslon of capaclLy developmenL and oLher supporL servlces Lo Local
CovernmenLs, rlvaLe CperaLors and oLher servlce.

6.4 So||d Waste Management

6.4.1 Lx|st|ng Infrastructure
Domest|c Waste
1he maln source of solld wasLe ln Lhe reglon ls currenLly household wasLe and munlclpal
wasLe from Lhe Lradlng cenLers. 1he AlberLlne reglon does noL have an organlzed dlsposal
sysLem for solld wasLe and ln mosL of Lhe Lradlng cenLers, garbage ls collecLed ln sacks from
Lhe source and LransporLed by Llpper Lrucks Lo dumplng slLe, by prlvaLe owners.

Polma, Maslndl and Arua have falrly newly compleLed composL planLs wlLh superlor deslgns
(l.e. blgger ln slze, roof Lrusses are made of sLeel, good roof claddlng maLerlal, blgger
admlnlsLraLlon block, wash rooms and changlng rooms LhaL are waLer borne compared).
Powever, mosL of Lhe oLher Lowns have poor sanlLaLlon sysLems whlch are old and low
capaclLy.

Arua 1own Counc||
Arua has a garbage recycllng planL aL LwuaLa vlllage ln vurra sub-counLy. lL has a capaclLy of
converLlng up Lo 70,000 Lons of solld wasLe lnLo manure dally. 1he lanL ls operaLed and
managed by Lhe MunlclpallLy, and ls experlenclng Lhe same challenges as Lhe Polma lanL.

no|ma 1own Counc||
Polma has a garbage recycllng planL aL klbaLl, abouL Lhree kllomeLers away from Polma
Lown. neverLheless, lL experlences solld wasLe dlsposal challenges. AlLhough Lhe
munlclpallLy owns Lhree dumper Lrucks, offlclals say Lhey are ofLen grounded due Lo lack of
fuel. 1he munlclpallLy also cannoL afford Lo hlre enough manpower Lo sorL Lhe solld wasLe
and currenLly employs only 13 casual workers.

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kasese Mun|c|pa||ty
kasese MunlclpallLy has several wasLe collecLlon polnLs, wlLh 6 wasLe sklps dlsLrlbuLed
around Lhe 1own, and 2 bunkers for handllng of wasLe. 1o daLe no sorLlng of wasLe Lakes
place Lhus all Lhe generaLed solld wasLe flnds lLs way lnLo Lhe garbage sklps and evenLually Lo
Lhe open dumplng grounds.

kasese MunlclpallLy has a landflll slLe aL kldodo near Lhe kasese CobalL.

C|| waste
Accordlng Lo ur. AryamanyaMuglsha, a prlvaLe consulLanL and Lhe former head of Lhe
naLlonal LnvlronmenL ManagemenL AuLhorlLy (nLMA), Lhe blggesL concern currenLly ls
wasLe from Lhe Cll and gas exploraLlon acLlvlLles. ur. Muglsha explalns LhaL wasLe lncludes
sollds from underground, whlch are removed, as drllllng machlnes bore Lhrough Lhe rocks,
addlLlves ln form of chemlcals whlch are used durlng drllllng and, aL a laLer sLage, Lhe
resldues from Lhe peLroleum processlng.
Cver Lhe lasL Lhree years, Lhe mud cuLLlngs and llquld wasLe comlng from oll wells have been
ferrled Lo klsln[a ln Polma, ngala ln 8ulllsa, 8ugungu and 8uLangl near akwach, as well as
Mpundu ln 8ukunglrl, whlch were reserved as collecLlon cenLres for Lhe oll wasLe. nLMA
argued LhaL lL was easy Lo monlLor Lhe oll wasLe aL collecLlon cenLers Lhan keeplng lL
scaLLered.

1he wasLe ls burled aL speclflc collecLlon cenLres ln plasLlc llned plLs, Lhe wasLe would be
LreaLed wlLh llme or cemenL Lo avold leachaLe seepage and conLamlnaLlon of underground
waLer

6.4.2 Cond|t|on of So||d Waste D|sposa|
1he sLaLe of solld wasLe dlsposal wlLhln Lhe AlberLlne reglon ls poor due Lo Lhe poor solld
wasLe dlsposal pracLlces wlLhln Lhe Lowns. 1here ls no presence of dlsposal/dusL blns and
ofLen wasLe ls dlsposed off ln sLorm waLer dralns durlng heavy ralns. Carbage lanLs have
been developed buL lack proper managemenL due Lo lnsufflclenL funds and lnsLlLuLlonal
managemenL.

6.4.3 |anned So||d Waste Strateg|es]ro[ects
nLMA slgned co-operaLlon agreemenL wlLh some of Lhe munlclpallLles ln Lwo Lranches. 1he
flrsL Lranche were slgned ln 2003 wlLh Lhe nlne munlclpallLles of Mukono, !ln[a, Mbale,
SoroLl, Llra, Mbarara, kasese, kabale, and lorL orLal. 1he second Lranche were slgned ln
2010 wlLh elghL munlclpallLles of Maslndl,8usla, Polma, MlLyana, LnLebbe, Arua, Culu and
1ororo. 1he CooperaLlon AgreemenLs/ Memoranda of undersLandlng seL ouL Lhe rlghLs and
obllgaLlons of each parLy ln Lerms of Lhe CuM programme acLlvlLles.

6.4.4 So||d Waste S|tuat|on Ana|ys|s
Northern keg|on
ln Lhe norLhern reglon, Lhere ls onlyLwaLwala recycllng planL ln Arua MunlclpallLy. lL ls
recommended LhaL a recycllng planL ls developed aL nebbl and Zombo Lo lmprove solld
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wasLe dlsposal and collecLlon. lurLher, solld wasLe dlsposal cenLres developed around Lhe
MunlclpallLy, Lo faclllLaLe wasLe collecLlon.

Centra| keg|on
1he oll and gas acLlvlLles are concenLraLed wlLhln Lhe cenLral reglon and Lherefore Lhere wlll
be vasL amounLs of solld wasLe producLs. resenLly, Lhere ls only Lhe klbaLl recycllng planL ln
PolmaMunlclpal. lL ls recommended LhaL well englneered solld wasLe landfllls are developed
for boLh, domesLlc solld wasLe as well as Lhe oll and gas wasLe producLs.

An addlLlonal landflll slLe ls recommended aL Polma and anoLher along Lake AlberL, near Lhe
reflnery aL klgoroba 1own Councll, Maslndl and kyakwanzl area.

lL ls recommended LhaL Lhe oll companles manage Lhelr wasLe wlLh close monlLorlng by Lhe
governmenL Lo ensure compllance wlLh Lhe nLMA regulaLlons.

lL ls also recommended LhaL Lhe domesLlc solld wasLe ls managed by prlvaLe companles due
Lo Lhe lncreased economlc developmenL around Lhe Lake AlberL area.

Southern keg|on
ln Lhe SouLhern reglon, Lhere ls only Lhe kldodo recycllng planL ln kasese MunlclpallLy.

6.4.S So||d Waste Lega| and Inst|tut|ona| Iramework
M|n|stry of Water Lands and Lnv|ronment
1he mlnlsLry ls Lhe lnsLlLuLlon responslble for Lhe formulaLlon of pollcles LhaL govern
envlronmenLal managemenL ln uganda hence responslble for envlronmenLal lssues ln Lhe
counLry.

Nat|ona| Lnv|ronment Management Author|ty
1hls ls Lhe prlnclpal agency ln uganda responslble for Lhe managemenL of envlronmenL and
ls charged wlLh Lhe coordlnaLlon, supervlslon and monlLorlng of all acLlvlLles relaLed Lo
envlronmenLal managemenL.

6.4.6 So||d Waste Cha||enges and kecommendat|ons
1he challenges and recommendaLlons for solld wasLe managemenL wlLhln Lhe reglon
lnclude:

1ab|e 6-21: Cha||enges and kecommendat|ons

Cha||enges Imp||cat|ons kecommendat|ons
oor wasLe managemenL has
been found Lo resulL lnLo
polluLlon of boLh surface and
ground waLer Lhrough Lhe
leachaLe dralnlng and lmpalrlng
Lhe permeablllLy of solls as well
PealLh rlsks for lnsLance, solld
wasLe aL lnformal dlsposal slLes
produces Loxlc gases, bad odour
and creaLes alr polluLlon. 1hls
has led Lo lncreased lncldences
of dlseases llke cough,
Mass senslLlzaLlon wlLh
emphasls on garbage sorLlng,
re-use, recycllng and
sLrengLhenlng of wasLe
collecLlon as a way of
conservlng Lhe envlronmenL for
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as blockage of dralnage
sysLems.

dlarrhoea, fever among oLhers,
hence lncreaslng publlc
expendlLure on drugs.
Lhe beneflL of Lhe presenL and
fuLure generaLlon.

Lack of capaclLy by Lhe
councll or dlsLrlcLs Lo manage
wasLe.
Solld wasLe managemenL ls
neglecLed.
rlvaLlzaLlon of solld wasLe
managemenL.
Lack of enough Lralned man
power, weak laws and
lnsufflclenL funds.

uomesLlc wasLe ls noL glven
prlorlLy wlLhln Lhe ulsLrlcLs,
such LhaL ls noL poorly
budgeLed for.
unsaLlsfacLory solld wasLe
collecLlon and dlsposal
lnsLlLuLlons should sLrongly
lmplemenL solld wasLe
regulaLlons and pollcles.

MoLlvaLlon of sLaff Lhrough
sufflclenL Lralnlng (recycllng
buslnesses eLc.) and good salary
remuneraLlon.
oor Lechnologles llke lack of
modern collecLlon Lrucks Lhus
lncreased sLaff managemenL
and coordlnaLlon.
oor solld wasLe collecLlon and
dlsposal
lanned managemenL,
coordlnaLlon and moLlvaLlon of
sLaff by lnsLlLuLlons.
lnconslsLency ln wasLe
collecLlon by Lhe responslble
flrms.
unsaLlsfacLory solld wasLe
collecLlon and dlsposal.
ConsLanL monlLorlng of
rlvaLe Companles Lo ensure
compllance wlLh baslc solld
wasLe collecLlon and
dlsposal.
lnsufflclenL funds Lo fuel
vehlcles for LransporLlng solld
wasLes and salary paymenLs,

unsaLlsfacLory solld wasLe
collecLlon and dlsposal
lnsLlLuLes should rooL ouL
corrupLlon.

Lnsure solld wasLe collecLlon ls
observed and

8udgeL for solld wasLe
managemenL and dlsposal.


6.S Lnergy

6.S.1 Introduct|on
uganda has conslderable resources for energy producLlon and Lhe provlslon of energy
servlces, yeL Lhey remaln unexplolLed, largely due Lo Lhe percelved Lechnlcal and flnanclal
rlsks. 1hese resources lnclude: blomass, geoLhermal, large scale hydro, mlnl/mlcro/plco
hydro, wlnd and solar energy. Powever, wlLh Lhe excepLlon of blomass, whose conLrlbuLlon
ls very slgnlflcanL, Lhe remalnlng renewable sources (lncludlng large hydros) conLrlbuLe
about 5% of the countrys total energy consumption.

1hls llmlLs Lhe scope and producLlvlLy of economlc acLlvlLles LhaL can be underLaken ln any
parL of Lhe counLry. 1hus lL ls lmperaLlve LhaL Lhe use of Lhese abundanL resources should be
enhanced.
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resenLly, wlLh Lhe lncreaslng economlc acLlvlLles wlLhln Lhe AlberLlneCraben8eglon, energy
demands are lncreaslng wlLh Lhe proposed or planned lnfrasLrucLure developmenLs. WlLhln
Lhe AlberLlneCrabenreglon Lhe maln sources of elecLrlflcaLlon lnclude:

LlecLrlclLy from Lhe maln naLlonal grld,
use of dlesel Lo power oll exploraLlon,
use of Solar energy by local CommunlLles.

8ecenLly compleLed sLudles gave Lhe poLenLlal as lndlcaLed ln 1ab|e 6-22. Powever, more
slLe speclflc daLa ls avallable for Lhe acLual developmenL of Lhe resources.

1ab|e 6-22: 1he Lnergy ower otent|a| |n Uganda

Lnergy Source Lst|mated L|ectr|ca| otent|a|
(MW)
Pydro 2,000
Mlnl-hydro 200
Solar 200
8lomass 1630
CeoLhermal 430
eaL 800
Wlnd -
1ota| S300

6.S.2 nydropower
1he large-scale hydropower poLenLlal along Lhe 8lver nlle has been esLlmaLed aL abouL 2,000
MW lncludlng slx poLenLlal ma[or hydropower slLes: 8u[agall - 230 MW, kalagala 430MW,
karuma (kamdlnl) 130MW, Ayago norLh 300 MW, Ayago SouLh 230 MW andMurchlson lalls
600 MW. 8u[agall and karuma slLes have been slgnlflcanLly sLudled and are belng developed
on a ubllc rlvaLe arLnershlp () basls Lo generaLe elecLrlclLy ln Lhe medlum Lerm.

I|gure 6-4 summarlses Lhe currenL and planned hydro power slLuaLlon ln Lhe Lhree sub-
reglons of Lhe AlberLlne.

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I|gure 6-4: A|bert|ne nydro S|tuat|on

Northern keg|on of A|bert|neGraben
Map

Lx|st|ng and roposed nydro ower Stat|ons

Source: uganda 1ransmlsslon Crld map, uL1CL 2014

Legend
CeneraLlng SLaLlons- Pydro
roposed CeneraLlng sLaLlons Mlnl Pydro
roposed 400kv SubsLaLlon
roposed 132kv SubsLaLlon
roposed 400kv 1ransmlsslon llne
roposed 132kv 1ransmlsslon llne
1he norLhern reglon does noL have any 1ransmlsslon
Llnes from Lhe naLlonal grld, alLhough Lhere ls an
ongolng pro[ecL Lo connecL Arua Lo Lhe naLlonal Crld.

1he area has some poLenLlal sources of P, lncludlng
Lhe followlng poLenLlal slLes:

21- Nyagak n
1he nyagak 1 has been lssued a llcence and Lhe pro[ecL
ls belng developed by Lhe WesL nlle 8ural LlecLrlflcaLlon
Company LlmlLed (WLn8LCC). 1he planL ls locaLed ln
nebbl ulsLrlcL and lL ls expecLed Lo produce 3.3 MW.

A- Murchs|on Ia|| n (Uhuru)
1he Murchlson lall P locaLed ln a naLlonal ark aL
nwoya/8ullsa ulsLrlcL. lL ls expecLed Lo produce 642
MW and presenLly prellmlnary SLudles are ln progress.

8- k|ba n
1he klba P ls locaLed ln nwoya/Maslndl ulsLrlcL. lL ls
expecLed Lo produce 293MW and presenLly prellmlnary
SLudles are avallable wlLh Lhe MLMu.

C- Ayago n
1he Ayago P ls locaLed ln nwoya/Maslndl ulsLrlcL. lL
ls expecLed Lo produce 600 MW and presenLly deLalled
feaslblllLy SLudles are belng done by Lhe MLMu.

D- Cr|ang n
1he Crlang P ls locaLed ln nwoya/klryando ulsLrlcL.
lL ls expecLed Lo produce 393 MW and rellmlnary
SLudles are avallable wlLh Lhe MLMu.

L- karuma n
1he karuma P ls locaLed ln klryandonga and
CyamdlsLrlcLs. lL ls expecLed Lo produce 600 MW and
consLrucLlon acLlvlLles are ln progress. lL expecLed Lo be
compleLed by 2018.








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Centra| keg|on of A|bert|neGraben

Source: uganda 1ransmlsslon Crld map, uL1CL 2014

Legend
CeneraLlng SLaLlons- Pydro
roposed CeneraLlng sLaLlons Mlnl Pydro
roposed 400kv SubsLaLlon
roposed 132kv SubsLaLlon
roposed 400kv 1ransmlsslon llne
roposed 132kv 1ransmlsslon llne
1he area ls poorly connecLed Lo Lhe naLlonal wlLh only
ma[or Lowns llke Polma, Maslndl eLc. connecLed

roposed nydro power stat|ons

16 8useruka n
1he kabalega mlnl hydropower dam aL 8useruka,
PolmadlsLrlcL ln WesLern uganda, ls ln[ecLlng 9MWlnLo
Lhe reglon.

1he same developer for 8useruka, Pydromax, ls
expecLed Lo bulld 3MW mlnl-hydropower dam aL Wakl
8lver ln Lhe nearby MaslndldlsLrlcL.1he $38.8 mllllon
8useruka pro[ecL was funded by Lhe Afrlcan
uevelopmenL 8ank and 1A 8ank and wlll generaLe
enough elecLrlclLy Lo power over 1,000 households,
schools and hosplLals ln Lhe AlberLlneCrabenreglon, and
feed lnLo Lhe naLlonal grld aL Lhe Polma subsLaLlon.

17 Waak| n
1he Waakl P ls locaLed ln Polma ulsLrlcL. lL ls
expecLed Lo produce 2-8MW and leaslblllLy SLudles are
on-golng. 1he permlL was lssued Lo Pydromax (nkusl)
LLd.



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Southern keg|on

Source: uganda 1ransmlsslon Crld map, uL1CL 2014

Legend

CeneraLlng SLaLlons- Pydro
roposed CeneraLlng sLaLlons Mlnl Pydro
LxlsLlng 132kv SubsLaLlon
roposed 132kv SubsLaLlon
roposed 400kv 1ransmlsslon llne
roposed 132kv 1ransmlsslon llne

1he souLhern reglon ls Lhe mosL connecLed area Lo Lhe
naLlonal Crld wlLh connecLlons. lL ls also an area wlLh
small rlvers wlLh Lhe poLenLlal for P developmenL.

Lx|st|ng nydro power stat|ons
1hree mlnl Pydro power sLaLlons have been ldenLlfled ln
Lhe souLhern area of sLudy, l.e. lshasha, Mpanga and
Mazlba.

Ishasha
lL ls locaLed on lshasha rlver kanungu dlsLrlcL and has a
capaclLy of 6.393 MW. lL ls ln operaLlon by LCC ower
uganda LlmlLed.

Mpanga
Mpanga ower SLaLlon ls an 18 MW hydroelecLrlc power
pro[ecL locaLed across 8lver Mpanga, ln kamwenge
ulsLrlcL. lL ls ln operaLlon by Afrlca LMS Mpanga LLd.

Maz|ba
Mazlba PydroelecLrlc ower SLaLlon ls a 6.3 MW
hydroelecLrlc power sLaLlon locaLed across 8lver
klruruma, ln kabale ulsLrlcL close Lo Lhe border wlLh
8wanda.

roposed nydro power stat|ons
2. nyamabuye
3. Palsesero
4. klslsl
3. nengobrldge:1he pro[ecL ls under feaslblllLy and
esLlmaLed Lo produce 6.3 7MW.
6. 8ugoye
7. Mubuku
8. kakaka: 1he pro[ecL ls under feaslblllLy and esLlmaLed
Lo produce 4.8MW.
9.ngeLe
10. Sogahl
11.Mlzlzl
14.8ulzl
18. kyambura
20. nyamambwa
23. Slndlra
24.nduguLu
28. kabale eaL
29. 8wlml
30. Lubllla

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6.S.3 A|ternat|ve Lnergy Sources
A parL from Pydro power, oLher poLenLlal energy sources ln Lhe reglon are, Solar, 8lomass,
Wlnd and CeoLhermal are also poLenLlal sources of Lnergy ln Lhe reglon.

So|ar Lnergy
LxlsLlng solar daLa clearly show LhaL Lhe solar energy resource ln uganda ls hlgh LhroughouL
Lhe year. 1he mean solar radlaLlon ls 3.1 kWh/m
2
per day on a horlzonLal surface, Lhls level ls
qulLe favourable, for Lhe appllcaLlon of a number of solar Lechnologles. 1hese lnclude:
Solar waLer heaLlng, and
Solar phoLovolLalc sysLems for supply of baslc elecLrlclLy ln rural lnsLlLuLlons and
households as well as areas noL connecLed Lo Lhe grld.

Geotherma|
CeoLhermal energy ls one of Lhe posslble alLernaLlve renewable energy sources ln uganda,
whlch wlll supplemenL oLher sources of energy. lLs ma[or advanLages are LhaL lL ls
envlronmenLally frlendly and mulLldlsclpllnary ln uses, slnce lL can supporL varlous
developmenL acLlvlLles ranglng from producLlon Lo processlng of raw maLerlals, llke mlnerals
and agrlculLural produce.

CeoLhermal lnvesLlgaLlons ln uganda have so far ldenLlfled Lhree poLenLlal areas for deLalled
exploraLlon. 1hey are all slLuaLed ln wesLern uganda, ln Lhe wesLern branch of Lhe LasL
Afrlcan 8lfL valley. 1he Lhree poLenLlal areas are kaLwe-klkorongo, 8uranga and klblro.
8ased on recenL assessmenLs, Lhey have all been ranked as poLenLlal LargeLs for geoLhermal
developmenL. 1he LoLal geoLhermal energy poLenLlal ls esLlmaLed aL 430 MW.

6.S.4 Lnergy Cha||enges and kecommendat|ons
1ab|e 6-23 presenLs a summary of Lhe challenges faclng energy provlslon ln Lhe AlberLlne
wlLh a parLlcular focus on Lhe accepLance and use of alLernaLlve energy sources.

1ab|e 6-23: Lnergy Cha||enges and kecommendat|ons

Cha||enges Imp||cat|on kecommendat|ons
Plgh upfronL CosLs unexplolLed/underuLlllsaLlon
of energy sources
lmplemenL pro[ecLs Lhrough ubllc
prlvaLe parLnershlps Lo aLLracL more
lnvesLmenLs ln Lhe Lnergy secLor. Lack of llnanclng Mechanlsms lnefflclency ln admlnlsLraLlon
and regulaLlon.
Lack of SLandards and CuallLy
Assurance
Consumer explolLaLlon and ,

oor servlce dellvery slnce
Lhere are no mlnlmum seL
sLandards expecLed of
servlce provlders ln Lhe
energy secLor.
SLandards and mechanlsms should
be puL ln place Lo monlLor and
ensure quallLy of energy
Lechnologles.
lnadequaLe Legal and
lnsLlLuLlonal lramework
SLandardlse procedure and
lnsLrumenLs for energy lnvesLmenL
ln Lhe counLry.
unsusLalnable use of 8lomass LnvlronmenLal degradaLlon use of alLernaLlve energy sources
llke solar, geoLhermal whlle are noL
harmful Lo Lhe envlronmenL.
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Lack of SufflclenL uaLa on
8esource 8ase

Suppress research ln Lhe
energy secLor,

oor plannlng.

CreaLlng a daLabase for lnformaLlon
collecLed durlng SLudles conducLed
on Lhe resource baseespeclally for
wlnd, solar and geoLhermal energy.
lnadequaLe aLLenLlon Lo 8esearch
and uevelopmenL (8&u)
8udgeL should be allocaLed Lo
lnsLlLuLlons of hlgher learnlng Lo
speclflcally conducL 8&u.
LlmlLed 1echnlcal CapaclLy oor servlce dellvery
underdeveloped MarkeL underuLlllsaLlon of energy
sources
uevelopmenLs of alLernaLlve
unexplolLed energy sources llke
solar, geoLhermal and wlnd energy.
LlmlLed SLakeholder lnvolvemenL LlmlLed markeL poLenLlal 1here ls need for sLakeholder
lnvolvemenL ln Lhe secLor Lo ensure
susLalnablllLy of lnvesLmenLs.
Lack of publlc awareness 1here ls a need for conslderable
publlc awareness-ralslng on lssues
such as Larlff seLLlng, lnvesLmenL
programmes and lnLroducLlon of
new pollcles.


1ab|e 6-24: Lnergy Sources |n Uganda

nydroe|ectr|c ower
Stat|on
Locat|on Status Capac|ty
(MW)
Coverage
kllra P/ Cwenfalls !ln[a CperaLlonal 200 CenLral, LasLern, WesLern
and SouLh wesLern
uganda.
nalubale P 8ulkwe CperaLlonal 180
8u[agall P !ln[a ConsLrucLlon
compleLed ln 2012
100
karuma P klryandongo under
consLrucLlon, due
2018
600 AdequaLe Lo serve Lhe
AlberLlne 8eglon
lslmba P kamull under
consLrucLlon
183
lshasha / kanungu
P
kanungu CperaLlonal 6.6 AdequaLe poLenLlal Lo
sufflclenLly provlde energy
Lo Lhe AlberLlne 8eglon Mubuku 1 P kasese CperaLlonal 3.4
Mubuku 2 P kasese CperaLlonal 13
Mubuku 3 P kasese CperaLlonal 10
Mpanga kamwenge CperaLlonal 18
8useruka / kabalega
P
Polma under
consLrucLlon
9
nyagak 1 P Zombo under
consLrucLlon
3.3
Ayago P nwoya ConLracL a
awarded Lo Lhe
conLracLor ln 2013
600-630
kasllzl 8ukunglrl CperaLlonal 0.3
8ugoye P kasese CperaLlonal 13
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WlLh a comblnaLlon of hydropower (1266MW), solar energy and Lhermal energy, Lhere ls
sufflclenL source of power Lo provlde Lhe AlberLlne reglon wlLh Lhe power needs.

6.S.S Lnergy S|tuat|on Ana|ys|s - Summary
1ab|e 6-2S presenLs a summary of Lhe exlsLlng energy slLuaLlon ln Lhe AlberLlne.

1ab|e 6-2S: S|tuat|on Ana|ys|s Lnergy

Area] keg|on of
Study
Ana|ys|s
Northern ConsLrucLlon of 600MW karuma P wlll provlde enough Lnergy for
peLroleum exploraLon acLlvlLles. 1he pro[ecL ls expecLed Lo be compleLed
by 2018. 1hls wlll supplemenL Lhe already exlsLlng 3.3MW nyagak 1
Pydro sLaLlon ln wesL nlle.

ConsLrucLlon of Ayago P whlch ls under feaslblllLy sLage of
developmenL wlll supplemenL Lnergy supply ln Lhe reglon.

uevelopmenL of Achwa1, Achwa2 and Achwa 3 and nyangak 3 mlnl hydro
sLaLlons should be consldered for fuLure Lnergy generaLlon ln Lhe
norLhern reglon. uevelopmenL of klba, Crlang and Murchlson slLes on Lhe
large 8. nlle should be dlscouraged due Lo adverse envlronmenLal and
soclal lmpacLs.
Centra| 1here ls need for a rellable energy source ln Lhe reglon Lo ald ln oll
exploraLlon acLlvlLes.
lL ls envlsaged LhaL gas from oll exploraLlon wlll be used as a source of
energy for Lhe oll cmpanles and Lhe communlLles ln Lhe AlberLlne,
however, Lhls may noL be susLalnable ln Lhe long run.
karuma and Ayago hydro sLaLlons are Lhe susLalnable energy sources for
whlch Lhese reglon can beneflL.

CeoLhermal as an alLernaLlve energy should be consldered slnce Lhere ls a
poLenLlal slLe for CeoLhermal energy generaLlon aL klblro.

Solar energy should also be evaluaLed because Lhe reglon one of Lhe
hlghesL solar radlaLlon of 3.6 6.8 kWh/m
2
/day ln Lhe counLry.
Southern 1he souLhern reglon ls malnly supplled by Lhe maln grld llnes from kllra
and nalubale Ps.

1here are varlous poLenLlal slLes for hydro power sLaLlons ln Lhe souLhern
reglon such as 8ugoye, Mubuku, kakaka, ngeLe, Slndlra, nduguLu, eLc
whlch could be uLlllsed for Lnergy generaLlon.

CeoLhermal as an alLernaLlve energy should be consldered slnce Lhere are
poLenLlal slLes for CeoLhermal energy generaLlon aL kaLwe and 8uranga.


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6.S.6 Lnergy Inst|tut|ona| Iramework
In order to achieve the Government of Uganda (GoU)s policy objectives for renewable
energy resources, a number of lnsLlLuLlons, each wlLh lLs own mandaLe wlll be lnvolved ln
Lhe lannlng of Lhe AlberLlne Craben.

1he responslble bodles governlng elecLrlflcaLlon lnclude:

M|n|stry of Lnergy and M|nera| Deve|opment (MLMD)
1he overall responslblllLy for energy pollcy lles wlLh Lhe MlnlsLry of Lnergy and Mlneral
uevelopmenL (MLMu), whlch ls Lhe CovernmenL of uganda lead agency ln Lhe energy
secLor. 1he mandaLe of Lhe MLMu ls Lo esLabllsh, promoLe Lhe developmenL, sLraLeglcally
mange and safeguard Lhe raLlonal and susLalnable explolLaLlon and uLlllzaLlon explolLaLlon
and uLlllzaLlon of energy and mlneral resource for soclal and economlc developmenL.

Uganda L|ectr|c|ty Generat|on Company L|m|ted (ULGCL)
uganda LlecLrlclLy CeneraLlon Company LlmlLed (uLCCL) ls Lhe owner of kllra and nalubaale
Pydropower SLaLlons ln !ln[a, whlch were concessloned Lo LSkCM Lo manage and operaLe
for (20) LwenLy years effecLlvely from 2003.

Uganda L|ectr|c|ty 1ransm|ss|on Company L|m|ted (UL1CL)
1he uganda LlecLrlclLy 1ransmlsslon Company LlmlLed (uL1CL) ls Lhe sysLem CperaLor and
owns Lransmlsslon llnes above 33kv. uL1CL ls Lhe bulk suppller and slngle buyer of power for
Lhe naLlonal grld ln uganda. lL ls Lhe purchaser of all lndependenLly generaLed power ln Lhe
counLry LhaL ls fed lnLo Lhe naLlonal grld.

Uganda L|ectr|c|ty D|str|but|on Company L|m|ted (ULDCL)
uganda LlecLrlclLy ulsLrlbuLlon Company LlmlLed (uLuCL) ls Lhe owner of Lhe elecLrlclLy
dlsLrlbuLlon neLwork, whlch was leased Lo uMLML LLd for a LwenLy year perlod, effecLlvely
from 2003.

L|ectr|c|ty kegu|atory Author|ty (LkA)
1he L8A ls esLabllshed by Lhe LlecLrlclLy AcL, 1999 Cap 143 Lo regulaLe Lhe generaLlon,
Lransmlsslon, dlsLrlbuLlon, sale, exporL and lmporL of elecLrlclLy ln uganda.

kura| L|ectr|f|cat|on Agency(kLA)
8ural LlecLrlflcaLlon Agency (8LA) ls Lhe SecreLarlaL of Lhe 8ural LlecLrlflcaLlon 8oard (8L8),
whlch manages Lhe 8ural LlecLrlflcaLlon lund (8Ll). 8LA ls responslble for developlng and
promoLlng rural elecLrlflcaLlon. 1he 8ural LlecLrlflcaLlon 8oard (8L8), as Lhe governlng body
of 8LA, provldes subsldes Lo supporL rural elecLrlflcaLlon pro[ecLs.

D|rectorate of Water kesources Management
1he ulrecLoraLe of WaLer 8esources ManagemenL under Lhe MlnlsLry of WaLer and
LnvlronmenL ls responslble for managlng Lhe waLer resources of uganda ln an lnLegraLed
and susLalnable manner ln order Lo secure and provlde waLer of adequaLe quanLlLy and
quallLy for all soclal and economlc needs for Lhe presenL and Lhe fuLure. lL ls Lhe agency LhaL
lssues Surface WaLer AbsLracLlon and ConsLrucLlon ermlLs Lo ro[ecL uevelopers.
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6.6 Informat|on and Commun|cat|on 1echno|ogy

6.6.1 Introduct|on
lC1 can be broadly deflned as Lechnologles LhaL provlde an enabllng envlronmenL for
physlcal lnfrasLrucLure and servlces developmenL of appllcaLlons for generaLlon,
Lransmlsslon, processlng, sLorlng and dlssemlnaLlng lnformaLlon ln all forms. 1hese
forms lnclude, volce, LexL, daLa, graphlcs and vldeo.

1here are a number of communlcaLlon sysLems ln uganda, lncludlng Lelephones, radlo and
Lelevlslon broadcasLs, lnLerneL, mall, and several newspapers. 1he use of phones and Lhe
lnLerneL ln uganda has rapldly lncreased ln Lhe lasL few years.

1e|ecommun|cat|on
ln uganda Lhere are 7 LelecommunlcaLlon companles l.e. M1n uganda, AlrLel uganda,
uganda 1elecom, Crange uganda, Smlle 1elecom, k2 1elecom and SmarL 1elecom uganda.
1he AlberLlne reglon ln parLlcular, Lhe maln LelecommunlcaLlon servlce provlders are M1n
uganda and AlrLel uganda accounLlng for more Lhan 80 of Lhe users ln Lhe reglon.

kad|o and 1e|ev|s|on broadcasts
1here are a number of radlo and 1v sLaLlons ln Lhe reglon. 1he uganda 8roadcasLlng
CorporaLlon ls Lhe publlc broadcasLlng sLaLlon.

kad|o and 1e|ev|s|on Stat|ons |n the Abert|ne as of December 2011

1ab|e 6-26: kad|o Stat|ons |n the A|bert|ne Graben

keg|on kad|o stat|ons
Northern 8adlo aldha, 8alnbow 8adlo, Arua Cne, 8adlo Marla, 8adlo acls, nlle
lM, 8rlLlsh 8roadcasLlng CorporaLlon (88C), Pere ls Llfe (PlL), 8adlo
koboko, Amanl lM, Madada lM, volce of Lhe nlle lM (von)
Centra| 8adlo Polma, LlberLy lM, Splce 8adlo, 8adlo Marla, volce of 8unyoro,
1op 8adlo, new Llfe Church, 8unyoro 8roadcasLlng servlce (8.8.S)
8rlLlsh 8roadcasLlng CorporaLlon (88C), uganda 8roadcasLlng
CorporaLlon (u8C), 8adlo klLara, uganda 8ural uevelop. & 1ralnlng
rogramme (u8u1)
Southern 8adlo kamwenge, LndlglLo lM, 8eLLer lM, 8wenzorl lM, 10 CounLles
8adlo WesL, Culde 8adlo, kyen[o[o lM, Llfe lM , kyen[o[o uevelopmenL
8adlo (ku8), Messlah 8adlo, uganda 8roadcasLlng CorporaLlon (u8C),
volce of 1oro, 8adlo Marla, Crane lM, 8lM, Crace 8adlo, kanungu lM,
Way of Llfe 8adlo, volce of 8ukunglrl, PunLer lM.





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1e|ev|s|on stat|ons |n the A|bert|ne reg|on

1ab|e 6-27: 1e|ev|s|on Stat|ons |n the A|bert|ne Graben

keg|on 1e|ev|s|on
norLhern 8orn lree 1echnologles neLwork (81n) and Wavah 8roadcasLlng Servlce
1v (W8S)
CenLral uganda 8roadcasLlng CorporaLlon (u8C) and 8unyoro 1v
SouLhern Wavah 8roadcasLlng Servlce 1v (W8S), PunLers 1v, n1v, uganda
8roadcasLlng CorporaLlon (u8C)

osta| Serv|ces
SLrucLure of osLal servlces osLal servlces ln uganda are currenLly provlded by uganda osL
LLd (uL), a Ma[or CperaLor wholly owned by Lhe CovernmenL and
22
LwenLy flve (23)
llcensed prlvaLe courler companles.

1he acLlvlLles of Lhe prlvaLe courlers are malnly cenLred wlLhln and beLween Lhe ma[or urban
cenLres, whlle uL has Lhe obllgaLlon of coverlng Lhe whole counLry. CurrenLly, uL has a
neLwork of 12 8eglonal Pead osL Cfflces, 70 ueparLmenLal osL Cfflces, 103 Sub-osL
Cfflces, over 1623 SLamp vendors and 74,360 lnsLalled prlvaLe posL offlce boxes. Cnly 3 of
uL mall ls dellvered Lo home or offlce addresses and Lhe resL of Lhe dellverles are made
Lhrough prlvaLe leLLerboxes locaLed aL osL Cfflces scaLLered LhroughouL Lhe counLry.

Ugandas domesLlc leLLer volumes are decreaslng aL a fasLer raLe compared Lo lnLernaLlonal
Lrends, hence calllng for a subsLanLlal lncremenL ln posLal lnvesLmenLs. 1hese lnvesLmenLs
should focus on posLal servlces such as LMS, arcels, Money Crders, AdverLlslng, LoglsLlcs
and Cnllne Servlces whlch are showlng poslLlve growLh Lrends.

6.6.2 I1C 1argets ] |anned Deve|opments
1he followlng LargeLs are lnLended Lo be achleved by 2017 accordlng Lo Lhe
1elecommunlcaLlons ollcy 2012 and Lhese are as follows:

lnsLlLuLlonal uaLa Access olnLs of speeds noL less Lhan 2Mbps: lor all unlversal
rlmary LducaLlon schools and osL rlmary lnsLlLuLlons, all LducaLlonal lnsLlLuLlons,
CovernmenL healLh unlLs aL LClll, AgrlculLural exLenslon unlLs and oLher publlc
lnsLlLuLlons,
AL leasL one ubllc uaLa Access olnL of speed noL less Lhan 2Mbps wlLhln each
parlsh/ (LCll) of Lhe AdmlnlsLraLlve dlsLrlcLs of uganda,
ubllc volce Access olnLs wlLhln each Local Councll flrsL Level (LC1)/vlllage of Lhe
AdmlnlsLraLlve ulsLrlcLs of uganda,
lnLerconnecLlon of all Local CovernmenL headquarLers and 1own Counclls by
broadband llnks as parL of Lhe naLlonal uaLa 8ackbone,
A unlversal servlce access LargeL of 60 of Lhe pro[ecLed populaLlon, up from Lhe
currenL 40,

22
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lnLerneL connecLlon aL speeds greaLer Lhan 312kbps Lo aL leasL 23 of households
,(lnclude currenL domesLlc subscrlpLlon flgures)
A cenLrallzed mechanlsm Lo plan, bulld and manage all publlc communlcaLlons
lnfrasLrucLure ln a coordlnaLed manner, and
ParmonlsaLlon of Lhe uganda CommunlcaLlons AcL, LlecLronlc Medla AcL and any
oLher relevanL laws.

6.6.3 I1C Cha||enges and kecommendat|ons
Whlle slgnlflcanL success has been achleved ln Lhe communlcaLlon secLor, Lhe followlng
challenges remaln:

1ab|e 6-28: Cha||enges and kecommendat|ons |n the Commun|cat|on Sector

Cha||enges Imp||cat|on kecommendat|on
Plgh CosL (unaffordable) of
LelecommunlcaLlons servlces.
LxplolLaLlon of consumers by
LelecommunlcaLlon companles.
uCC should monlLor and regulaLe cosLs of
LelecommunlcaLlon servlces.
Lack of a CompeLlLlon law 8evlew consumer proLecLlon laws and
regulaLlons perLalnlng lC1.
Lack of cusLomlzed
communlcaLlon devlces.
non user frlendly
communlcaLlon devlces.
CusLomlze Lelecom devlces Lo local
languages slnce Lhe ma[orlLy of devlces
are ln forelgn languages LhaL are noL easlly
undersLood by Lhe ma[orlLy of Lhe local
populaLlon.
non parLlclpaLlon ln roducLlon ugandans wlll remaln
consumers of Lechnology.

needs of Lhe local populaLlon
are noL addressed.
lnvesL ln research ln Lhe lC1 secLor Lo
enhance developmenL and lnnovaLlon of
new producLs and servlces.
Low lnvesLmenL ln
communlcaLlon lnfrasLrucLure.
lnadequaLe regulaLlon and
monlLorlng by regulaLory
bodles.
lncrease lnvesLmenL ln lC1 lnfrasLrucLure.
Cverlapplng mandaLe of Lhe
8egulaLory bodles.
8evlew funcLlons of uCC and 8C Lo
ellmlnaLe any overlap ln responslblllLles
and duLles.
Lack of ubllc lC1 Awareness LxplolLaLlon of consumers


ubllc lC1 Awareness Campalgns on Lhe
vasL poLenLlal beneflLs, and dangers, of
LelecommunlcaLlons servlces ln order Lo
enable Lhem make lnformed cholces.
Lack of adequaLe LlecLrlclLy LlmlLed degree of coverage
and access Lo moblle
communlcaLlons servlces.
SupporL energy programmes llke 8ural
LlecLrlflcaLlon.






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6.6.4 I1C Lega| and Inst|tut|ona| framework
Lega| Iramework
1hese are Lhe legal provlslons appllcable Lo Lhe lnformaLlon and communlcaLlon secLor.

1he Uganda Commun|cat|ons Act
1he uganda CommunlcaLlons AcL, Cap 106 (Laws of uganda) provldes for,
1he resLrucLurlng of Lhe CommunlcaLlons lndusLry ln uganda by esLabllshlng Lhe
uganda CommunlcaLlons Commlsslon, provldlng for lLs funcLlons and admlnlsLraLlon,
provldlng for Lhe lncorporaLlon of uganda 1elecom LlmlLed and uganda osL LlmlLed,
Lo llberallze and lnLroduce compeLlLlon ln Lhe lndusLry,
LsLabllshmenL of Lhe rlghLs and duLles of Lhe sLaLe, enLerprlses, lnsLlLuLlons,
organlzaLlons and naLural persons ln Lhe use and managemenL of means of
communlcaLlon, ln Lhe esLabllshmenL and managemenL of communlcaLlon neLworks.

1he L|ectron|c Med|a Act
1he LlecLronlc Medla AcL, Cap 104 (Laws of uganda) provldes for,
LsLabllshmenL of Lhe 8roadcasLlng Councll Lo llcense and regulaLe radlo and Lelevlslon
seLs, Lo amend and consolldaLe Lhe law relaLlng Lo elecLronlc medla and Lo provlde for
oLher relaLed maLLers.
1he mlnlmum broadcasLlng sLandards for broadcasLers and provldes for Lhe funcLlons
of Lhe Councll.

1he Nat|ona| Informat|on 1echno|ogy Author|ty-Uganda Act
naLlonal lnformaLlon 1echnology AuLhorlLy, uganda AcL 2008, provldes for,
1he esLabllshmenL of Lhe naLlonal lnformaLlon 1echnology AuLhorlLy, uganda and lLs
ob[ecLs, funcLlons, composlLlon, managemenL, flnances and oLher relaLed maLLers.
1he AuLhorlLy Lo seL, monlLor and regulaLe sLandards for lnformaLlon Lechnology
plannlng, acqulslLlon, lmplemenLaLlon, dellvery, supporL, organlzaLlon, susLenance,
rlsk managemenL, daLa proLecLlon, securlLy.

Inst|tut|ona| Iramework

M|n|stry of Informat|on and Commun|cat|ons 1echno|ogy
1he MlnlsLry of lC1 was esLabllshed ln !une 2006 wlLh a mandaLe of,
rovldlng sLraLeglc and Lechnlcal leadershlp, overall coordlnaLlon supporL and
advocacy on all maLLers of pollcy, laws, regulaLlons and sLraLegy for Lhe lC1 secLor.
Lnsurlng susLalnable, efflclenL and effecLlve developmenL, harness ln Lhe uLlllzaLlon of
lC1 ln all spheres Lo enable achlevemenL naLlonal developmenL goals.

Uganda Commun|cat|ons Comm|ss|on (UCC)
1he uganda CommunlcaLlons Commlsslon was esLabllshed by Lhe uganda CommunlcaLlons
AcL Lo among oLher Lhlngs,
lmplemenL Lhe ob[ecLlves of Lhe AcL,
MonlLor, lnspecL, llcense and regulaLe LelecommunlcaLlon servlces,
AllocaLe and llcense Lhe use of radlo frequency specLrum and Lo process appllcaLlons
for Lhe allocaLlon of saLelllLe orblLal locaLlons,
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8roadcast|ng Counc|| (8C)
8roadcasLlng Councll was esLabllshed by secLlon 10 of Lhe LlecLronlc Medla AcL Lo among
oLher Lhlngs:
CoordlnaLe and exerclse conLrol and Lo supervlse broadcasLlng acLlvlLles,
SeL eLhlcal broadcasLlng sLandards,
ArblLraLe ln consulLaLlon wlLh Lhe Medla Councll on dlspuLes beLween CperaLors of
broadcasLlng sLaLlons, and 1he publlc and operaLors of broadcasLlng sLaLlons,
Advlce CovernmenL on all maLLers relaLlng Lo broadcasLlng,

Nat|ona| Informat|on 1echno|ogy Author|ty (NI1A-U)
The National Information Technology Authority Ugandas mandate is to coordinate, promote
and monlLor l1 developmenL wlLhln Lhe conLexL of naLlonal soclal and economlc
developmenL.

UIC1
uganda lnsLlLuLe of lnformaLlon and CommunlcaLlons 1echnology ls mandaLed Lo provlde
Lralnlng lnLervenLlons ln Lhe fleld of lnformaLlon and CommunlcaLlons 1echnology so as Lo
supporL naLlonal sLraLeglc ob[ecLlve of lncreaslng Lhe use of lC1s LhroughouL Lhe counLry ln
order Lo enhance developmenL.

1e|ecommun|cat|ons Cperators
CurrenLly Lhe secLor has Lhree ma[or caLegorles of llcense holders provldlng
1elecommunlcaLlon servlces ln uganda,
Lhe naLlonal 1elecommunlcaLlon CperaLor Llcense whlch has 2 llcense holders,
1he ubllc lnfrasLrucLure rovlder wlLh 26 llcense holders, lll)
ubllc Servlce rovlder (volce and daLa) wlLh 37 llcense holders, and CapaclLy resale
wlLh 9 llcense holders.


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OK8$4"4P5'4,4(-J Q%&$-
5$) ,B( !'2(/,4$(

Introduct|on
1he AlberLlne's urban cenLres - MunlclpallLles and 1owns ln
parLlcular - are playlng an lncreaslngly lmporLanL role ln Lhe
Craben. 8ural-urbanmlgraLlon ls acceleraLlng Lhelr slzes,
whlch ln Lurn are creaLlng plannlng and servlclng challenges
Lo governmenL. 1he urban cenLres are Lhe economlc and
governance hubs. 1hls ChapLer provldes an overvlew of how
Lhese cenLres are developlng, Lhelr currenL and poLenLlal
roles ln Lhe AlberLlne, and Lhe plannlng and developmenL
challenges Lhey face.

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7.1 Introduct|on- Urban Deve|opment

uganda ls aL lLs early sLages of urbanlzaLlon, wlLh a ma[orlLy of lLs populaLlon sLlll llvlng ln
rural seLLlngs. WlLh Lhe dlscovery of oll ln Lhe norLhern and WesLern parLs of uganda, Lhe
raLe of urbanlzaLlon ls expecLed Lo lncrease Lo an average of 3.2
23
whlch ls consldered a
hlgh urbanlzaLlon raLe. urban economles are consldered Lo be englnes of developmenL,
however, wlLh poor plannlng urban problems such as prollferaLlon of slums, lnadequaLe
lnfrasLrucLure, envlronmenLal degradaLlon and lnsecurlLy emerge hlnderlng economlc
growLh. roperly planned and managed urban cenLres enhance access Lo baslc servlces and
sLlmulaLes economlc growLh.
7.2 Urban Areas |n the A|bert|ne Graben

1he Local CovernmenL AcL Cap 243 empowers Lhe MlnlsLry of Local CovernmenL Lo declare
an area urban lf lL saLlsfles Lhe followlng crlLerla:

A mlnlmum of 23,000 people for a 1own Councll
A mlnlmum of 100,000 people for a MunlclpallLy, and
A mlnlmum of 300,000 people for a ClLy.

urban areas should have a MasLer lan addresslng land-uses and lnfrasLrucLure. Local
CovernmenLs are empowered by Lhe Local CovernmenL AcL, 1997 Lo generaLe revenue
Lhrough local Laxes, buL wlLh consulLaLlon and approval from Lhe MlnlsLry of Local
CovernmenL and/or parllamenL. Powever, hlgher levels of governmenL reLaln slgnlflcanL
expendlLure conLrol lurLher Lo Lhese crlLerla all ulsLrlcL PeadquarLers are consldered Lo be
1owns under Lhe AcL. 1hls has seen small cenLers wlLh less Lhan 23,000 people declared as
1own Counclls as new dlsLrlcLs were creaLed. 1ab|e 7-1 oulLlnes Lhe, urban hlerarchy ln
uganda.

1he AlberLlne Craben has no meLropollLan area buL has, under Lhe uganda vlslon 2040,
deslgnaLed 8eglonal ClLles lnlcudlng Arua as Lhe norLhern cenLre, Polma as Lhe oll cenLre,
and lorL orLal as Lhe Lourlsm cenLre.

1ab|e 7-1: Urban n|erachy |n Uganda

n|erarchy Urban
Growth
Centre
Adm|n.
Structure
kemarks opu|.
Dens|ty
Land
Area
Sq km
Labour
Iorce |n
Non-
Agr|cu|ture
1 naLlonal
CrowLh
ConurbaLlon
kampala
MeLropollLan
Area
MeLropollLan
uevelopmenL
AuLhorlLy
May conslsL of
several Local
CovernmenLs
20,000 100+ 100
2 8eglonal
CrowLh
ConurbaLlon
8eglonal
ClLles
8eglonal ClLy
Councll
1o serve a
caLchmenL of
several sub-
13,000 80 99 90

23
urafL naLlonal urban ollcy, 2013
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reglons
3 Sub-8eglonal
CrowLh Area
MunlclpallLy Munlclpal
Councll
1o serve a
caLchmenL of
several dlsLrlcLs
10,000 40- 79 80
4 ulsLrlcL
CrowLh Area
1own 1own Councll 1o serve a
caLchmenL of
several counLles
7,300 20-39 70
3 CounLy
CrowLh Area
1own 8oard 1own 8oard Serves a
caLchmenL of
several sub-
counLles.
3,000 10-19 60
6 Sub-CounLy
CrowLh Area
1ownshlp/
CrowLh
CenLre.
1ownshlp
ManagemenL
CommlLLee
1o serve as
CenLre for Agro-
processlng ln
each S/CounLy
2,300 6-9 8elow 30
7 arlsh CrowLh
Area
Ma[or
seLLlemenL
CenLre
arlsh
ManagemenL
CommlLLee
1hese are
nucleaLed
seLLlemenLs for
people lnvolved
ln commerclal
agrlculLure.
2,000 3-3 10
8 vlllage
CrowLh Areas
Mlnor
SeLLlemenL
CenLre
vlllage
ManagemenL
CommlLLee
1,000 1-2 10
Source: uganda urafL naLlonal urban ollcy, 2013

1he dlsLrlbuLlon of large, medlum and small Lown ls overall largely deLermlned by economlc
acLlvlLles ln Lhe area as well as pollLlcal wlll-power. ollLlcally dlsLrlcL headquarLers are
usually selecLed and governmenL cenLers and servlces locaLed Lhereln aLLracLlng more
people and developlng fasLer. 1he dlsLrlbuLlon of small Lowns ln Lhe Craben ls llnked wlLh
Lhe level and dlsLrlbuLlon of agrlculLure acLlvlLy, Lhe more prosperous Lhe agrlculLural
acLlvlLles ln Lhe hlnLerland Lhe more Lhe demand for urban servlces and growLh of Lhe Lowns.
Medlum and Large Lowns/clLles are llnked Lo oLher economlc acLlvlLles and funcLlons. 1he
hlerarchy of economlcs of scale found ln Lhe manufacLure of dlfferenL producLs along wlLh
Lhe agglomeraLlon economles Lhen lnfluences Lhe hlerarchy of Lhe slze of Lhe Lowns. ln Lhls
conLexL each urban cenLer has lLs own unlque funcLlon, Lhese funcLlons Lend Lo complemenL
each oLher and Lhls ls evldenL ln Lhe Craben. 1ab|e 7-2 presenLs a llsL of MunlclpallLles and
1own Counclls. Map 7-1 hlghllghLs key elemenLs of Lhe AlberLlne's MunlclpallLles.

1ab|e 7-2: Mun|c|pa||t|es and 1own Counc||s |n the A|bert|ne Graben

D|str|ct Mun|c|pa||ty 1own Counc||
1 Ad[umanl Ad[umanl
2 Amuru Amuru
3 Arua Arua
4 8uhwe[u nsllka
3 8ullsa 8ullsa
6 8undlbugyo 8undlbugyo
nyahuka
7 8ushenyl 8ushenyl-lshaka 8ugongl
8 Polma Polma klgorobya
9 lbanda lbanda
lshongoro
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8ushango
10 kabarole lorL orLal klbllLo
8wlml
kyalLamba
8ubona
11 kamwenge kamwenge
12 kanungu kanungu
klhlhl
8uLogoLa
kambuga
13 kasese kasese Plma
Lake kaLwe-kabaLoro
Mpondwe-Lhublrlha
14 klbaale kagadl
klbaale
13 klryandongo klryandogo
8ewyale
klgumba
16 kyen[o[o kyen[o[o
kaLooke
kyarusozl
8uLunduzl
17 Maslndl Maslndl
18 MlLooma kashenshero
MlLooma
19 Moyo Moyo
20 nebbl nebbl
akwach

21
nLoroko klbuuku
8weblsengo
karuguLu
kanara
22 nwoya Anaka
23 8ublrlzl kaLerera
24 8ukunglrl 8unkunglrl 8ublrlzl

7.3 Status of |ann|ng of Urban Areas
1he CovernmenL of uganda Lhrough Lhe MlnlsLry of Lands, Pouslng and urban uevelopmenL
has Laken Lhe lnlLlaLlve Lo ensure all urban areas are planned as sLlpulaLed ln Lhe hyslcal
lannlng AcL, 2010. 1hls AcL decenLrallzed plannlng Lo local auLhorlLles, who are now
mandaLed Lo prepare SLrucLure lans and deLalled hyslcal uevelopmenL lans for Lhelr
areas of [urlsdlcLlon. 1he MlnlsLry ls responslble for Lhe approval of Lhese local plans wlLh
Lechnlcal advlce from Lhe naLlonal hyslcal lannlng 8oard. 1he ma[or urban cenLres LhaL are
belng over-vlewed lnclude: Arua, Polma, lorL orLal, Maslndl, kasese, 8ukunglrl and
8ushenyl-lshaka MunlclpallLles. noL all of Lhese Lowns have plans avallable, some are sLlll
under preparaLlon whlle for some Lowns, such as Arua, Lhe plans were re[ecLed and Lhe local
auLhorlLles are yeL Lo prepare new plans.
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Map 7-1: Mun|c|pa||t|es |n the A|bert|ne


uaLa Source: u8CS
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1ab|e 7-3: key Ieatures of the Mun|c|pa||t|es |n the A|bert|ne Graben

Mun|c|pa||ty opu|.
2002
opu|.
2014
Ma[or Lconom|c Act|v|t|es ko|e |n the A|bert|ne
1. Arua


43929 93,329 - nCC base malnly for rellef and ald Lo SouLh Sudan and u8C
Congo.
- lanned nlle Lco-ClLy
- AgrlculLure


- Local governmenL cenLre
- Maln non-governmenLal hub servlng as Lhe hub for ald
organlzaLlon offerlng humanlLarlan ald Lo SouLh Sudan and
u8C Congo.
- 1he Lown ls earmarked Lo be a reglonal clLy whlch wlll offer
hlgh order servlces Lo Lhe reglon
- lL serves as a Lradlng cenLer reglonally as well as servlng Lhe
u8C Congo and SouLh Sudan.
2. no|ma



27,934 106,000 - 1rade and commerce
- Small lndusLrles:- graln mlllers and saw mllls
- 1ransporL secLor
- 1ourlsm: 8unyoro klngdom alace (karuzllka)
- Cll exploraLlon and developmenL of oll reflnery are
expecLed Lo boosL Lhe developmenL of Lhe Lown ln Lhe
near fuLure.
- AdmlnlsLraLlve role- ulsLrlcL PeadquarLers Lo Polma
ulsLrlcL
- Cll hub wlLh planned oll reflnery and huge deposlLs ln Lhe
Polma ulsLrlcL
- lL ls envlsloned Lo be one of Lhe sLraLeglc clLles under Lhe
uganda vlslon 2040, lL wlll serve as Lhe maln oll clLy
3. Iort orta|



40,993 32,604 - MarkeL Lown slLuaLed beLween 8wenzorl MounLalns,
Cueen LllzabeLh naLlonal ark and klbale naLlonal ark.
- 1ourlsm ls maln source of lncome for Lraders, employed
people ln Lhe parks and hoLels

- AdmlnlsLraLlve hub for kabarole ulsLrlcL
- SeaL for Lhe 1oro klngdom (Cmukama alace)
- 8eglonal referral hosplLal
- LducaLlonal Pub wlLh several hlgher lnsLlLuLlons of learnlng
- Currency cenLre for Lhe reglon wlLh Lhe lorL orLal
Currency Center operated by Bank of Uganda, Ugandas
CenLral 8ank.
4. Mas|nd|



28,300

89,323 - 1rade and Commerce
- Small lndusLrles- graln mllllng, processlng of hldes and
sklns. LargesL lndusLry ls Lhe klnyara Sugar LLd locaLed [usL
ouLslde Lhe Lown
24

- 1ourlsm- ln nelghbourlng Maslndl naLlonal ark and oLher
LourlsL areas and hoLels.
- AdmlnlsLraLlve hub-PeadquarLers for Maslndl ulsLrlcL
- 1ransporL Pub-Maslndl AlrporL
-
S. kasese



33,907 131,300 - 1rade and Commerce
- 1ourlsm. CaLeway Lo Cueen LllzabeLh naLlonal ark and
Lhe 8uwenzorl naLlonal ark.
- Mlnlng- Copper mlnlng LhaL Lakes place [usL ouL of Lhe
- AdmlnlsLraLlve hub- kasese ulsLrlcL PeadquarLers.
- 1ransporL hub- recelves LranslL passengers and goods Lo
kampala as lL ls connecLed by a relaLlvely good all weaLher
road and rallways. kasese AlrporL recelves mosLly LourlsLs

24
SLraLeglc CrlLerla for 8ural lnvesLmenL ln roducLlvlLy (SC8l) a uSAlu funded program
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Lown.
- lndusLrlal - kasese CobalL Company LLd belng Lhe maln
lndusLry LhaL exLracLs cobalL from Lhe sludge lefL afLer
copper ls exLracLed. 1here ls also brewlng of a varlanL of
Lhe Waragl, an alcohollc splrlL. kllembe Mlnes LLd for
copper exLracLlon.
- Pydropower planL operaLed by kllembe Mlnes LhaL
supplles power Lo Lhe Lown and offers employmenL.

from LnLebbe AlrporL and ls seL for upgrade lnLo
lnLernaLlonal avlaLlon sLandards.
6. kukung|r|



12,763 20,368 - 1rade and Commerce
- AgrlculLure malnly ually farmlng.
- 1ourlsm- nearby 8wlndl lmpeneLrable loresL naLlonal
ark, Cueen LllzabeLh naLlonal ark, lllmbo PoL Sprlngs
and Mlnera PoL Sprlngs.
- AdmlnlsLraLlve hub for 8ukunglrl ulsLrlcL
- lood baskeL Lown has one of Lhe largesL fresh produce
markeLs ln Lhe reglon.
7. 8usheny|-Ishaka



22,422 38,808 - 1rade and Commerce.
- lnsurance and 8anklng
- AdmlnlsLraLlve Pub- 8ushenyl ulsLrlcL
- LducaLlonal Pub


1ab|e 7-4: Status of |ann|ng of the Ma[or 1owns |n the A|bert|ne Graben

Mun|c|pa||ty Structure
|an
Ma[or Issues

|an roposa|s,
ro[ect|ons
keferences to A|bert|ne
L|nkages
Comments on |an
Status

1. Arua


none
2. no|ma



Avallable - Land 1enure sysLem ln Lhe
Lown lnclude cusLomary land
Lenure whlch ls a challenge Lo
plan and manage developmenL
- oor wasLe managemenL
whlch LhreaLs Lhe healLh, safeLy
and polluLes Lhe envlronmenL
- oor and/or lnadequaLe
lnfrasLrucLure faclllLles
- unemploymenL
- roposed commerclal sub-
cenLres ln klbaLl and
kyarwabuyamba for lower-
order goods.
- 1he plan pro[ecLed
lncreased populaLlon malnly
due Lo oll acLlvlLles and Lo Lhls
effecL proposed Lo reserve
1024 hecLare for resldenLlal
developmenL
- As Lhe lanned SLraLeglc Cll
ClLy Polma wlll serve a sLraLeglc
role ln Lhe reglon. 1he
upgradlng of lnfrasLrucLure and
provlslon of more houslng ls ln
llne wlLh Lhls vlslon.

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| 183

- uncoordlnaLed urban
developmenL and land
speculaLlon
- 1he plan anLlclpaLes Lhe
upgrade of Polma lnLo a
munlclpallLy and lnLo clLy. lL
provldes for admlnlsLraLlve
space ln 3 dlvlslons:
kyarwabuyamba, klbaLl and
klganda ll
- 1he plan earmarked new
lndusLrlal slLes for heavy
lndusLrles ln klbaLl.
- A lower level healLh cenLre
has belng proposed Lo caLer for
ouLpaLlenL ln Lhe Lown as
currenLly Lhe referral hosplLal
serves Lhls,
- new recreaLlonal faclllLles
lnclude: sLadlum and golf
course and rehablllLaLlon of
exlsLlng open spaces
- upgrade exlsLlng
lnfrasLrucLure faclllLles and
open up roads new cemeLery
also proposed as well as a flre
sLaLlon.
3. Iort orta|



Cnly Map no
reporL

4. Mas|nd|



Avallable - oor solld wasLe
managemenL,
- Cround waLer polluLlon.
Malnly from plL laLrlnes whlch
are dug deep near Lhe waLer
Lable as well as oll from garages
and peLrol sLaLlons whlch lack
oll lnLercepLors,
- Commerclal sub-cenLres
proposed Lo ease Lhe rlbbon
developmenL whlch
compromlses Lhe maln road
funcLlon
- roposed PealLh faclllLles
by Lhe governmenL as Lhe Lown
currenLly relles on prlvaLe
- ConservaLlon of
envlronmenLal fraglle areas ls
key ln Lhe survlval of Lhe
nearby Murchlson lalls ark.
- 1he Lown holds one of Lhe
ma[or correcLlon faclllLy/prlson
LhaL serves Lhe reglon as well.
- upgrade of Lhe alrporL wlll

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| 186

- LncroachmenL of publlc
land and envlronmenLal fraglle
areas,
- ConsLralned land resources
wlLhln Lhe munlclpallLy Lhough
lL occuples a large area, mosL of
lL ls under lnsLlLuLlons whlch
dont really serve the town
such as Maslndl rlson,
- unemploymenL.
faclllLles
- 8eclalm weLlands and
foresLs for conservaLlon
open up Lhe area for more
Lourlsm and serve as a
LransporL hub for Lhe oll
explorers and lnvesLors ln Lhe
reglon
S. kasese



Avallable - 1he Lown developmenL ls
unplanned and uncoordlnaLed
characLerlzed by rlbbon
developmenL along Lhe maln
road.
- lnadequaLe lnfrasLrucLure
faclllLles
- 1he Lown ls prone Lo
floodlng from waLer runnlng
from Lhe 8uwenzorl mounLalns
- Plgh raLes of
unemploymenL
- LnvlronmenLal degradaLlon
malnly due Lo deforesLaLlon for
blofuel
- 1he kasese alrsLrlp ls
compromlsed by unplanned
developmenLs LhaL surrounds lL
poslng a challenge for lLs
expanslon.
- roposed mlxed-used
developmenL ln Lhe Lown
- roposes hlerarchy of
decenLrallzed commerclal sub-
cenLres Lo Lake servlces nearer
Lhe people Lhls lncludes areas
ouLslde Lhe Lown
- roposes addlLlonal
lndusLrlal slLes Lo aLLracL more
lndusLrles aparL from copper
and cobalL.
- SeLs aslde land for
developmenL of LerLlary
educaLlonal faclllLles.
- reservaLlon of Lhe naLural
envlronmenL on Lhe mounLaln
and lLs lower slopes.
- lanned upgrade of Lhe
kasese AlrporL wlll furLher
enhance the towns strategic
roles as a LransporLaLlon hub.
- lnvesLmenL ln new
lndusLrles wlll creaLe
employmenL for Lhe enLlre
reglon

6. kukung|r|

noL Avallable
7. 8usheny|-
Ishaka

Map only no
reporL
-

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| 187

7.4 Urban Deve|opment Issues, Cpportun|t|es and Constra|nts
1he maln cross cuLLlng plannlng lssues ln Lhe ma[or urban cenLres ln Lhe AlberLlne are:
lnadequaLe lnfrasLrucLure, land Lenure and land dlspuLes and unconLrolled developmenL. A
sample of urbanlslng cenLres ln Lhe AlberLlne ls presenLed below wlLh commenLs on Lhe
currenL plans, plannlng needs, lssues and opporLunlLles. A summary of urban cenLre lssues,
opporLunlLles and consLralnLs ls provlded ln 1ab|e 7-S followlng Lhese sample analyses.

7.4.1 Arua
Arua is set to be a regional city in the Northern Albertine Graben. The citys strategic location
offers a hub from whlch non-governmenLal ald agencles operaLe from Lo asslsL war Lorn
counLrles: u8C Congo and SouLh Sudan. 1he Arua AlrporL ls approxlmaLely 19km from Lhe
Ugandas border with the Democratic Republic of Congo and about 32km from the border
wlLh SouLh Sudan ls Lhe one of Lhe flve upcounLry alrporLs auLhorlzed Lo handle cross-border
alr Lrafflc. 1he alrporL ls Lhe currenLly under redevelopmenL Lo upgrade lL Lo an lnLernaLlonal
avlaLlon sLandards. 1he munlclpallLy upgrade Lo a reglonal clLy sLaLus wlll see lLs area
lncrease, Lhls wlll absorb all Lhe developmenL whlch has sprawled ouL of Lhe deslgnaLed
munlclpal boundarles. lL wlll also open Arua Lown for more economlc developmenL.

1he mosL slgnlflcanL land-use change ln Lhe Lown ls Lhe degazeLLmenL of Lhe 8arlfa loresL for
Lhe planned nlle Lco-ClLy. I|gure 7-1. 1he Local AuLhorlLy noLed LhaL due Lo consLraln of
geLLlng land for furLher urban developmenL, lL had proved dlfflculL Lo geL ln lnvesLors ln Lhe
Lown. 1he planned Lco-ClLy ls envlsloned Lo aLLracL lnvesLors ln Lhe Lown and provlde
servlces such a recreaLlonal faclllLles whlch currenLly are lacklng ln Lhe Lown for lnsLance a
modern sLadlum and a zoo. lL wlll also offer space for lndusLrlal and commerclal uses as well
as houslng. I|gure 7-2.

I|gure 7-1: roposed "Lco-C|ty, Arua"



Source: Arua Local CovernmenL
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| 188

I|gure 7-2: Arua |ann|ng


Source: lmage Coogle

7.4.2 no|ma
Polma Lown ls locaLed ln Polma dlsLrlcL abouL 230km from kampala ClLy, lL ls Lhe
headquarLers of Polma dlsLrlcL and 8unyoro-klLara klngdom. Conslderable amounLs of
commerclally vlable oll deposlLs have belng dlscovered ln Polma dlsLrlcL and Lhe
nelghbourlng 8ulllsa ulsLrlcL, Lhls has greaLly changed Lhe Lown. 1he Lown has experlenced
hlgher raLe of developmenL wlLh new developmenLs sprouLlng ouL ln Lhe Lown and
lmmedlaLe surroundlngs, Lhe Lown has also experlenced a conslderable lnflux of mlgranLs
looklng for beLLer economlc prospecLs, Lhe land-uses are changlng fasL wlLh hlgh-rlse
bulldlngs comlng up Lo replace prevlously low-rlse developmenL or flll up vacanL land. 1he
Lown has a slgnlflcanL porLlon of undeveloped land and under-uLlllzed land whlch can be
used for furLher urban developmenL. 1he Lown serves Lhe reglon by lLs referral hosplLal,
recreaLlonal faclllLles and wlll soon become Lhe sLraLeglc oll clLy. I|gure 7-3 and I|gure 7-4.

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| 189

I|gure 7-3: no|ma |ann|ng


Source: lmage Coogle


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| 190

I|gure 7-4: no|ma Structure |an


Source: SLrucLure lan from MLPuu


7.4.3 Iort orta| 1own
lorL orLal ls Lhe seaL of Lhe 1oro klngdom as well as Lhe headquarLers for kabarole dlsLrlcL
ln uganda. 1he Lown ls locaLed approxlmaLely 320km from kampala. 1he Lown ls known for
lLs beauLlful landscape and good cool cllmaLe as lL lles beLween Lhe 8uwenzorl MounLalns,
klbale naLlonal ark and Lhe Cueen LllzabeLh naLlonal ark. 1he Lown serves as Lhe reglonal
currency cenLer Lhrough Lhe lorL orLal Currency CenLer operaLed by Lhe 8ank of uganda
and CenLral 8ank of uganda, Lhe Lown also hosLs Lhe seaL of Lhe 1oro klngdom (Cmukama
alace), lL has several educaLlonal faclllLles maklng lL an lmporLanL educaLlon hub, lL also has
SI1UA1ICN ANALSIS kLCk1 | reparaLlon of a hyslcal uevelopmenL lan
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| 191

a reglonal referral hosplLal and ls Lhe LourlsL hub for Lhe AlberLlne 8eglon. 1he Lown ls
earmarked Lo be a sLraLeglc LourlsL clLy by Lhe uganda vlslon 2040.

1he Lown ls consldered Lo be Lhe cleanesL Lown ln uganda, whlch ls aLLrlbuLed Lo Lhe culLure
and aLLlLude of Lhe 8aLooro. 1he Lown ls also very organlzed wlLh mlnlmum urban sprawl
and well organlzed cenLral buslness dlsLrlcL and houslng areas, farm land has belng falrly
conserved ln Lhe perlphery. 1he upgradlng of Lhe Lown lnLo a 1ourlsLlc ClLy wlll call for
conservaLlon of Lhe maln conservaLlons areas ln Lhe area as well as preservaLlon of culLural
herlLage such as Lhe 1oro klngdom. I|gure 7-S and I|gure 7-6.

I|gure 7-S: Iort orta| |ann|ng


Source: lmage Coogle






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| 192

I|gure 7-6: Iort orta| Structure |an


Source: SLrucLure lan from MLPuu

7.4.4 kasese 1own
kasese Lown ls locaLed approxlmaLely 330km from kampala and ls Lhe headquarLers of
kasese ulsLrlcL. 1he klng of 8wenzururu palace ls slLuaLed ln kasese Lown. 1he Lown ls
known for copper and cobalL mlnlng. kasese Lown has developed ln an unplanned manner
characLerlzed by rlbbon developmenL along Lhe kasese-lorL orLal road, Lhe maln problem
SI1UA1ICN ANALSIS kLCk1 | reparaLlon of a hyslcal uevelopmenL lan
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| 193

has belng provlslon of lnfrasLrucLure servlces and faclllLles. 1he Lown maln economlc
acLlvlLles are mlnlng, manufacLurlng and agrlculLure. 1he Lown has Lhe kasese CobalL
Company and Lhe kllembe Mlnes as well as a brewery for well renowned varlanL of Lhe
Waragl, an alcohollc local gln. 1he Lown also serves as a gaLeway Lo Lhe Cueen LllzabeLh
naLlonal ark and Lhe 8uwenzorl naLlonal ark. 1he Lown has a rallway Lermlnal whlch ls
malnly used for LransporLaLlon of lndusLrlal goods and mlnerals, and a good all weaLher road
Lo kampala LhaL serves Lhe reglon. 1he kasese alrporL whlch ls seL for upgradlng lnLo
international aviation standards will further enhance the towns funcLlon as a LransporLaLlon
hub ln Lhe AlberLlne reglon. kasese Lown has ln place a sLrucLure plan for Lhe Lown and
surroundlng areas, lmplemenLaLlon of Lhls plan wlll be cruclal ln ensurlng envlronmenLal
conservaLlon, provlslon of lnfrasLrucLure and proper and coordlnaLed developmenL of Lhe
Lown. 1hls wlll also be lnLegraLed lnLo Lhe AlberLlne Craben reglonal physlcal developmenL
plan. I|gure 7-7.

I|gure 7-7: kasese |ann|ng


Source: lmage Coogle
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| 194

7.4.S Mas|nd| 1own
Maslndl Lown ls locaLed approxlmaLely 213km from kampala clLy. 1he Lown lles on Lhe road
Lo Murchlson lalls naLlonal ark and ls Lhe headquarLers for Maslndl ulsLrlcL. 1he Lown has
several publlc lnsLlLuLlons such as Lhe Maslndl rlson and Lhe Army 8arracks LhaL serve Lhe
reglon. 1he Lown's economlc developmenL has belng slow, wlLh Lhe maln lndusLrles belng
Lhe sugar facLory, seed company and a glnnery. 1he maln challenges faclng Lhe Lown lnclude:
poor solld wasLe managemenL, ground waLer polluLlon, encroachmenL of envlronmenLally
fraglle areas, encroachmenL on publlc land and unemployment. The towns urban
developmenL ls unplanned and follows rlbbon developmenL lnLerferlng wlLh Lhe proper use
of Lhe maln roads. 1he dlscovery and ongolng exploraLlon of oll ln Lhe nearby areas lncludlng
Lhe Murchlson lalls naLlonal ark have creaLed an opporLunlLy for economlc growLh ln Lhe
Lown, Lhls has equally led Lo Lhe planned upgradlng of Lhe Maslndl alrsLrlp whlch ls malnly
planned Lo serve Lhe oll companles. 1he upgradlng of Lhe alrsLrlp wlll open up Lhe area for
more Lourlsm opporLunlLles as well. I|gure 7-8 and I|gure 7-9.

I|gure 7-8: Mas|nd| |ann|ng


Source: lmage Coogle
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| 193


I|gure 7-9: Mas|nd| Structure |an


Source: SLrucLure lan MLPuu

7.4.6 8usheny|-Ishaka 1own
8ushenyl and lshaka were merged Lo form Lhe 8ushenyl-lshaka munlclpallLy whlch ls Lhe
headquarLers of 8ushenyl ulsLrlcL. 1he munlclpallLy has a well-esLabllshed Lradlng cenLre
whlch lles along Lhe maln road, maklng lL seem llke one long corrldor. 1he munlclpallLy ls
home Lo Lhe kampala lnLernaLlonal unlverslLy whlch ls Lhe fourLh medlcal school ln uganda
and lncludes a 300-bed Leachlng hosplLal. 1here are also oLher LerLlary lnsLlLuLlons ln Lhe
munlclpallLy. 1he Lown serves a rlch agrlculLural hlnLerland.


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7.4.7 akwach
akwach occuples a very sLraLeglc locaLlon aL Lhe polnL where Lhe AlberL nlle flows ouL of
Lake AlberL and Lhe maln hlghway and 1oroo-akwach rallway cross Lhe nlle. akwach ls
desLlned Lo become a ma[or mulLl-modal LransporL hub as well as conLlnulng lLs currenL role
as a markeL servlce cenLre for Lhe surroundlng area. akwach ls Lyplcal of several Lowns ln
Lhe AlberLlne LhaL wlll need deLalled plannlng and developmenL conLrol ln Lhe near fuLure.
I|gure 7-10.

I|gure 7-10: akwach |ann|ng


Source: lmage Coogle




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| 197

7.4.8 8ut|aba
8uLlaba was once an lmporLanL porL on Lake AlberL for early "flylng boaLs" comlng from
Lurope as well as Lrade on and across Lhe lake. orL faclllLles were allowed Lo deLerloraLe,
buL are now belng consldered for redevelopmenL ln supporL of Lhe peLroleum lndusLry and
general lake LransporL. ln Lhe meanLlme, 8uLlaba ls an lmporLanL flshlng porL. new porL
lnfrasLrucLure wlll requlre lmproved llnklng road lnfrasLrucLurre and wlll undoubLedly lead Lo
lnward mlgraLlon, populaLlon growLh and need for oLher Lown lnfrasLrucLure and servlces.
I|gure 7-11.

I|gure 7-11: 8ut|aba |ann|ng


Source: lmage Coogle

1he followlng 1ab|e 7-S summarlses condlLlons ln Lhe 7 AlberLlne MunlclpallLles Lo Lhe
exLenL LhaL daLa ls currenLly avallable.
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1ab|e 7-S: Mun|c|pa||t|es Deve|opment Issues, Cpportun|t|es and Constra|nts

Mun|c|pa||ty Issues Cpportun|t|es Constra|nts
Source


1. Arua


- oor 8oad neLwork and connecLlvlLy Lo
Lhe resL of Lhe reglon,
- lnadequaLe ower Supply ln Lhe Lown
as well as mosL parLs of Lhe dlsLrlcL,
- Land dlspuLes, hlnder developmenL and
economlc growLh,
- LncroachmenL of envlronmenLal fraglle
areas
- Lack of up-Lo-daLe physlcal
developmenL plan for Lhe
Lown/munlclpallLy ,
- lnflux of refugees, Lhls puLs more
pressure on the districts resources ;
- Plgh ferLlllLy raLes leadlng Lo hlgh
populaLlon growLh ln Lhe Lown,
- Plgh raLe of lmmlgraLlon lnLo Lhe Lown,
due Lo lmproved economlc slLuaLlon.
- new power planL wlll boosL power
supply ln Lhe Lown and Lhe
dlsLrlcL,
- oLenLlal for commerclal farmlng
on Lhe huge Lracks of
underuLlllzed ferLlle land,
- Planned Nile Eco-City will provide
more economlc opporLunlLles for
Lhe dlsLrlcL as well as offer
recreaLlonal faclllLles,
- lanned rallway once developed
wlll open Lhe dlsLrlcL and lmprove
lLs connecLlvlLy Lo Lhe resL of Lhe
reglon and counLry,
- upgradlng of Lhe Arua Alrfleld
whlch ls Lhe second buslesL ln Lhe
counLry wlll lmprove
LransporLaLlon and lmprove
economlc prospecLs of Lhe dlsLrlcL.
- Expansion of the towns
boundarles Lo pave way for Lhe
upgrade lnLo a reglonal clLy.
- Space for urban
developmenL. 1he Lown
physlcal boundary ls
small
- Arua Munlclpal
Councll
- AsslsLanL Chlef
AdmlnlsLraLlon
Cfflcers (CAC)
2. no|ma



- ollLlcal ulspuLes,
- unconLrolled developmenL and urban
sprawl,
- oor solld wasLe managemenL,
- LncroachmenL on envlronmenLal
senslLlve areas,
- oor lnfrasLrucLure faclllLy and servlces,
- unemploymenL,
- lanned oll reflnery ln kabaale and
conslderable amounLs of oll
deposlLs ln Lhe nelghbourlng areas
wlll creaLe [ob opporLunlLles and
sLlmulaLe economlc growLh ln Lhe
Lown,
- 1armacklng of Lhe maln road
leadlng Lo kyen[o[o wlll open up
- Land Lenure sysLem ln Lhe
Lown whlch hosLs a
klngdom palace as well.
- Polma 1own SLrucLure
lan
- lncepLlon Workshop
held ln Polma


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- oor Pouslng ,
- Land SpeculaLlon ,
- Plgh lmmlgraLlon raLe lnLo Lhe Lown,
puLLlng pressure on exlsLlng
lnfrasLrucLure.

Lhe Lown for more economlc
growLh,
- lL ls Lhe cenLre of Lhe Cmukama
palace of Lhe 8unyoro,
- 1he Lown has a slgnlflcanL amounL
of undeveloped land, creaLlng an
opporLunlLy for planned urban
growLh.
- undeveloped and
underdevelopmenL land whlch can
be used for furLher urban
developmenL.

3. Iort orta|



- - lalrly well-sLrucLured Lown wlLh a
sLrong economlc base,
- 1ourlsm, naLural landscapes and
culLure
- Commerclal larmlng.
-
- lleld CbservaLlon
- lncepLlon Workshop
held ln lorL orLal

4. Mas|nd|



- oor solld wasLe managemenL,
- Cround waLer polluLlon. Malnly from
plL laLrlnes whlch are dug deep near Lhe
waLer Lable as well as oll from garages
and peLrol sLaLlons whlch lack oll
lnLercepLors,
- LncroachmenL of publlc land and
envlronmenLal fraglle areas,
- ConsLralned land resources wlLhln Lhe
munlclpallLy Lhough lL occuples a large
area, mosL of lL ls under lnsLlLuLlons
which dont really serve the town such
as Maslndl rlson,
- unemploymenL.



- Cll dlscovery ln nelghbourlng
areas wlll have a poslLlve lmpacL
on Lhe economlc developmenL of
Lhe Lown,
- upgradlng of Lhe Maslndl alrsLrlp
wlll open up Lhe munlclpallLy and
lmprove lLs connecLlvlLy Lo Lhe
resL of Lhe reglon and Lhe counLry,
- 1ourlsm poLenLlal from naLlonal
parks and rlch culLural dlverslLy.
- Maslndl 1own
SLrucLure lan
- lleld CbservaLlons
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| 200

S. kasese



- oor dralnage faclllLles, ma[or challenge
ls Lo deal wlLh waLer flows from Lhe
8wenzorl mounLaln,
- unplanned developmenL,
- oor lnfrasLrucLure and un-coordlnaLed
efforL ln provlslon of lnfrasLrucLure ,
- lnadequaLe quallfled human resources,
- ulfflculL Lo access land for developmenL
of publlc and/or soclal faclllLles,
- ollLlcal lnLerference ln Lhe plannlng
process and developmenL,
- Wlldllfe/human confllcLs. Anlmals
wanderlng from Lhe parks Lo Lhe Lown
- ueforesLaLlon, and
- unemploymenL among oLhers.
- Commerclal larmlng a number of
commerclal farms were spoLLed
durlng lncepLlon mlsslon,
- Plma CemenL Company ls a ma[or
employer and aLLracLs economlc
acLlvlLles ln Lhe munlclpallLy,
- AvallablllLy of mlnerals: copper,
cobalL and llmesLone among
oLhers,
- 1ourlsm, game reserves, rlch
culLure ln Lhe Lown and
nelghbourlng areas,
-
- 1he Lown ls
geographlcally
consLralned by Lhe
8uwenzorl MounLalns
and Lhe Cueen LllzabeLh
naLlonal ark as well as
Lhe kllembe mlnes and
commerclal farm land.
- kasese 1own
SLrucLure lan lleld
CbservaLlons
6. kukung|r|



noL analysed.
7. 8usheny|-Ishaka



- urban Sprawl - Plghly esLabllshed unlverslLy
kampala lnLernaLlonal unlverslLy
whlch has aLLracLed ma[or
economlc acLlvlLles ln Lhe Lown
- - lleld CbservaLlons

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7.S keg|ona| Integrat|on

1he plannlng leglslaLlon requlres all Lowns Lo have ln place up-Lo-daLe sLrucLure and deLalled
plans. noL all are currenLly prepared or adopLed. Sample plans LhaL were examlned lnclude:
Polma, kasese, lorL orLal, lshaka-8ushenyl and Maslndl SLrucLure lans. 1he plans Lend Lo
look aL Lhe Lowns ln lsolaLlon wlLhouL conslderlng llnkages Lo Lheler surroundlngs or reglonal
lmpacLs. lannlng prlnclples applled ln Lhe preparaLlon of Lhe SLrucLure lans for Lhe Lowns
were malnly based on Lhe hyslcal lannlng AcL. Local hyslcal uevelopmenL lans (SLrucLure
and ueLalled lans) should conslder:
Land-use zonlng allocaLed Lo ensure compaLlblllLy as well as prohlblLlng speclflc land-
uses ln some zones,
Acqulrlng land for local governmenL or relevanL auLhorlLy for publlc lnLeresL,
1he plan can also be for re-plannlng and/or reconsLrucLlon purposes or a Lown. 1o Lhls
end Lhe plan wlll make provlslons for:
Lhe poollng of land, sLreeLs (amalgamaLlon), as well as for Lhe re-dlsLrlbuLlon of
land among owners
provlde for maklng of new roads, sLreeLs or rlghLs-of-ways,
ad[usLmenL of rlghLs beLween owners or oLher persons lnLeresLed ln land, sLreeLs,
or rlghLs-of-ways.
ueLermlne Lhe Lype and denslLy of developmenL ln general and ln parLlcular locallLy,
ConservaLlon of naLural beauLy, envlronmenLal fraglle areas and bulldlngs and ob[ecLs
of archlLecLural, archaeologlcal, hlsLorlcal and/or sclenLlflc lnLeresL, and
uellneaLlon of probable rouLes for rallways, canals, brldges, docks, power llnes, waLer
dralnage and sewerage among oLher works of publlc uLlllLy among oLhers.
1he analyzed plans provlde a deLalled accounL of Lhe exlsLlng land-uses and Lhe
gazeLLed plannlng area. lL was noLed LhaL ln allocaLlon of new land-uses or re-zonlng
Lhe plans Lend Lo consLraln Lhemselves around Lhe exlsLlng land-uses raLher Lhan
Laklng a hlgher-level fuLure vlslon approach Lo Lhe urban area. 1he plans also focus
enLlrely on Lhe land wlLhln Lhe boundarles wlLhouL Laklng lnLo conslderaLlon reglonal
llnkages and relaLed developmenL lmpacLs. lL ls parLlcularly lmporLanL Lo look aL Lhe
reglonal LransporL neLwork and how lf connecLs Lo Lhe Lown belng planned for. 1hls
would ensure that regional transport plans and needs are integrated in the towns
plans Lo ensure connecLlvlLy Lo Lhe wlder reglon.

1he uganda vlslon 2040 earmarks Lhree Lowns ln Lhe reglon for upgradlng of sLaLus: Arua ls
earmarked Lo be a 8eglonal ClLy servlng Lhe reglon, as an economlc hub and cenLer of
developmenL and servlce provlslon, Polma ls earmarked as Lhe SLraLeglc Cll ClLy ln Lhe
reglon, lL wlll serve as Lhe maln Lown near Lhe planned oll reflnery and varlous oll flelds LhaL
are currenLly under exploraLlon wlLh producLlon underway, and flnally lorL orLal ls
earmarked Lo be Lhe SLraLeglc 1ourlsm ClLy ln Lhe reglon, wlLh lLs beauLlful landscapes and lL
equally serves as a gaLeway Lo Lhe Cueen LllzabeLh naLlonal ark and Lhe 8uwenzorl
MounLalns. 1he flgure below hlghllghLs Lhe Lhree key Lowns ln Lhe AlberLlne Craben LhaL
have belng earmarked for upgrade Lo clLy sLaLus ln Lhe uganda vlslon 2030.


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R6$34/%$+($,5'
94,85,4%$

Introduct|on
1hls ChapLer presenLs an overvlew of Lhe numerous
envlronmenLal condlLlons, lssues, opporLunlLles and
consLralnLs faclng Lhe AlberLlne as lL moves lnLo a new
phase of developmenL. 1he work unavoldably overlaps
slgnlflcanLly wlLh ChapLers on naLural 8esource
ManagemenL, AgrlculLure and Lconomlc uevelopmenL ln
parLlcular. lL ls lmporLanL LhaL Lhese llnkages be recognlsed
and LreaLed ln an lnLegraLed manner.

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8.1 Introduct|on

1hls secLlon of Lhe hyslcal uevelopmenL lan documenL ldenLlfles and assesses Lhe
poLenLlal lmpacLs of exlsLlng and pro[ecLed developmenLs, pro[ecLs and human acLlvlLles ln
Lhe AlberLlne Craben reglon, on Lhe naLural envlronmenL and Lhe use of envlronmenLal
resources.

1he secLlon beglns wlLh an overvlew of Lhe legal, admlnlsLraLlve and pollcy framework
relevanL Lo regulaLlon and proLecLlon of Lhe naLural envlronmenL and Lhe use of
envlronmenLal resources. AlLhough Lhe revlew ls lnLended Lo deal wlLh broad, naLlonal laws
and governmenL pollcles, some emphasls has been puL on Lhe assessmenL and regulaLlon of
oll and gas exploraLlon, producLlon and LransporLaLlon because of Lhe currenL lmporLance of
LhaL lndusLrlal secLor ln Lhls parL of uganda, and Lhe anLlclpaLed rapld growLh ln peLroleum
upsLream producLlon, processlng and reflnlng, and LransporLaLlon Lhls 8eglon.

1hls ls followed by an ouLllne of each of Lhe varlous envlronmenLal componenLs, or
envlronmenLal resources LhaL make up Lhe overall envlronmenL ln Lhe AlberLlne Craben
reglon, wlLh a brlef analysls of lLs overall senslLlvlLy. lollowlng LhaL ls an assessmenL of Lhe
poLenLlal envlronmenLal effecLs resulLlng from exlsLlng and pro[ecLed pro[ecLs or acLlvlLles ln
Lhe 8eglon.

An assessmenL ls Lhen provlded of Lhe locaLlons or nodes where Lhe poLenLlal effecLs of oll
and gas exploraLlon/producLlon and oLher human acLlvlLles and developmenLs, are mosL
llkely Lo occur wlLhln Lhe AlberLlne Craben reglon.

llnally, some key lssues for Lhe conslderaLlon of 8eglonal plannlng auLhorlLles are seL ouL,
along wlLh recommendaLlons for acLlon necessary Lo avold slgnlflcanL adverse lmpacLs of
exlsLlng and pro[ecLed developmenLs and human acLlvlLles. 1he LnvlronmenLal secLlon of
Lhls lan ls lnLended Lo be complemenLary wlLh SecLlon 9, whlch deals wlLh naLural
8esources.

8.2 Lega|, Adm|n|strat|ve and o||cy Iramework

1hls secLlon provldes a summary of ugandan envlronmenL-relaLed leglslaLlon and pollcles
LhaL are relevanL Lo, and/or Lrlggered by, oll and gas developmenLs. lL ls noL lnLended Lo be
all-lncluslve, raLher, lL ouLllnes some of Lhe more lmporLanL acLs, regulaLlons and pollcles of
uganda relevanL Lo Lhe envlronmenLal plannlng wlLh parLlcular emphasls on oll and gas
developmenLs.

8.2.1 key Leg|s|at|on and o||c|es |n Uganda
Lnv|ronment ke|ated

1he Nat|ona| Lnv|ronment Act (1998) seLs up a framework for envlronmenLal
managemenL ln uganda.
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1he uganda etro|eum (Lxp|orat|on and roduct|on) (Conduct of Lxp|orat|on
Cperat|ons) kegu|at|ons spell ouL besL managemenL pracLlces for: geologlcal and
geophyslcal operaLlons, drllllng operaLlons, polluLlon prevenLlon and conLrol, safeLy,
and healLh.

1he Lnv|ronmenta| Impact Assessment kegu|at|ons under Lhe Nat|ona|
Lnv|ronment Act requlre all pro[ecLs of Lhe Lhlrd schedule ln Lhe nLA Lo be sub[ecL Lo
an LlA before Lhey are approved for lmplemenLaLlon. eLroleum exploraLlon and
producLlon ls ldenLlfled as a caLegory lll llsLed acLlvlLy requlrlng a full LlA. 1he AcL seLs
ouL Lhe admlnlsLraLlve, consulLaLlon and lnformaLlon requlremenLs of Lhe assessmenL
process.

1he Nat|ona| Water Act wlll be relevanL Lo Lhe proposed pro[ecL where any faclllLy
such as an oll and gas slLe or plpellne occurs ln or Lraverses a waLercourse or
waLerbody, where wasLes may need Lo be dlscharged lnLo a waLerbody, or where
waLer musL be wlLhdrawn from a waLerbody (e.g. for pressure LesLlng of a plpellne).

1he Nat|ona| Land Act deals wlLh Lhe acqulslLlon of land by Lhe CovernmenL and Lhe
uLlllsaLlon of land accordlng Lo varlous laws, lncludlng Lhe control of envlronmenLally
senslLlve areas. 1he maLLers of Lhe clalmlng of land for publlc works and measures for
exproprlaLlon Lo accommodaLe Lhe lmplemenLaLlon of publlc works are speclfled
under Lhe Land AcL.

1he n|stor|ca| and Monuments Act provldes for Lhe preservaLlon and proLecLlon of
hlsLorlcal monumenLs and ob[ecLlves of archaeologlcal, paleonLologlcal,
eLhnographlcal and LradlLlonal lnLeresL. under Lhls acL Lhe mlnlsLer responslble may
cause any of Lhe aforesald ob[ecLs Lo be declared as preserved ob[ecLs, lf Lhere ls
poLenLlal for harm resulLlng from any pro[ecL.

1he kegu|at|ons for Wet|ands, k|verbanks and Lakeshore Management requlre an
envlronmenLal lmpacL assessmenL for all acLlvlLles llkely Lo have an adverse lmpacL
on a weLland(s), rlvers and rlverbanks. 1hls could lnclude, for example, slLes where a
oll and gas slLe or plpellne ls Lo be lnsLalled near or across a waLercourse or wlLhln a
weLland area.

under Lhe Nat|ona| Lnv|ronment n|||y and Mounta|nous Areas kegu|at|ons, lf a
faclllLy such as a proposed oll and gas well or plpellne were Lo occupy or Lraverse hllly
or mounLalnous areas, Lhen Lhe proponenL would need Lo consulL wlLh governmenL
auLhorlLles and affecLed ulsLrlcL Counclls Lo deLermlne how Lo mlLlgaLe poLenLlal
adverse effecLs.

1he No|se Standards and Contro| kegu|at|ons could be applled Lo any acLlvlLy durlng
consLrucLlon or operaLlon LhaL generaLes slgnlflcanL nolse LhaL mlghL be boLhersome
Lo local people. Compressor sLaLlons, for example, are a subsLanLlal source of nolse.
nolse wlll also be generaLed from Lermlnals, and Lhe effecLs wlll depend on Lhelr
deslgn and Lhe proxlmlLy of human communlLles. Selsmlc acLlvlLles may also cause
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lnLense nolse evenLs LhaL could dlsLurb or even harm humans and wlldllfe, lncludlng
aquaLlc bloLa such as flsh and aquaLlc mammals.

kegu|at|ons on M|n|mum Standards for Management of So|| ua||ty wlll have
relevance Lo Lhe pro[ecL ln Lerms of ensurlng LhaL adverse effecLs on local soll quallLy
are avolded Lhrough good envlronmenLal pracLlce and lf soll conLamlnaLlon occurs
from spllls, leaks, eLc., Lhe 8egulaLlons conLaln Lhe expecLed sLandard for soll
remedlaLlon. Any dlscharges (lnLenLlonal or accldenLal) LhaL may be parL of Lhe
acLlvlLles (e.g., dralnage of surface waLers around a oll/gas well slLe, bulk sLorage or
loadlng faclllLy, reflnery) would be covered by Lhe kegu|at|ons on the M|n|mum
Standards for D|scharge of Lff|uents |n Water or Land.

1he proposed oll and gas producLlon acLlvlLles wlll resulL ln Lhe producLlon of
hazardous and non-hazardous wasLes. 1hese acLlvlLles wlll need Lo be ln compllance
wlLh Lhe Nat|ona| Waste Management kegu|at|ons.

1o comply wlLh Lhe Nat|ona| Lnv|ronment Aud|t kegu|at|ons, and ln any evenL Lo
demonsLraLe good envlronmenLal pracLlce, proponenL(s) should develop an
LnvlronmenLal ManagemenL SysLem(s) for Lhelr operaLlons, and conducL regular
lnLernal and exLernal envlronmenLal audlLs.

1he Nat|ona| Lnv|ronment Management o||cy (1997) covers aspecLs of prevenLlng
and conLrolllng envlronmenLal polluLlon.

1he Nat|ona| I|sher|es o||cy (2003) provldes dlrecLlon on Lhe susLalnable
managemenL of Lhe flsherles resources ln uganda. 1he flsherles resource ls
admlnlsLered by Lhe MlnlsLry of AgrlculLure, Anlmal lndusLry and llsherles.

1he Nat|ona| W||d||fe Act governs Lhe managemenL of wlldllfe ln uganda (2000). lLs
maln ob[ecLlve of Lhe uganda Wlldllfe AcL, Cap 200 ls Lo proLecL wlldllfe resources
and enable derlvaLlon of beneflLs. need for susLalnable managemenL ls recognlzed
wlLhln Lhe framework of effecLlve plannlng and sLakeholder parLlclpaLlon. 1he AcL
allows local communlLy lnvolvemenL and opens up wlldllfe managemenL Lo Lhe non-
governmenLal/prlvaLe secLor by maklng lL posslble for Lhe prlvaLe secLor Lo manage
proLecLed areas/wlldllfe and provlde servlces.

WeLlands ln uganda are proLecLed, managed and enhanced Lhrough several acLs,
regulaLlons and pollcles, lncludlng Lhe Nat|ona| Wet|ands o||cy, 199S, Lhe Nat|ona|
Lnv|ronment Management o||cy, 1997, Lhe Nat|ona| Lnv|ronment Management
Act, 199S, and Lhe Nat|ona| Lnv|ronment (Wet|ands, k|ver 8anks, and Lakeshores
management) kegu|at|ons, 2000.

AdmlnlsLraLlvely, Lhe responslblllLy cenLre for weLlands ln uganda ls Lhe WeLlands
ManagemenL ueparLmenL of Lhe MlnlsLry of WaLer and LnvlronmenL, ln coordlnaLlon wlLh
Lhe ulsLrlcL WeLland Cfflces

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Lnergy ke|ated
ursuanL Lo Lhe Nat|ona| Lnergy o||cy, Lhe CovernmenL of uganda assures LhaL
envlronmenLal conslderaLlons are glven prlorlLy by energy suppllers and users Lo proLecL Lhe
envlronmenL, and commlLs Lo puL ln place a monlLorlng mechanlsm Lo evaluaLe compllance
wlLh esLabllshed envlronmenLal proLecLlon guldellnes.

1he Nat|ona| C|| and Gas o||cy sLaLes LhaL Lhe envlronmenL, human developmenL and
blodlverslLy should be balanced for muLual beneflL and survlval, and conLrlbuLes Lo and
promoLes Lhls balance Lo ensure susLalnable developmenL. under Lhe ollcy, lL ls Lhe
responslblllLy of llcensed oll companles Lo proLecL Lhe envlronmenL where Lhey work or any
areas ln Lhe counLry lmpacLed by Lhelr operaLlons whlle CovernmenL shall leglslaLe, regulaLe
and monlLor compllance.

1he Cll and Cas ollcy, ln collaboraLlon wlLh oLher relevanL pollcles, wlll supporL conLrol
measures agalnsL Lhe release of hazardous gases, chemlcal wasLes and spllls lnLo Lhe
aLmosphere, waLer bodles, aqulfers and solls whlch wlll ensure LhaL waLer remalns safe for
anlmals, flsh and human consumpLlon. 1he ollcy pledges Lo supporL relevanL lnsLlLuLlons Lo
puL ln place dlsasLer preparedness and response mechanlsms for any oll spllls ln Lhe
AlberLlne Craben, sLorage faclllLles and any LransporLaLlon corrldors. uLLlng ln place Lhese
mechanlsms LogeLher wlLh Lhelr lmplemenLaLlon shall be Lhe responslblllLy of Lhe Llcensees.

1he Cll and Cas ollcy promoLes Lhe seLLlng up of besL lnLernaLlonal pracLlces for prevenLlon
and rapld emergency response mechanlsms deslgned Lo mlLlgaLe agalnsL alr and waLer
polluLlon, and requlres llcensees Lo puL ln place response mechanlsms ln all aspecLs of Lhelr
operaLlons. LfforLs Lo consLrucL roads ln a manner LhaL reduces or prevenLs dusL polluLlon
are Lo be promoLed, and access roads are Lo be kepL aL a mlnlmum ln wlldllfe areas and
oLher areas of senslLlve blodlverslLy.

ln addlLlon, Lhere are a number of envlronmenL relaLed plans and pollcles ln uganda whlch
relaLe Lo whlch wlll apply dlrecLly or lndlrecLly Lo oll and gas producLlon, lncludlng Lhe
Nat|ona| Deve|opment |an, Lhe Nat|ona| Lnv|ronmenta| Management o||cy, Lhe Nat|ona|
Water o||cy, Lhe Nat|ona| Wet|and Conservat|on and Management o||cy and Lhe Uganda
W||d||fe o||cy. under Lhe nLMA, an LlA wlll need Lo be carrled ouL for any proposed oll and
gas producLlon pro[ecLs.

A Strateg|c Lnv|ronmenta| Assessment (SLA) for oll and gas exploraLlon and developmenL
acLlvlLles ln Lhe AlberLlne Craben has been prepared by Lhe MlnlsLry of Lnergy and Mlneral
uevelopmenL (MLMu), eLroleum LxploraLlon and roducLlon ueparLmenL (Lu), and Lhe
naLlonal LnvlronmenL ManagemenL AuLhorlLy (nLMA)(March, 2013). 1he SLA documenL
presenLs sLraLeglc recommendaLlons for pollcles, plans and programs LhaL wlll gulde
envlronmenLal plannlng and declslon maklng ln Lhe AlberLlne. 1he presenL reporL recognlzes
Lhe degree of efforL and LhoughL LhaL wenL lnLo produclng Lhe SLA, and lL ls referenced and
quoLed LhroughouL.

An LnvlronmenLal SenslLlvlLy ALlas (LSA) was prepared ln 2010 by a CommlLLee under Lhe
MlnlsLry of LnvlronmenL and WaLer, Lo provlde envlronmenLal planners wlLh Lools Lo ldenLlfy
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resources aL rlsk, esLabllsh proLecLlon prlorlLles and ldenLlfy Llmely and approprlaLe response
and clean-up sLraLegles. lL also provldes an overvlew of such aspecLs as Lhe occurrence of
blologlcal resources, human resource use (flshlng and hunLlng) and archaeologlcal slLes LhaL
are parLlcularly vulnerable Lo oll spllls or oLher oll and gas acLlvlLles ln general.

An LnvlronmenLal MonlLorlng lan for Lhe AlberLlne Craben (2012-2017) was prepared by a
CommlLLee under nLMA, Lo serve as a guldlng Lool ln Lracklng Lhe lmpacL whlch oll and gas-
relaLed developmenLs wlll have on Lhe envlronmenL of Lhe reglon. lL adopLed a number of
envlronmenLal monlLorlng lndlcaLors whlch wlll be used Lo monlLor flve seLs of valued
LcosysLem ComponenLs, lncludlng aquaLlc, LerresLrlal, physlcal/chemlcal, socleLal and
buslness secLors. 1he lndlcaLors were deslgned Lo demonsLraLe progress and changes ln Lhe
ecosysLem componenLs, servlng as an early-warnlng sysLem for emerglng problems.

8.2.2 kegu|atory and |ann|ng 8od|es and the|r ko|es
1he nLA esLabllshed Lhe Nat|ona| Lnv|ronment Management Author|ty (nLMA) as Lhe
overall body charged wlLh Lhe managemenL of envlronmenLal lssues and provldes for
susLalnable managemenL of Lhe envlronmenL. Among nLMA's responslblllLles under Lhe AcL
ls Lo revlew and approve envlronmenLal lmpacL assessmenLs and envlronmenLal lmpacL
sLaLemenLs submlLLed ln accordance wlLh Lhe AcL.

Agencles LhaL wlll play a role ln Lhe envlronmenLal aspecLs of any peLroleum relaLed
developmenL, lncludlng Lhe LlA and LlA revlew, as well as Lhe llcenslng process, are shown
below.

MlnlsLry of Lnergy and Mlneral uevelopmenL (MLMu)
eLroleum LxploraLlon and roducLlon ueparLmenL (Lu)
eLroleum AuLhorlLy of uganda
uganda naLlonal Cll Company
naLlonal LnvlronmenL ManagemenL AuLhorlLy (nLMA)
MlnlsLry of WaLer and LnvlronmenL (MWL)
ulrecLoraLe of WaLer uevelopmenL (uWu)
1he MlnlsLry of PealLh (MoP)
LnvlronmenLal PealLh ulvlslon (LPu) ln MoP
MlnlsLry of Lands, Pouslng & urban uevelopmenL
uganda Wlldllfe AuLhorlLy (uWA)
8elevanL Local CovernmenLs

M|n|stry of Lands, nous|ng & Urban Deve|opment (MLPu8) ls responslble for provldlng
pollcy dlrecLlon, naLlonal sLandards and coordlnaLlon of all maLLers concernlng lands,
houslng and urban developmenL. 1he MlnlsLry ls responslble for puLLlng ln place pollcles and
lnlLlaLlng laws LhaL ensure susLalnable land managemenL, promoLe susLalnable houslng for
all and fosLer orderly urban developmenL ln Lhe counLry.

1he etro|eum Lxp|orat|on and roduct|on Act 1993 glves Lhe responslblllLy of dlrecLlng Lhe
upsLream peLroleum sub-secLor Lo Lhe MlnlsLer responslble for oll (M|n|ster of Lnergy and
M|nera| Deve|opment), who recelves appllcaLlons for any peLroleum rlghLs, and ls charged
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wlLh lssulng, renewlng, and revoklng peLroleum exploraLlon and producLlon llcenses. under
8egulaLlons of Lhe AcL, regulaLlon of Lhe oll and gas secLor had been lnlLlally underLaken by
Lhe MlnlsLry of Lnergy and Mlneral uevelopmenL Lhrough Lhe etro|eum Lxp|orat|on and
roduct|on Department (LD). under Lhe naLlonal Cll and Cas ollcy, Lhe MlnlsLry wlll
handle Lhe pollcy aspecLs, whlle regulaLory and commerclal aspecLs wlll be handled by
etro|eum Author|ty of Uganda (AU) and Uganda Nat|ona| C|| Company (NA1CIL).

8egulaLlons under Lhe AcL spell ouL Lhe besL managemenL pracLlces ln Lhe onshore and
offshore exploraLlon and producLlon secLor. 1hey address meLhods for: geologlcal and
geophyslcal operaLlons, drllllng operaLlons, polluLlon prevenLlon and conLrol, safeLy, and
healLh. 1he scope of Lhe regulaLlons deals wlLh upsLream producLlon, l.e., exploraLlon and
producLlon.

8.2.3 Approva|s rocess as App||ed to C|| & Gas
1he pro[ecL and lLs varlous componenLs wlll need Lo be sub[ecL Lo an LnvlronmenLal lmpacL
AssessmenL (LlA).

1he naLlonal LnvlronmenL lmpacL AssessmenL 8egulaLlon (1998) seLs ouL Lhe framework and
rules for Lhe envlronmenLal lmpacL assessmenL (LlA) process ln uganda. key elemenLs
lnclude pro[ecL brlefs and envlronmenLal lmpacL sLudles. 1he 8egulaLlon provldes for LlA
revlew processes, lncludlng lnvlLaLlon of general publlc commenLs and publlc hearlngs, and
Lhe declslon of Lhe LxecuLlve ulrecLor of Lhe naLlonal LnvlronmenL ManagemenL AuLhorlLy
ln respecL of Lhe granL, re[ecLlon or cancellaLlon of an LlA cerLlflcaLe.

Some key parLs of Lhe 8egulaLlon whlch wlll have a bearlng on Lhe form of Lhe LlA and Lhe
approval of lL, are Lhe preparaLlon of a pro[ecL brlef, mechanlsm and crlLerla for approval of
Lhe pro[ecL, Lerms of reference for Ll sLudles, publlc parLlclpaLlon requlremenLs, conLenLs of
Lhe LnvlronmenLal lmpacL SLaLemenL, audlLlng, and lssues Lo be consldered ln produclng Lhe
LlA. lL ls noLable LhaL Lhe 8egulaLlon requlres an assessmenL of pro[ecL alLernaLlves.

8.3 1he Lx|st|ng Lnv|ronment

8.3.1 Introduct|on
1hls parL of Lhe LnvlronmenL secLlon provldes an ouLllne of Lhe varlous envlronmenLal
componenLs, or envlronmenLal resources, LhaL make up Lhe overall envlronmenL ln Lhe
AlberLlne Craben reglon.

Much of Lhe followlng dlscusslon ls based on Lhe LnvlronmenLal SenslLlvlLy ALlas (2010
verslon), and Lhe SLraLeglc LnvlronmenLal AssessmenL (SLA) of Cll and Cas AcLlvlLles ln Lhe
AlberLlne Craben, uganda, March 2013 (CovernmenL of uganda), as well as oLher
documenLs.

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8.3.2 Atmospher|c Lnv|ronment
1he ralnfall ln AlberLlne 8lfL falls lnLo Lwo qulLe dlfferenL reglmes, due Lo exLreme varlaLlons
ln Lhe landscape. 1he rlfL valley lles ln Lhe raln shadow and ls Lhus relaLlvely dry, whlle Lhe
hlghland areas on Lhe escarpmenL experlence much more ralnfall. 1he norLhern parL of Lhe
Craben has Lwo seasons of hlgh ralnfall (beLween Aprll May and AugusL Lhrough Lo
CcLober). 1hls ls assoclaLed wlLh movemenLs of Lhe lnLer-1roplcal Convergence Zone (l1CZ)
over Lhe reglon.

Wlnd speeds can be moderaLe Lo sLrong, ofLen leadlng Lo LurbulenL aLmospherlc condlLlons.
The prevailing winds commonly blow along the oor of the Rift Valley. Wind direction is
varlable on Lhe escarpmenL and mounLaln slopes due exLreme Lopography. AL mosL Llmes of
Lhe year Lhere are moderaLe Lo sLrong/LurbulenL wlnds ln varlous locaLlons across Lhe
reglon.

1he AlberLlne Craben reglon experlences relaLlvely llLLle annual varlaLlon ln alr
LemperaLures. lLs cllmaLe ls generally hoL and humld, wlLh average monLhly LemperaLures
varylng beLween 27C and 31C, wlLh LemperaLure maxlma belng conslsLenLly above 30C
and someLlmes as hlgh as 38C. 1he hlgh alr LemperaLures resulL ln hlgh evaporaLlon raLes,
and ln some areas Lhere ls a negaLlve hydrologlcal balance. 1he lowesL humldlLy levels occur
ln dry seasons wlLh mlnlmum levels occurrlng ln uecember and !anuary. 1he average
monLhly humldlLy ls beLween 60 and 80.

Cne of Lhe challenges faclng reglonal land managers ls Lhe lack of daLa on amblenL alr quallLy
around Lhe AlberLlne Craben. 1hls wlll make fuLure deLecLlon of any effecLs on alr quallLy
dlfflculL.

8.3.3 Geo|ogy and So||s
1he AlberLlne Craben ls parL of Lhe LasL Afrlcan rlfL sysLem and forms Lhe norLhernmosL parL
of lLs wesLern arm, whlch runs along Lhe wesLern border of uganda wlLh u8C. 1he area ls
selsmlcally acLlve resulLlng ln acLlve faulLs runnlng nL-SW along Lake AlberL. MovemenLs
along such acLlve faulL zones lead Lo earLhquakes and dlslocaLlon buL can also Lrlgger
landslldes and mass movemenLs dependlng on Lhe locaLlon.

1he solls are malnly yellowlsh-red clay loams on sedlmenLary beds. 1here are hlghly leached,
reddlsh brown clay loams ln Lhe easL of Lhe Maslndl ulsLrlcL, and dark brown, black loams
along Lhe axls of Lhe warp. 1hese Lwo Lypes of soll are of low Lo medlum producLlvlLy.

Solls of more recenL orlgln are found along Lhe escarpmenL. 1hey are sulLable for coffee and
malze. 8lvers and valley have graylsh-black sands, whlch are generally acldlc. 1hese alluvlal
solls are of low producLlvlLy.

8.3.4 Surface Water and Groundwater
Dra|nage and Water ua||ty
1here are Lhree ma[or lakes ln Lhe AlberLlne Craben: Lake AlberL, Lake Ldward and Lake
Ceorge. MosL of Lhe surface waLer dralnlng Lhe hlghlands surroundlng Lhe area dralns lnLo
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Lhese lakes whlch, ln Lurn, draln lnLo Lhe nlle vla Lake AlberL. 1he largesL of Lhese rlvers ls
Lhe Semllkl, whlch orlglnaLes from Lake Ldward and Lhe lLurl foresL ln u8 Congo. 1he vlcLorla
nlle dralns lands easL of Lhe 8eglon, dlscharglng lnLo Lhe norLh end of Lake AlberL. WaLer
dralns from Lake AlberL aL lLs norLhern exLremlLy and flows norLh Lo Sudan ln Lhe AlberL nlle
(LnvlronmenLal SenslLlvlLy ALlas, 2010).

Lake AlberL ls approxlmaLely 170 km ln lengLh, 40 km wlde and has a surface area of 6,800
km
2
. Whlle Lhe mean depLh ls 23 m, Lhe boLLom of Lhe lake along Lhe faulLs drops sharply Lo
depLhs of 40 m on Lhe uganda slde and over 30 m on Lhe Congo slde of Lhe lake. Ceologlcal
faulLlng has creaLed a shelf LhaL sLreLches along Lhe norLheasL shorellne beLween 8uLlaba
and Lhe kalso-1onya splL. Lake AlberL ls known for lLs frequenL, severe sLorms and sLrong
currenLs whlch dlsplace and desLroy flshlng gear (SLA, 2013)..

1he sub-caLchmenLs of Lakes AlberL-Ldward-Ceorge are llnked vla rlvers Semllkl and kazlnga
channel respecLlvely. Many waLercourses, mosL of Lhem seasonal, flow down Lhe
escarpmenL and lnLo Lake AlberL. 1he ma[or rlvers, boLh permanenL and semlpermanenL,
lnclude Lhe vlcLorla nlle, Semllkl, Waakl, Wambabya, Walga, Wlsoke, Sonslo and Pohwa.
MosL of Lhem have exLenslve floodplalns wlLhln Lhe rlfL valley. Seasonal rlvers lnclude
Seblgoro, kabyosl, Warwlre and nyamasoga. 1hese smaller waLercourses are flooded by
runoff from Lhe caLchmenL areas afLer heavy ralnfall evenLs. 1he waLer dralns qulckly lnLo
Lake AlberL and Lhe dlscharge ln Lhe run-off channels ceases ((SLA, 2013).).

1he nlle and Lhe Semllkl rlvers dlscharge lnLo Lake AlberL aL Lhe norLhern and souLhern Llps,
respecLlvely, and boLh have bullL up exLenslve delLas of shallow waLer possesslng dense
growLh of predomlnanLly submerged aquaLlc flora. 8lvers Walga and Walsoke draln upper
floodplalns of permanenL and seml-permanenL weLland wlLhln Lhe rlfL valley and have an
exLenslve lower zone of swamp foresL. 1he swamp foresL frlnges Lake AlberL and merges Lhe
floodplalns of Lhe Lwo rlvers. Where Lhe escarpmenL lles close Lo Lhe lake, rlvers dralnlng
lnLo Lake AlberL have very shorL floodplalns (e.g. 8lver Wambambya and Wakl). 1he Semllkl
8lver provldes Lhe prlmary supply of waLer lnLo Lhe lake sysLem (SLA, 2013)..

1he floodplalns of lnflowlng rlvers of Lake AlberL are a vlLal sLorage zone for runoff from Lhe
caLchmenL, LransporLlng dlssolved and parLlculaLe nuLrlenLs LhaL supporL aquaLlc producLlon.
1he shore and shallow areas of lakes and rlvers are assoclaLed wlLh rlch specles dlverslLy and
hlgh blologlcal producLlvlLy, and Lhese sandy, muddy or rocky hablLaLs are crlLlcal for many
flsh specles aL varlous sLages ln Lhelr llfe hlsLory (breedlng, nursery and feedlng). 1he
shallow delLas of 8lver nlle and 8lver Semllkl are key examples, showlng a very hlgh dlverslLy
of specles and llfe sLages lncludlng [uvenlles (SLA, 2013).

1he 8wenzorl MounLalns ln Lhe souLhwesL of Lhe 8eglon represenL an lmporLanL waLer
caLchmenL area, wlLh numerous rlvers descendlng from hlgh ralnfall and snow mounLaln
areas Lo Lhe 8lfL valley and lnLo lakes Ceorge and Ldward. 1he key rlvers ln Lhls area lnclude
rlvers Mubuku and nyamwamba. Pere Loo, numerous rlvers and sLreams draln from Lhe
escarpmenL and hlghland areas, lnLo Lhe valley, and ulLlmaLely lnLo Lhe lakes.

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Some of Lhe lmporLanL lssues are Lhe Lrans-boundary sLaLus of Lake AlberL and oLher
waLercourses ln Lhe AlberLlne Craben, and Lhe pauclLy of daLa on Lake hydrodynamlcs (SLA,
2013).

Wet|ands
WeLlands ln uganda cover abouL 13 of Lhe counLry's LoLal area, and lL ls esLlmaLed LhaL
over 3 mllllon people ln uganda depend on weLlands dlrecLly for waLer supply valued aL over
uS$ 23 mllllon per year (MWL, 2007). WeLlands are a crlLlcal componenL of Lhe hydrologlc
cycle, funcLlonlng Lo recharge ground waLer, sLore waLer and purlfy waLer Lhrough varlous
blochemlcal processes. WeLlands are also lmporLanL for conLrolllng floods, fllLerlng wasLes,
dry season flshlng, llvesLock grazlng, and Lourlsm. WeLlands can also serve as a buffer
agalnsL exLreme weaLher evenLs ranglng from droughLs Lo floodlng, and Lhey are Lherefore
an effecLlve ally agalnsL some of Lhe effecLs of global cllmaLe change.

AquaLlc vegeLaLlon covers Lhe floodplalns of some rlvers such as Lhe 8lver Wambabya. 1hey
plug delLas of some rlvers such as Lhe nlle and 8lver Semllkl and form narrow frlnges along
Lhe banks of mosL rlvers flowlng lnLo Lake AlberL. 1hey also frlnge parLs of Lhe shores of Lake
AlberL. A speclal case of emergenL weLland ls Lhe swamp foresL reporLed Lo cover mosL of
Lhe merged lower floodplalns of 8lver Walga and 8lver Wlsoke ln 8ulllsa ulsLrlcL (LSA, 2010).

WeLland ecosysLems occur malnly ln Lhe Lake AlberL caLchmenL buL also ln parLs of Lhe
AlberL nlle, Lake Ldward, Lake vlcLorla and vlcLorla nlle caLchmenLs. 1he weLlands embrace
3 dlsLlncL vegeLaLlon communlLles, lncludlng papyrus, sedges, grassland, swamp foresLs and
farmland. Some are seasonal (reLaln waLer for 2-4 monLhs of Lhe year) and some are
permanenL (reLaln waLer for aL leasL 4 monLhs of Lhe year).

WeLland flora ls vlLal Lo Lhe sLrucLure and funcLlonlng of floodplaln and frlnglng weLland
ecosysLems assoclaLed wlLh Lake AlberL. 1hese weLland sysLems are belleved Lo offer Lhe
prlnclple food web supporLlng mosL of Lhe ma[or flsherles of Lhe lake. 1he blggesL hlsLorlcal
flsh landlng beaches on Lake AlberL are slLuaLed aL rlver mouLhs (LSA, 2010).

Groundwater
Cenerally, Lhe Craben ls poor ln groundwaLer resources due Lo Lhe pauclLy of slgnlflcanL
aqulfers, due ln Lurn Lo Lhe underlylng rocks ln mosL areas belng bedrock. Some
groundwaLer, however, occurs in rock ssures and localized aquifers. Local communities
uLlllze groundwaLer ln many areas. Lvldence from many boreholes and shallow wells
lndlcaLe a relaLlvely hlgh waLer Lable ln many places. 1he waLer Lable elevaLlon varles over
Lhe enLlre AlberLlne Craben wlLh levels ranglng from 1m Lo over 70m below ground surface.

8.3.S I|ora, Iauna and 8|od|vers|ty
I|ora and Iauna
1here ls a wlde varleLy of vegeLaLlon communlLles ln ecosysLems ln Lhe reglon, lncludlng
Lhose on Lhe mounLaln and escarpmenL slopes and in the valleys and ats below them. The
maln ecosysLems lnclude monLane foresLs, Lroplcal foresLs (lncludlng rlverlne and swamp
foresLs), savannah woodlands, grassland mosalcs, papyrus and grassland swamps. As of
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2007, 3793 planL specles have been recorded wlLhln Lhe AlberLlne 8lfL, comprlslng 14 of all
mainland Africas plant species.

The rich and varied ora of the region provides habitats for an equally wide diversity of
anlmal communlLles, and a greaL abundance of wlldllfe specles. 1he shorL and medlum
grassland savannah ls preferred by anlmals llke Lhe uganda kob. 1he grasslands of Lhe
8eglon are capable of supporLlng an abundance of wlldllfe. loresL swamp ecosysLems are
frequented by elephants and bualos, while the scrub woodland around the lakes uLlllzed by
bushbuck, and tall grasses in depressions are preferred by bualos. The extensive network of
riverine forest associated with the rivers that ow from the mountains and highlands
provlde lmporLanL hablLaLs for prlmaLes such as chlmpanzees, baboons and monkeys (LSA,
2010).

1he AlberLlne reglon ls rlch ln blrd specles whose hablLaLs range from foresL and grassland Lo
weLlands and delLas, wlLh over 30 of all Afrlca's blrds found Lhere. 1he delLa area on Lake
Albert's shores, for example, is a convergence zone between the River Nile that ows
through the lake, and other tributaries that ow through shallow papyrus swamps. The
swamps are well known for wlde varleLy of waLer blrds.

1here are also a number of lmporLanL 8lrd Areas (l8As). Cueen LllzabeLh naLlonal ark has
lmporLanL mlgraLory blrd sLopover polnLs for blrds comlng from Lurope along Lhe Afrlcan-
Eurasian yway.

WhllsL Lhe AlberLlne rlfL ls specles rlch, some 33 mammal specles are consldered hlghly
LhreaLened by exLlncLlon (CrlLlcally Lndangered, Lndangered or vulnerable as classlfled by
luCn crlLerla). Some 23 blrd specles, 16 amphlblan specles and 40 planL specles are also
consldered hlghly LhreaLened. oor envlronmenLal managemenL of ollfleld or oLher
operaLlons ln Lhe rlfL area would be a LhreaL Lo survlval of some of Lhese specles.

kabwoya wlldllfe reserve, 8udongo and 8ugoma foresL reserves also have very hlgh specles
rlchness. ln Lhe waLers of Lake AlberL, Lhe souLhern parL of Lhe lake, Lhe area around
kabwoya wlldllfe reserve, kalso-1onya communlLy wlldllfe area and 8uLyaba area show hlgh
flsh dlverslLy (LSA, 2010).

8|od|vers|ty
1he wesLern arm of Lhe LasL Afrlcan 8lfL SysLem ls one of Lhe mosL lmporLanL locaLlons for
the conservation of mammals, birds and freshwater sh in Africa. Comprlslng a greaL varleLy
of landforms including escarpments, dissected relief and clis, undulating hills, valley ats,
rlvers and lakes, Lhe AlberLlne rlfL area ls a LranslLlonal zone for three of Africas
blogeographlcal reglons (Sudano-Sahellan, Culnea-Congollan and Zambezlan). 1he varleLy ln
geographlcal and blologlcal feaLures comblnes Lo produce a reglon of complex ecosysLems
and high biological diversity, as well as magnicenL scenery.

1he reglon ls a key aLLracLlon for ecoLourlsLs, and Lhere ls greaL poLenLlal Lo expand Lhls
secLor. Murchlson lalls naLlonal ark, whlch borders Lhe norLhern end of Lake AlberL aL Lhe
nlle delLa ls Lhe largesL naLlonal ark ln uganda and lL Loo ls an lmporLanL LourlsL
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deslgnaLlon. 1he park has a hlgh ecologlcal lmporLance for a number of globally and
reglonally LhreaLened specles of mammals and blrds, among oLhers

8.3.6 I|sh|ng
llshlng provldes an lmporLanL form of llvellhood for Lhe people ln Lhe AlberLlne Craben as
dlscussed ln Chapters 9 and 12. The most important sources of sh in the region are Lake
AlberL, Lake Ldward, Lake Ceorge and rlvers, especlally Lhe AlberL nlle, Wakl, Wambabya,
Semllkl and kazlnga Channel. Lake AlberL ls Lhe mosL producLlve lake ln Lhe 8eglon ln Lerms
of the sh biodiversity, having about 53 sh species of which about ten are endemic.

SLudles conducLed ln Lhe Lake AlberL area have shown LhaL Lhe Angara lagoon ln Lhe delLa
and lower oodplain zone of the Hohwa River Valley supports many species of sh,
indicating possible use of the river by sh that spawn upriver. Small scale shing also occurs
aL Lhe communlLy level ln Lhe numerous sLreams and weLlands ln Lhe area, buL Lhere ls llLLle
ln Lhe way of daLa on flsh ecology, reproducLlon, populaLlon dynamlcs or flshlng pressure.

8.3.7 rotected Areas
1he AlberLlne Crabens unique habitats support a high diversity of species and ecologlcal
processes. Cf Lhe Len naLlonal arks ln uganda, seven occur wlLhln Lhe AlberLlne Craben.
There are also 12 Wildlife Reserves, 13 wildlife sanctuaries and ve Community Wildlife
Areas. 1he proLecLed areas sysLem of Lhe AlberLlne Craben comprlses abouL 70 of all
naLlonal parks and wlldllfe reserves ln uganda (8uhanga, 2009).

A llsLlng of ConservaLlon Areas ls glven ln 1ab|e 8-1 below, lncludlng naLlonal arks, loresL
8eserves and Wlldllfe 8eserves.

An lmporLance ranklng exerclse for Lhe conservaLlon areas llsLed above was conducLed as
parL of Lhe SenslLlvlLy ALlas (2010) producLlon. lL provlded welghLed lmporLance raLlngs Lo
Lhe dlfferenL forms of conservaLlon area, plus wheLher lL was a CommunlLy Wlldllfe Area, a
8losphere 8eserve, a 8amsar slLe or an lmporLanL 8lrd Area (l8A). 1he hlgher Lhe score, Lhe
more "lmporLanL" was Lhe proLecLed area. 1he resulLs are shown ln 1ab|e 8-1.

"8amsar" lndlcaLes a slLe recognlzed under Lhe 8amsar ConvenLlon (1971) on Lhe
conservaLlon and managemenL of weLlands lnLernaLlonally. lL promoLes Lhe wlse use of
weLlands lncludlng Lhe malnLenance of Lhelr ecologlcal characLer, as achleved Lhrough Lhe
lmplemenLaLlon of ecosysLem approaches wlLhln Lhe conLexL of susLalnable developmenL.

1he Lop-ranked four conservaLlon areas were: ML. 8wenzorl naLlonal ark, Cueen LllzabeLh
naLlonal ark, 8wlndl lmpeneLrable naLlonal ark, and Murchlson lalls naLlonal ark.
lollowlng ln rank were: Semllkl naLlonal ark, klbale naLlonal ark, and Mgahlnga naLlonal
ark.

1here ls also a wealLh of blodlverslLy ouLslde proLecLed areas. unforLunaLely, Lhe bulk of Lhls
ls elLher already dlsLurbed or LhreaLened whlle some of lL ls already exLlncL. ConservaLlon of
Lhls blodlverslLy requlres land-use based lncenLlves Lo land owners and users.

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1ab|e 8-1: Conservat|on Areas |n the A|bert|ne Graben

Conservat|on
Area
Nat|ona|
ark
Iorest
keserve
W||d||fe
keserve
Comm
W||d||fe
Area
Wor|d
ner|tage
S|te
8|o-
d|vers|ty
S|te
kamsar
S|te
Import.
8|rd
Area
1ota|
ML.8wenzorln 9

3

3 1 18
8wlndl n 9

3 3

1 18
Mln 9

3 1 13
CLn 9

3 1 13
Semllkl n 9

1 10
klbale n 9

1 10
Mgahlnga n 9

1 10
Lake Mburo n 9

9
8udongo l8

6

1 7
ML. CLze

6

6
ML. kel

6

6
A[al W8

3

1 6
Semllkl W8

3

1 6
8ugoma l8

6

6
kashoha-klLoml l8 6

6
kallnzu l8

6

6
Maramagambo l8 6

6
8ugungu W8

3

3
karuma W8

3

3
kabwoya W8

3

3
kaLonga W8

3

3
klgezl W8

3

3
kalso-1onya WCA

3

3
Source: LnvlronmenLal SenslLlvlLy ALlas for Lhe AlberLlne Craben, 2010

8.4 otent|a| Deve|opment Impacts

8.4.1 Introduct|on
1hls secLlon ouLllnes Lhe poLenLlal effecLs LhaL human acLlvlLles, lncludlng buL noL llmlLed Lo
Lhe burgeonlng oll and gas secLor ln Lhe AlberLlne Craben, could have on varlous
componenLs of Lhe envlronmenL as descrlbed ln Lhe prevlous secLlon. 1he dlscusslon
presenLs Lhree Lypes of lmpacL, vlz., prlmary effecLs, secondary effecLs and cumulaLlve
effecLs.

rlmary effecLs are Lhose LhaL resulL from developmenL pro[ecLs and oLher human acLlvlLles,
ln Lhe exploraLlon, consLrucLlon, producLlon or operaLlonal phases, and lnLo Lhe
decommlsslonlng phases. Secondary effecLs are Lhose envlronmenLal and relaLed soclo-
economlc lmpacLs LhaL could resulL from Lhe lncreased populaLlons, lnfrasLrucLural
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developmenL and commerclal acLlvlLy LhaL would lnevlLably occur as an ulLlmaLe resulL of
developmenL pro[ecLs such as oll and gas. CumulaLlve effecLs are Lhose lmpacLs LhaL resulL
from mulLlple pro[ecLs or human acLlvlLles ln Lhe same area of focus.

1ab|e 8-2 summarlzes Lhe varlous prlmary (dlrecL) effecLs LhaL should be anLlclpaLed ln Lhe
AlberLlne Craben ln fuLure plannlng for Lhe reglon, parLlcularly ln vlew of Lhe expanslon of oll
and gas acLlvlLy.
1ab|e 8-3 summarlzes Lhe varlous secondary (lndlrecL) effecLs LhaL should be anLlclpaLed.

1he remalnder of Lhls secLlon provldes a brlef descrlpLlon of Lhe maln effecLs LhaL should be
addressed ln envlronmenLal managemenL, plannlng and monlLorlng.





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1ab|e 8-2: r|mary otent|a| C&G Lffects on Lnv|ronment

Act|v|ty or Cccurrence r|mary Lffects

A. Lxp|orat|on hase
SlLe preparaLlon Loss of vegeLaLlon cover, dlsLurbance of wlldllfe, hablLaL fragmenLaLlon, soll eroslon, sllLaLlon of waLerbodles, affecLlng flsh and
food chaln.
Access roads Loss of vegeLaLlon, dlsLurbance of wlldllfe, vehlcle/wlldllfe colllslons, dusL, nolse. Lroslon and sllLaLlon of waLer bodles.
Camps nolse, dlsLurbance of local communlLy, wasLes (solld/sanlLary) resulLlng ln soll and waLer conLamlnaLlon, see also socloeconomlcs
1rafflc Local Lrafflc congesLlon, Lrafflc rlsk Lo surroundlng communlLy, dusL, ruLLlng of roads
Selsmlc blasLlng ulsLurbance of local wlldllfe, effecLs on wlldllfe dlsLrlbuLlon, reproducLlon. ulsLurbance of flsh, aquaLlc anlmals by hlgh lnLenslLy
nolse.
WasLes, LesLlng flulds 8elease or leakage of conLamlnanLs Lo local waLer bodles, groundwaLer: LoxlclLy Lo humans and wlldllfe
Selsmlc llnes Loss and fragmenLaLlon of wlldllfe hablLaL, wlldllfe dlsLurbance. AesLheLlc degradaLlon of naLural landscape and effecLs on
Lourlsm.
urllllng ConLamlnaLlon of local solls and waLerbodles by drllllng wasLes and produced waLer (muds, cuLLlngs, chemlcal addlLlves)
8lowouL ulscharge of gas, llqulds, conLamlnaLlon of local solls, ground waLer, surface waLer bodles, danger Lo local humans and wlldllfe.

8. roduct|on hase
roduced waLer dlsposal ulsposal of produced waLer, effluenLs, sewage wasLe, wlLh conLamlnaLlon of local solls and waLer bodles.
Leakage of haz maLerlals ConLamlnaLlon of local ground waLer, surface waLer bodles or solls, effecLs on supply of poLable waLer, LoxlclLy Lo wlldlfe or
humans.
roduced waLer dlsposal ConLamlnaLlon of local waLer, surface waLer bodles or solls, effecLs on supply of poLable waLer, LoxlclLy Lo wlldlfe or humans.
Well ln[ecLlon of wasLe
fluld*
ConLamlnaLlon of local ground waLer, surface waLer bodles or solls, effecLs on supply of poLable waLer, LoxlclLy Lo wlldlfe or
humans.
Pydraullc fracLurlng, well
workover*
ConLamlnaLlon of local ground waLer, surface waLer bodles or solls, effecLs on supply of poLable waLer, LoxlclLy Lo wlldlfe or
humans.
Cll spllls ConLamlnaLlon of local hablLaLs, waLerbodles, ground waLer, solls, conLamlnaLlon of hablLaLs, morLallLy of planLs and wlldllfe.
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llarlng of gas ConLamlnaLlon of local alrshed (P2S, mercapLans, meLals, vCCs, nox, eLc.).

C. 1ransportat|on hase
lpellne consLrucLlon CompacLlon and eroslon of solls. uesLrucLlon and fragmenLaLlon of hablLaLs from vegeLaLlon clearlng.
lpellne operaLlons lnLerference wlLh wlldllfe mlgraLlons, dlsperslon. Spread of non-naLlve planLs for reclamaLlon, weed lnfesLaLlon can dlsrupL
ecologlcal balance.
SLorage aL bulk Lermlnals luglLlve emlsslons Lhrough valves, venLs, wlLh effecLs on alr quallLy, LoxlclLy Lo humans or wlldllfe.
Cll spllls ConLamlnaLlon of local hablLaLs, waLerbodles, ground waLer, solls, conLamlnaLlon of hablLaLs, morLallLy of planLs and wlldllfe.
Leak or plpellne fallure ulscharge of gas, rlsk of flre or exploslon, danger Lo local humans and wlldllfe.

D. Decomm|ss|on|ng
WasLe dlsposal Leakage from dlsposed wasLes, conLamlnaLed soll, effecLs on solls, ground waLer, surface waLers. LffecLs on human healLh,
wlldllfe.
ConLourlng AlLeraLlon of surface waLer flows, lf slLe noL adequaLely re-conLoured.
8eclamaLlon AlLeraLlon of local vegeLaLlon communlLy, lnLroducLlon on non-naLlve vegeLaLlon, weeds.


1ab|e 8-3:Secondary otent|a| C&G Lffects on Lnv|ronment

Act|v|ty or Need Secondary Lffects
Land Lenure 8lse ln land prlces, speculaLlon, land-grabblng. CompeLlng land uses (resldenLlal, agrlculLural, lndusLrlal, commerclal, eLc.).
1ransporLaLlon Access roads, plpellnes, selsmlc llnes offer lncreased access Lo wllderness areas, exposlng wlldllfe Lo humans, dlsLurbance. 1rafflc
safeLy may be compromlsed due Lo lncreased Lrafflc denslLy. lncreased demand for roads malnLenance due expandlng populaLlon.
use of waLer lndusLrlal waLer needs could exerL pressure on supply of poLable waLer for communlLy use. Lcologlcal ln-sLream flow needs may be
compromlsed.
use of foresL resources lncreased demand for wood, for bulldlngs, oLher consLrucLlon, and for energy needs (charcoal) may resulL ln acceleraLlng
encroachmenL and de-foresLaLlon. 1hls noL only resulLs ln loss of hablLaL buL also degrades soll due Lo lncreased eroslon.
lood and agrlculLure Local food demand wlll lncrease wlLh larger populaLlon, whlle use of land for agrlculLural versus munlclpal, lndusLrlal and
commerclal wlll be ln confllcL. Wllderness and/or poLenLlal Lourlsm opporLunlLles could be compromlsed.
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PunLlng, use of wlldllfe lncreased demand for food could resulL ln lncreased poachlng of wlldllfe, lncreases ln prlce for wlld meaL. ln Lurn, Lhls would
LhreaLen sLablllLy of local wlldllfe populaLlons and even resulL ln specles exLlrpaLlon ln some cases.
llshlng, aquaLlc resources lncreased food demand wlll puL pressure on local flsh populaLlons, ralse prlces, encourage lllegal flshlng meLhods.
llll and aggregaLe needs LffecLs of borrow plLs on ground waLer Lables, eroslon, sllLaLlon, effecLs on surface waLer, loss of vegeLaLlon permanenL unless
properly reclalmed. CompeLlLlon for borrow maLerlal wlll lncrease due Lo lncreased demand, confllcLs among users.
Work camps Soclal problems lnvolvlng ouLslde workers and local communlLy, e.g., dlsrupLlon of soclal mores, use of alcohol/drugs, Lransmlsslon
of dlsease.
Schools, hosplLals,
emergency
uemand for munlclpal lnfrasLrucLure and servlces wlll lncrease, wlLh growlng populaLlon. LxlsLlng servlces puL under lncreaslng
pressure.
llnanclal lncrease ln local lnflaLlon raLes for goods and servlces, resulLlng from more employmenL ln Lhe reglon.
Lnergy use luel, elecLrlclLy wlll see a greaLer demand wlLh growlng populaLlons and communlLles. 1hls could elevaLe prlces and lead Lo
scarclLles. new power planLs, Lransmlsslon llnes would have envlronmenLal effecLs, e.g., emlsslons, hablLaL fragmenLaLlon.

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8.4.2 C||mate Change
CllmaLe change ls a conLemporary global phenomenon whlch ls anLlclpaLed Lo have a
mulLlLude of lmpacLs on Lhe envlronmenL and naLural resources.

Some of Lhe envlronmenLal and relaLed soclo-economlc effecLs LhaL have been predlcLed are
changes ln average global aLmospherlc LemperaLures, changes ln weaLher paLLerns and
oceanlc currenLs, hlgher evapoLransplraLlon raLes, Lhe waLer cycle and Lhe avallablllLy of
fresh waLer, floodlng and loss of coasLal areas due Lo hlgher sea levels, severe weaLher
evenLs such as hurrlcanes and Lornadoes, flres and even Lhe lncldence of pesLs and
conLamlnanLs. 1hese effecLs wlll dlffer accordlng Lo dlfferenL reglons of Lhe world.
lncreased raLes of evapoLransplraLlon are predlcLed Lo occur, resulLlng ln more droughL
condlLlons and reduced flow ln surface waLer sysLems.

1here ls evldence ln varlous parLs of Lhe world, of alLeraLlon of weaLher paLLerns and
lncreased frequency of exLreme weaLher such as droughL and floods. 8esulLlng from Lhese
lmpacLs are effecLs on hydrologlc cycles, specles blodlverslLy of planLs and anlmals, sLablllLy
of ecosysLems and naLural resources such as foresLry, agrlculLure and flshlng.

Some cllmaLe models have pro[ecLed an lncreased rlsk ln Lhe fuLure of growlng season
condlLlons conduclve Lo droughL ln areas of Lhe world LhaL are already droughL-prone.
LxLreme preclplLaLlon evenLs and relaLed lmpacLs such as floods are of parLlcular concern for
some socleLles ln plannlng for fuLure cllmaLe change glven Lhe poLenLlal LhreaLs Lo
lnfrasLrucLure, Lhe envlronmenL and human llfe.

1he levels of some conLamlnanLs ln surface waLer sysLems ls pro[ecLed Lo rlse ln some cases.
lor example, an lncreaslng mercury burden ln some specles of flsh has occurred. 1here ls
some evldence LhaL cllmaLe warmlng, leadlng Lo lncreases ln algal producLlon ln oceans and
lakes, has alLered Lhe blogeochemlcal cycllng of mercury and lncreased Lhe amounL of
bloavallable mercury.

As waLer becomes scarcer due Lo cllmaLe change and human populaLlons conLlnue Lo grow,
Lhe amounL of bacLerla and oLher paLhogens ln Lhe waLer supply wlll Lend Loward becomlng
more concenLraLed, leadlng Lo greaLer poLenLlal rlsks Lo human healLh. Slmllarly, wlLhouL
LerLlary and oLher expenslve soluLlons, Lhe concenLraLlon of nuLrlenLs ln surface waLers wlll
Lend Lo lncrease, leadlng Lo problems of nuLrlenL over-enrlchmenL, oxygen depleLlon and
furLher deLerloraLlon of waLer quallLy and harm Lo aquaLlc ecosysLems. nuLrlenL enrlchmenL
by nlLrogen and phosphorus compounds can resulL ln algal blooms, fouled waLer,
deoxygenaLlon of waLer and flsh kllls, among oLher Lhlngs.

Specles mlgraLlon and specles exLlrpaLlon or exLlncLlon LhreaLen Lo be among Lhe slgnlflcanL
adverse effecLs of cllmaLe change, along wlLh LhreaLs Lo food securlLy. 1ourlsm prospecLs ln
uganda could be adversely affecLed by specles loss. lL ls anLlclpaLed LhaL, wlLhouL slgnlflcanL
acLlon by Lhe world communlLy, cllmaLe change and Lhe above ouLcomes wlll lncrease wlLh
Llme. Whlle a slngle naLlon cannoL by lLself resolve global cllmaLe change, reglonal and
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naLlonal plannlng need Lo Lake lnLo accounL Lhe poLenLlal effecLs of cllmaLe change,
parLlcularly when deallng wlLh waLer managemenL.

lor uganda, lncreased evapoLransplraLlon raLes are llkely Lo affecL agrlculLure ln Lerms of
waLer scarclLy. loresLs are llkely Lo be adversely affecLed due Lo lncreased
evapoLransplraLlon raLes resulLlng ln reduced Lree vlgour. llshlng ls llkely Lo be affecLed, due
Lo lncreased evapoLransplraLlon raLes and changlng waLer levels ln lakes and sLreams. As
menLloned above, lL ls posslble LhaL Lhe levels of polluLanLs and mlcro-organlsms ln naLural
waLers may lncrease.

LlLLle rellable lnformaLlon ls avallable on alr quallLy aL presenL ln Lhe AlberLlne Craben
reglon. Powever, lncrease ln alr polluLanLs could resulL from relaLlvely large releases of alr
polluLanLs from varlous processes ln oll and gas producLlon and ln Lhe reflnlng operaLlons as
well. luglLlve emlsslons Lyplcally occur Lo some exLenL from some oll and gas operaLlons,
e.g., from Lanks, producL Lransfer, LransporLaLlon and oLher phases of operaLlon. SubsLances
LhaL could be released lnclude parLlculaLes, volaLlle organlc compounds, sulphur compounds
and nlLrogen oxldes.

8.4.3 Land Cover and So||s
Soll eroslon ls a very slgnlflcanL envlronmenLal LhreaL ln Lhe 8eglon due Lo eroslon prone
solls and sLeep slopes. SubsLanLlal land use changes wlLhouL Lhe necessary land
managemenL plannlng Lyplcally lead Lo lncreased lnLenslLy of land for agrlculLure, eLc., and
hence Lo soll eroslon, nuLrlenL loss, loss ln soll sLrucLure and ferLlllLy, and generally Lo
progresslve land degradaLlon. uganda loses abouL 11 of lLs Cn per year due Lo soll
eroslon (Moylnl eL al., 2002).

1he use of flrewood for domesLlc energy requlremenLs has resulLed ln Lhe cuLLlng of Lrees, ln
some places denudlng Lhe landscape and exposlng Lhe soll Lo wlnd and raln, leadlng ln Lurn
Lo soll eroslon, nuLrlenL loss and loss ln soll ferLlllLy. 1hese effecLs are exLremely dlfflculL Lo
reverse and evenLually Lhey become long-Lerm or permanenL losses. 1he locaLlons of Lhe
mosL serlous such effecLs can be anLlclpaLed Lo be where Lhere ls relaLlvely lnLense use of
Lhe land and also solls of hlgh eroslon poLenLlal and/or sLeep slopes. An underlylng causaLlve
facLor ls Lhe changes ln Lhe Lype of land Lenure and overlapplng land rlghLs.

8.4.4 Surface Water and Groundwater
Sens|t|v|ty of Water and Aquat|c Systems
8ecause of Lhe proxlmlLy of oll and gas producLlon acLlvlLles Lo Lhe Lhree Lakes and
numerous rlvers and sLreams, and Lhe anLlclpaLed lncreased of such acLlvlLles ln Lhe fuLure,
surface waLer sources wlLhln Lhe AlberLlne Craben wlll be suscepLlble Lo conLamlnaLlon
lf/when releases of polluLanLs occur.

8ecause of Lhe relaLlvely hlgh waLer Lable, Lhe poLenLlal for aqulfer conLamlnaLlon ls also
hlgh. 8ased on daLa from borehole logs and sprlngs, Lhe relaLlve senslLlvlLles of groundwaLer
resources were ranked as Lo Lhe rlsk of conLamlnaLlon ln Lhe case of a release(s) of
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conLamlnanLs. 1he analysls showed LhaL 80 of Lhe area has hlgh senslLlvlLy Lo
conLamlnaLlon, based on Lhe helghL of Lhe waLer Lable.

Cn and around Lake AlberL and lLs shores, Lhere are varlous human acLlvlLles and resources,
prlmarlly flshlng slLes, flsh landlng slLes, and boaL landlng slLes. 1here are also numerous
markeLs and Lradlng cenLres, human seLLlemenLs, alrsLrlps and hoLels. And Lhere are oll and
gas off-shore developmenLs near or on Lhe shorellnes. Shorellne areas are Lyplcally senslLlve
Lo dlsLurbance or conLamlnaLlon because Lhere are complex assemblages of planL and
anlmal communlLles ln balance wlLhln a conLlnuum of abloLlc elemenLs lncludlng waLer,
currenLs, wave acLlon, wlnds and erodlble solls ln Lhe banks or llLLoral zones.

arLly because of Lhe unlque envlronmenL of a ma[or lake and lLs shore, Lhere are numerous
archaeologlcal slLes. 1here are also lmporLanL wlldllfe areas, assoclaLed wlLh Lhe weLlands
and shores of Lhe Lake, parLlcularly ln assoclaLed marsh or LhlckeL sysLems. 1he mouLhs of
Lhe numerous rlvers aL Lhe Lake represenL senslLlve and ln some places unsLable solls and
subsLraLes.

Superlmposed on Lhls complex seL of resources and acLlvlLles, Lhere are many oll and gas
exploraLlon and oLher acLlvlLles Laklng place. 1hese acLlvlLles are expecLed Lo grow and
expand very subsLanLlally ln Lhe comlng years. 1he poLenLlal for conLamlnaLlon and
degradaLlon of waLer quallLy and dlsLurbance of assoclaLed planLs and wlldllfe ls Lherefore of
paramounL concern, parLlcularly ln Lhe senslLlve areas menLloned above.

lL ls of some concern LhaL oll and gas operaLlons are occurrlng near or on Lhe shorellne of
Lake AlberL, as was observed durlng our 1eam's fleld work ln Aprll 2014. laclng such
operaLlons so near Lo Lhe fraglle shorellne sysLems would lncrease Lhe probablllLy of
occurrence of Lhe lmpacLs ouLllned above.

WaLer resources counLry-wlde are under lncreaslng LhreaL of degradaLlon, ln Lhe forms of
boLh reduced waLer quallLy and waLer quanLlLles and flows ln freshwaLer bodles. Soll
eroslon, as dlscussed above, has reduced surface waLer quallLy. 1hls occurs as a resulL of sllL
parLlcles belng lnLroduced when waLer moves over eroslon-prone solls. SllL ln Lhe waLer can
lead Lo many adverse effecLs lncludlng foullng of flsh spawnlng areas, decreased llghL
peneLraLlon for phoLosynLheLlc acLlvlLy, lmpedance of flsh feedlng, and foullng of Lhe aquaLlc
organlsms LhaL are Lhe base of Lhe aquaLlc food chaln. lmproved land managemenL
pracLlces, malnLenance of vegeLaLlon cover, and approprlaLe eroslon mlLlgaLlon measures
durlng new developmenLs are necessary Lo mlnlmlze Lhe effecLs of eroslon on waLer quallLy.

ConLamlnaLlon of surface waLer can occur as a resulL of Lhe spllls, leakage, seepage or oLher
forms of release of envlronmenLally hazardous subsLances lnLo Lhe envlronmenL, for
example, from oll and gas acLlvlLles. 1he conLamlnanLs may be ln Lhe form of Lhe
hydrocarbons belng exLracLed or chemlcals LhaL are used ln varlous processes relaLed Lo oll
and gas producLlon, reflnlng and LransporLaLlon (vla plpellne, road, rall or oLher). lf such
subsLances were Lo be released onLo land, noL only could Lhe soll become conLamlnaLed buL
underlylng groundwaLer aqulfers could become conLamlnaLed as well. lf Lhese are used for
domesLlc waLer supply, Lhen lL wlll lnvolve a long-Lerm cosL noL only for remedlaLlon of Lhe
groundwaLer buL also Lo provlde an alLernaLlve waLer supply. Cnce conLamlnanLs have
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enLered Lhe groundwaLer, lL ls Lyplcally very Lechnlcally demandlng, expenslve and requlres a
very long Llme Lo remedlaLe Lhe groundwaLer source.

1he dlsposal of wasLes from oll and gas producLlon/reflnlng ls poLenLlally anoLher form of
release, dependlng on Lhe means and locaLlon of wasLe dlsposal, and Lhe amounL of
LreaLmenL Lhe wasLe mlghL have recelved before belng dlsposed.

1he wasLes and releases of human communlLles or oLher lndusLrles ls a crlLlcal LhreaL Lo
surface waLer and groundwaLer quallLy. lmproper dlsposal of solld wasLe can lead Lo
leachlng of conLamlnanLs from Lhe wasLe lnLo Lhe surroundlng soll, wlLh Lhe poLenLlal of
conLamlnaLlng groundwaLer. 1he proper LreaLmenL of sewage ls also a key need and
poLenLlal concern lf lL ls lmproperly dlsposed or lf Lhe LreaLmenL sysLems for communlLles
have lnadequaLe capaclLy Lo handle Lhe populaLlon's needs. noL only wlll sewage
conLamlnaLlon resulL ln levels of paLhogenlc mlcro-organlsms and assoclaLed dlsease
Lransmlsslon, buL nuLrlenLs such as nlLrogen- and phosphorus-conLalnlng compounds. 1he
laLLer can lead Lo algal blooms and subsequenL de-oxygenaLlon of waLer bodles, flsh
morLallLy and degradaLlon of Lhe aquaLlc ecosysLem.

8.4.S I|ora and Iauna
I|ora
loresL, bushlands, shorellne, weLland and slopes vegeLaLlon communlLles ln Lhe 8eglon are
under conslderable LhreaL, from a number of facLors. 1he expanslon of seLLlemenLs due Lo
rlslng human populaLlon dlrecLly affecLs Lhese hablLaLs Lhrough encroachmenL and
converslon of Lhe orlglnal vegeLaLlon Lo oLher land uses such as agrlculLure. 1he use of
flrewood (charcoal) for domesLlc energy source puLs parLlcular pressure on wooded areas
ad[acenL Lo human seLLlemenLs, l.e., vlllages or Lowns. As a resulL, deforesLaLlon ls a serlous
problem ln Lhe 8eglon.

CoasLal/shore vegeLaLlon on Lakes AlberL, Ldward and Ceorge ls aL parLlcular rlsk because of
lLs senslLlve naLure as well as Lhe facL LhaL Lhese areas are colncldenL wlLh much of Lhe
exlsLlng and anLlclpaLed oll and gas exploraLlon and producLlon ln Lhe 8eglon.

1he naLural foresLs ln Lhe 8eglon have over Llme been degraded due Lo pressure on land.
Puman acLlvlLles such as deforesLaLlon and weLland degradaLlon have had a greaL lnfluence
on Lhe naLural vegeLaLlon cover. Causes of land degradaLlon lnclude Llmber cuLLlng, clearlng
land for agrlculLure and seLLlemenL, over-grazlng and exLracLlon of oLher resources e.g.
honey, raLLan and fuel wood (Maslndl ulsLrlcL LnvlronmenL roflle, 2003). Lxpanslon of Lhe
oll and gas lndusLry and Lhe resulLlng pro[ecLed lncrease ln human populaLlon ln Lhe 8eglon
as well as Lhe necessary lnfrasLrucLure requlremenLs Lo supporL lL, wlll place an added LhreaL
on Lhe foresLs of Lhe 8eglon.

Iauna
As Lhe vegeLaLlon ls affecLed, so Loo are Lhe hablLaLs of many wlldllfe specles, lncludlng some
LhaL are rare or endangered. Some specles of wlldllfe requlre a large area of "core" hablLaL,
and when Lhe vegeLaLlon communlLy becomes fragmenLed due Lo encroachmenL, Lhere ls a
loss of some senslLlve specles and a general decllne ln blodlverslLy of Lhe area. CLher aspecLs
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of ecosysLem connecLlvlLy lnclude "corrldors" whlch are vegeLaLlon polygons LhaL connecL
core hablLaL zones. MalnLalnlng core and corrldor hablLaLs ls an lmporLanL parL of susLalnlng
ecologlcal llnkages and Lherefore ecosysLem lnLegrlLy.

ln some areas Lhere are relaLlvely hlgh anlmal populaLlons, whlch need speclal conslderaLlon
and proLecLlon ln Lhe plannlng process. lor example, Lhe delLa reglon of Mln ls a 8amsar
slLe and has a greaLer abundance of large and small mammals Lhan oLher parLs of Lhe park.
1here are oLher 8amsar slLes ln Lhe 8eglon as well. AlLhough mosL large mammals
(elephants, lions, bualos etc) occur in protected areas, a few are found ouLslde Lhe
proLecLed areas as well.

CLher areas e.g., 8wlndl lmpeneLrable n and Lhe lshasha secLor of CLn may have fewer
mammals buL Lhese mammals are elLher of unlque characLer or are hlghly resLrlcLed ln
hablLaL range, e.g., Lhe MounLaln Corllla only occurs ln 8wlndl lmpeneLrable n and
Mgahlnga n. 1hese areas aLLracL a large number of LourlsLs Lo Lhe reglon, and Lhls secLor
could be adversely affecLed by fragmenLaLlon or degradaLlon of hablLaL or dlsLurbance of Lhe
anlmals.

ln Lerms of dlsLurbance, some mammals are senslLlve Lo nolse vlbraLlons from selsmlc
surveys, movemenL of heavy equlpmenL and drllllng acLlvlLy. ln parLlcular, Lhls can adversely
affecL Lhelr breedlng behavlours and reproducLlve success. Whlle Lhere are some daLa on
large anlmals, many small slzed wlldllfe specles LhaL exlsL ln Lhe 8eglon have noL been
surveyed, and some of Lhese could be very senslLlve Lo such developmenLs.

ConLamlnaLlon of waLer, land or weLland/shorellne areas poses a LhreaL Lo aquaLlc fauna llfe
such as flsh and blrds. 1he effecL of a slngle oll splll near a shorellne vegeLaLlon communlLy
or a weLland can be caLasLrophlc for anlmals LhaL lnhablL Lhese ecosysLems. Powever, Lhe
ongolng release of conLamlnanLs lnLo Lhe envlronmenL can resulL ln progresslve local loss of
specles, decllne ln blodlverslLy and reducLlon ln ecosysLem sLablllLy.

Some larger rlvers, such as Lhe nlle and Lhe Semllkl have noL only creaLed flood plalns buL
also delLas and assoclaLed weLlands, whlch are feaLures of hlgh ecologlcal value. ln general,
Lhe land-waLer lnLerface ls rlch ln specles dlverslLy and hlgh blologlcal producLlvlLy. 1he Lake
AlberL shorellne ecosysLems of sandy, clayey or boulder beaches, frlnglng weLlands and
delLas, and rocky cllffs are a prlme example of a senslLlve envlronmenL wlLh a wlde dlverslLy
of ecologlcal nlches (LSA, 2010).

8.4.6 Wet|ands
WlLh Lhe expanslon of human seLLlemenL and lndusLrles, weLlands are poLenLlally desLroyed
or alLered Lhrough polluLlon, changes ln local dralnage, converslon Lo farm land or oLher
uses lncludlng human seLLlemenL. lL has been esLlmaLed LhaL over 7 of uganda's orlglnal
weLland area has been converLed for oLher uses (Amanlga 8uhanga eL al., 2009). 1hls has
resulLed ln effecLs on weLlands hydrologlcal role, plus Lhe effecLs on planLs and anlmal
specles for whlch weLlands are crlLlcal hablLaLs for varlous llfe cycle acLlvlLles (feedlng,
nesLlng, breedlng, rearlng). Loss of weLlands evenLually resulLs ln overall decllne ln planL and
anlmal blodlverslLy and ecosysLem sLablllLy. 8ecause many rare or endangered specles
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lnhablL weLlands, Lhe loss of weLlands poLenLlally resulLs also ln specles exLlncLlons or
exLlrpaLlon. arL of Lhe problem ls a prevalenL publlc aLLlLude LhaL weLlands have llLLle or no
funcLlon or long-Lerm beneflLs.

WeLland flora ls vlLal Lo Lhe sLrucLure and funcLlonlng of floodplaln and frlnglng weLland
ecosysLems, whlch are prlnclple food-web sysLems for Lhe flsh resource. SenslLlve areas LhaL
wlll be lmpacLed are Lhe 8lver nlle area and ln weLlands, especlally Lhe splL on Lake AlberL.

1he dlfferenL weLland classes were ranked for relaLlve senslLlvlLy Lo dlsLurbance based on
hydrologlcal funcLlon and ecologlcal response (l.e., waLer reglme and vegeLaLlon cover
denslLy) and reslllence afLer dlsLurbance (2010 LnvlronmenLal SenslLlvlLy ALlas). 1he
senslLlvlLy ranklng used a numerlcal raLlng sysLem shown ln 1ab|e 8-4, belng Lhe sums of 3
forms of senslLlvlLy, and Lhe hlghesL raLlngs represenLlng Lhe mosL senslLlve classes. apyrus
swamps and swamp foresL LhlckeLs proved Lo be Lhe mosL senslLlve ecosysLems, wlLh sedges,
permanenL grassland and palm LhlckeLs belng lnLermedlaLe ln Lhls respecL.

1ab|e 8-4: Wet|ands Sens|t|v|ty

Wet|and C|ass: Lco|og|ca|
Water
keg|me
Dens|ty Sens|t|v|ty Descr|pt|on
apyrus () 3 4 2 9 Swamps wlLh apyrus as domlnanL
specles
Swamp foresL () 3 4 2 9 1hlck closed canopy foresLs and
woodlands
Crassland () 3 4 1 8 8angelands, pasLure, open savannah
may lnclude scaLLered Lrees shrubs and
LhlckeLs
Sedges () 3 4 1 8 8angelands, pasLure, open savannah
may lnclude scaLLered Lrees shrubs and
LhlckeLs
SubslsLence farmland
()
3 4 1 8 Mlxed farmland small holdlngs ln use or
recenLly farmland (p) used wlLh or
wlLhouL Lrees
alms and 1hlckeLs
(S)
3 2 2 7 1hlck or sparse palm Lrees and or
scaLLered Lrees
Crassland (S) 3 2 1 6 8angelands, pasLure, open savannah
may lnclude scaLLered Lrees shrubs and
LhlckeLs
SubslsLence farmland
(S)
3 2 1 6 Mlxed farmland small holdlngs ln use or
recenLly farmland (s) used wlLh or
wlLhouL Lrees

l = petmooeot feotote, 5 = seosoool feotote.

Source: LnvlronmenLal SenslLlvlLy ALlas, CovernmenL of uganda, 2010)

8.4.7 rotected Areas
1he AlberLlne Craben reglon possesses a number of naLlonal arks, loresL 8eserves, Wlldllfe
8eserves, lmporLanL 8lrd Areas, and Lwo World PerlLage SlLes. 1he proLecLed areas sysLem
comprlses abouL 70 of all naLlonal parks and wlldllfe reserves ln uganda. 1hese proLecLed
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areas noL only funcLlon as sources of blodlverslLy and ecosysLem connecLlvlLy, buL are also
crlLlcal for Lourlsm poLenLlal ln Lhe 8eglon (LSA, 2010).

SenslLlve envlronmenLs wlLhln Lhe sLudy area lnclude delLas and oLher weLlands, rlverlne
foresLs, anlmal breedlng areas and foresLs. Powever, such areas maybe wlLhln or ouLslde
proLecLed areas. lL has been suggesLed LhaL wlldllfe ln uganda ls lncreaslngly belng found
noL ln Lhe proLecLed areas buL ouLslde Lhem, maklng lL all Lhe more lmporLanL Lo prohlblL or
llmlL lndusLrlal acLlvlLles near Lhese areas.

1he speclflc proLecLed areas where peLroleum deposlLs have been found are Murchlson lalls
naLlonal ark (lncludlng Lhe 8amsar slLe), 8ugungu Wlldllfe 8eserve, kabwoya Wlldllfe 8eserve,
kalso-1onya CommunlLy Wlldllfe Area and Lhe 8amsar slLe along 8lver nlle. 8udongo and 8udoma
loresL reserves occur ln areas where lnfrasLrucLural developmenLs LhaL wlll supporL Lhe oll lndusLry
wlll occur.

Cf Lhe whole of Mln, Lhe area where oll deposlLs were dlscovered has Lhe hlghesL mammal
blodlverslLy (nLMA, 2010). 1he area ls also surrounded by waLer maklng lL an ldeal waLerlng
polnL for wlldllfe durlng Lhe dry season. 1he boundary beLween kabwoya and kalso-1onya ls
8lver Pohwa, whlch ls Lhe ma[or waLer source for wlldllfe found ln Lhese Lwo proLecLed
areas, especlally durlng Lhe dry season. 1he rlverlne foresL along 8lver Pohwa also serves as
a corrldor for wlldllfe LhaL access Lake AlberL. 1he delLa area of Mln ls also ma[or
desLlnaLlon or resLlng place for mlgraLory blrds (LSA, 2010).

8.4.8 I|sh
WaLer bodles (8lver nlle, Lake AlberL, and Lhe smaller rlvers LhaL elLher feed lnLo Lake AlberL
or are LrlbuLarles of 8lver nlle) and Lhe assoclaLed weLlands are speclflc senslLlve areas ln
Lerms of flsh hablLaL. 1hey are recognlzed as breedlng, nursery and refugla grounds for
almosL all flsh specles ln uganda. 1he areas are also vlLal flshlng grounds. 1he lnLermedlaLe
depLh zones and deeper open waLers are noL well researched and slgnlflcanL daLa gaps exlsL
for Lhe enLlre lake envlronmenL.

1hree crlLlcal areas for flshlng have been ldenLlfled (SLA, 2013).:

1he lower floodplalns and delLas of ma[or rlvers lncludlng vlcLorla nlle, Semllkl, Muzlzl
and Wassa plus Lhe shallow lnshore lake frlnge less Lhan 7 m deep. 1hls zone conLalns
hlgh blodlverslLy and ls a recognlsed breedlng, nursery and refugla ground for almosL all
flsh specles ln Lake AlberL. lL ls also a vlLal flshlng ground.

1he lnLermedlaLe depLh zone (7 Lo 20 m) lncludes Lhe sLeeper shorellne secLlons wlLh
rocky underwaLer cllffs or ln Lhe vlclnlLy of Lhe splLs sLeep sand slopes. no lnformaLlon
on represenLaLlve lnverLebraLes and flsh fauna were found ln Lhe llLeraLure, formlng a
serlous knowledge gap,

1he deep open waLer zone (>20m) covers Lhe largesL porLlon of Lhe lake buL lL ls
perhaps Lhe leasL known ln Lerms of lLs ecology and specles composlLlon. 1hls waLer
zone ls comlng under lnLense explolLaLlon wlLh more efflclenL buL someLlmes lllegal
flshlng gear and meLhods encouraged by Lhe escalaLlng demand for flsh. lor example,
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due Lo over flshlng, Lhe endemlc lotes moctopbtbolmos specles has been placed on Lhe
IUCN Red List as endangered.

The shallow inshore habitats of Lake Albert support the various life stages of virtually all sh
specles durlng Lhelr larval and [uvenlle llfe. Also lnhablLlng Lhese zones are Lhe lnverLebraLe
organlsms LhaL are crlLlcal ln Lhe aquaLlc food chaln. 1hls lncreases Lhe poLenLlal for lmpacLs
of oll and gas developmenL Lo dlsrupL Lhe enLlre food chaln upon whlch Lhe flshery
ulLlmaLely depends. 1hls could happen Lhrough, for example, sllLaLlon and sedlmenLaLlon
(foullng) of spawnlng beds and lnverLebraLe hablLaL, chemlcal conLamlnaLlon and bulldup of
conLamlnanLs ln flsh Llssues, and waLer chemlsLry lmpacLs from sewage dlsposal, pesLlcldes
ln surface waLer runoff, seepage from wasLes, or over-loadlng wlLh nuLrlenLs (nlLrogenous
and phosphorus compounds from sewage, ferLlllzers and so forLh).

AquaculLure ls a growlng lndusLry ln uganda and ln oLher parLs of Lhe world due Lo boLh local
and lnLernaLlonal demand. Powever, aquaculLure Lyplcally has a number of adverse effecLs
on Lhe surroundlng envlronmenL, such as Lhe mlgraLlon of soluLes lnshore, wasLe producLs
and Lhe alLeraLlon or even desLrucLlon of shorellne ecosysLems such as weLlands, delLas or
mangrove foresLs. Among Lhe beneflLs, aslde from Lhe economlc acLlvlLy lLself, ls Lo
poLenLlally relleve pressure on wlld flsh sLocks locally.

uwlndllng flsh sLocks due Lo overflshlng and Lhe use of lllegal neLs, eLc., have become a
slgnlflcanL problem. 1hls has been fuelled by an lncreaslng human populaLlon, as well as
growLh ln reglonal and lnLernaLlonal markeLs. WlLhouL remedlal sLeps, Lhe pressure on wlld
sLocks of flsh can be expecLed Lo become aggravaLed wlLh furLher populaLlon growLh,
parLlcularly ln Lhe parL of Lhe counLry where Lhere ls lncreased economlc acLlvlLy such as oll
and gas producLlon.

8.4.9 Cumu|at|ve Lffects
A cumulaLlve effecL ls Lhe comblned effecLs on envlronmenLal componenLs (l.e., alr, waLer,
land, vegeLaLlon) of numerous exlsLlng, currenL, planned or llkely lndusLrlal or oLher human
acLlvlLles ln a glven locaLlon. LxlsLlng and pro[ecLed oll and gas exploraLlon, drllllng,
producLlon and reflnlng/LransporLaLlon wlll cerLalnly pose Lhe poLenLlal for subsLanLlal
adverse lmpacLs on alr, waLer, soll, vegeLaLlon, wlldllfe and naLural resources unless effecLlve
mlLlgaLlon and monlLorlng programs are puL lnLo place.

CLher acLlvlLles LhaL could conLrlbuLe Lo cumulaLlve envlronmenLal effecLs lnclude Lhe
expanslon of human seLLlemenLs, exLracLlon of flll or aggregaLe maLerlal for bulldlng,
LransporLaLlon neLworks, solld and llquld wasLes generaLed by communlLles, and lf lL occurs
lnLensely enough, even from Lourlsm.

8.4.10 Secondary Lffects
Secondary envlronmenLal effecLs are deflned here as Lhose envlronmenLal and relaLed soclo-
economlc lmpacLs LhaL would poLenLlally resulL from Lhe lncreased populaLlons and
lnfrasLrucLural developmenL, and commerclal acLlvlLy LhaL would lnevlLably occur as an
ulLlmaLe resulL of Lhe oll and gas, or oLher, lndusLrlal/commerclal expanslon and Lhe relaLed
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employmenL opporLunlLles ln Lhe reglon. 1hese secondary, malnly long Lerm lmpacLs could
be greaLer Lhan Lhose resulLlng dlrecLly from Lhe oll and gas acLlvlLy, l.e., Lhe prlmary effecLs.

1he openlng of new areas for exploraLlon and ulLlmaLely producLlon, could resulL ln
desLrucLlon of local hablLaLs, and lncreased pressure on local flora and fauna populaLlons.
1hese would be prlmary effecLs. Powever, Lhe ln-mlgraLlon, esLabllshmenL and expanslon of
new seLLlemenLs, Lhe assoclaLed culLlvaLlon of land and developmenL of requlred
lnfrasLrucLure, could resulL ln Lhe alLeraLlon, desLrucLlon and/or fragmenLaLlon of local
hablLaLs. An exLended effecL of human populaLlon expanslon would be pressure puL on local
foresL cover for use as energy source (e.g., charcoal for domesLlc use), and subsequenL
eroslon of soll when Lrees become uprooLed. 1hls eroslon of solls could, ln Lurn, lead Lo
degradaLlon of surface waLer quallLy and even Lhe flow reglmes.

1he expanslon of human seLLlemenLs and lncreased populaLlon denslLles could also puL
lncreased pressure on local wlldllfe populaLlons, when hunLlng and poachlng lnLenslfy (elLher
subslsLence or commerclal). 1hls ln Lurn could resulL ln Lhe ellmlnaLlon or decreased
populaLlons of local specles, posslbly leadlng Lo exLlrpaLlon or even exLlncLlon of Lhe specles.
When "keysLone specles" of wlldllfe are removed (e.g., ma[or predaLors), Lhls has
lmpllcaLlons for Lhe enLlre assemblage of anlmals ln Lhe ecosysLem, and severe lmbalances
and a dlsrupLlon of ecosysLem sLablllLy may occur.

8.S Locat|on of Lnv|ronmenta| D|sturbance

8.S.1 Introduct|on
1hls secLlon provldes a dlscusslon of Lhe locaLlons or nodes where Lhe poLenLlal effecLs of oll
and gas exploraLlon/producLlon and oLher human acLlvlLles and developmenLs, are mosL
llkely Lo occur wlLhln Lhe AlberLlne Craben reglon. 1hls has been done by Laklng lnLo accounL
Lhe above analyses of Lhe envlronmenLal resources/componenLs, Lhe senslLlvlLles of Lhese
resources as dlscussed above, and Lhe exlsLlng or probable focl of sald human acLlvlLles and
developmenLs, as deLermlned from varlous sources such as Lhe CovernmenL of uganda's
LnvlronmenLal SenslLlvlLy ALlas (2010) and lLs SLraLeglc LnvlronmenLal AssessmenL of Cll and
Cas AcLlvlLles ln Lhe AlberLlne Craben (2013). 1o accompllsh Lhls, maps of Lhe dlsLrlbuLlon of
Lhe envlronmenLal resource ln quesLlon (e.g., naLlonal arks, weLlands, blodlverslLy nodes,
flshlng slLes, eLc.) were overlald dlglLally wlLh exlsLlng maps of oll and gas leases/allocaLlons,
and wlLh oLher developmenLs/acLlvlLles. Map __.
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Map 8-1: Lnv|ronmenta| Issues - A|bert|ne

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Areas of overlap were Lhen ldenLlfled, and Lhe slgnlflcanL areas of overlap are marked. An
area of lmpacL of approxlmaLely 20 km ls allowed around Lhe perlmeLer of Lhe recognlzed oll
and gas lease areas.

lL should be recognlzed, however, LhaL Lhe areas of overlap Lended Lo colnclde wlLh Lhe
paLLern of Lhe varlous roLecLed Areas, and Lhls may be due Lo a preoccupaLlon wlLh
monlLorlng programs ln Lhe roLecLed Areas. Whlle Lhe reasons for Lhls are no doubL loglcal,
lL may overall have Lended Lo emphaslze arLlflclally Lhe envlronmenLal senslLlvlLles of Lhe
roLecLed Areas whlle under-sLaLlng Lhe senslLlvlLles and envlronmenLal feaLures of oLher
areas ln Lhe reglon.

8.S.2 rotected areas
lL ls Lo be noLed LhaL Lhere ls a hlgh degree of colncldence beLween Lhe oll and gas llcenclng
areas wlLh Lhe dlsLrlbuLlon of roLecLed areas wlLhln Lhe AlberLlne Craben reglon as shown
ln Map 8-1 and Map 11-1 ln Chapter 11.

1he area of overlap lnvolves aL leasL parLlally Lhe followlng naLlonal arks or Wlldllfe
8eserves.

A[al Wlldllfe 8eserve
Murchlson lalls naLlonal ark
8ugungu Wlldllfe 8eserve
karuma Wlldllfe 8eserve
kabwoya Wlldllfe 8eserve
kyambura Wlldllfe 8eserve
Semllkl naLlonal ark
Semllkl Wlldllfe 8eserve
ML. 8wenzorl naLlonal ark
Cueen LllzabeLh naLlonal ark
8wlndl lmpeneLrable naLlonal ark
klgezl Wlldllfe 8eserve

Speclal mlLlgaLlon measures are needed Lo ensure LhaL exlsLlng and planned/posslble oll and
gas acLlvlLles, lncludlng LransporLaLlon by plpellne, road or oLher means, do noL lnLerfere
wlLh Lhe wlldllfe or lLs hablLaL ln Lhese proLecLed areas. 1hese could lnclude avoldance of
parLlcularly senslLlve wlldllfe or LourlsL areas, buffer sLrlps, nolse resLrlcLlons and so forLh.

8.S.3 Wet|ands
Map 8-1 and Map 11-1 show Lhe area of overlap of oll and gas llcence areas wlLh Lhe maln
concenLraLlons of weLlands or shorellne areas ln Lhe AlberLlne Craben reglon. WlLhln Lhe
area of overlap are Lwo 8amsar slLes.

1he areas of overlap occur wldely wlLhln Lhe reglon buL are parLlcularly lnLense along Lhe
shorellne of Lake AlberL, ln Lhe delLalc areas of Lhe Semllkl 8lver aL lLs souLh end, and aL lLs
norLh end aL Lhe delLa areas of Lhe vlcLorla nlle and Lhe AlberL nlle. Cverlap also occurs
along Lhe shores of Lhe AlberL nlle, Lhe vlcLorla nlle and Lhe Semllkl 8lver. 1here ls dense
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aquaLlc vegeLaLlon ln floodplalns of some rlvers such as Lhe 8lver Wambabya, 8lver Walga
and 8lver Wlsoke ln 8ulllsa ulsLrlcL.

apyrus swamps and swamp foresL LhlckeLs have been suggesLed as belng Lhe mosL senslLlve
ecosysLems, wlLh sedges, permanenL grassland and palm LhlckeLs belng lnLermedlaLe ln Lhls
respecL. 1hese ecosysLems may be expecLed Lo be among Lhe mosL senslLlve Lo oll spllls, or
releases of oLher conLamlnanLs ln Lhe oll and gas reglons of Lhe AlberLlne Craben. 1hls ls
because of Lhe perslsLence of hydrocarbons and oLher conLamlnanLs ln Lhe weL solls of Lhese
sysLems, plus Lhe exLreme Lechnlcal challenges of remedlaLlng such conLamlnaLlon once lL
geLs lnLo Lhe hydrlc solls of Lhese weLlands.

8.S.4 W||d||fe, Spec|es of Spec|a| Importance and 8|od|vers|ty
Map 8-1, Map 9-1 and Map 11-1 shows Lhe areas of overlap of oll and gas llcenclng areas
wlLh Lhe predomlnanL locaLlons of large mammals and crocodlle specles ln Lhe AlberLlne
Craben. 1he hlghllghLed areas show medlum Lo very hlgh raLlngs for hablLaLs of Lhese
anlmals. Cverlap occurs largely ln Murchlson lalls naLlonal ark and Cueen LllzabeLh
naLlonal ark, buL Lhere are some addlLlonal areas of overlap wlLhln Lhe AlberLlne Craben.

Map 9-1 shows colncldence of oll and gas llcenclng areas wlLh Lhe occurrence (medlum-very
hlgh) of specles of speclal lmporLance ln Lhe AlberLlne Craben reglon. Whlle Lhere ls noL
wldespread dlrecL overlap, Lhe prlme areas are ln relaLlvely close proxlmlLy Lo Lhe oll and gas
areas, and may be affecLed by Lhem vla emlsslons, LransporLaLlon rouLes, general acLlvlLy
and oLher dlsLurbances, dlrecL or lndlrecL.

Map 9-1 shows overlap wlLh overall blodlverslLy senslLlvlLy ln AlberLlne Craben reglon and
areas of poLenLlal effecLs (medlum-very hlgh raLlngs shown ln yellow). lL can be seen LhaL oll
and gas acLlvlLy areas are broadly spread LhroughouL Lhe reglon, and lnvolve may of Lhe
naLlonal arks and Wlldllfe 8eserves, lncludlng Lhe ma[or ones.

8.S.S I|sh opu|at|ons
Map 9-1 shows Lhe concenLraLlons of flshlng slLes of AlberLlne Craben reglon whlch overlap
wlLh oll and gas llcenclng areas ln Lhe reglon. 1he areas of overlap are exLenslve along Lhe
ma[or sLreLches of Lhe vlcLorla nlle, AlberL nlle and Semllkl 8lvers, as well as many oLher
rlvers. 1he shores of Lake AlberL, as well as Lhe open waLer area, are slmllarly affecLed.

Clearly, sLrong measures need Lo be ln place ln Lhese areas ln order Lo prevenL ma[or effecLs
on flsh and Lhe flshery, lncludlng Lhe mosL advanced means of dlrecLlonal drllllng, capplng of
wells, managlng envlronmenLally hazardous wasLes, prevenLlng and respondlng Lo oll spllls
or oLher releases of polluLanLs, and slLe reclamaLlon. MonlLorlng of flsh populaLlon dynamlcs
and flshlng efforL/success over Lhe long Lerm wlll also be an lmporLanL prlorlLy, ln order Lo
evaluaLe mlLlgaLlon measures LhaL have been lmplemenLed, and Lo deLecL any Lrends ln flsh
populaLlons LhaL would lndlcaLe an emerglng problem.

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8.S.6 So|| Lros|on
Areas of poLenLlal soll eroslon are exLenslve LhroughouL Lhe reglon. 1hls lndlcaLes Lhe
necesslLy of lncorporaLlng sound soll eroslon prevenLlon and conLrol measures durlng all
phases of oll and gas work, lncludlng exploraLlon, producLlon, LransporLaLlon and
decommlsslonlng. ln parLlcular, well slLes and oLher faclllLles musL uLlllze reclamaLlon
Lechnlques LhaL are based on sound research and speclflc Lo Lhe slLe belng decommlssloned.

8.6 Conc|us|ons

uganda has produced a number of plannlng documenLs, lncludlng a SLraLeglc LnvlronmenLal
AssessmenL (2013), an LnvlronmenLal SenslLlvlLy ALlas (2010), and an LnvlronmenLal
MonlLorlng lan (2012-2017). 1hese plus oLher regulaLory and plannlng elemenLs wlll
provlde a good foundaLlon for land use, susLalnable developmenL of oll and gas acLlvlLles and
oLher plannlng exerclses for Lhe AlberLlne Craben reglon over Lhe fuLure.

1o a hlgh degree, Lhe llcenclng areas for oll and gas exploraLlon and developmenL ln Lhe
AlberLlne Craben overlap wlLh a number of lmporLanL envlronmenLal and ecologlcal
componenLs, such as eroslon poLenLlal, weLlands, specles blodlverslLy, key wlldllfe specles
and flshlng slLes. ln parLlcular, Lhere appears Lo be a hlgh degree of colncldence beLween Lhe
locaLlon of oll and gas llcenclng areas and Lhe locaLlons of roLecLed areas wlLhln Lhe
AlberLlne Craben reglon.

Speclal mlLlgaLlon measures are needed Lo ensure LhaL exlsLlng and planned/posslble oll and
gas acLlvlLles, lncludlng LransporLaLlon by plpellne, road or oLher means, do noL lnLerfere
wlLh Lhe wlldllfe or lLs hablLaL ln Lhese proLecLed areas. 1hese could lnclude avoldance of
parLlcularly senslLlve wlldllfe or LourlsL areas, buffer sLrlps, nolse resLrlcLlons and so forLh.

Plgh erodlblllLy of solls colncldes wldely wlLh oll and gas llcenclng areas ln Lhe reglon. lL ls
lmporLanL LhaL sound soll eroslon prevenLlon and conLrol measures be ln place durlng all
phases of oll and gas work, lncludlng exploraLlon, producLlon, LransporLaLlon and
decommlsslonlng. ln parLlcular, well slLes and oLher faclllLles musL uLlllze reclamaLlon
Lechnlques LhaL are based on sound research and speclflc Lo Lhe slLe belng decommlssloned.

1here ls a conslderable overlap beLween oll and gas acLlvlLy and flshlng slLes. Clearly, sLrong
measures need Lo be ln place ln Lhese areas ln order Lo prevenL ma[or effecLs on flsh and Lhe
flshery, lncludlng Lhe mosL advanced means of dlrecLlonal drllllng, capplng of wells,
managlng envlronmenLally hazardous wasLes, prevenLlng and respondlng Lo oll spllls or
oLher releases of polluLanLs, and slLe reclamaLlon. As well, over-flshlng ls already a
subsLanLlal problem, and sound managemenL plans are needed Lo ensure Lhe flsherles ln Lhe
reglon are susLalnable. MonlLorlng of flsh populaLlon dynamlcs and flshlng efforL/success
over Lhe long Lerm wlll Lherefore be an lmporLanL prlorlLy, ln order Lo evaluaLe susLalnablllLy
and mlLlgaLlon measures, and Lo deLecL any Lrends ln flsh populaLlons LhaL warranL
sLrengLhened measures.

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oLenLlal cumulaLlve and secondary effecLs of exlsLlng, currenL, planned or reasonably llkely
lndusLrlal or oLher human acLlvlLles ln a glven locaLlon should be fully Laken lnLo accounL ln
plannlng exerclses for Lhe reglon, especlally ln or around developmenL nodes. ln addlLlon Lo
exlsLlng and pro[ecLed oll and gas exploraLlon, drllllng, producLlon and reflnlng/
LransporLaLlon, Lhe expanslon of human seLLlemenLs and lnfrasLrucLure, energy
requlremenLs, waLer requlremenLs, Lhe exLracLlon of flll or aggregaLe maLerlal for bulldlng,
LransporLaLlon neLworks, and solld and llquld wasLes generaLed by communlLles and oLher
lnfrasLrucLural and soclal needs should be facLored lnLo boLh envlronmenLal assessmenLs
and local plannlng.

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S=5,8/5' ?(-%8/"(-
K5$5*(+($,

Introduct|on
All of Lhe AlberLlne's, and uganda's for LhaL maLLer, ma[or
economlc acLlvlLles are dlrecLly Lled Lo Lhe counLry's naLural
resources and Lhelr susLalnable managemenL. Long-Lerm
susLalnablllLy musL have prlorlLy over shorL-Lerm galn. 1hls
ChapLer revlews Lhe sLaLe of Lhe AlberLlne's naLural
resources, relaLed lssues, opporLunlLles, consLralnLs and
challenges. 1he ChapLer should also be read ln con[uncLlon
wlLh Lhose on LnvlronmenL, AgrlculLure and Lconomlc
uevelopmenL ln parLlcular.

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9.1 Context ] Introduct|on

9.1.1 Def|n|t|on
Nototol tesootces are deflned as maLerlals and componenLs LhaL can be, and are, used whlch
are found ln Lhe naLural envlronmenL (hLLp://en.wlklpedla.org/wlkl/naLural_resource). 1he
concept of utility is integral to the term resource. naLural resources may be bloLlc or
abloLlc: 8loLlc resources are gaLhered from Lhe blosphere or may be grown. AbloLlc
resources are non-llvlng, llke mlnerals and meLals and geoLhermal energy
(hLLp://examples.yourdlcLlonary.com/examples/naLural-resources-examples.hLml). Lvery
man-made producL ls composed of naLural resources (aL lLs fundamenLal level). A naLural
resource may exlsL as a separaLe enLlLy such as sunllghL, fresh waLer and alr, as well as a
llvlng organlsm such as a flsh, or lL may exlsL ln an alLernaLe form LhaL musL be processed Lo
obLaln Lhe resource such as meLal ores, oll, and mosL forms of energy
(hLLp://en.wlklpedla.org/wlkl/naLural_resource).

naLural resources comprlse boLh non-renewable and renewable resources. Noo-teoewoble
resources are those that are present in the earths crust in effectively fixed quantities, and
LhaL human Lechnology cannoL effecLlvely mlmlc, reproduce or generaLe. 1hese resources
lnclude mlnerals and oll and gas. Cf course, modern Lechnology allows Lhe converslon of one
to the other (eg minerals to hydrocarbons and gas as synfuels technology) and may develop
means Lo uLlllze Lhem more efflclenLly and Lhus exLend Lhelr llfespan, noneLheless,
ulLlmaLely the supply is limited to what was placed in the earths geological strata by natural
processes LhaL operaLe over lnflnlLely long Llme spans. 1he oLher prlmary resource LhaL ls
consldered non-renewable ls soll, slnce lLs formaLlon also Lakes place over Llme spans of
Lhousands of years. Powever, Lhe producLlvlLy of solls ls very amenable Lo human
manlpulaLlons LhaL can reduce or lncrease, and malnLaln, lLs producLlvlLy. ln Lhe case of soll
lLs producLlvlLy ls closely llnked Lo Lhe renewable componenLs Lhereln, namely mlcro-
organlsms, so lLs susLalnable use ls LlghLly llnked lnLo renewable resource managemenL.

keoewoble resources are essenLlally Lhose LhaL can replenlsh Lhemselves ln naLural cycles or
afLer passlng Lhrough human producLlon sysLems. 1hus planLs and anlmals keep
reproduclng, whlle waLer and alr are cleansed Lhen are agaln avallable for use ln Lhe human
economy. Lconomlc secLors LhaL are enLlrely renewable naLural resources based are
agrlculLure, foresLry and flsherles. CeoLhermal, wave and wlnd energy are examples of
abloLlc resources LhaL are consldered renewable.

WhaL has begun Lo be undersLood only ln Lhe pasL few decades ls Lhe exLenL Lo whlch Lhe
susLalnable uLlllzaLlon and developmenL of Lhese secLors and of oLher baslc servlces (waLer
supply, some wasLe dlsposal, clean alr) are dependenL on Lhe healLh of Lhe naLural ecologlcal
processes and envlronmenLal asseLs underplnnlng Lhem. naLural resources Lhus cannoL be
addressed separaLely from Lhe blophyslcal envlronmenL, Lhey are lnLegrally a parL of lL.
8lopbyslcol ls speclflcally used here, slnce Lhe oLher lngredlenL ln naLural resources
explolLaLlon and developmenL ls, of course, Lhe soclo-economlc envlronmenL. Powever, LhaL
sysLem operaLes accordlng Lo very dlfferenL drlvers and rules, and ls descrlbed ln greaL deLall
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elsewhere ln Lhls reporL, so Lhe focus of Lhls chapLer ls on Lhe blophyslcal resources LhaL are
Lhe ob[ecL of soclal and economlc acLlvlLy.

9.1.2 Lcosystem Serv|ces: Iramework for Natura| kesources Management
1he concepL of ecosysLem servlces has been developed Lo descrlbe Lhls lnLegral relaLlonshlp
sysLemaLlcally and Lo glve a coherenL framework wlLhln whlch Lo manage boLh Lhe
explolLaLlon and conservaLlon aspecLs of naLural resource and envlronmenLal managemenL.

LcosysLem servlces are broadly deflned as Lhe beneflLs provlded by ecosysLems Lo humans,
Lhey conLrlbuLe Lo maklng human llfe boLh posslble and worLh llvlng
23
. Some ecosysLem
processes confer dlrecL beneflLs on humanlLy, buL many of Lhem confer beneflLs prlmarlly vla
lndlrecL lnLeracLlons. 1he four fundamenLal seLs of servlces provlded are:

ltovlslooloq servlces: food, flber and fuel, geneLlc resources (for crops and medlclnes),
blochemlcal, fresh waLer

5oppottloq servlces: prlmary producLlon, provlslon of hablLaL, nuLrlenL cycllng, soll
formaLlon and reLenLlon, waLer cycllng, producLlon of aLmospherlc oxygen

keqolotloq servlces: CllmaLe regulaLlon (Lhrough carbon dloxlde absorpLlon),
polllnaLlon and spawnlng, dlsease and pesL conLrol, waLer purlflcaLlon and rlver base
flow malnLenance, sLorm proLecLlon, eroslon conLrol, clean alr. WlLhouL Lhe
malnLenance of supporLlng and regulaLlng servlces (whlch are closely relaLed), Lhe
supply of provlslonlng servlces usually dlmlnlshes.

coltotol servlces: knowledge sysLems, rellglous and splrlLual values and pracLlces,
recreaLlon and aesLheLlc values (sense of place), sclence and educaLlon sysLems.

1he llvlng componenL of Lhe envlronmenL LhaL can ln lLs enLlreLy be referred Lo as
bloJlvetslty affecLs numerous ecosysLem servlces, boLh lndlrecLly and dlrecLly. lL ls worLh
reminding ourselves that biodiversitys contribution to human welfare, particularly in a
largely subslsLence-based economy, lncludes:

ulrecL beneflLs ln Lhe form of goods or producLs such as food, waLer, Llmber, cloLhlng
maLerlals and medlclne

Less Langlble beneflLs, lncludlng Lhe ecologlcal servlces upon whlch human survlval
depends, such as waLershed regulaLlon, carbon sLorage, polllnaLlon and nuLrlenL
recycllng

CeneLlc dlverslLy LhaL helps creaLe new crops or anlmal varleLles and pharmaceuLlcals
lmporLanL culLural, splrlLual, psychologlcal and aesLheLlc beneflLs
26
.

23
Mlllenlum LcosysLem AssessmenL (2003): ChapLer 11 8lodlverslLy 8egulaLlon of LcosysLem Servlces: MLA:
pages 297-329.
26
L8l (1he Lnergy and 8lodlverslLy lnlLlaLlve) (undaLed) lnLegraLlng 8lodlverslLy ConservaLlon lnLo Cll & Cas
uevelopmenL. owerpolnL presenLaLlon avallable on L8l webslLe. 8, Chevron1exaco, ConservaLlon
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9.1.3 urpose of th|s Chapter
lL ls clear LhaL a dlscusslon of naLural resources Lhus lnvolves coverlng an enormous range of
Loplcs, from baslc servlces waLer, energy, wasLe and clean alr Lo ma[or economlc secLors
mlnlng, oll and gas, agrlculLure, foresLry and flsherles Lo Lhe characLerlsLlcs of Lhe
envlronmenL underplnnlng Lhem geology, cllmaLe, waLer, geomorphology, solls,
blodlverslLy and ecosysLem processes. Slnce mosL of Lhese Loplcs are covered elsewhere ln
Lhls reporL and a comprehenslve coverage of Lhls fleld ls ouLslde Lhe scope of Lhls
asslgnmenL, Lhls secLlon wlll provlde an overvlew of naLural resources and summarlses
lnLeracLlons beLween Lhe componenLs LhaL can acL ln concerL Lo lncrease poLenLlal ln some
economlc secLors, or acL ln confllcL Lo decrease poLenLlals ln oLhers.

9.1.4 1he Nat|ona| Context of Natura| kesources
Ugandas economy remains very reliant on natural resources. Ugandas natural resource
base ls wldely consldered Lo be one of Lhe rlchesL and mosL dlverse ln Afrlca, ln whlch
renewable resources remaln Lhe domlnanL componenL. AgrlculLure (lncludlng foresLry and
flsherles) accounLed for 23 of Cu ln 2008/09 (equal Lo lndusLry)
27
. [Servlces, however,
conLrlbuLe 33 Lo Cu]. 1ourlsm, dependenL on wlldllfe and wlld landscapes, ranks Lhlrd ln
forelgn exchange earnlngs and Lhe secLor drew uS$360 mllllon from wlldllfe Lourlsm ln 2008,
whlle recenL esLlmaLes show LhaL gross reLurns Lo Lhe naLlonal economy ln servlces and
producLs from blodlverslLy as a whole could be as hlgh as uS$ 63.9 bllllon per year
28
. 1he
foresLry secLor ln 2004 conLrlbuLed an esLlmaLed 6 Lo Cu, Lhough Lhls decllned Lo 3.3 by
2008/09. llsherles accounLed for 2.9 of Cu ln 2008/09.

now a revlval of llmlLed mlnlng poLenLlal and developmenL of Lhe oll and gas resources
found ln Lhe AlberLlne reglon are seen as propelllng Lhe LransformaLlon of Lhe counLry from
an agrarlan, peasanL one lnLo a modern, prosperous, lndusLrlallsed, mlddle lncome counLry
by 2040
29
. Powever, Lhe llkellhood ls LhaL Lhe vasL ma[ority of the countrys population will
conLlnue Lo be dependenL on naLural resources for Lhelr llvellhoods. 1hls shows sharply ln
labour employmenL sLaLlsLlcs: Lhe naLlonal uevelopmenL lan reporLs LhaL desplLe sLrong
growLh ln Lhe conLrlbuLlon of Lhe manufacLurlng and servlces secLors Lo Cu over Lhe perlod
2000/01 Lo 2008/09, Lhelr conLrlbuLlon Lo employmenL decllned from 6.8 and 26.8 Lo
4.2 and 20.7 respecLlvely. ln facL, desplLe Cu growLh ln a number of secLors, Lhelr share
of employmenL has generally reduced or remalned consLanL, so unemploymenL musL be
growing (though the NDP is silent on this). By contrast, agricultures share of the labour force
grew ln [usL Lhree years (2002/03 Lo 2003/06) from 66.4 Lo 73.1
30
, perhaps Lhls ls slmply
unemployed workers growlng Lhelr own food.

lnLernaLlonal, llora and launa lnLernaLlonal, luCn, 1he naLure Conservancy, Shell, SmlLhsonlan lnsLlLuLlon,
SLaLoll.
27
1he 8epubllc of uganda (2009) Notloool uevelopmeot lloo (2010/11 2014/13). naLlonal lannlng
AuLhorlLy, kampala
28
uganda Wlldllfe SocleLy and unL/C8lu-Arendal (2010) Ugandas Environment And Natural Resources:
Enhancing Parliaments Oversight. unL/C8lu-Arendal, kampala.
29
SnC-Lavalln (2008) Appendlx u: Pydrology of nlle 8asln lnlLlaLlve 8eglonal ower 1rade lan.
30
!apan lnLernaLlonal CooperaLlon Agency (!lCA) (2010) ro[ecL for MasLer lan SLudy on Pydropower
uevelopmenL ln 1he 8epubllc of uganda (lnLerlm 8eporL). 8eporL prepared for Lhe MlnlsLry of Lnergy and
Mlneral uevelopmenL, kampala, Aprll 2010.
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AL Lhe same Llme, many reporLs asserL rapld and ongolng envlronmenLal degradaLlon llnked
Lo ever-lncreaslng population pressure (Ugandas population trebled over 40 years to 2009)
and ineffective management of Ugandas natural resources. llsh resources ln Lake AlberL are
reporLed Lo be decllnlng due Lo over-flshlng, whlle Lhe loss of foresL cover ls noLhlng shorL of
caLasLrophlc, wlLh predlcLlons rlfe LhaL uganda wlll cease Lo have a naLural foresLry resource
by 2030 (ually MonlLor 21 March 2013). ln Lhe face of such alarmlng sLaLlsLlcs Lhe uganda
Pandbook
31
lamenLs a lack of commlLmenL Lo fund Lhe managemenL of naLural resources as
lllusLraLed by a reducLlon of governmenL and parLner lnvesLmenL ln Lhls arena, wlLh naLlonal
budgeLary allocaLlons Lo Lhe envlronmenL and naLural resources decllnlng from 4.9 ln
2004/2003 Lo 2.4 ln 2008/2009
32
.

9.2 Nat|ona| Inst|tut|ona|, Lega| and kegu|atory Context

lew counLrles have leglslaLlon called oototol tesootce moooqemeot leglslaLlon. Some sLaLes
ln AusLralla and new Zealand naLlonal leglslaLlon reference Lhls Lerm speclflcally. ln mosL
counLrles, naLural resource managemenL leglslaLlon ls housed ln a wlde range of sLaLuLes
coverlng almosL Lhe full amblL of Lhe legal sysLem. 1hls slLuaLlon has arlsen largely because
naLural resources cover such a wlde range of explolLable resources. 1herefore Lhe
lnsLlLuLlons and laws concerned cover Lhe legal ground covered for ALL Lhe oLher
componenLs of Lhls reporL: envlronmenL, agrlculLure, mlnlng, oll and gas, soclo-economlc,
Lrade and lnvesLmenL, foresLry, flsherles, wlldllfe, and waLer. A brlef summary of slgnlflcanL
feaLures of Lhe lnsLlLuLlonal arrangemenLs and leglslaLlon of uganda ls provlded here. 1he
uganda Pandbook
33
provldes a comprehenslve summary of relevanL leglslaLlon Lo whlch we
are heavlly lndebLed.

9.2.1 Inst|tut|ona| Structure
1here ls a pleLhora of governmenL deparLmenLs and auLhorlLles concerned wlLh Lhe varlous
aspecLs of naLural resources managemenL, as shown ln 1ab|e 9-1. A body for Lhe
coordlnaLlon and lnLegraLlon of naLural resource managemenL has been creaLed ln uganda
wlLh Lhe esLabllshmenL of Lhe naLlonal LnvlronmenLal ManagemenL AuLhorlLy (nLMA) under
Lhe naLlonal LnvlronmenL AcL of 1993. Powever, nLMA has no ootbotlty over key
deparLmenLs and mlnlsLrles, such as Lhe peLroleum auLhorlLles, slnce Lhe Cll and Cas ollcy
declares LhaL Lhls secLor ls Lo Lake precedence over all oLher secLor sLaLuLes.

lurLhermore, Lhere may be crlLlcal gaps ln Lhe lnsLlLuLlonal sLrucLure. lor lnsLance, Lhe
National Forestry Authoritys mandate is to control Central Forest Reserves resources only,
whlle Lhe ulsLrlcL loresL Servlces conLrol local reserves and lssue permlLs for Llmber
harvesLlng ln Lhose reserves. There is no authority for the countrys forest or wood resources

31
MlnlsLry of WaLer and LnvlronmenL: ulrecLoraLe of LnvlronmenLal Affalrs (2013) 1be Notloool lotest lloo
2011/12 2021/22. MlnlsLry of WaLer and LnvlronmenL, kampala.
32
naLlonal loresLry AuLhorlLy (2009). naLlonal 8lomass SLudy: 1echnlcal 8eporL 2009. nlA, kampala, uecember
2009.
33
WWl uganda (2012) A 8eporL on naLlonal 1lmber 1rade and lLLC1 SoluLlons for uganda. WWl uganda,
kampala.
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as a whole, and Lhe land Lenure sysLem ls such LhaL landowners own and have Lhe rlghL Lo do
as Lhey wlll wlLh any resources growlng on Lhelr properLy. Clven LhaL abouL 70 of naLlonal
foresLry resources are on prlvaLe land, Lhls represenLs a hlghly slgnlflcanL gap. And, whlle Lhe
loresLry SupporL has been recenLly esLabllshed Lo asslsL dlsLrlcL foresLry servlces ln Lhe
conslsLenL appllcaLlon of pollcy, Lhere ls slmply no auLhorlLy charged wlLh addresslng
blomass energy, noLably wlLh regulaLlng Lhe charcoal lndusLry.

1ab|e 9-1: Inst|tut|ona|, o||cy & Lega| Iramework - Natura| kesources Management

Sector] Inst|tut|ons
o||cy and Lega|
Iramework


Lnv|ronment (& o||ut|on)

naLlonal LnvlronmenL ManagemenL
AuLhorlLy (nLMA)
MlnlsLry of WaLer and LnvlronmenL MoWL)
urban ClLy/1own Counclls
ulrecLoraLe of WaLer uevelopmenL (uWu)
naLlonal LnvlronmenL ManagemenL ollcy, 1997
naLlonal LnvlronmenL AcL, 1993
naLlonal LnvlronmenL 8egulaLlons, 2003
LnvlronmenLal SLandards and rellmlnary LnvlronmenLal
lmpacL AssessmenL for WaLer CuallLy and ulscharge
of LffluenL lnLo WaLer and Land ln uganda, 1998
Land
MlnlsLry of Lands, Pouslng and urban
uevelopmenL (MLPuu)
ulsLrlcL Land 8oards
Land ollcy (drafL)
Solls ollcy (drafL)
urban lannlng ollcy (drafL)
Land use ollcy, 2008
Land AcL, 1998
Water
MlnlsLry of WaLer and LnvlronmenL (M0WL)
ulrecLoraLe of WaLer uevelopmenL (uWu)
naLlonal WaLer and Sewerage CorporaLlon
(nWSC)

@(30*2'.A
WeLlands ManagemenL ueparLmenL
(MlnlsLry of WaLer
and LnvlronmenL)
ulsLrlcL WeLland Cfflces
naLlonal WaLer ollcy, 1999
naLlonal WaLer and Sewerage CorporaLlon AcL, 2000
WaLer AcL, 1997
WaLer 8esources 8egulaLlons, 1998

naLlonal WeLlands ollcy, 1993
naLlonal LnvlronmenL ManagemenL ollcy, 1997
naLlonal LnvlronmenL ManagemenL AcL, 1993
naLlonal LnvlronmenL (WeLlands, 8lver 8anks, and
Lakeshores managemenL) 8egulaLlons, 2000
Iorestry
MlnlsLry of WaLer and LnvlronmenL (MoWL)
naLlonal loresLry AuLhorlLy (nlA)
uganda Wlldllfe AuLhorlLy (uWA)
ulsLrlcL loresLry Servlces (ulS)
loresLry SupporL
naLlonal LnvlronmenL ManagemenL
AuLhorlLy (nLMA)
loresLry ollcy, 2001
naLlonal LnvlronmenL ManagemenL ollcy, 1994
naLlonal LnvlronmenL AcL, Cap 133
naLlonal loresLry and 1ree lanLlng AcL, 2003
uganda Wlldllfe AcL, Cap 200
Agr|cu|ture

MlnlsLry of AgrlculLure, Anlmal lndusLry and
llsherles (MAAll)
MlnlsLry of Lands, Pouslng and urban
uevelopmenL (MLPuu)
naLlonal AgrlculLural 8esearch CrganlzaLlon
(nA8C)
naLlonal AgrlculLural Advlsory Servlces
(nAAuS)
ulsLrlcL Land 8oard
ulsLrlcL roducLlon ueparLmenL
uganda lood and nuLrlLlon ollcy, 2003
lan for ModernlzaLlon of AgrlculLure
naLlonal AgrlculLure Advlsory Servlces
naLlonal Land use ollcy, 2008
ConsLlLuLlon of Lhe 8epubllc of uganda, 1993
8udgeL AcL, 2001
Land AcL, Cap 227
naLlonal LnvlronmenL AcL, Cap 133
AgrlculLural and LlvesLock uevelopmenL lund AcL,
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Cap 233
AgrlculLure Seeds and lanLs AcL, Cap 28
uganda naLlonal Councll for Sclence and 1echnology AcL,
Cap 209
Anlmal 8reedlng AcL, 2001
ConLrol of AgrlculLural Chemlcals AcL, Cap 29
lood and urugs AcL, Cap 278
Land AcqulslLlon AcL, Cap 226
Local CovernmenL AcL, Cap 243
MarkeLs AcL, Cap 94
lanL roLecLlon AcL, Cap 31
lnvesLmenL Code AcL, Cap 92
naLlonal AgrlculLural 8esearch AcL, 200
Lnergy
MlnlsLry of Lnergy and Mlneral
uevelopmenL (MLMu)
eLroleum LxploraLlon and roducLlon
ueparLmenL (Lu ln MLMu)
LlecLrlclLy 8egulaLory AuLhorlLy
naLlonal LnvlronmenL ManagemenL
AuLhorlLy (nLMA)
eLroleum Lnergy u
naLlonal loresLry AuLhorlLy (nlA)
uganda Wlldllfe AuLhorlLy (ln naLlonal
parks)
Cll and Cas ollcy, 2008
Lnergy ollcy, 2002
ConsLlLuLlon of Lhe 8epubllc of uganda, 1993
LlecLrlclLy AcL, 1999
eLroleum (LxploraLlon and roducLlon) (ConducL of LxploraLlon
CperaLlons) 8egulaLlons, 1993
I|sher|es

MlnlsLry of AgrlculLure, Anlmal lndusLry and
llsherles (MAAll)
naLlonal LnvlronmenL ManagemenL
AuLhorlLy (nLMA)
"aLlonal llsherles ollcy, 2003
llsh AcL, 1964
urafL llsherles AcL, 2004
W||d||fe, 8|od|vers|ty & 1our|sm

uganda Wlldllfe AuLhorlLy (uWA)
MlnlsLry of 1ourlsm, 1rade and lndusLry
(M11l)
uganda Wlldllfe LducaLlon CenLre (uWLC)
naLlonal loresLry AuLhorlLy
naLlonal LnvlronmenL ManagemenL
AuLhorlLy (nLMA)
uganda 1ourlsm 8oard
uganda Wlldllfe ollcy, 1999
uganda 1ourlsm ollcy, 2003
Wlldllfe AcL Cap 200, 2003
naLlonal LnvlronmenL AcL, 1993
naLlonal LnvlronmenL 8egulaLlons, 2003
PoLel and 1ourlsm 1ralnlng lnsLlLuLe AcL, 1994
(5ootce. unL-Crld Arendal 2010)

9.2.2 Leg|s|at|on and kegu|at|on
1he above Lable also lndlcaLes Lhe complexlLy of pollcy leglslaLlon concerned wlLh naLural
resources managemenL. Moreover, mosL of Lhls leglslaLlon daLes from a decade or more ago,
whlle lnLernaLlonal besL pracLlce ln naLural resources managemenL has changed conslderably
ln recenL years. lor lnsLance, ln Lhe waLer managemenL leglslaLlon of many counLrles Lhere ls
now recognlLlon of Lhe prlmacy of envlronmenLal malnLenance requlremenLs ln Lhe
allocaLlon of waLer resources Lo dlfferenL user groups, buL Lhere ls no such provlslon ln
Ugandas Water Act.

noneLheless, ln uganda Lhere ls recognlLlon LhaL revlslon of some older sLaLuLes ls
necessary. lor lnsLance Lhe Wlldllfe AcL of 2003 dlsallows any lndusLrlal scale developmenL
ln naLlonal parks lncludlng mlnlng and oll and gas developmenL. 8evlslon of Lhls AcL ls
Lherefore ln progress Lo accommodaLe recenL developmenLs ln Lhe oll and gas secLor. Some
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sLakeholders do noL regard Lhls as a poslLlve developmenL for wlldllfe and landscape
conservaLlon ln uganda, whlle oLher players vlew economlc developmenL (and developmenL
of all explolLable resources) as of paramounL lmporLance ln Lhe flghL agalnsL poverLy and
under-developmenL.

1here ls wldespread reporLlng of fallures ln Lhe lnsLlLuLlonal, pollcy and legal sysLem Lo
enforce and conLrol Lhe orderly and susLalnable developmenL of naLural resources. 1hls ls
aLLrlbuLed Lo gaps ln Lhe pollcy and legal framework as well as a lack of resources (flnanclal
and human capaclLy) ln governmenL agencles Lo lmplemenL and enforce pollcy and
regulaLlons.

9.2.3 Internat|ona| Cons|derat|ons
uganda ls slgnaLory Lo a number of lnLernaLlonal LreaLles and convenLlons of relevance,
lncludlng Lhe lnLernaLlonal ConvenLlon for Lhe ConservaLlon of 8lodlverslLy, Lhe lnLernaLlonal
ConvenLlon for CombaLLlng ueserLlflcaLlon and Lhe lnLernaLlonal ConvenLlon for Lhe
ConservaLlon of WeLlands of lnLernaLlonal lmporLance (known as Lhe 8AMSA8 ConvenLlon).
1here are several 8AMSA8 weLlands wlLhln Lhe AlberLlne reglon (Lhe nlle delLa and rlver
lncludlng lLs banks from Lhe delLa Lhrough Murchlson lalls belng a crlLlcal one wlLh respecL
Lo fuLure planned developmenLs ln LhaL area).

1he nlle 8asln ls shared beLween 10 counLrles, and lLs waLer resources are allocaLed by
means of Lhe nlle 8asln 1reaLy. 1hls means LhaL uganda, whlch slLs aLop Lhe headwaLers of
one of Lhe Lwo maln branches of Lhe rlver, namely Lhe WhlLe nlle, cannoL develop Lhe
resources of lLs share of Lhe basln wlLhouL conslderlng and consulLlng oLher 8asln parLners.
1he nlle 8asln lnlLlaLlve, a mulLl-counLry agency, was seL up Lo coordlnaLe research and
managemenL sLraLegles across Lhe basln, lndeed lL has an offlce ln kampala and wlll have Lo
be lncluded as a sLakeholder ln Lhe physlcal developmenL plan for Lhe AlberLlne graben
reglon ln as much as lL lnvolves waLer resources ln Lhe nlle 8asln.

9.3 Natura| kesources of the A|bert|ne Graben reg|on

9.3.1 Introduct|on
1he AlberLlne graben comprlses Lhe parL of uganda LhaL ls formed largely by Lhe 8lfL valley,
Lhe greaL depresslon LhaL arcs along Lhe wesLern boundary of Lhe counLry from souLh Lo
norLh. 1he AlberLlne Craben Speclal lannlng 8eglon however lncludes a number of dlsLrlcLs
LhaL sLraddle Lhe escarpmenL and uplands Lo Lhe easL of Lhe 8lfL, so Lhe plannlng reglon
dlsplays an enormous range of blogeographlcal feaLures, from seml-arld, very hoL flaL
savannas ln Lhe norLh-wesL, Lo snowy mounLalns and lsolaLed paLches of ralnforesL ln Lhe
souLh-wesL. 1hls dlverse reglon ls Lhus rlchly endowed wlLh naLural resources, from hosLlng
Lhe largesL remalnlng foresL blocks ln Lhe counLry, Lo hlgh poLenLlal agrlculLural land and
grazlng lands, a subsLanLlal flshlng lndusLry, copper and cobalL mlnlng and gold resources, Lo
oll and gas and a reglonally unlque blodlverslLy LhaL, comblned wlLh specLacular naLural land
forms, is the focus of Ugandas lively tourism sector.

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lrom a naLural resources managemenL polnL of vlew Lhen, Lhe AlberLlne cannoL be managed
as one unlL, lL wlll need blogeographlcal zone speclflc lnLervenLlons.

9.3.2 Non-renewab|e kesources: M|nera|s and C|| & Gas
1he poLenLlal oll and gas resources of Lhe AlberLlne are dlscussed ln Chapter 12, so wlll noL
be covered here excepL ln relaLlon Lo overlaps and poLenLlal lnLeracLlons wlLh oLher naLural
resources. ln Lerms of spaLlal dlsLrlbuLlon:

LxplolLed mlneral resources are concenLraLed aL Lhe souLhern end of Lhe AlberLlne,
largely ln Lhe vlclnlLy of kasese where copper and cobalL resources have been mlned
for a long Llme,

Cold ls wldely dlsLrlbuLed Lhrough wesLern uganda, wlLh Lhe mosL slgnlflcanL areas of
poLenLlal belng ln Lhe far norLh and norLh-easL, and Lo Lhe easL of Lhe CenLral SLudy
Area (souLh of Polma and easL of lorL orLal, mosL of lL ouL of Lhe AlberLlne graben
Speclal lannlng 8eglon. Cold occurs ln Lhe far souLh of Lhe AlberLlne and along Lhe
souLh-wesLern mounLalns.

SalL has been mlned for cenLurles aL Lake kaLwe (close Lo Lake Ldward) ln appalllng
arLlsanal condlLlons. An aLLempL Lo lndusLrlallse producLlon falled and arLlsanal
producLlon conLlnues.

Cll and gas resources have been found on Lhe souLhern verges of Lake AlberL, ln Lhe
cenLral basln of Lhe lake, along lLs easLern shores and lnLo Lhe norLh nlle parL of Lhe
Murchlson lalls naLlonal ark (seeMap 11-1 ) ln Chapter 11.

Cver Lhe pasL Lhree decades mlnlng has remalned a fracLlonal conLrlbuLor Lo Cu, lLs share
varylng from 0.1 Lo 0.6, and was 0.4 per cenL ln 2008, desplLe robusL apparenL growLh
raLes (2004 Lo 2008 13 average per annum). Powever, employlng only 1 of Lhe naLlonal
labour force, mlnlng makes llLLle conLrlbuLlon Lo labour absorpLlon, wlLh employmenL ln Lhe
sub-secLor remalnlng almosL consLanL over Lhese perlods of growLh.

9.3.3 kenewab|e kesources: Water Supp|y and the Lco|og|ca| keserve
1he AlberLlne graben ls well endowed wlLh waLer and ls a key area for naLlonal and reglonal
waLer resources developmenL. Lake AlberL recelves waLer from Lhe souLhern end of Lhe
plannlng reglon, wlLh lLs prlmary waLer source belng Lhe Slmllkl 8lver, from numerous
sLreams dralnlng Lhe mounLalns Lo Lhe wesL and norLh-wesL, and from Lhe nlle 8lver LhaL
enLers Lhe very norLhern end of Lhe lake. Whlle Lhe nlle ls Lhe largesL waLer resource ln Lhe
area, lLs waLers flow mosLly ouL of Lhe lake dlrecLly lnLo Lhe AlberL nlle, however, lL plays a
crucial role in lake dynamics by acting as a sill that maintains the level of the lake. Silt
deposlLed aL Lhe mouLh of Lhe Semllkl 8lver wlLh Lhe lake ls lncreaslng Lhe slze of LhaL delLa,
and lL ls llkely LhaL lncreased sllL levels carrled by Lhe vlcLorla nlle are dolng Lhe same ln Lhe
nlle delLa wlLh Lhe lake. CerLalnly, very Lurbld waLer was observed by Lhe auLhor enLerlng
Lhe lake from Lhe vlcLorla nlle lmmedlaLely afLer recenL ralns (early May 2014) ln Lhe reglon.

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ln Lerms of waLer resources managemenL, old daLa sources abouL Lake AlberL are repeaLedly
quoLed, such LhaL Lhe maxlmum depLh of Lhe lake ls reporLed Lo be 38 m. lor a waLer body
of Lhls slze, Lhls means LhaL lL ls ln facL shallow and, glven Lhe hoL cllmaLe ln Lhe 8lfL valley,
slgnlflcanL absLracLlons run Lhe rlsk of depleLlng Lhe lake relaLlvely rapldly. resenLly, whlle
no flgures for Lhe AlberLlne graben are speclflcally avallable, absLracLlon of waLer from
surface waLer bodles appears Lo be mlnlmal and well under sysLem capaclLy.

The author has been unable to access recent, substantive analyses of Lake Alberts
hydrology speclflcally LhaL would supporL a coherenL sLraLegy for Lhe managemenL of Lhe
lakes water resources. The development of such a strategy is an urgent requirement, given
Lhe probably lmmlnenL escalaLlon of demands from Lhe oll and gas lndusLry, amongsL oLhers,
on the lakes water resources. A summary by SNC-Lavalln ln 2008 of Lhe nlle Basins
hydrological dynamics asserts that Lake Alberts water level increased by 3.3 m between the
early 1960s and 1980s followlng a 3-year perlod of exLraordlnarlly elevaLed ralnfall ln Lhe
LquaLorlal Lakes reglon of Lhe basln (due Lo changes ln Lhe L Afrlcan general wlnd fleld).
ulscharges Lo Lhe AlberL (WhlLe) nlle from Lhe LquaLorlal Lakes remalned elevaLed Lhrough
the 1990s but Lake Victorias level has dropped sharply since 2000. This suggests that data
on flucLuaLlons ln ralnfall and runoff are Loo recenL for any flrm concluslons on long-Lerm
hydrology Lo be drawn from Lhem.

While the White Niles contribution to the Niles overall hydrological balance remains small
in comparison with Ethiopias 85% contribution from the Blue Nile and Atbara River, lLs
share has grown proportionately since this shift in rainfall in the 1960s (Ethiopias rainfall
over Lhe same perlod decllned). lurLhermore, Lhe LquaLorlal Lakes reglon makes a much
sLeadler seasonal conLrlbuLlon Lo nlle flows, wlLh Lhe 8lue: WhlLe proporLlon of dry season
flows ln Lhe nlle downsLream of Lhe confluence aL kharLoum belng reversed, LhaL ls, 80 of
dry season flow ln Lhe maln nlle come from Lhe WhlLe nlle. So Lhe LquaLorlal Lakes have a
balancing effect on the Niles flows even if total flow ln Lhe maln nlle downsLream of
kharLoum would be llLLle affecLed by flucLuaLlons ln ouLflows from Lhe LquaLlorlal Lakes
reglon. llucLuaLlons are ln any evenL dampened by Lhe huge sLorage capaclLy ln Lhe large
lakes ln Lhe upper parL of Lhe WhlLe nlle sub-basln.

However, in terms of water quality, the White Niles until-recenLly clear, clean waLer ls
critical to the water quality balance of the Nile. The Blue Niles waters carry extremely high
sedlmenL loads (Lhanks Lo Lhe LoLal loss of foresL cover ln Lhe Plghlands of LLhlopla), as well
as very hlgh nuLrlenL loads. 1he nuLrlenL loads have caused exploslons of exoLlc lnvaslve
waLer-weeds ln many parLs of Lhe nlle basln, leadlng Lo many problems ln Lhe operaLlon of
waLer resources lnfrasLrucLure (clogglng lnLake sLrucLures, foullng Lurblnes eLc).

Cn Lake AlberL, Lhere are locallsed areas where euLrophlcaLlon of waLer ls an lssue due Lo
unconLrolled sewage and oLher wasLe-waLer dlsposal lnLo Lhe lake, as ls Lhe case aL Lhe flsh
landlng slLes and lakeslde vlllages. LuLrophlcaLlon ls also parLly a naLural phenomenon, wlLh
hlgh levels of organlc decomposlLlon occurrlng along Lhe nlle 8lver sysLem and leadlng Lo
seasonally and annually varlable levels of lnvaslve allen waLer-weeds ln Lhe rlver. Local
flshermen reporL LhaL, consequenLly, aquaLlc weeds may be a more or less of a problem ln
areas such as Lhe flshlng grounds aL Lhe nlle delLa lnLo Lake AlberL I|gure 9-1. Puman
populaLlon mlgraLlons lnLo, and urban developmenL around Lake AlberL noneLheless may
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poLenLlally greaLly exacerbaLe Lhe occurrence and perslsLence of aquaLlc weed lnvaslons ln
Lhe sysLem, affecLlng also Lhe AlberL nlle 8lver downsLream of Lhe lake.

I|gure 9-1: Lake A|bert I|sh|ng and Invas|ve Weeds



lL ls worLh noLlng LhaL desplLe Lhe naLural componenL of Lhls euLrophlcaLlon phenomenon ln
Ugandas lakes, human-lnduced euLrophlcaLlon ls acknowledged Lo be so hlgh ln Lhe much
larger Lake vlcLorla LhaL lL has caused parLs of Lhe depLhs of LhaL lake Lo become anoxlc on a
regular basls and consequenLly unable Lo supporL llfe. 1here can Lhus be no complacency
abouL Lhe poLenLlal for dlluLlon Lo be a soluLlon Lo polluLlon ln Lhls densely populaLed reglon.

An absence of waLer resources lnfrasLrucLure (large scale sLorage and dlsLrlbuLlon
lnfrasLrucLure) ln Lhe reglon ls also noLed as a key currenL consLralnL ln Lhe advancemenL of a
comprehenslve approach Lo waLer resources developmenL and managemenL. Powever,
conslderable smaller scale acLlvlLy ln Lhls arena ls reporLed by MlnlsLry of WaLer and
LnvlronmenL (MWL). WaLer for producLlon lnfrasLrucLure ls a shared responslblllLy beLween
MWL and MlnlsLry of AgrlculLure Anlmal lndusLry and llsherles (MAAll), wlLh MWL
responsible for off-farm or bulk supply activities, while MAAIF is tasked with on-farm
reticulation and utilization. MWEs Water for Production department is implementing
varlous pro[ecLs for mulLl-purposes across Lhe counLry, lncludlng consLrucLlon of valley Lanks,
dams, bulk waLer supply schemes and rehablllLaLlon of old dams and lrrlgaLlon schemes.
Powever a mlnorlLy of Lhls acLlvlLy ls occurrlng ln Lhe AlberLlne graben Speclal lannlng Area:
nLungamo ulsLrlcL has had Lwo valley Lanks consLrucLed, whlle Lhe Andlho dam ln nebbl
dlsLrlcL ls under consLrucLlon and consLrucLlon of Lhe klkasl-Sanga-kanyabyeru bulk waLer
scheme ln klruhura ulsLrlcL has commenced (MWL unpubllshed reporL 2012).

ln plannlng large-scale lnfrasLrucLure and resource developmenL, Lhe needs of Lhe aquaLlc
envlronmenL and lLs producLlve capaclLy musL be carefully consldered and lncorporaLed. ln
souLhern Afrlca, ln recenL decades lL has been esLabllshed LhaL generally abouL a Lhlrd of Lhe
annual flow of rlvers needs Lo be allocaLed for healLhy ecosysLem malnLenance, and
allocaLed ln seasonally varlable flows noLably floods. 8elow Lhls level ecologlcal lnLegrlLy and
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producLlvlLy are llkely Lo decllne and blodlverslLy resources Lo be losL from Lhe aquaLlc
sysLem. lurLhermore, ln Lroplcal and sub-Lroplcal Afrlca, Lhe creaLlon of relaLlvely non-
LurbulenL waLer bodles (dams and reservolrs) greaLly aggravaLes lnvaslons by aquaLlc weeds.
Ways Lo uLlllze aquaLlc weeds as producLlve resources such as a base for composL/ organlc
ferLlllzer? - need Lo be found Lo address Lhls aspecL of waLer resources developmenL.

1he slLuaLlon regardlng ground waLer resources ln Lhe reglon ls equally opaque. ln Lhe
uplands areas around Polma and Maslndl, large valley boLLom weLlands occur, buL aqulfers
are reporLed Lo be scarce. Cn Lhe oLher hand, boreholes are sald Lo be Lhe maln source of
waLer supply ln Lhe uplands dlsLrlcLs.

Powever, lnsLead of dralnlng valley boLLom weLlands Lo creaLe croplands, some valleys
should be dammed Lo creaLe reservolrs for gravlLy-fed lrrlgaLlon downsLream. Such dams
could also be used for flsh-farmlng. Moreover, dams would provlde sLorage for assurlng
waLer supplles Lo Lowns and lndusLrlal developmenL ln Lhe reglon. 1he anLlclpaLed effecLs of
cllmaLe change on ralnfall and evaporaLlon raLes ln Lhe reglon wlll, however, have Lo be
accounLed for ln waLer sLorage sysLem deslgn and operaLlon.

9.3.4 C||mate Change
1he ma[or effecLs of cllmaLe change wlll be changes ln Lhe hydrologlcal cycle, Lhe balance of
LemperaLure, evaporaLlon and ralnfall. lL has become almosL a manLra ln naLural resources
managemenL sLudles LhaL cllmaLe change musL be Laken lnLo accounL. 1hls, on Lhe oLher
hand, ls far more easlly sald Lhan done, largely because of Lhe sLlll wlde varlaLlons ln cllmaLe
change predlcLlons when Lhe global clrculaLlon models are downscaled Lo yleld reglonally
speclflc predlcLlons. 1hls applles Lo Lhe nlle basln, for whlch rlver flow predlcLlons range
from a 20 lncrease Lo a 61 decrease.

Nonetheless, all researchers agree that the Niles characteristics indicate a high sensitivity to
cllmaLe change, because Lhe basln has low runoff efflclency and a hlgh dryness lndex. Cverall
Lhe models agree LhaL over 100 years (2001-2100) preclplLaLlon lnlLlally lncreases and
subsequenLly decreases, whlle LemperaLure hence evaporaLlon LhroughouL Lhe basln
lncrease. 1he resulL ls LhaL alLhough preclplLaLlon lncreases, runoff decreases due Lo Lhe
large hydrologlcal role played by evaporaLlon (source: lnLergovernmenLal anel on CllmaLe
Change 2006)
34
. lor uganda, Lhe effecLs are noL nearly as severe as downsLream more arld
counLrles, wlLh ralnfall probably lncreaslng ln Lhe LquaLorlal Lakes reglon. Powever, ralnfall
paLLern becomes more varlable and LemperaLures more exLreme and rlver flow ls predlcLed
Lo probably decllne sllghLly due Lo lncreased evaporaLlon losses from Lhe large lakes ln Lhe
sub-basln.

9.3.S Water and I|sher|es
llshlng provldes an lmporLanL form of llvellhood for Lhe people ln Lhe AlberLlne Craben. 1he
most important sources of sh in the region are Lake Albert, Lake Edward, Lake George and
rlvers especlally Lhe AlberL nlle, Wakl, Wambabya, Semllkl and kazlnga Channel. 1he reglon
contributes 18.7% of the total national sh catch, with Lake Albert contributing 15%. Fish

34
nLMA (2012) uganda SLaLe of Lhe LnvlronmenL 8eporL 2010. nLMA, kampala
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processlng has become an lmporLanL acLlvlLy on Lhe lake. AL 8uLlaba landlng slLe, Lhere ls a
wild catch sh-processlng facLory handllng 40-30 Lons of nlle erch per day and employlng a
labour force of 130 people. AL Wanseko aL Lhe lakeshore headland formlng Lhe souLhern
boundary of Lhe nlle delLa, a subsLanLlal number of lnhablLanLs earn Lhelr llvlng from a glll
neL based capenLa lndusLry, and from caLchlng oLher lake flsh. (Wanseko ls also an lmporLanL
ferry polnL for LransporL Lo nebbl dlsLrlcL across Lhe lake.) Small-scale shing also occurs at
Lhe communlLy level ln Lhe numerous sLreams and weLlands ln Lhe area.

Lake Albert is the most productive lake in the Region in terms of the sh biodiversity, having
about 53 sh species of which about ten are endemic. Of the endemic species of Lake Albert,
lotes moctoptbolmos ls LhreaLened. Lake Alberts fisheries resources are dependent on the
conslsLenL lake waLer levels and Lhe rlch ecosysLems creaLed by Lhe frlngelng weLlands along
the lakes eastern shores. The Nile delta, occupying some 17,000 ha, in particular has been
shown Lo be Lhe rlchesL area for flsh specles dlverslLy and abundance, and lL plays a key role
as spawnlng ground for many specles and as [uvenlle feedlng area for oLhers LhaL may spawn
ln Lhe deeper cenLral waLers of Lhe lake. 1hls ls reflecLed ln Lhe slze of Lhe flshlng fleeL based
aL Wanseko, flshlng vlllage lylng on Lhe souLhern edge of Lhe delLa: aL leasL 200 boaLs were
counLed by Lhe auLhor on Lhe shore and ln Lhe waLers lmmedlaLely around Lhe delLa ln May
2014.

9.3.6 Water and Lnergy: nydropower
Maps of hydropower slLes ln uganda show hundreds of slLes along Lhe souLhern, wesLern
and norLhern AlberLlne, wlLh mosL of Lhese belng for falrly small power planLs for reglonal
dlsLrlbuLlon. 1he largesL hydropower poLenLlal ln Lhe counLry ls concenLraLed along Lhe
vlcLorla nlle, wlLh seven pro[ecLs planned beLween 8u[agall (under consLrucLlon) and Lake
AlberL dellverlng 3,210 MW of power. Cf Lhese, four run-of-rlver developmenLs are flagged
for Lhe nlle wlLhln Murchlson lalls naLlonal ark lLself, wlLh Lhe 700 MW karuma lalls
pro[ecL [usL upsLream of Lhe park. Murchlson lalls lLself ls LargeLed for a pro[ecL LhaL wlll
lnvolve a 46 m hlgh reservolr wall a shorL way upsLream of Lhe falls wlLh an lnsLalled capaclLy
of 630 MW
33
.

uownsLream of uganda ln SouLh Sudan four poLenLlal hydropower pro[ecLs on Lhe maln
AlberL nlle upsLream of Lhe Sudd swamp and four more downsLream of Lhe Sudd have been
ldenLlfled ln Lhe nlle 8asln power generaLlon sLudles of recenL years. LLhlopla plans Lo bulld
aL leasL Lhree masslve hydropower dams on Lhe 8lue nlle, and several oLher blg dams on
oLher ma[or LrlbuLarles of Lhe nlle 8lver. 1he upper nlle sysLem ls Lhus polsed Lo change
from an unregulaLed rlver Lo a hlghly regulaLed one.

1here ls ample evldence globally LhaL dam and hydropower developmenLs on rlvers resulL ln
reduced aquaLlc ecosysLem producLlvlLy and loss of naLural blodlverslLy. All Lhese planned
developmenLs on Lhe nlle wlll Lhus have Lo be planned and programmed carefully Lo ensure
susLenance of Lhe aquaLlc ecosysLems on whlch many rlparlan communlLles along Lhe nlle
8lver rely for lmporLanL proLeln supplemenLs. 1he effecL of Lhe cascade of hydropower
pro[ecLs upsLream of Lhe nlle delLa on Lake AlberL flsh resources wlll also need Lo be

33
1he 8epubllc of uganda (2009) Notloool uevelopmeot lloo (2010/11 2014/13). naLlonal lannlng
AuLhorlLy, kampala
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carefully assessed and mlLlgaLlon measures developed. 1he effecLs of four hydropower
schemes wlLhln Lhe boundarles of Lhe Murchlson lalls naLlonal ark, ln comblnaLlon wlLh
the fragmentation of the Park habitats, landscape and sense of place by oil industry
producLlon wells and supporLlng llnear lnfrasLrucLure (plpellne, roads, powerllnes), may well
reduce the parks tourism attractions to unsustainable levels. Given that Murchison Falls
itself is possibly Ugandas most outstanding and unique remaining natural feature and one
LhaL has Lo a large extent established the Uganda brand in international tourism marketing
- Lhls reporL asserLs LhaL lLs lmpalrmenL by Lhe lnsLallaLlon of a hydropower sLaLlon aL Lhe
lalls would be a devasLaLlng blow Lo Lhe long-Lerm naLural herlLage and legacy of Lhe
counLry.

9.3.7 Land, So||s and Agr|cu|ture and Iorestry
AgrlculLure and foresLry are dlscussed here ln concerL because of Lhe lnLlmaLe relaLlonshlp
beLween Lhem ln uganda, whlch has gone from belng a counLry wlLh mllllons of hecLares of
hardwood declduous foresL Lo one ln whlch lndlgenous foresLs remaln only as lsolaLed
paLches ln an exLenslve agrarlan landscape.

Land (as space) ls necessary for all economlc acLlvlLles, buL no more so Lhan Lhe very space-
consumlng acLlvlLles of agrlculLure and foresLry. Land ls cenLral Lo Lhe llvellhoods of mosL
ugandan households, wlLh 83 of Lhe populaLlon lnhablLlng rural areas and 30 of
household wealLh held ln land. AgrlculLural use of land ls dlscussed aL lengLh ln ChapLer l of
Lhls reporL, hence lL Loo wlll be addressed here only ln relaLlon Lo lLs relaLlonshlp wlLh
underlylng envlronmenLal componenLs and posslble lnLeracLlons wlLh oLher naLural
resources.

ln parLlcular, rapld populaLlon growLh (see ChapLers C and u) over Lhe pasL 30 years has
drlven wholescale land cover LransformaLlon ln uganda, lncludlng Lhe AlberLlne graben, as
subslsLence occupanLs have harvesLed wood resources for Llmber and charcoal producLlon,
and opened land for agrlculLural producLlon and domesLlc sLock grazlng. Land cover has
changed over Lhe bulk of Lhe counLry from foresL and woodland Lo a mosalc of culLlvaLed,
pasLoral, grassland and open savannah land covers (Map S-1). [Cf course Lhe demlse of
foresLed land means effecLlvely Lhe rlse of agrlculLural poLenLlal (beLween 1990 and 2003,
for lnsLance, kasese dlsLrlcL galned Lhe largesL lncremenL of agrlculLural land, from 4000 ha
Lo 18 000 ha), a poLenLlal quallfled by consLralnLs relaLed Lo solls managemenL, as dlscussed
ln more deLall below.]

1he resulLlng agrlculLural and pasLoral resources of Lhe reglon are dlscussed aL lengLh ln
Chapter 10. lL can be observed LhaL Lhe hlgh poLenLlal agrlculLural resources are dlsLrlbuLed
ln Lhe souLh, souLhwesL and souLh-easLern parLs of Lhe sLudy area, wlLh Lhe norLh belng
poorly endowed ln Lhls regard. 1he dlsLrlbuLlon of poverLy ln Lhe counLry reflecLs Lhls, wlLh
Lhe pooresL parLs of Lhe counLry belng Lhe norLh-easL and norLh (ln Lhe AlberLlne: Arua,
Ad[umanl)
3
. Where oll producLlon wellflelds are llkely ln Lhe 8lfL, agrlculLural resources are
relaLlvely poor due Lo Lhe lower ralnfall and hlgh LemperaLures. Around Lhe cenLers
earmarked for downsLream value-added lndusLrles (such as Lhe reflnery and llnked
lndusLrles), agrlculLural poLenLlal ls good and offers Lhe poLenLlal Lo develop producLlon
sysLems capable of supplylng Lhe demands of a larger populaLlon (due Lo ln-mlgraLlon) and
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more sophlsLlcaLed populaLlon as Lhe hlghly skllled people needed Lo run Lhe oll and gas
lndusLry move lnLo Lhe reglon and llnked urban cenLers. 1hls wlll be Lhe case ln Lhe Polma
and Maslndl dlsLrlcLs.

Powever, Lhe uganda SLaLe of Lhe LnvlronmenL 8eporL 2010 says LhaL some sLudles lndlcaLe
that over 90% of the countrys land ls now degraded Lo some degree. Land degradaLlon and
decllnlng soll ferLlllLy llmlL crop ylelds and exacerbaLe household poverLy. 8y Lhe early 2000s
lL was esLlmaLed LhaL 4-12 of Cn was losL due Lo envlronmenLal degradaLlon, 83 of Lhls
from soll eroslon, nuLrlenL loss and Lhe forced swlLchlng of crops Lo lower value varleLles.
1he absoluLe cosL of land degradaLlon was conservaLlvely esLlmaLed aL uS$ 129.3 mllllon per
year. 1hls loss was prlmarlly caused, lL was asserLed, by sLagnaLed or decllnlng food and cash
crop ylelds, lLs havlng been found LhaL farmer ylelds were Lyplcally a Lhlrd of poLenLlal ylelds
found aL research sLaLlons
36
.

9.3.8 Iorests and Iorestry
loresLs and Lrees conLrlbuLe Lo naLlonal economlc growLh ln varlous ways, desplLe Lhe small
contribution of forestry to GDP (3.5% in 2008/09 according to the NDP). Forestrys
conLrlbuLlon Lo Cu lncreased ln Lhe decade Lo 2008/09, buL Lhe growLh raLe has been
falllng. 1hls lncrease may also be due Lo Lhe rlslng value of Llmber as sources become more
scarce. 34.4 mllllon Lonnes of roundwood worLh uCx 238.4 bllllon or uSu 130 mllllon were
used ln consLrucLlon work ln 2007
37
, wlLh an esLlmaLed 80 used for rooflng alone, only
abouL 10 for furnlLure and 10 for oLher uses.

8uL foresLs do far more Lhan merely supply consumer goods. Accordlng Lo uganda 8ureau of
Statistics (UBOS), 92% of Ugandas energy needs are met from woody biomass, with rural
households consumlng abouL 97 of Lhe household energy requlremenLs (alLhough Lhe
laLLer sLaLlsLlc ls hard Lo belleve, glven Lhe huge slze and numbers of bags of charcoal for sale
along Lhe maln roads lnLo kampala and repeaLed sLaLemenLs LhaL Lhe charcoal markeL ls
belng drlven by urban need). ln 2004, Clenn 8ush eL al esLlmaLed Lhe LoLal economlc value of
uganda's foresLs aL uCx 393.24 bllllon (uSu 300 mllllon). 8ush also esLlmaLed Lhe annual
conLrlbuLlon of foresLs Lo household cash lncome aL 11-27, and Lhe conLrlbuLlon Lo
ecosysLem servlces (soll and waLer managemenL, carbon sequesLraLlon, and fuLure uses for
uganda's blodlverslLy) aL uCx 222 bllllon (uSu 110 mllllon). lL ls well known LhaL Lroplcal
solls rapldly lose Lhelr ferLlllLy once foresL cover ls ellmlnaLed, unless speclal measures are
Laken Lo malnLaln Lhe humlc sLrucLure LhaL ls an lnLegral parL of foresL ecosysLem funcLlon.

1he naLlonal loresL lan 2011-2012 states that Ugandas forests cover 3,604,176 ha
38
, of
whlch 17 conslsLs of CenLral loresL 8eserves (Cl8s) managed by Lhe naLlonal loresLry
AuLhorlLy (nlA), 18 of naLlonal parks and wlldllfe reserves managed by uganda Wlldllfe
AuLhorlLy (uWA), and 0.83 [olnLly managed by nlA and uWA, 0.03 are local foresL
reserves (Ll8s) managed by respecLlve local governmenLs. 1he resL of Lhe foresLs (64) are

36
nLMA (2012) uganda SLaLe of Lhe LnvlronmenL 8eporL 2010. nLMA, kampala
37
WWl uganda (2012) A 8eporL on naLlonal 1lmber 1rade and lLLC1 SoluLlons for uganda. WWl uganda,
kampala.
38
naLlonal loresLry AuLhorlLy (2009). naLlonal 8lomass SLudy: 1echnlcal 8eporL 2009. nlA, kampala, uecember
2009
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on prlvaLe and communal lands, managed by prlvaLe and local communlLy foresL owners,
that is, 64% of the nations forestry resource is essentially unregulated.

1he AlberLlne graben reglon conLalns Lhe mosL slgnlflcanL foresLry resources ln Lhe counLry.
ulsLrlcLs LhaL have Lroplcal hlgh foresLs have Lhe hlghesL blomass sLocks and slx of Lhe seven
dlsLrlcLs quallfylng are ln Lhe AlberLlne reglon: Maslndl, 8ushenyl, kyen[o[o, Polma, klbaale
and kasese. Maslndl has Lhe hlghesL blomass sLock, amounLlng Lo 24.8 mllllon Lons
39
. A large
number of local foresL reserves occur LhroughouL Lhe reglon whlle Cl8s ln Lhe reglon are:
ML. CLze loresL 8eserve, ML. kel 8eserve, 8udongo loresL 8eserve (one of Lhe largesL ln Lhe
counLry [usL souLh of Murchlson lalls naLlonal ark, 8ugoma loresL 8eserve, kashoha-klLoml
loresL 8eserve, kallnzu loresL 8eserve and Maramagambo loresL 8eserve.

8uL foresLry ln uganda ls ln a sLaLe of crlsls. WhaL ls noL observed ln Lhe flgure of 3, 6 mllllon
ha of foresL quoLed above ls LhaL 27 of naLlonal foresL cover was losL ln 13 years (1990
2003). WhaL Lhls naLlonal flgure dlsgulses however, ls Lhe asLonlshlng dlfference lnslde
proLecLed areas and wlLhouL: 64 of foresLs on prlvaLe land dlsappeared, whlle ln proLecLed
areas Lhe loss was abouL 14 (sLlll unaccepLably hlgh). ln Lhe perlod of 13 years from 1990
for whlch good sLaLlsLlcs are avallable, Lhe average annual deforesLaLlon raLe was 1.8. 1he
sLaLlsLlcs are sLaggerlng: 1,7 mllllon ha of foresL was losL, represenLlng an annual clear-felllng
of approxlmaLely 88,000 ha
40
. 1he hlghesL annual raLe of deforesLaLlon was and ls occurrlng
on prlvaLe and communal lands (2.2) and Lhe lowesL ls ln naLlonal parks and wlldllfe
reserves (0.4), whlle an unaccepLably hlgh raLe of 1.1 ln CenLral loresL 8eserves was
recorded. 1he AlberLlne saw lLs foresL resources sLrlpped: klbaale losL 46 and Polma 22
41
.

unsaLlsfacLory foresL law enforcemenL and governance and lnsLlLuLlonal fallures have been
Lhe ma[or causes for Lhe poor performance of Lhe foresLry secLor
42

43
, neverLheless,
proLecLed areas are funcLlonlng Lo proLecL foresL resources wlLhln Lhem, as lnLended
(desplLe some losses and depredaLlons).

AL a dlsLrlcL level, foresLry offlclals reporL LhaL Lhey are poorly resourced boLh ln Lerms of
manpower and funds Lo underLake remedlal and enforcemenL acLlvlLles (loresLry 8ange
Cfflcer nlA Maslndl, pers comm). 1he Maslndl dlsLrlcL has planLed [usL 373.73 ha of plnes ln
Lhe pasL seven years, Lhls ln one of Lhe prlme foresLry areas of Lhe counLry.

ln 2004, wlLh Lhe esLabllshmenL of Lhe naLlonal loresL AuLhorlLy (nlA) replanLlng resumed
and by 2010 an esLlmaLed 40,000 ha had been replanLed by nlA ln parLnershlp wlLh prlvaLe
secLor foresLry companles and lndlvlduals. lncreaslngly, Lhe prlvaLe secLor ls Laklng over Lhe

39
naLlonal loresLry AuLhorlLy (2009). naLlonal 8lomass SLudy: 1echnlcal 8eporL 2009. nlA, kampala, uecember
2009.
40
1he 8epubllc of uganda (2009) Notloool uevelopmeot lloo (2010/11 2014/13). naLlonal lannlng
AuLhorlLy, kampala
41
naLlonal loresLry AuLhorlLy (2009). naLlonal 8lomass SLudy: 1echnlcal 8eporL 2009. nlA, kampala, uecember
2009.
42
MlnlsLry of WaLer and LnvlronmenL: ulrecLoraLe of LnvlronmenLal Affalrs (2013) 1be Notloool lotest lloo
2011/12 2021/22. MlnlsLry of WaLer and LnvlronmenL, kampala.
43
WWl uganda (2012) A 8eporL on naLlonal 1lmber 1rade and lLLC1 SoluLlons for uganda. WWl uganda,
kampala.

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role of planLaLlon Llmber producLlon, whlch was LradlLlonally carrled ouL by Lhe loresLry
ueparLmenL and nlA. 1he planLaLlons esLabllshed ln 2004 wlll begln Lo supply Lhe sawlog
markeL from 2023 onwards buL unLll Lhen, uganda faces a shorLage ln Llmber supply
44
.
lurLhermore, wlLh 70 80,000 ha of foresL/ woodland belng losL per year, Lhe 10-year
replanting achievement falls far short of meeting even one years deficit; consequently the
counLry wlll experlence ever growlng shorLages.

1he pro[ecLed Llmber shorLages mean of course LhaL:

lllegal harvesLlng from sLaLe foresL reserves ls llkely Lo lncrease (prlces wlll conLlnue Lo
rlse, provldlng a ready sLlmulus),

Lhe proporLlon of Llmber lmporLed from nelghbourlng counLrles wlll rlse, conLrlbuLlng
Lo acceleraLlng explolLaLlon of lndlgenous hardwoods ln Lhe u8C ln parLlcular (and
poLenLlal over-explolLaLlon Lhere as well),

uganda wlll noL recover a commerclally slgnlflcanL proporLlon of lLs naLural foresLs, Lhe
raLe of loss ls far hlgher Lhan can ever be achleved by replanLlng, leL alone Lhe masslve
challenges ln Lrylng Lo recreaLe lndlgenous, dlverse hardwood foresLs, and

Lhere ls greaL poLenLlal for foresLry planLaLlon developmenL ln Lhe favourable dlsLrlcLs
of Lhe AlberLlne reglon, lncludlng vlrLually all Lhe dlsLrlcLs ln Lhe souLh, souLh-easL and
cenLral areas Lo Maslndl. (ln Lhe boLLom of Lhe 8lfL valley, however, foresLry poLenLlal
ls very low.) Small grower programmes have already been lmplemenLed and Lhese can
be sLrengLhened and expanded Lhrough Lhe planLlng of Lree Lypes oLher Lhan plne
(whlch has been Lhe domlnanL Lype ln planLlng programmes Lo daLe). Specles Lo
address blomass needs (fuelwood and charcoal) are urgenLly needed. 1he Maslndl nlA
8ange Cfflce ls of Lhe oplnlon LhaL planLlng of combtetom specles, a generally fasL-
growlng lndlgenous genus, has poLenLlal ln Lhls regard.

Lhere ls poLenLlal Lo approprlaLe lnLernaLlonal fundlng Lo asslsL ln preservlng Lhe
remalnlng foresL reserve blocks LhaL are relaLlvely large and ln a relaLlvely good
condlLlon, boLh wlLhln Lhe mechanlsms creaLed by Lhe kyoLo roLocol for selllng
carbon credlLs, and under Lhe un-FAOs REDD programme (REDD = Reducing Emissions
from ueforesLaLlon and foresL uegradaLlon), ln whlch paymenLs are made for
preservlng (le oot explolLlng) lnLacL naLural foresLs.

Cn Lhe basls of good daLa daLlng from 2003, Lhe presenL sawn wood markeL ln uganda ls
esLlmaLed aL 369,000 m
3
, wlLh a currenL reLall markeL value of uCx 101 bllllon (uSu 42
mllllon). 1hls ls equlvalenL Lo 1,440,000 m
3
of round sawlogs aL Lhe currenL sawlng efflclency
of 23. 1hls ls equlvalenL Lo sawlog producLlon from clear felllng around 7,000 ha of
planLaLlon or selecLlve felllng ln 72,000 ha of naLural foresL, of whlch 80 or 37,600 ha
comprlses lllegal felllng of naLural foresL per year
43
.

44
WWl uganda (2012) A 8eporL on naLlonal 1lmber 1rade and lLLC1 SoluLlons for uganda. WWl uganda,
kampala.
43
MlnlsLry of WaLer and LnvlronmenL: ulrecLoraLe of LnvlronmenLal Affalrs (2013) 1be Notloool lotest lloo
2011/12 2021/22. MlnlsLry of WaLer and LnvlronmenL, kampala.
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nlA records lndlcaLe LhaL producLlon from CenLral loresL 8eserves has reduced from a hlgh
of approxlmaLely 180,000 m
3
of roundwood sawlogs ln 2008, Lo approxlmaLely 40,000 m
3
ln
2011. Assuming sawing conversion efficiency of 25%, NFAs roundwood producLlon ln 2011
ls equlvalenL Lo 10,000 m
3
sawn wood, whlch was [usL 3.3 of Lhe esLlmaLed markeL supply
ln LhaL year. As domesLlc producLlon from Lhe foresL reserves ls reduclng, Lhe markeL ls
lncreaslngly relylng on producLlon from foresLs ouLslde Lhe reserves supplemenLed wlLh
lmporLs of mahogany and oLher specles from easLern u8C. rlces have been rlslng ln
response Lo growlng scarclLy of LradlLlonal Llmbers (plnes, cypress, mahogany and mvule)
and LradlLlonal specles are belng replaced by subsLlLuLes.

1he Llmber markeLs ln Lhe cenLral and easLern dlsLrlcLs (AlberLlne) are supplled from local
resources. 1he Llmber resources ln norLhern uganda are lnadequaLe Lo meeL local demand
and Lhe markeLs Lhere are supplled by Llmber from klbaale, Polma and Maslndl
46
.

1he Lrade ln Llmber from Lrees on prlvaLe lands ouLslde Lhe foresL reserves ls poorly
regulaLed. MosL Llmber orlglnaLlng from foresLs and Lrees ouLslde Lhe reserves ls lllegal as
offlclal procedures and regulaLlon are rarely followed. 1he poor level of regulaLlon ls due Lo a
comblnaLlon of facLors, lncludlng lack of lnsLlLuLlonal capaclLy ln Lhe ulsLrlcL loresL Servlces.
8egulaLlons are lnLerpreLed dlfferenLly and Lhere ls no unlformlLy beLween dlsLrlcLs ln Lhe
fees and Laxes charged. 1he offlclal Lax raLe of 30 of Lhe value ls wldely percelved Lo be
excesslve and ls rarely charged, lL ls also a dlslncenLlve Lo lnvesLmenL ln Lhe secLor. 1he
offlclal forms and marklng hammers requlred as parL of Lhe regulaLory procedures are noL
avallable ln mosL dlsLrlcLs. ln Lhe pasL, loresL SecLor SupporL ueparLmenL provlded guldance
on susLalnable harvesLlng levels based on resource lnformaLlon buL Lhls ls no longer
provlded. ln mosL dlsLrlcLs Lhe role of Lhe ulsLrlcL loresLry Cfflcer ln regulaLlng Lhe Llmber
Lrade ls now llmlLed Lo collecLlon of Laxes and fees.

naLlonal and local governmenLs are loslng revenue Lhrough low Llmber valuaLlons (daLlng
from year 2000) on whlch Laxes are based, and Lhrough evaslon of Laxes and fees. Assumlng
up-Lo-daLe Llmber valuaLlons are used and assumlng 80 of Lhe Laxes are currenLly un-
collecLed, Lhe annual losses ln uncollecLed Laxes on domesLlcally produced Llmber are
esLlmaLed aL uCx 21 bllllon (uSu 8.8 mllllon). ln addlLlon, Lhe governmenL also loses an
esLlmaLed uCx 2.4 bn ($1m) ln lmporL duLles and Laxes due Lo under-declaraLlon of
lmporLed Llmber and due Lo ouLdaLed Llmber valuaLlons belng used by u8A CusLoms (daLlng
from 2009). 1oLal Lax revenue forgone amounLs Lo an esLlmaLed uCx 23 bn (uSu 9.8 mllllon)
per year
47
.

9.3.9 Wood kesources and 8|omass Lnergy (Charcoa|)
Given that 97% of Ugandas energy needs are supplied from biomass, it is clear that charcoal
ls produced and used LhroughouL Lhe counLry, wlLh Lhe supplles belng generaLed ln rural
areas whlle Lhe bulk of consumpLlon ls ln urban areas. ln 1994, charcoal producLlon uLlllzed 6
mllllon m
3
of round wood lncreaslng Lo 11 mllllon m
3
ln 2007. ln 2007, 39.4 of Lhe LoLal

46
WWl uganda (2012) A 8eporL on naLlonal 1lmber 1rade and lLLC1 SoluLlons for uganda. WWl uganda,
kampala.
47
l8lu
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wood producLlon from foresLs was used as wood fuel, accordlng Lo Lhe uganda 8ureau of
SLaLlsLlcs ln 2010. 8y 2012 Lhe annual naLlonal consumpLlon of flrewood was esLlmaLed aL
32.8 mllllon m
3
of woody blomass energy
48
.

Pousehold expendlLures on charcoal lncreased from 4.076 bllllon uCx ln 1993/96 Lo 9.343
bllllon ln 2003/06, approxlmaLely 23 per annum on average ln nomlnal Lerms and 3 per
year ln real Lerms (based on changes ln Lhe Cl over Lhe decade). More recenLly changes ln
energy prlces have ouLpaced overall prlce changes ln uganda. CuarLerly prlce daLa from
beLween 2004 and 2008 lndlcaLe LhaL charcoal prlces lncreased 69 over Lhls 3-year perlod,
an average nomlnal raLe of lncrease of approxlmaLely 14 per year, compared wlLh Lhe
ugandan lnflaLlon raLe of 6.4 beLween 2004 an d2008. uurlng Lhls same perlod Lhe prlce of
kerosene lncreased aL a lower raLe of 12 per annum
49
. Charcoal ls Lhus a key resource ln
households as well as belng an lncreaslngly valuable commodlLy. Slnce mosL of lL ls produced
from private lands forest and woodland resources, it falls under the control of district
foresLry admlnlsLraLlons, who are supposed Lo derlve lncome from charcoal producLlon
llcenslng. Some dlsLrlcLs however have abandoned llcenslng ln favour of levylng a Lax on
charcoal volumes sold aL roadslde depoLs.

ln rural areas Lhe consequences of charcoal producLlon Lo Lhe landscapes are wldespread
and vlslble: large scale LransformaLlon from woodland or foresL Lo cleared land and shrub
land. Woodlands previously constituted roughly 81% of Ugandas total forested area. But
unLll a recenL sLudy on whlch Lhls dlscusslon draws heavlly, very llLLle was known abouL Lhe
ugandan charcoal markeL and value chaln. lL ls known LhaL charcoal producers are llkely Lo
be Lhe pooresL and leasL resourced of Lhe rural poor, who ofLen Lurn Lo charcoal producLlon
because Lhey lack Lhe skllls or oLher opporLunlLles. Charcoal consumers, on Lhe oLher hand,
are drawn from all polnLs of Lhe lncome dlsLrlbuLlon curve and are prlmarlly, Lhough noL
excluslvely, urban, Lhey usually buy ln small quanLlLles and Lhey have llLLle regard for Lhe
soclal and envlronmenLal lmpacLs of Lhe producLlon cycle
30
.

1he hlghesL levels of producLlon occur ln areas wlLh woodland ecosysLems LhaL supporL hlgh-
quallLy vegeLaLlon for charcoal producLlon (Lhe maln Lree Lypes lnclude combtetom,
1etmloollo, Alblzlo, Acoclo, Allopbylos and Ctewlo specles.) and LhaL are well locaLed ln
relaLlon Lo kampala, Lhe blggesL demand cenLre. 1he sLudy found, however, LhaL dlsLance
from kampala has llLLle effecL on Lhe prlce pald Lo producers, and LhaL producL conLlnues Lo
be sourced from LradlLlonal source areas even when rapld large scale deforesLaLlon and loss
of Lhe besL Lree specles has occurred Lhere, eg nakasongola ulsLrlcL, where pasL foresL loss
does noL appear Lo have curbed charcoal exLracLlon
31
. 1he ma[or charcoal produclng reglons
lnclude cenLral uganda and parLs of wesLern and norLhern uganda, many of Lhem ln Lhe
AlberLlne reglon. Maslndl and Lhe dlsLrlcLs lmmedlaLely easL of lL around Lake kyoga,
nakasongola, Luwero and Apac, have been ma[or supply cenLres LhaL accounL for abouL 30
of supply Lo kampala, now oLher areas such Polma dlsLrlcL are emerglng as suppllers. 1hls ls
aLLrlbuLed parLly Lo depleLlon of woodlands ln Lhe LradlLlonal source areas, buL also Lo

48
nLMA (2012) uganda SLaLe of Lhe LnvlronmenL 8eporL 2010. nLMA, kampala
49
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30
Shlvely C, !agger, u Sserunkuuma , A. ArlnalLwe and C. Chlbwana (2010) roflLs and marglns along
Ugandas charcoal value chain. lotetootloool lotestty kevlew Vo| 12 (3), 2010: 270-283
31
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facLors llke Lhe compleLlon of an all-season Larmac road Lo Polma whlch has vasLly reduced
Lravel Llme and lmproved condlLlons for LransporLers and Lraders. 1hese neLworks wlll of
course be well poslLloned Lo develop Lhe local markeL once oll and gas relaLed developmenLs
around and ln Polma geL underway.

Powever, Lhls polnLs also Lo an lnevlLable naLural resource consequence of LransporL
lnfrasLrucLure developmenL assoclaLed wlLh oll and gas lndusLry developmenL: lL wlll allow
greaLer access lnLo prevlously lnaccesslble areas, maklng remalnlng resources vulnerable Lo
lncreased explolLaLlon pressure. ueforesLaLlon ln cenLral and norLhern areas of Lhe AlberLlne
graben reglon amongsL oLhers may Lhus see acceleraLlng raLes of deforesLaLlon and land
degradaLlon, unless lnsLlLuLlons ln Lhe reglon are sLrengLhened Lo combaL Lhls Lrend.

Charcoal producLlon and Lrade ls a slgnlflcanL acLlvlLy ln Maslndl dlsLrlcL. Charcoal producLlon
ls underLaken as a prlmary acLlvlLy by households wlLh few oLher lncome generaLlng
opporLunlLles, or as a compllmenL Lo land clearlng, whlch produces large volumes of raw
maLerlal sulLable for converslon Lo charcoal
32
. Landless refugees and lnLernally dlsplaced
people from norLhern uganda reporLedly supply much of Lhe labour used ln agrlculLurally
marglnal areas, especlally along Lhe kafu 8lver, where much of Lhe charcoal producLlon ls
conflned. CenLral governmenL and 8unyoro klngdom ranches abandoned durlng Lhe
lnsurgency ln Lhe early 1980s underwenL slgnlflcanL woodland regeneraLlon, favourlng
specles parLlcularly well-sulLed Lo hlgh quallLy charcoal producLlon. 1hese ranches were
taken over by small-scale charcoal producers and large-scale charcoal merchanLs from
kampala, who purchase sLandlng Lrees on areas as large as a square mlle, Lhen brlng crews
of 100 or more workers Lo clear Lhe land. 1hls clearance funcLlons Lo re-esLabllsh pasLures on
Lhe ranches, whlch are belng rehablllLaLed under publlc-prlvaLe parLnershlps. 1he economlcs
of converLlng woodland Lo pasLure ln Lhls way are very favourable: an acre of land cosLs
abouL 300 000 uCx (approxlmaLely 166 uSu), buL a landowner can sell Lhe assoclaLed Llmber
Lo a charcoal producer for as much as 200 000 ugShs (111 uSu)
33
. 1rader neLworks are well
esLabllshed ln Maslndl and nakasongola, Lhe bulk of charcoal ls LransporLed Lo kampala vla
Lhe Culu-kampala hlghway.

1here are flve players ln Lhe charcoal value chaln: producers, agenLs, LransporLs, Lraders and
(endpolnL) reLallers. ln general Lhe ends of Lhe value chaln are worsL off: producers and
reLallers are far more numerous and earn less from Lhe Lrade Lhan LransporLers and Lraders.
ln addlLlon, Lhe research resulLs showed LhaL Lraders and LransporLers reap very large
monLhly proflLs, largely because Lhey handle much larger volumes. 1he research reporL ls
very subLle ln lLs dlscusslon on one aspecL of Lhe Lrade: lL sLaLes LhaL a poslLlve correlaLlon
exists between contact with forest officials and returns for agents/transporters and
retailers. It goes on: The nature of these contacts is not known, but their correlation with
favourable economlc reLurns for some parLlclpanL caLegorles polnLs Lo an opporLunlLy for
foresL offlclals Lo play a larger or more effecLlve role ln monlLorlng and enforcemenL of
existing regulations. They are thus hinting that there is corruption in the system in favour
of Lraders, buL Lhey fall shorL of acLually saylng LhaL. CorrupLlon ln Lhe operaLlons of dlsLrlcL

32
Shlvely C, !agger, u Sserunkuuma , A. ArlnalLwe and C. Chlbwana (2010) roflLs and marglns along
Ugandas charcoal value chain. lotetootloool lotestty kevlew Vo| 12 (3), 2010: 270-283
33
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foresLry admlnlsLraLlon has ln any evenL been noLed ln oLher reporLs on Lhe naLlonal foresLry
slLuaLlon.

1he research flndlngs suggesL LhaL a Lax on LransporLers or Lraders could be used Lo generaLe
slgnlflcanL revenue for dlsLrlcLs. lurLhermore such a Lax would be progresslve and relaLlvely
easy Lo admlnlsLer, glven Lhe small number of parLlclpanLs ln Lhe Lrader and LransporL roles.
8y conLrasL, a Lax on producers or reLallers ls llkely Lo ralse less revenue, because Lax
collecLlon would be more cosLly and harder Lo admlnlsLer, glven Lhe large number of wldely-
dlspersed parLlclpanLs aL Lhese polnLs ln Lhe value chaln, and such a Lax would be regresslve,
LhaL ls, lL would have a dlsproporLlonaLe effecL on lower lncome parLlclpanLs.

CuallLaLlve daLa on Lrends ln charcoal producLlon and Lrade conflrm LhaL Lhe supply of
charcoal from LradlLlonal charcoal produclng areas ls dlmlnlshlng, buL currenLly Lhere ls only
llmlLed governmenL supporL for esLabllshlng woodloLs LhaL would propagaLe specles
approprlaLe for charcoal producLlon ln nakasongola and Maslndl dlsLrlcLs. Several relaLlvely
fasL-growlng lndlgenous specles could be candldaLes for woodloL producLlon, noLably
combtetom and Acoclo specles, as suggesLed by Lhe Maslndl ulsLrlcL loresLry 8ange Cfflcer.

Small and medlum enLerprlse developmenL ln Lhe foresLry secLor ls an overarchlng ob[ecLlve
of Ugandas National Forestry Policy of 2001. Better information about the charcoal value
chaln wlll faclllLaLe ldenLlfylng opporLunlLles for Lhe more efflclenL organlzaLlon of charcoal
markeLs, producer cooperaLlves, and oLher lnsLlLuLlons LhaL could enhance reLurns ln and
from Lhe sub-secLor. Cood lnformaLlon wlll also be crlLlcal Lo forecasLlng blomass
requlremenLs for charcoal producLlon ln Lhe face of lncreaslng deforesLaLlon raLes.

9.3.10 W||d||fe, 8|od|vers|ty and 1our|sm
1he share of Lourlsm ln Cu measured by Lhe share of hoLels and resLauranLs ln Cu was
1.1 ln 1988 and 1.9 ln 1997, growlng aL a raLe of 13.1 per annum, buL rose Lo 4.1 ln
2008, wlLh growLh raLes varylng. 1he 2010-2013 nu sLaLes LhaL Lhls represenLs a shlfL ln Lhe
economlc sLrucLure of Lhe economy
34
. 1he Lourlsm secLor as a whole, however, ls esLlmaLed
Lo be worLh far more Lhan Lhls Lo Lhe ugandan economy. 1he wlder conLrlbuLlon of Lhe
subsecLor Lo Cu (lncludlng wlder effecLs from lnvesLmenL, Lhe supply chaln and lnduced
lncome lmpacLs) was expecLed Lo be uCx 3,237 bllllon (abouL uS$1,280 mllllon) ln 2011, or
7.6 of Cu
33
. 1ourlsm, dependenL on wlldllfe and wlld landscapes, ranks Lhlrd ln forelgn
exchange earnlngs and Lhe secLor drew uS$360 mllllon from wlldllfe Lourlsm ln 2008, whlle
recenL esLlmaLes show LhaL gross reLurns Lo Lhe naLlonal economy ln servlces and producLs
from blodlverslLy as a whole could be as hlgh as uS$ 63.9 bllllon per year
36
. lurLhermore,
desplLe a drop ln LoLal lnLernaLlonal arrlvals Lo Lhe counLry followlng Lhe 2008 global
flnanclal crlsls, vlslLor numbers to Ugandas protected areas (notably national parks) has
conLlnued Lo grow sLeadlly.


34
1he 8epubllc of uganda (2009) Notloool uevelopmeot lloo (2010/11 2014/13). naLlonal lannlng
AuLhorlLy, kampala
33
nLMA (2012) uganda SLaLe of Lhe LnvlronmenL 8eporL 2010. nLMA, kampala
36
uganda Wlldllfe SocleLy and unL/C8lu-Arendal (2010) Ugandas Environment And Natural Resources:
Enhancing Parliaments Oversight. unL/C8lu-Arendal, kampala.
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1he conLrlbuLlon of wlldllfe and blodlverslLy ln proLecLed areas Lo local communlLles should
noL be underesLlmaLed. uWA makes dlrecL paymenLs, from Lhe 20 sLaLuLory gaLe collecLlon
fees Lo naLlonal parks and wlldllfe reserves, Lo communlLles ad[acenL Lo proLecLed areas,
money LhaL ls spenL on schools, cllnlcs and oLher soclal lnfrasLrucLure. 1hls amounLed Lo uCx
2.433bn for Lhe flve years beLween 2003 and 2008
37
. Lven more slgnlflcanL are Lhe resource
exLracLlon agreemenLs drawn up wlLh communlLles, worLh more Lhan uCx10 bllllon per
annum, LhaL allow harvesLlng of wood fuel, medlclnal planLs, crafL maLerlals, LhaLch, flsh and
waLer, eLc. And Lourlsm and hosplLallLy are hard Lo beaL ln Lerms of Lhe cosL effecLlveness of
[ob creaLlon, and ln Lhe number of [obs creaLed per dollar spenL. 1hls Loo ls a crlLlcal
conLrlbuLlon Lo Lhe rural communlLles surroundlng proLecLed areas.

AgrlculLure and lndusLry acLlvely exLracL resources and raw maLerlals Lo drlve growLh.
1ourlsm on Lhe oLher hand depends on Lhe non-exLracLlve aesLheLlc conLrlbuLlon of Lhe
envlronmenL and naLural resource base. lLs conLrlbuLlon Lo Lhe susLalnablllLy of Lhe ugandan
envlronmenL and Lhe supply of naLural resources ls far more Lhan lLs conLrlbuLlon Lo Lhe
moneLerlsed economy, glven lLs rellance on Lhe exlsLence of large proLecLed areas, whose
ecosysLem servlces are lnLacL and acL as Lhe core supply areas for many changlng landscapes
and ecosysLems around Lhem.

8lodlverslLy ls a cenLral feaLure of Lhe aesLheLlcs of Lhe Lourlsm experlence. loresL
blodlverslLy-based Lourlsm ls a nlche markeL for uganda, buL ls ln decllne, accordlng Lhe
Ugandas 2010 State of the Environment Report (SOER)
38
. 1he annual conLrlbuLlon of
blodlverslLy ls esLlmaLed Lo have decreased from uS $3.1 mllllon ln 2003 Lo uS $4.4 mllllon ln
2010, largely due Lo deforesLaLlon. Accordlng Lo Lhe nu, Lhe recommended level of
naLlonal foresL cover Lo have a sLable ecologlcal sysLem ls 30, whlle currenL foresL cover ls
only 18
39
. 1he percenLage foresL cover ln Lhe AlberLlne has noL been calculaLed, buL glven
Lhe number of proLecLed areas wlLhln lLs boundarles, lL ls probably relaLlvely hlgh. And
should be kepL LhaL way lf governance of Lhe reglon ls Lo proflle susLalnable naLural resource
managemenL.

Meanwhile, the Albertines biodiversity resources also represent high direct economic value,
with the countrys only three economically viable protected areas located in the region:
8wlndl lmpeneLrable loresL, Cueen LllzabeLh naLlonal ark and Murchlson lalls naLlonal
ark recelve Lhe mosL vlslLors and are Lhe only proLecLed areas Lo generaLe a surplus. 1he
revenue generaLed from Lhem susLalns Lhe enLlre proLecLed area sysLem ln uganda, by
cross-subsldlslng loss-maklng enLlLles (uWA offlclal, Murchlson lalls n, pers comm). Seven
out of Ugandas ten national parks are located within the Albertine region. This alone signals
the importance of this region for the countrys biodiversity resources. What is noL apparenL
from such statements is how unique the Albertines biodiversity is, with the highest levels of
endemlsm (dlsLrlbuLlonal unlqueness) ln many planL and anlmal groups belng demonsLraLed
for Lhe AlberLlne flora and fauna. lLs blodlverslLy ls Lhus regarded as belng of global
conservaLlon slgnlflcance, hence Lhe deslgnaLlon of 8wlndl lmpeneLrable loresL and
8wenzorl MounLalns naLlonal ark (lncludlng parL of Lhe Semllkl 8lver sysLem) as unLSCC

37
nLMA (2012) uganda SLaLe of Lhe LnvlronmenL 8eporL 2010. nLMA, kampala
38
nLMA (2012) uganda SLaLe of Lhe LnvlronmenL 8eporL 2010. nLMA, kampala
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world herlLage slLes. 1hls glves uganda leverage ln approprlaLlng lnLernaLlonal fundlng Lo
supporL such areas, buL also confers a broader responslblllLy and lmplles lnLernaLlonal
scruLlny of acLlons LhaL mlghL affecL Lhese resources. 1he Semllkl rlver mouLh area on Lake
AlberL ls LargeLed for oll and gas producLlon.

Successlve and cumulaLlve deleLlons from Lhe ecosysLem and landscape lnLegrlLy of
Murchlson lalls naLlonal ark wlll greaLly lncrease rlsks Lo Lhe long-Lerm success of Lhe park
as a LourlsL desLlnaLlon. 1he ark carrles Lhe only vlable populaLlons ln ugandan proLecLed
areas of Rothchilds Giraffe (a regional endemic) and, surprisingly, crocodiles. Reports on the
effecLs so far of oll exploraLlon ln Lhe norLh nlle floodplalns ln Lhe ark are mlxed: whlle
recelpLs Lo Lhe park have lncreased due Lo Lhe large numbers of exploraLlon llnked vehlcles
paylng gaLe fees (albelL aL a speclal raLe), some park offlclals and lodge owners/ managers
say LhaL LourlsL numbers have dropped, LhaL prevlously repeaL LourlsLs have sald Lhey wlll
noL vlslL Lhe park agaln, havlng ob[ecLed Lo Lhe lmpacLs observed ln Lhe park and because
game ls no longer vlslble ln Lhe numbers lL prevlously was on Lhe floodplaln. 1hls was Lhe
prlnclpal game vlewlng area of Lhe park, Lhe SouLh nlle parL hosLlng very low denslLles of
wlldllfe. 1he developmenL of an oll producLlon sysLem ln Lhe park wlll lncrease Lhe lmpacL by
orders of magnlLude parLlcularly durlng Lhe consLrucLlon phase, desplLe Lhe mlLlgaLlon
measures LhaL are puL ln place Lo llmlL lmpacLs. lL ls fully expecLed LhaL large game wlll move
away from Lhe producLlon area where Lhe lnfrasLrucLure for LourlsL vlewlng (roads) exlsLs.
ark offlclals say LhaL LourlsL lnfrasLrucLure ln oLher areas of Lhe norLh nlle presenLly does
noL exlsL. Cne vlable mlLlgaLlon measure may be for Lhe oll companles lnvolved Lo pay for
Lhe developmenL of such lnfrasLrucLure ln oLher areas of Lhe norLh nlle zone. Powever,
Lhere are also fears LhaL Lhe slgnaLure specles of Lhe park, elephanL, wlll slmply move ouL of
Lhe park ln greaLer numbers Lhan ls normal (radlo-collar research conducLed by Wlldllfe
ConservaLlon SocleLy showed LhaL Lhere was a pronounced lncrease ln mlgraLlon ouL of Lhe
park along Lhe nlle 8lver and easLwards durlng 2013, buL Lhls cannoL necessarlly be
aLLrlbuLed Lo Lhe oll selsmlc exploraLlon campalgns belng conducLed aL Lhe Llme). Loss of
revenues even Lemporarlly from Lhls park may compromlse Lhe enLlre proLecLed areas
neLwork of uganda, due Lo lLs conLrlbuLlon Lo cross-subsldles.

It needs to be borne in mind by Ugandas decision-makers LhaL large, unspollL, lnLacL and
well sLocked wlldllfe parks and areas LhroughouL sub-saharan Afrlca are now few and far
beLween, glven Lhe rapld and ublqulLous envlronmenLal LransformaLlon LhaL has
characLerlsed Lhe conLlnenL over Lhe pasL 40 Lo 30 years, Lhe caLasLrophlc effecLs on game
populations of bushmeat hunting (resulting in empty landscapes) and habitat destruction,
and Lhe poor envlronmenLal governance LhaL has been Lhe norm ln many counLrles
60
. Such
areas are Lhe backbone of Lourlsm LhroughouL Lhe sub-conLlnenL. now many wlld landscapes
are LhreaLened by lndusLrlal scale developmenL, be lL large lnfrasLrucLure such as
hydropower schemes or lndeed lndusLrlal developmenL: every large rlver sysLem ln LLhlopla
ls LargeLed for mulLlple large hydropower schemes, vlrLually every gorge ln souLhern and
LasL Afrlca ls LargeLed for hydropower dams: SLleglers Corge ln 1anzanla (seL Lo lnundaLe
230 km
2
of Lhe Selous Wlldllfe 8eserve), Lhe Zambezl gorge below Lhe Zambezl lalls ln
Zlmbabwe/ Zambla, Lhe kafue floodplalns of Zambla. Lvery large swamp area ls aL rlsk of oll

60
Wlldllfe ConservaLlon SocleLy (2009) An Analysls of 8ushmeaL PunLlng aL Ma[or PunLlng SlLes ln uganda. wc5
wotkloq lopet No. J8, WCS kampala, CcLober 2009.
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and gas developmenL, lncludlng Lhe greaL Sudd swamp ln SouLh Sudan on Lhe nlle 8lver
norLh of uganda. 1hese LhreaLs wlll resulL ln an escalaLlon of Lhe value of undlsLurbed LracLs
of wlld landscape for Lourlsm alone, qulLe aparL from Lhelr lncreaslngly crlLlcal funcLlon as
reservolrs of ecosysLem servlces. lurLhermore, Lhere ls already hard compeLlLlon for vlslLors
from counLrles ln souLhern Afrlca, where road and LransporL lnfrasLrucLure has Lended Lo be
beLLer Lhan ln LasL Afrlca, and where prlclng ls more compeLlLlve for Lhe quallLy of
accommodaLlon eLc avallable. WhaL has broughL LourlsLs Lo LasL Afrlca has been Lhe
unlqueness of Lhe wlldllfe presenL Lhere and Lhe specLular, unLrammelled naLure of some of
Lhe landscapes (Lhe 8wenzorl mounLalns, Murchlson lalls). uganda has had unLll now one of
Lhe besL repuLaLlons for conservaLlon of lLs parks, buL as uganda has experlenced before,
percepLlons of unaccepLable condlLlons qulckly keep LourlsLs away, and lL ls dlfflculL Lo
aLLracL Lhem back. A preclplLous loss of lnLernaLlonal vlslLors Lo Lhe Murchlson lalls naLlonal
ark may remove Lhe park permanenLly from Lhe lnLernaLlonal Lourlsm clrculL.

Wlldllfe resources are also LhreaLened, on Lhe one hand, by unsusLalnable levels of
bushmeaL hunLlng, whlle, on Lhe oLher, bushmeaL hunLlng ls an economlc opporLunlLy
parLlcularly Lo communlLles llvlng ad[acenL Lo proLecLed areas. 8ushmeaL use ls aLLrlbuLed Lo
lncreaslng human populaLlon and rlslng demand, unconLrolled access Lo wlldllfe faclllLaLed
by logglng, mlnlng and hydroelecLrlc or fossll fuel LransporL companles, war and clvll sLrlfe,
weak governance, lnsLlLuLlonal deflclency and clvll dlsobedlence, sophlsLlcaLlon of hunLlng
Lechnlques, lack of caplLal or lnfrasLrucLure for meaL producLlon, changes ln Lhe culLural
envlronmenL and dlscardlng of soclal Laboos and LradlLlonal hunLlng embargoes. ln uganda,
Lhere are lndlcaLlons LhaL wlLhouL conLrols, hunLlng ls noL susLalnable. ln a 2003 revlew of
managemenL options for Ugandas wildlife reserves and controlled hunting areas, it was
noLed LhaL rampanL kllllng of wlldllfe as a resulL of breakdown of law and order ln Lhe
counLry durlng Lhe mld-1970s Lo early-1980s reduced large mammal populaLlons by over
90. lnLeresLlngly, bushmeaL hunLlng ls rarely llnked Lo removal of crop pesLs and oLher
problem anlmals. ln uganda, Lhere has been however mounLlng pressure Lo legallze hunLlng
of problem anlmals: lL has been reporLed LhaL ln klbale up Lo 17 wlldllfe specles damage
crops around Lhe park and prlmaLes accounL for as much as 71 of damage evenLs. uganda
Wlldllfe AuLhorlLy evenLually declared Lhree specles bush plgs, baboons, and verveL
monkeys vermln, and Lhese are occaslonally hunLed ouLslde proLecLed area boundarles by
farmers wlLh supervlslon of Lhe Wlldllfe AuLhorlLy personnel.

Wildlife hunting is banned in Ugandas national parks and considerable effort goes into
enforclng Lhls
61
. noneLheless, ln common wlLh mosL Lroplcal Afrlcan counLrles, bushmeaL
hunLlng and Lrade ln uganda ls belleved Lo be wldespread. 1hls was lnvesLlgaLed ln a Wlldllfe
ConservaLlon SocleLy (WCS) sLudy of Lhe bushmeaL Lrade ln Lhree AlberLlne naLlonal parks
Cueen LllzabeLh (CLCA), 8wenzorl MouLalns (8Mn) and Murchlson lalls (MlCA) - and ln
Lhe kafu 8lver basln, Lhe kafu 8lver arlslng near Polma ln Lhe AlberLlne. AlLhough Lhe Lrue
numbers of people eaLlng bushmeaL, and consumpLlon frequency may be sllghLly hlgher
Lhan reporLed ln Lhe sLudy surveys, lL ls very llkely LhaL Lhe proporLlon of people regularly
eaLlng bushmeaL ls low, as laLer shown by lnLervlews wlLh people LhaL had glven up hunLlng.
8eformed hunLers sald LhaL whlle acLlve hunLers Lhey only sold meaL Lo people known Lo

61
Wlldllfe ConservaLlon SocleLy (2009) An Analysls of 8ushmeaL PunLlng aL Ma[or PunLlng SlLes ln uganda. wc5
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Lhem, and LhaL would usually be a small number of Lhe populaLlon ln Lhelr vlllages. 1he
proporLlons of households reporLlng eaLlng bushmeaL conflrmed Lhls: Lhe hlghesL
percenLage of 32 was around Lhe savannah domlnaLed MlCA, Lhe lowesL of 3 were
households adjacent to the forests of RMNP. Fish (and fish bones from filleting industries)
were by far by Lhe mosL frequenLly reporLed flesh eaLen by households around MlCA, CLCA,
and 8Mn, eaLen on average ln 20-40 days ln every 100 days. 8eef was Lhe mosL commonly
eaLen meaL Lype ln Lhe kafu 8asln, eaLen on average ln 8 ouL of every 100 days. LlvesLock
meaL and flsh were reporLed as eaLen ln 3-14 of every 100 days overall. Lven among Lhe
respondenLs LhaL reporLed eaLlng bushmeaL, lL was far less frequenLly eaLen Lhan llvesLock
meaL and flsh: on average, ln 1-12 ouL of every 100 days. 8ush plgs, cane raLs, gulnea fowl
and kob were Lhe maln sources of bushmeaL around MlCA, bushbucks, dulkers, orlbl and
bush plgs wlLhln Lhe kafu 8asln, hlppos, buffalos, bush plgs, and kob around CLCA, and
redLall monkeys, black-and-whlLe colobus monkeys, and bush plgs around 8Mn.
Pouseholds LhaL aLe bushmeaL also consumed llvesLock meaL as ofLen as households LhaL
dld noL, excepL Lhose around MlCA for whlch llvesLock meaL and flsh lnLake was slgnlflcanLly
lower
62
. 1hls may because farmlng poLenLlal ln Lhe 8lfL valley areas around Mln ls lower
Lhan elsewhere, whlle flsh ls Loo valuable a commodlLy Lo be eaLen locally, and lL ls prlmarlly
sold. All ln all, bushmeaL consumpLlon may be less of a LhreaL ln uganda presenLly Lhan ln lLs
nelghbourlng counLrles.

AmldsL lncreaslngly wldespread alarm and lamenLs abouL Lhe envlronmenLal
LransformaLlons occurrlng ln uganda, and Lhe need for economlc LransformaLlon Lo
lndusLrlal scale and Lechnologles of producLlon as an alLernaLlve, blodlverslLy ouLslde
proLecLed areas appears Lo be beLLer served ln smallholdlng, subslsLence mlxed farmlng-
foresLry food producLlon sysLems Lhan ln lndusLrlal farmlng sysLems. ln Lhe laLLer, naLural
hablLaL vegeLaLlon ls removed almosL compleLely over large blocks of land, Lhereby vlrLually
ellmlnaLlng hablLaL for wlldllfe over large blocks. ln Lhe lnefflclency of subslsLence
agrlculLure, conslderable blodlverslLy ls reLalned, even lf some componenLs are removed
(large Lrees, for lnsLance), and Lhe small flelds are surrounded by bands of hablLaL. 1hls
conLrasL ls lllusLraLed ln Lhe phoLos below.

9.4 Issues ke|evant to the D

9.4.1 Synops|s and 8est ract|ce
As lndlcaLed LhroughouL Lhls reporL, Lhe AlberLlne Craben has a concenLraLlon of unlque
naLural feaLures and resources LhaL have puL lL ln Lhe lnLernaLlonal spoLllghL, and
lnLernaLlonal players wlll be scruLlnlzlng plans for lLs developmenL. 1he reglon ls rlch ln
foresL, monLane, savanna and aquaLlc blodlverslLy, some of lL proLecLed ln large reserves and
naLlonal parks, lL has some excellenL agrlculLural solls and waLer ls abundanL, lL has good
grazlng ln parLs, and flsherles resources ln oLhers, and lL has mlnerals and oll and gas. 1he
reglon hosLs a dlverslLy of human resources capable of developlng lLs poLenLlal buL also of
desLroylng lL.

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Wlldllfe ConservaLlon SocleLy (2009) An Analysls of 8ushmeaL PunLlng aL Ma[or PunLlng SlLes ln uganda. wc5
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So lL would behove all lnvolved Lo resorL Lo lnLernaLlonal besL pracLlce approaches Lo
lnLegraLed resource plannlng and developmenL, and envlronmenLal lmpacL managemenL, Lo
allay fears of lmproper explolLaLlon of naLural resources. 1he physlcal developmenL plannlng
process adopLed ln Lhls pro[ecL ln lLself meeLs lnLegraLed resources plannlng guldellnes. 1he
LnvlronmenLal SenslLlvlLy ALlas drawn up for Lhe AlberLlne reglon under NEMAs auspices is
an excellenL example of Lhe Lype of process belng advocaLed by Lhe Clobal LnvlronmenL
lund (CLl) and lood and AgrlculLure CrganlzaLlon (lAC), who are proflllng Lhe slmllar
sostolooble looJ moooqemeot approach ln oLher LasL Afrlcan counLrles ln, for example, Lhe
1ransboundary Agro-ecosysLem ManagemenL rogramme for Lhe kagera 8asln
(hLLp://www.fao.org/nr/land/susLalnable-land-managemenL/en/).

lor more deLalled plannlng and developmenL, lnLernaLlonal besL pracLlce benchmarks
appllcable Lo naLural resources developmenL have been esLabllshed wlLh Lhe wldespread
adoption of the World Bank Groups environmental and social safeguard policies and, even
more so, wlLh Lhe adopLlon of lLs prlvaLe secLor wlng, Lhe lnLernaLlonal llnance
Corporations (IFCs) environmental and social performance standards. Particularly relevant
ones amongsL Lhe seL of elghL sLandards are:

S1: AssessmenL And ManagemenL Cf LnvlronmenLal And Soclal 8lsks And lmpacLs
S3: 8esource Lfflclency and olluLlon revenLlon
S6 8lodlverslLy ConservaLlon and SusLalnable ManagemenL of Llvlng naLural
8esources
S8: CulLural PerlLage

1he lrony ls LhaL Lhls concenLraLlon of naLural resources makes for more challenglng
resource developmenL plannlng, because Lhe spaLlal overlaps ln resources, as deplcLed ln
Map 9-1 makes areas of high overlap or hotspots more vulnerable to negative impacts
between resource sectors. Such resource hotspots are Murchison Falls North Nile to the
nlle delLa area on Lake AlberL, and Lhe souLhern end of Lake AlberL (Semllkl 8lver floodplalns
and delLa). 1he mld-shore area of Lake AlberL and reflnery slLe area wlll also emerge as
senslLlve zones where renewable resource lnLeresLs may confllcL wlLh oll and gas
developmenL modallLles.

Where a hlgh degree of overlaps occurs, speclal measures wlll need Lo be Laken and
parLlcular sLandards lmposed Lo ensure Lhe susLalnable managemenL and proLecLlon of all
resources, Lo ensure no soclal groups are dlsadvanLaged by parLlcular resource developmenL
acLlvlLles. Slmple measures LhaL wlll greaLly asslsL ln Lhe susLalnable fuLure of naLural
resources ln Lhe area are:

Avoldance of blssecLlng and fragmenLlng large proLecLed zones, such as wlldllfe
reserves and cenLral foresL reserves, wlLh llnear lnfrasLrucLure. loresLs ln parLlcular are
vulnerable Lo a cascade of changes resulLlng from cuLLlng corrldors Lhrough Lhem.
Llnear lnfrasLrucLure should preferably be rouLed around such reserves, buL lf LhaL ls
deemed unfeaslble, rouLlng should be on Lhe very perlphery of Lhe proLecLed area.
1here ls plenLy of space avallable Lo do so, and Lhe dlfflculLles of deallng wlLh prlvaLe
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landowners should noL be allowed Lo subverL susLalnable land and naLural resource
managemenL.
Plghly producLlve, senslLlve aquaLlc ecosysLems should have nC ma[or dlsLurbances
wlLhln Lhem (nlle and Semllkl delLas ln Lake AlberL)
no wasLes should be dlsposed of ln such hlghly producLlve, senslLlve aquaLlc
ecosysLems
Such sysLems are Lo be rlgorously proLecLed from lndusLrlal polluLlon
All waLer bodles ln Lhe reglon should be proLecLed from lndusLrlal and urban polluLlon.

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Map 9-1: Natura| kesource Hotspots in the Albertine

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9.4.2 Natura| kesource Cpportun|t|es for the A|bert|ne Graben
1here ls good poLenLlal for agrlculLural and foresLry developmenL ln Lhe Polma and
Maslndl areas, where demand for food produce Lo Lhe oll and gas lndusLrles wlll be
concenLraLed. 1here ls ample land, good quallLy land and waLer Lo susLaln a vlbranL
farmlng-foresLry lndusLry. lf properly planned and lmplemenLed wlLh Lhe approprlaLe
exLenslon servlces, proLecLlon of Lhe ecologlcal processes LhaL underpln producLlvlLy
can be achleved.

1he developmenL of commerclal producLlon ln mlxed farmlng sysLems wlll have
deslrable soclal and economlc ouLcomes by enhanclng local conLracLlng and
expendlLure (raLher Lhan lmporLs), as well as envlronmenLal (hence naLural resource)
ouLcomes, by allowlng for Lhe perslsLence of naLural blodlverslLy and landscape
heLerogenelLy ln agro-foresLry sysLems. Such sysLems wlll also work well for small-
holdlng modes of producLlon.

Commerclal scale organlc farmlng meLhods should be promoLed and developed:
Some aspecLs of Lhe green economy model have been lmplemenLed ln uganda,
lncludlng organlc farmlng programmes ln parLs. Clven Lhe presenLly low levels of
arLlflclal ferLlllzer and pesLlclde use ln Lhe reglon, and Lhe hlgh prlces sophlsLlcaLed
consumers are prepared Lo pay for organlc produce, Lhere ls real poLenLlal Lo bulld a
robusL value-added agrlculLural lndusLry based on organlc foods aL a relaLlvely low
cosL.

ln Lhe 8lfL, agrlculLural and pasLoral opporLunlLles are llmlLed, so flsherles are crlLlcal
for food securlLy. varlous opLlons for enhanclng Lhe flsherles poLenLlal of parLlcularly
Lake AlberL could be lmplemenLed.

Llkewlse, varlous acLlons could be Laken Lo sLrengLhen wlldllfe and proLecLed area
resources and poLenLlals ln Lhe reglon for long Lerm, susLalnable economlc ouLpuL, as
opposed Lo prlorlLlzlng acLlons LhaL wlll deLracL and degrade Lhese resources and
compromlse Lhelr long-Lerm susLalnablllLy.

1he wealLh LhaL ls expecLed Lo flow from mlneral and oll and gas developmenL,
comblned wlLh LhaL accrulng from vlbranL agrlculLure, foresLry, flsherles and wlldllfe
secLors could be used Lo grow human resources for susLalnable naLural resources
managemenL ln and beyond Lhe reglon.

9.4.3 Natura| kesource Constra|nts |n the A|bert|ne Graben
As sLaLed earller, renewable naLural resource producLlvlLy ls dependenL on Lhe
perslsLence of healLhy ecosysLems and Lhe ecosysLem servlces Lhey generaLe. A
proportion of that productivity thus needs to be set aside or allocated to maintaining
Lhe underlylng ecosysLem processes. 1hls may effecLlvely lmpose a llmlL on Lhe
explolLable poLenLlal of naLural resources even where enhancemenLs are pracLlced.

Lnhanclng Lhe producLlvlLy of naLural sysLems carrles a cosL ln lncreased wasLes or
polluLlon. Pence ferLlllzers wlll cause organlc enrlchmenL of naLural waLer bodles, wlLh
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consequences ln aquaLlc weed growLh, pesLlcldes wlll klll naLural organlsms LhaL play
an lmporLanL role ln agrlculLural sysLems, noLably bees and oLher polllnaLors. lndusLrlal
manufacLure generaLes polluLanLs LhaL damage naLural sysLems, lmpalr landscape
aesLheLlcs and lncrease publlc healLh problems.

1he ma[orlLy of lnhablLanLs of Lhe reglon are llkely Lo conLlnue for a long Llme Lo be
prlmarlly dependenL on renewable naLural resources for Lhelr llvellhoods and food
securlLy. Any acLlons or developmenLs LhaL may LhreaLen Lhe food securlLy of
slgnlflcanL numbers of people should be consldered wlLh cauLlon, and measures
lmposed Lo proLecL Lhe resources on whlch food securlLy depends. Any oLher approach
wlll dellver hlgh dlrecL cosLs Lo Lhe ugandan governmenL.

1here may be Loo many lnhablLanLs for Lhe reglon Lo provlde naLural resources Lo
meeL all Lhelr needs. lncenLlves Lo aLLracL people Lo oLher areas may be a useful
addlLlon Lo Lhe reglonal plannlng approach. ulLlmaLely populaLlon growLh ln uganda
needs Lo be curbed.

ln resource hotspot areas competing resource development interests may necessitate
LhaL Lhe lnLeresLs of one secLor be prlorlLlsed over Lhe lnLeresLs of oLhers. 1he number
of people dependenL on a parLlcular secLor and Lhe subsLlLuLablllLy of secLors should
play a role ln Lhese declslons.



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:T!*/4"8',8/( F
QB( 6"%$%+4" U5-(


Introduct|on
AgrlculLure has been, ls and wlll conLlnue Lo be Lhe
malnsLay of Lhe ugandan economy for a slgnlflcanL
perlod Lo come. 1hls ChapLer focuses on Lhe lmporLance
of Lhls secLor ln Lhe AlberLlne Craben, lncludlng Lhe
need Lo susLalnably lnLegraLe supporLlng efforLs wlLh Lhe
economlc and envlronmenLal changes faclng Lhe
Craben. 1hls ChapLer should be read ls close
collaboraLlon wlLh Lhose on naLural 8esource
ManagemenL, LnvlronmenL and Lconomlc
uevelopmenL, and Lhe Soclo-Lconomlc SlLuaLlon.
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10.1 Introduct|on

AgrlculLure remalns Lhe mosL lmporLanL secLor ln ugandaaL leasL wlLh regard Lo
employmenL. 1he secLor employs abouL 77 percenL of Lhe rural adulL populaLlon and
accounLs for roughly 30 percenL of Lhe merchandlse exporLs (uganda 8ureau of SLaLlsLlcs,
2011). ConsequenLly, Lhe organlzaLlon and performance of Lhe secLor ls an lssue of greaL
pollcy concern (8aLegeka, eL al 2013).
lor a reglon wlLh vasL land and abundanL ralnfall glvlng lL a sLrong comparaLlve advanLage ln
agrlculLure, Lhe AlberLlne Crabens performance ls weak. AgrlculLural producLlvlLy per
worker, aL approxlmaLely $200 per year, ls among Lhe lowesL ln Lhe world (MuLeblle, 2012)
Ugandas real growth in agriculture has averaged only two percent per annum over the last
10 years, less Lhan a Lhlrd of Lhe average growLh of Lhe resL of Lhe ugandan economy.
roducLlvlLy ls especlally low ln Lhe food crop sub-secLor, whlch ls domlnaLed by smallholder
farmers, because farmers use rudlmenLary farm Lechnology and produce malnly for
subslsLence raLher Lhan Lhe markeL. WlLh Lhe youLh akln for qulck money Lhe oll dlscovery ls
hope for employmenL.
10.1.1 8ackground
ugandan has seen lmporLanL changes ln Lhe sLrucLure of her economy. AgrlculLure, whlch ln
1990 accounLed for 37.0 of Cu, conLrlbuLed only 23.0 ln 2011. ln conLrasL, lndusLry and
servlces have seen Lhelr welghL lncrease from 32.0 and 11.0 respecLlvely ln 1990 Lo
31.0 and 23.0 ln 2011. Powever, Lhese developmenLs have noL made any slgnlflcanL
change Lo Lhe employmenL paLLern. 1he laLesL esLlmaLes for 2009/10 showed
LhaL agrlculLure accounLed for 63.0 of [obs, manufacLurlng 6.0 and reLall and
wholesale 10.0. 1hese shares have only changed marglnally from Lhe 63.0, 6.0 and
12.0, respecLlvely, ln 2002/03. Lven wlLhln agrlculLure, Lhe move Lo commerclal farmlng
and away from subslsLence agrlculLural acLlvlLles has also been small. 1he non-moneLlsed
agrlculLural secLor, lncludlng subslsLence farmlng, sLlll accounLs for 39.0 of agrlculLural
value added ln 2011, agalnsL 41.6 ln 2001.

Sector Cb[ect|ves |n the Nat|ona| Deve|opment |an

Lnhance agrlculLure producLlon and producLlvlLy
lmprove access Lo and susLalnablllLy of MarkeLs
CreaLe an enabllng envlronmenL for compeLlLlve lnvesLmenL ln AgrlculLure
Lnhance lnsLlLuLlonal developmenL ln Lhe agrlculLure secLor

Lega| and o||cy Context for the Agr|cu|ture Sector
1he Cll and Cas pollcy on pg 34 sLaLes "... ln collaboraLlon wlLh oLher relevanL naLlonal
policies, support significant and positive impact of oil and gas activities on the countrys
agrlcultural sector in line with the objectives of the countrys Plan for Modernization of
AgrlculLure (MA). "

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AgrlculLure SecLor uevelopmenL SLraLegy and lnvesLmenL lan 2010/11-2014-13
lan for ModernlsaLlon of AgrlculLure under Lhe plllars for agrlculLure developmenL
uganda vlslon 2040 (pg 29)
rosperlLy for All
10.2 Agr|cu|ture Sector |n the A|bert|ne Graben

1he AlberLlne Craben area comprlses of dlfferenL physlcal landscapes, cllmaLlc condlLlons
and solls whlch ln Lurn, slgnlflcanLly lnfluence land use sysLems ln Lhe area lncludlng
agrlculLure. 8ecause of lLs locaLlon ln Lhe raln shadow, Lhe 8lfL valley zone ls mosLly dry and
hoL and hence Lhe area has serlous molsLure deflclency problems for agrlculLural acLlvlLles
especlally durlng crlLlcal crop growLh perlods. ln addlLlon, Lhe clay solls ln Lhe Semllkl flaLs
suffer from sallne condlLlons whlch llmlL Lhelr agrlculLural poLenLlal. 1he largesL proporLlon
of Lhe 8lfL valley area Lherefore ls, of low agrlculLural poLenLlal. 1hls parLly explalns Lhe
currenL ma[or use of Lhe AlberLlne Craben as a conservaLlon area. Powever, Lhe rlfL
escarpmenL reglon and Lhe fooLhllls of 8wenzorl MounLalns recelve moderaLe Lo hlgh ralnfall
whlch lncreases wlLh alLlLude. As a resulL of boLh moderaLe Lo hlgh ralnfall and moderaLely
producLlve solls ln Lhese areas, rlch agrlculLural acLlvlLles Lake place based on boLh food and
cash crops, for example, on Lhe escarpmenL parL of Maslndl, 1ooro and Ankole reglons as on
Lhe fooLhllls of Lhe 8wenzorls ln kasese ulsLrlcL. AgrlculLure ln Lhe area ls boLh large scale
and small scale. 1he domlnanL cash crops grown on small scale farms lnclude Lobacco and
cassava especlally ln Lhe norLhern reglon and 8ulllsa. 1here ls also coffee growlng on boLh
Lhe fooLhllls of Lhe 8wenzorl MounLalns and on a wlde sLreLch of Lhe rlfL escarpmenL
parLlcularly ln Lhe Ankole and klgezl reglon. 1ea planLaLlons are found ln 8ugaambe sub-
counLy ln Polma, Mwenge 1ea esLaLes ln Lhe 1ooro reglon, lgara 1ea esLaLes ln Lhe Ankole
reglon and ln kayonza Lea esLaLes ln kanungu dlsLrlcL. 1here ls only one sugar cane
planLaLlon, klnyara, ln Maslndl ulsLrlcL. 1he domlnanL food crops lnclude beans, malze and
bananas alLhough Lhese crops are also ofLen sold for cash lncome.

Cll exploraLlon has a dlrecL lmpacL on economlc, soclal and culLural dlmenslons of Lhe
communlLy. 1hese lmpacLs lnclude changes ln llvellhood paLLerns, lncludlng flshlng,
agrlculLure, llvesLock rearlng sLraLegles, Lourlsm, eLc. of households. Powever, reglonal
dlfferences were slgnlflcanL, wlLh hlgher proporLlons of households ln Lhe souLhern Craben
Lendlng Lo commerclallze wlLhln llmlLs. 1hls flndlng reflecLs hlgh levels of lnequallLy and
poverLy ln Lhe reglon.

1he lnformanLs alluded Lo Lhe facL LhaL oll exploraLlon acLlvlLles had affecLed Lhe way
communlLles meeL Lhe needs of Lhelr famllles. lor example ln Polma Lhere ls percelved an
lncreased resLrlcLlon Lo flshlng acLlvlLles, an lmporLanL source of llvellhood, ln Lhelr
communlLles. ln general, people were expecLlng LhaL oll producLlon would conLrlbuLe
poslLlvely Lo lncreased employmenL opporLunlLles, hlgher lncomes, lmproved access Lo roads
and lmproved access Lo soclal amenlLles. neverLheless, some communlLy members were
skepLlcal abouL Lhe beneflLs LhaL would accrue from oll, because Lhelr youLh and chlldren are
llkely Lo be employed largely for casual [obs due Lo a lack of necessary quallflcaLlons and
skllls.

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Map 10-1: Agr|cu|ture - Northern A|bert|ne Graben


Source: u8CS, Mln. of Agrlc., CCS fleld work
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Map 10-2: Agr|cu|ture - Centra| A|bert|ne Graben

Source: u8CS, Mln. of Agrlc., CCS fleld work
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Map 10-3: Agr|cu|ture - Southern A|bert|ne Graben

Source: u8CS, Mln. of Agrlc., CCS fleld work
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10.3 Land Uses |n the A|bert|ne Graben
1he reglon has four maln Lypes of land use namely, agrlculLure, seLLlemenLs, foresL
conservaLlon and wlld llfe conservaLlon wlLh Lhe proLecLed areas occupylng a slgnlflcanL
proporLlon of Lhe LoLal land area (20.9), whlch has lmporLanL lmpllcaLlons on avallable land
for agrlculLure and oLher acLlvlLles. Map S-1.

10.4 Agr|cu|ture erformance

10.4.1 Land
Land pressure and confllcLs ln 8ulllsa and Polma are on Lhe lncrease. uue Lo land belng sold
Lo buslness prospecLors Lhere ls an lncrease ln number of dlsplacemenLs golng on as well as
courL cases over land LhaL was prevlously communally used for agrlculLure. CompensaLlon
amounLs are low for meanlngful llvellhood opLlons. lamlly confllcLs and spllLs arlse due Lo
compensaLlons flnallzed ln kampala by Lhe chlef governmenL Land valuer wlLh no
consultations for crop values. With the Gold Rush by prospectors through balkanization
Lhe landscape ls changlng Lowards oll clLy lnfrasLrucLure, more real esLaLe developmenLs and
Lree planLlng as banks ln anLlclpaLlon of prlme sales wlLh no agrlculLural relaLed
developmenLs.

lncreased populaLlon conLrlbuLes Lo land pressure, grabblng, compeLlLlon for healLh and
educaLlon servlces, anlmal-human-crop flghLs due Lo reduclng land, loomlng food lnsecurlLy
yeL Lhere ls lncreased demand and hlgher prlces for food wlLh Lhe reduced number of
subslsLence growers.

ln 2008, 1 acre of land was cosLlng beLween 200,000/= and 300,000/= buL now lL ls above
2m and 3m along Lhe oll roads. urban ploLs (30x100m) are aL 8m/= and above whlle and an
acre ln Lhe vlclnlLy goes for over 6m uCx. 1here ls loomlng land scarclLy ln Lhe core AlberLlne
Craben slnce Lhose prlces are affordable Lo Lhe mlddle and hlgh class clLlzens and lnvesLors.
Cenerally Lhere ls lncreased value of land, llvesLock and crops.

1here ls no securlLy of Lenure on land slnce lL has been domlnanLly communal. 1here ls more
selllng of land Lhan growlng of crops for Lhe anLlclpaLed and presenL growlng demand for
food ln Lhe AlberLlne Craben reglon. Land ls cusLomarlly owned ln Lhe norLhern reglon, and
allocaLed Lhrough Lhe clan sysLem. Cn average mosL households own beLween 3-6 acres of
land whlch ls larger Lhan Lhe average holdlng ln oLher parLs of Lhe counLry. AlLhough land ls
readlly avallable, new land laws LhaL encourage Lhe reglsLraLlon and LlLllng of prevlously
cusLomarlly owned land may creaLe new ownershlp challenges. 1hese and Lhe Lalk dolng Lhe
rounds have fuelled speculaLlon over land and creaLed Lenslons even aL Lhe lnLra-famlly and
clan level (8akema 8elnL eL al., 2007). 1hese and relaLed land relaLed senLlmenLs are
negaLlvely affecLlng Lhe agrlculLure secLor

Land for roduct|on:
lerLlle black solls ln Lhe greaLer souLhern AlberLlne Craben buL wlLh Lhe populaLlon lnflux Lo
be fed and Lo be employed producLlon mechanlsms need Lo be revlslLed. As farmers
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continue with subsistence business as usual there are low outcomes from the usual 5acres
of malze corn, whlch ls Lhe ma[or reglonal crop grown, aL 430/= per kg whlle oLhers who sell
malze seed earn 1300/= per kg of malze seed. 1hls deplcLs a need Lo move away from
buslness as usual Lo speclallsaLlon and commerclallsaLlon for lmproved land producLlvlLy.

CovernmenL has noL fulfllled Lhe promlse Lo avall waLer for producLlon. 1he dlsLrlcLs were
promlsed waLer for producLlon Lo be developed sequenLlally ln dlsLrlcL caLegorles whlch are
Loo blg for effecLlve coverage, buL Lhe planLs are avalled Lhrough "lnfluence peddllng" a
slLuaLlon LhaL necesslLaLes prlorlLlsaLlon for susLalned agrlculLural producLlon glven Lhe
lmpacLs of cllmaLe change. Some land ln 8ulllsa ls Arld and seml arld hence okay for oll and
gas drllllng, buL arable land ls also seen Lo be drllled. As an example, ngwendo and nlle sub-
counLles need Lo be zoned and lmpllclLly lefL for agrlculLural producLlon and ecosysLem
balanclng.

1here are hlgh levels of soll degradaLlon as lndlcaLed by crop and anlmal ylelds. no soll LesLs
and analysls are ever done. Some people have been relocaLed as a resulL of C&C acLlvlLy, buL
noL yeL compensaLed. 1herefore, Lhey remaln on Lhe land buL are noL acLlve food producers
hence already lacklng food. loresLs and weLlands are encroached for sugarcane planLaLlons
for Lhe klnyara sugar cane facLory causlng an ecosysLem lmbalance. Land for crop and
llvesLock farmlng ls reduclng whlch could be a fuLure food securlLy caLasLrophe lf noL
sLraLeglcally handled.

1he hlgh volLage power llne passlng Lhrough producLlve land has dlsplaced many. 1he
proposed kabale plpellne area ls wlde and ferLlle arable land ls belng losL for agrlculLure
producLlon. 1he same ls Lo happen ln kyawangwale. 1hls has caused subsLanLlal crop
damage whlle Lhere ls no pollcy Lo proLecL arable producLlve land whlch ls currenLly puL Lo
lnfrasLrucLure developmenL, urban consLrucLlon and Lree planLlng. WlLh due reference Lo
oLher oll drllllng counLrles world over Lhere ls local fear of deserLlflcaLlon and LhaL
agrlbuslness may noL Lhrlve 20 years Lo come.

10.4.2 key Agr|cu|ture Lnterpr|se rof||es |n the A|bert|ne Graben
Iru|ts and Vegetab|es
Polma and kabarole and Lhe wesLern Ankole dlsLrlcLs produce a wlde varleLy of vegeLables,
lncludlng: LomaLo, cabbage, capslcum, carroL, caullflower, cucumber, eggplanLs and sprlng
onlons. CLher new Lypes and varleLles of frulLs and vegeLables llke radlsh, leLLuce asparagus,
and beeLrooL have been lnLroduced by Polma ulsLrlcL larmers AssoclaLlon. AlLhough for Lhe
Luropean-Lype of vegeLables Lhe growlng condlLlons are noL opLlmal, Lhere ls poLenLlal Lo
supply reasonably well Lhe local markeLs malnly Lo reduce Lhe lmporL dependency of Lhese
goods lnLo Lhe reglon, and lf properly managed, some have poLenLlal as off-season crops ln
forelgn markeLs. Coffee ls currenLly culLlvaLed on relaLlvely small scale due Lo Lhe coffee
bacLerlal wllL buL ls a poLenLlal cash crop for local markeL as well as for exporL. uganda
coffee ls of good quallLy and wlLh proper harvesLlng and posLharvesL value addlng and prlce
regulaLlon, lL can reLurn Lo a meanlngful place ln Lhe exporL markeL.

L|vestock:
AL Lhe reglonal level, wesLern uganda accounLs for 30 percenL of Lhe LoLal caLLle herd as well
as 73 percenL of Lhe LoLal exoLlc herd. WlLh regard Lo goaLs, only 4 percenL of Lhe esLlmaLed
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elghL mllllon goaL populaLlon ls of Lhe hybrld naLure. WesLern and CenLral uganda domlnaLe
ownership of the pigs population, accounting for 85 percent of the national population.
LxporL of llvesLock producLs ln uganda ls llmlLed Lo raw and seml-processed hldes and sklns
buL Lhere ls a rapldly growlng exporL of llve anlmals (caLLle and goaLs) Lo SouLhern Sudan.
lnadequaLe dlsease conLrol and absence of Lhe relevanL quallLy and processlng lnfrasLrucLure
are some of Lhe ma[or llmlLlng facLors for exporLlng beef and dalry producLs. ConsLralnLs Lo
growLh ln llvesLock secLor are malnly relaLed Lo dlseases, lack of good breeds and lack of
quallLy pasLures and feeds for llvesLock. 1he demand for crop producLs by Lhe llvesLock and
flsherles sub-secLors creaLes boLh forward and backward llnkages wlLhln Lhe enLlre
agrlculLural secLor demonsLraLlng Lhe huge poLenLlal for overall secLoral growLh.

1he eace 8ecovery and uevelopmenL rogramme has procured 680 heads of caLLle for
resLocklng. 1here are 623 communal grazlng lands ln Ad[umanl only hosLlng 63,000 head of
caLLle and 137,232 rumlnanLs. Ad[umanl ulsLrlcL has only 1 funcLlonal caLLle dlp, 13 caLLle
crushes, no llvesLock markeL, 2 slaughLer slabs and a laboraLory LhaL ls noL sLocked. Cn Lhe
conLrary Lhe souLhern reglon has more dalry caLLle and organlsed mllk collecLlng sysLem wlLh
a loL more Lo wasLe or Lurned lnLo ghee. 1he cenLral reglon has a mlx of Lhe Lwo llvesLock
managemenL sysLems

1he physlcal developmenL gaps for Lhe llvesLock secLor ln Lhe norLh lncludes, slzeable
nlLrogen cans whlch can sLore semen for over 4 monLhs, communal LseLse conLrol dlps,
crushes, valley dams Lo boosL Lhe llvesLock producLlvlLy sulLable for Lhe markeL and reglonal
exporL. 1he communal managemenL commlLLees lf gulded can ably manage Lhese faclllLles ln
addlLlon Lo ensurlng compllance Lo developed by-laws lncludlng pasLure and Lree
managemenL. Slmllarly Lhe SouLhern reglon and parLs of Lhe cenLral Craben requlre slmllar
physlcal developmenLs buL due Lo Lhe land Lenure sysLem Lhese could be made accesslble aL
affordable raLes.
1he oulLry lndusLry ln Lhe norLhern reglon speclflcally requlres feed processlng faclllLles and
a haLchery whlle elsewhere ln Lhe reglon Lhe concern would be more of dlsease
managemenL and markeL llnkages. Cverall Lhere ls for lnvesLmenL ln abaLLolr faclllLles for
boLh red meaL and poulLry ln Lhe enLlre reglon.
k|ce:
Low land and Lhe nAAuS lnLroduced upland rlce varleLles have been grown as mlxed
varleLles, broken graln and LalnLs of sLone. 1hls ls due Lo poor seed sources, posh harvesL
handllng pracLlces and quallLy of hulllng upheld. 1he facL LhaL rlce ln now a non-LradlLlonal
cash crop, consumed by Lhe urban and reglonal markeL, necesslLaLes developmenL of
sLandards and up Lo Lhe sLaLe of arL rlce hulllng cenLres aL counLy level.

koot Crops:
1he cenLral and norLhern reglons have cassava as a sLaple food crop whlch ls wldely grown.
lL has had pesL and dlsease seLbacks whlch resulLed ln Lhe new nase-4 varleLy promoLed
under Lhe nAAuS programme. 1he local blLLer varleLles Loo are sLlll grown buL Lhe flour ls
only used by Lhe local and noL on demand for Lhe general markeL. 1he lmproved varleLy and
clean processed kllo ls sold aL 2000Shs compared Lo 800Shs for Lhe fermenLed cassava flour.

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1he developmenL need ls Lhe repllca of Lhe nakasongola value addlLlon planL for Lhe cenLral
and norLhern reglons. 1he banana lnlLlaLlve ln 8ushenyl could Lake on componenLs for
cassava and or mllleL ln addlLlon Lo Lhe 1ooke flour producLlon llnes.

Cerea|s:
Maslndl has grown Lo be a hub for malze growlng boLh seed and graln for markeLlng. 1he
norLhwesL only grows malze for subslsLence whlle Lhe souLhern reglon has malze for anlmal
feed and home consumpLlon. 1he malze ls sold off as graln wlLh no value addlLlon coupled
wlLh low prlces ln seasons of abundance. 1he malze mllllng lndusLry lf noL used ln Lhe anlmal
feed processlng LargeLs school consumpLlon. 1he quallLy and packaglng for boLh Lhe graln
and meal can be lmproved by sLandard molsLure LesLlng klLs ln all Lhe prlvaLe secLor
managed mllls.

u|ses and Legumes:
1he commerclal producLlon of beans and relaLed legumes ls baslcally ln Lhe norLhern plan
area. Many varleLles are grown ln Lhe enLlre AlberLlne Craben reglon buL mosLly for
subslsLence. 1here ls no value addlLlon oLher Lhan rough sorLlng and bagglng. 8eans used
worldwlde can be beLLer agronomlcally grown, harvesLed, drled, cleaned, packaged and
markeLed for beLLer prlces.
10.S key Issues Shap|ng Compet|t|veness |n Agr|cu|ture
1he Cll exploraLlon and developmenL secLor ln uganda should noL be regarded as a
susLalnable economlc boosL. lL should be consldered as a shorL-medlum Lerm economlc
caLalysL Lo boosL an lmproved and susLalnable plaLform for agrlculLure developmenL. 1he
revenues from Lhe oll and gas lndusLry can be lnvesLed ln physlcal developmenLs for
llvellhood supporLlng venLures as deLalled below

10.S.1 Increased roduct|on, roduct|v|ty and kes|||ence
Lnhanced agrlculLural producLlon Lo meeL Lhe needs for Lhe anLlclpaLed populaLlon lnflux,
for exporL, food securlLy and rural llvellhoods ls a key prlorlLy for Lhe AlberLlne Craben
reglon. lncreaslng agrlculLural producLlon and producLlvlLy ls Lhe hlghesL overarchlng prlorlLy
for MAAll Lo meeL domesLlc demand and supply poLenLlal exporL markeLs. 1here ls a need
for lmproved supply of agrlculLural lnpuLs and lmplemenLs speclflcally planLlng maLerlals,
ferLlllzer, llvesLock breeds and feeds aL sub counLy levels. 8egardlng lmproved lnfrasLrucLure,
agrlculLural roads, markeL and posL-harvesL faclllLles lncludlng cold chaln sLorage, and for
beLLer Lechnology and husbandry pracLlces supporLed by approprlaLe research and
lnformaLlon/exLenslon servlces and enabllng pollcy envlronmenL should be prlorlLlsed ln Lhe
enLlre AlberLlne as descrlbed ln Lhe lnfrasLrucLure Chapter 6.

1he reglon has expecLaLlons Lo be Lhe suppllers of vegeLables, frulLs and some food Lypes Lo
Lhe Cll companles for a beLLer prlce as well as Lhe lncomlng populaLlon. 1he currenL
exLenslon capaclLy wlll need Lo be furLher faclllLaLed, skllled and held accounLable Lo boLh
the public and government through parish level Barazas
63
Lo be able Lo fulflll Lhls
expecLaLlon.

63
8araza refers Lo meeLlngs where Lhe publlc glve poslLlve and or negaLlve feedback on servlce dellvery
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10.S.2 Improved Market|ng Systems and Access
uurlng consulLaLlon ldenLlfled opLlons lncluded: markeL access, Lrade faclllLaLlon, processlng
and addlng value. 1he ob[ecLlve for all ls Lo creaLe lncreased lncome earnlng and
employmenL opporLunlLles Lhrough markeL llnkages.
1here ls a loL LhaL can be achleved Lhrough such efforLs lf Lechnlcal supporL and relaLed
equlpmenL ls avalled and markeL llnkages esLabllshed. A crlLlcal concern however has Lo do
wlLh Lhe sLandards and gradlng LhaL are yeL Lo be aLLalned by Lhe farmers and processors.
1he governmenL could do well Lo supporL skllls developmenL , cerLlflcaLlon and
sLandardlsaLlon of Lhese and such producLs, markeL Lhem wldely as ugandan and Lake up
reglonal and lnLernaLlonal markeL llnkages. 1he organlcally grown producLs would easlly
feLch a mark up prlce ln Lhe healLh consclous era. 8eglonal markeLs ln core munlclpallLles llke
Polma and lorLporLal have been consLrucLed, Lhere ls sLlll need for such markeL
lnfrasLrucLure ln 8ushenyl, , Arua, Culu, and lmprove Lhe one ln Maslndl. 1here are Lwo
dlmenslons Lo Lhls, one belng Lhe markeL sLrucLure and relaLed cold sLorage and
managemenL sysLems developmenL. Secondly, ls Lhe esLabllshmenL of wholesale markeLs
llnked Lo sub counLy and communlLy markeL chalns for varlous producLs.

10.S.3 1he Case for Dutch D|sease
64
Impetus:
uganda havlng no mlnlmum wage and Lhe lnvesLors ofLen baslng Lhelr paymenL raLes on Lhe
prevalllng publlc servlce raLes , more so belng drlven by proflL maxlmlsaLlon, renders Lhe
Dutch disease driven would be agrlculLural producLlve age group unsaLlsfacLorlly employed
and Lhereby dashlng Lhelr expecLaLlons. Cn Lhe oLher hand Lhe land for subslsLence
agrlculLure havlng been sold lmplles posslble food lnsecurlLy Lendencles for Lhe famllles and
hlgher levels of unemploymenL amldsL a low skllled yeL hlgh populaLlon ln Lhe AlberLlne
reglon.

Cll exploraLlon and producLlon enLalls acqulrlng land whlch ulLlmaLely calls for evlcLlon of
people LhaL were formerly ln Lhose areas. lL becomes worse where Lhe process enLalls
consLrucLlon of reflnerles and plpellnes. 1he farmers ln Lhe AlberLlne reglon who earn Lhelr
llvlng from Lhe land can LesLlfy Lo how Lhe execuLlon of Lhe oll pro[ecL compromlses Lhelr
llvellhoods. ln kalso 1onya road, and ln Lhe kabaale plpellne, farmlands have Lo be Laken
over uslng whaL would oLherwlse be agrlculLurally producLlve land. 1he effecL ls loss of land
and access Lo Lake AlberL / weLland resources whlch 8unyoro and oLher eLhlc Lrlbes have
over Lhe years en[oyed as sources of llvellhood.
1he producLlon of oll on a commerclal scale wlll lnLenslfy Lhe problems faclng Lhe
agrlculLural secLor. 1he spendlng of Lhe revenues from oll ln Lhe domesLlc economy wlll
lnevlLably brlng abouL some appreclaLlon of Lhe real exchange raLe. As a resulL food lmporLs
wlll become cheaper ln real Lerms and agrlculLural exporLs such as coffee, Lea and coLLon wlll
lose compeLlLlveness.

64
uuLch dlsease here refers Lo shlfLlng from agrlculLure llvehoods Lo assumed lucraLlve [obs ln Lhe Cll and Cas
secLors
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Plgher wages pald ln Lhe non-Lraded goods lndusLrles such as servlces wlll pull labour ouL of
agrlculLure. All of Lhese effecLs have been observed ln many oll produclng counLrles around
Lhe world, lncludlng Lhose ln Afrlca such as Cabon and nlgerla, Lhey are feaLures of Lhe
phenomenon known as uuLch dlsease.
unless Lhere are radlcal changes ln our approach Lo agrlculLure, our agrlculLural performance
wlll weaken furLher, wlLh very deleLerlous consequences for rural poverLy, employmenL,
lnequallLy, geographlcally balanced growLh and food securlLy.
lL ls lmperaLlve Lo lmplemenL a comprehenslve sLraLegy Lo supporL smallholder agrlculLure lf
we are Lo averL a long Lerm decllne ln Lhe agrlculLural secLor, a decllne whlch wlll be
acceleraLed by Lhe explolLaLlon of our oll resources.
The effects of a Dutch disease are not a foregone conclusion. With foresight and careful
managemenL of how Lhe oll revenues geL ln[ecLed ln Lhe economy, Lhe phenomenon can be
avolded.

10.S.4 Informat|on Access and Invo|vement of C|v|| Soc|ety Crgan|sat|ons
Clvll socleLy organlsaLlons (CSCs) and oLher relevanL sLakeholders ln Lhe Cll and Cas secLor
can effecLlvely engage wlLh governmenL and Lhe oll companles lf Lhe mosL approprlaLe
approach ls employed. CovernmenL should conslder CSCs parLners ln and supporL sLraLeglc
and consLrucLlve approaches LhaL sLrengLhen Lhe relevance of CSCs ln Lhe Cll debaLe.

unforLunaLely, Lhe sLaLus quo ln uganda ls hlgh secrecy and classlfled lnformaLlon Lo Lhe
publlc, medla, regardlng Lhe Cll and gas processes, avallable conLracLs are pollLlcally drlven,
Llmellnes ln Lhe developmenL and volumes Lo be produced leL alone supply volumes. 1hls
negaLes Lhe prlvaLe secLor preparedness for compeLlLlveness ln Lhe secLor. lnadverLenLly Lhe
early blrds are loslng ouL as expressed ln www.fao.org/fsnforum feaLures- lL has Laken Loo
long

SocleLy craves for lnformaLlon on whaL governmenL ls dolng ln all developmenL pro[ecLs, Lhe
quesLlon ls are Lhere alLernaLlve means Lo geL ouL lnformaLlon on oll and gas progress such
LhaL prlvaLe secLor, farmers, educaLlon lnsLlLuLlons, local governmenLs, clvll socleLy
organlsaLlons and donors can poslLlon Lhemselves properly wlLhln means and area of
experLlse. 8egardlng lnformaLlon coverage CSCs ofLen have wlder ouLreach only lf packaged
wlLh Lhe rlghL lnformaLlon for a paLrloLlc naLlon. 1he medla cenLres ln varlous languages can
similarly educate and inform while at community or sub county level barazas open
meeLlngs Lo dlscuss developmenL challenges and or lssues.
Summarlly Cll and Cas wlll become a concern, lnLeresL and prlde for all ugandans unllke Lhe
current I do not know or I do not care, we hear, it is so far from us, that is
government business attitude which could breed latent regional or ethnic conflicts.

10.S.S numan kesource Capac|ty and Sk|||s Lnhancement:
A feaslble sLraLegy for agrlculLural developmenL ln uganda musL have aL lLs cenLre supporL
for smallholder farmers. Smallholders comprise 96% of Ugandas farmers. It is unrealistic to
expect that Ugandas agricultural performance can be turned around by ignoring
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smallholders and focuslng lnsLead on large farms. lf we can help Lhe broad mass of farmers
ln Lhls counLry Lo become more producLlve, ralse Lhelr ylelds and sell more of Lhelr ouLpuL
on Lhe markeL, lL wlll be posslble Lo creaLe a more dynamlc agrlculLural secLor whlch ls
sLrong enough Lo survlve desplLe Lhe adverse lmpacLs of oll on Lhe real exchange raLe.
Furthermore, by supporting Ugandas farmers to increase their marketable output, we can
boosL agro-processlng lndusLrles and Lhus promoLe lndusLrlallsaLlon. SLrengLhenlng
agrlculLure wlll noL be posslble wlLhouL devoLlng more publlc resources Lo supporL Lhe
secLor, buL how we spend publlc resources ls crlLlcal.
1he exLenslon sLaff who have been demorallsed and confused by Lhe repeaLed changes ln
sLrucLures and guldellnes for lmplemenLaLlon of exLenslon servlces vla Lhe nAAuS and
general exLenslon. 1hey equally need Lo be faclllLaLed and seen Lo dellver, accounLable Lo
Lhe farmers and governmenL for a producLlve agrlculLure secLor.
10.S.6 Market|ng
1he hlgh and prevalenL Lendency Lo work ln lsolaLlon can be supporLed Lhrough area
cooperaLlves wlLh emphasls on record keeplng and Lransparency sysLems for dlfferenL value
chalns. 1hls wlll gap Lhe lack of sufflclenL quanLlLles and conslsLency ln supplles lf Lhe farmer
Co-operaLors have Lhe baslc modern farmlng pracLlces upheld. 1he CovernmenL of uganda
Lhrough World bank supporL under Lhe CommunlLy AgrlculLure lnfrasLrucLure lmprovemenL
rogramme ls lnvesLlng ln munlclpal markeLs whlch wlLh demand can lnclude cold sLorage
faclllLles managed by Lhe MarkeL managemenL commlLLees or a prlvaLe enLrepreneur for
susLalned buslness managemenL. 1hey need Lo be coordlnaLed Lo concreLlse supply and
demand ln Lhe reglon.

10.S.7 Agr|cu|tura| I|nanc|ng
1here ls no doubL LhaL provldlng credlL Lo small farmers lnvolves very large LransacLlons
cosLs and hlgh rlsks for flnanclal lnsLlLuLlons, whlch means LhaL mosL small farmers are
excluded from formal credlL markeLs. lormal flnanclal markeLs are sub[ecL Lo fallures when
servlng small farmers whlch, ln prlnclple, provlde grounds for CovernmenL lnLervenLlon Lo
promoLe flnanclal lncluslon.
Modernlslng smallholder farmlng wlll enLall smallholders maklng greaLer use of purchased
farm lnpuLs. Pence modernlsaLlon wlll requlre smallholders havlng beLLer access Lo flnance.
Seed ls of low quallLy yeL cosLly 71,000/= a sacheL and farmers are fleeced, 100,000/= per
acre of LracLor plough, poor quallLy ferLlllzers. 8lo-ferLlllzer whlch ls effecLlve cosLs
400,000/=per llLre. lerLlllzers llke uA and u8LA cosLs 120,000/= for 30kg bag whlch ls cosLly
for small scale farmers. no subsldy aL all for agrlc lnpuLs. 1o aLLaln lmproved
compeLlLlveness, Lhe farmers need Lo access quallLy lnpuLs lncludlng lrrlgaLlon klLs aL
affordable prlces, from LrusLed sources supporLed wlLh knowledgeable sLaff. 1able 10-2
summarlses ma[or crop producLlon ln uganda and Lhe AlberLlne ln parLlcular.


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1ab|e 10-1: roduct|on of Ma[or Crops (metr|c tonnes), 2008]09

|anta|n
8ananas
I|nger
m|||et
Ma|ze Sorghum k|ce
Sweet
otatoes
Ir|sh
otatoes
Cassava
A|bert|ne keg|on 1,398,349 74,718 S28,244 71,971 39,321 386,629 S2,S23 909,1S2
SLudy Area norLh 27,763 26,803 141,493 39,782 22,672 143,963 1,238 497,803
SLudy Area CenLral 77,144 3,947 173,368 2,334 14,639 37,700 7,320 176,289
SLudy Area SouLh 1,293,440 41,968 213,183 9,633 2,010 182,964 43,943 233,060
Uganda's 1ota|
roduct|on
4,297,349 276,93S 2,361,9S4 37S,794 190,738 1,818,773 1S4,437 2,894,309
A|bert|ne's
Contr|but|on
33 27 22 19 21 21 34 31


8eans
I|e|d
eas
Cow
eas
|geon
eas
Ground
Nuts
Soya
8eans
S|m-S|m 1ota|
A|bert|ne keg|on 304,S3S S,612 1,769 1,726 82,899 2,131 19,6S4 3,879,233
SLudy Area norLh 107,872 4,671 1,641 1,646 42,299 363 19,089 1,101,124
SLudy Area CenLral 60,260 404 62 80 24,013 73 363 600,620
SLudy Area SouLh 136,403 337 66 0 16,383 1,693 0 2,177,489
Uganda's 1ota|
roduct|on
929,274 16,4S4 11,0S6 11,331 244,688 23,610 101,027 13,707,729
A|bert|ne's
Contr|but|on
33 34 16 1S 34 9 19 28
Source: LsLlmaLed based on 201J 5totlstlcol Absttoct, u8CS, AugusL 2013.

1ab|e 10-2: Summary of Iood roduct|on (1onnes) - no|ma D|str|ct 2013

Sub-County Cassava S]pots k|ce Ma|ze 8eans 8ananas
G]
Nuts
M|||et
1 Polma MC 3,268 12,963 316 866 379 70 72 0
2 8uhanlka 9469 2,190 3,434 2,226 876 2,304 417 83
3 kyablgamblre 10036 3,930 3,096 4,182 878 2,238 209 -
4 klLoba
7,444 3,333 1,113 1,489 1,421 1,219 234 122
3 klgorobya
(S/C & 1/C)
83,892 13,414 3,033 3,872 2,936 3,773 1,311 -
6 8useruka 3,004 2,104 82 802 263 14 42 13
7 8ugambe 8,029 2,326 3,667 1923 796 961 178 427
8 8uhlmba 7,200 2,383 3,267 2,400 1,806 270 323 36
9 klzlranfumbl
24,232 1,913 6,463 2,016 360 2,000 389 -
10 kabwoya 13,332 2,333 3,810 1832 334 2,300 208 166
11 kyangwall 16,164 6,942 8,463 7,034 2,371 3,290 882 33
D|str|ct tota| 186,070 S6,471 40,748 30,684 13,020 20,861 4,487 900
Source: Poma ulsLrlcL AgrlculLural Cfflce

1ab|e 10-2 clearly shows Lhe sLaple and lead crop belng cassava whlch was grown Lhree
Llmes as much as sweeL poLaLoes and four and half Llmes as much as rlce. 1hls however
dlffers ln Maslndl where malze Lakes Lhe lead much as Lhe Lwo areln Lhe cenLral reglon. lor
Lhe u lnLevenLlons need Lo be based ln Polma for cassava and ln Maslndl for malze. 8lce, a
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nonLradLlonal cash crop ls qulLe labour lnLesnlve Lhough very markeLable whlch woul glve lL
a prlorlLy level for Lhe u faclllLles Lo be developed. MllleL ls looslng ouL Lhough lL ls a
traditional staple for the Banyoro (central area) its values including iron for the children
need Lo be supplemenLed.

klgorobya followed by kyawangwall are Lhe lead producLlve sub counLles wlLh Lhe
mnlclpallLy belng Lhe leasL agrlculLurally producLlve. ln Lerms of promoLlng and poslLlonlng
us for agrlculLure klgorobya be spared for agrlculLure producLlon.

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::QB( L(,/%'(8+
;$)8-,/0 4$ ,B(
!'2(/,4$(

Introduct|on
1he eLroleum lndusLry ls emerglng as a ma[or force of
change ln uganda and Lhe AlberLlne ln parLlcular. 1he
reserves are noL large by world sLandards, buL lnLeresL
and expecLaLlons are hlgh. Lxperlence LhroughouL Lhe
world shows LhaL oll and gas producLlon brlngs wlLh lL
numerous soclal, economlc, envlronmenLal and oLher
lmpacLs. 8oLh lndusLry, counLry and local communlLles
need Lo be ready Lo address Lhese lssues Lo ensure LhaL
Lhe besL long-Lerm lnLeresLs of all are susLalnably
malnLalned. 1hls ChapLer dlscusses Lhe peLroleum
lndusLry's roles, responslblllLles and relaLlonshlps wlLh
communlLy, counLry and reglon. 1he ChapLer revlews
Lhe oll lndusLry's pollcles and CorporaLe Soclal
8esponslblllLy acLlvlLles ln llghL of boLh global besL
pracLlces and uganda's unlque conLexL.
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11.1 Introduct|on

uganda ls on Lhe verge of an amblLlous perlod of resource developmenL ln Lhe AlberLlne
Craben. 1he commlLmenL of Lhree global oll companles, Lhe approval for CnCCC LLd. Lo
proceed wlLh producLlon aL lLs klngflsher slLe, and Lhe lebruary 2014 Memorandum of
undersLandlng have seL Lhe sLage for a perlod of lnLense acLlvlLy.

1here are mulLlple challenges Lo reallze Lhe poLenLlally slgnlflcanL beneflLs for Lhe reglon and
the Ugandan nation. In other countries and regions, the phenomenon known as the
resource curse has too often compromised the realization of those benefits. The rapid
developmenL of non-renewable resources such as oll and mlnerals can LhreaLen LradlLlonal,
susLalnable llvellhoods. 1he sudden lncrease ln revenues Lyplcally avallable Lo governmenLs
aL Lhe naLlonal and local levels can fosLer pollLlcal ln-flghLlng and corrupLlon.

lL ls Ugandas challenge and opporLunlLy Lo learn from Lhe lessons of oLhers ln Afrlca and
abroad. 1he creaLlon of a hyslcal uevelopmenL lan for Lhe AlberLlne Craben ls an
lmporLanL Lool ln addresslng Lhe rlsks of rapld resource developmenL.

Cn Lhe opposlLe slde of Lhe same coln are Lhe oll companles. ln Lhe case of Lhe AlberLlne
Craben, Lhe Lhree ma[or players - 1ullow, 1oLal and CnCCC -- are global companles. 1hey
scour Lhe world for Lhe besL opporLunlLles for lnvesLmenL. 1hey have a duLy Lo Lhelr
lnvesLors Lo Lurn a proflL. eLroleum ls a hlghly Lechnlcal, expenslve lndusLry. Puge caplLal
lnvesLmenLs are expended before proflLs are reallzed.

This reality highlights what some call the time value of money. The government of Uganda
and Lhe responslble MlnlsLrles (lncludlng MLPuu) qulLe properly wanL Lo Lake Lhe Llme Lo
get it right in terms of preparing for a successful industry, with maximum national and
regional benefits. Industry also feels an intense pressure to get it started, so they can begin
Lo recoup Lhelr slgnlflcanL lnvesLmenL. lorLunaLely, Lhese same companles are hlghly
moLlvaLed Lo have a clear, sLable operaLlng envlronmenL. 1hrough decades of experlence,
Lhey Lhoroughly undersLand LhaL negaLlve envlronmenLal or soclal lmpacLs are a deLrlmenL
Lo Lhelr buslness goals.

Clven Lhls conLexL, Lhls ChapLer examlnes Lhe hyslcal uevelopmenL lan (u) Lhrough Lhe
lens of Lhe peLroleum lndusLry. lL examlnes Lhe ma[or challenges Lhey face ln carrylng ouL
successful exploraLlon and producLlon acLlvlLles, and Lhe lmpllcaLlons of Lhose challenges for
Lhe u. Map 11-1 lllusLraLes Lhe currenL exLenL of peLroleum llcenslng agreemenLs.

lour overarchlng challenges LhaL were emphaslzed durlng meeLlngs wlLh MLPuu, MLMu
and Lhe oll companles, and revlewed durlng a vlslL Lo operaLlons ln Lhe kalso 1onya reglon
are revlewed. 1hose four challenges are:

Managlng LxpecLaLlons (of governmenL, lndusLry and communlLles)
Land lssues
lnsLlLuLlonal resence and CapaclLy
CoordlnaLlng Company/CommunlLy/naLlonal uevelopmenL lans
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Map 11-1: etro|eum Leases - 2013



Source: MLMu, uganda
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1hls ChapLer also explores a number of speclflc challenges LhaL lndusLry faces ln balanclng
producLlon ob[ecLlves wlLh susLalnable soclal and envlronmenLal ouLcomes. Some are
speclflc Lo Lhe ugandan conLexL, oLhers common Lo Lhe exLracLlve lndusLry globally. lor each
of Lhese challenges, a number of global besL pracLlces and sLandards are hlghllghLed. lL ls
recommended LhaL a number of Lhese pracLlces can be lncorporaLed Lhe AlberLlne/ugandan
conLexL.

llnally, lssues mosL lmporLanL Lo Lhe hyslcal uevelopmenL lan are summarlsed.

11.2 Cverarch|ng Issue: Manag|ng Lxpectat|ons

1hroughouL Lhe world, when Lhe oll lndusLry enLers a new counLry or a new reglon,
expecLaLlons are ralsed. 1hese expecLaLlons can be poslLlve (anLlclpaLlng Lhe poLenLlal
beneflLs) and negaLlve (fearlng poLenLlal envlronmenLal and soclal consequences). lor Lhe
peLroleum lndusLry Lo be successful ln Lhe AlberLlne Craben and Lhe counLry ln general, boLh
seLs of expecLaLlons musL be consldered and managed.

1he expecLaLlons are dlfferenL (yeL lnLer-relaLed) among governmenL, lndusLry and Lhe
affecLed communlLles.

11.2.1 Lxpectat|ons from Government of Industry
Above all, governmenLs (naLlonal and local) expecL Lhe companles Lo fo||ow respons|b|e
operat|ng pract|ces and Lo achleve producLlon goals wlLhouL compromlslng Lhe
envlronmenLal and soclal lnLegrlLy. 1he lnLernaLlonal llnance CorporaLlon has developed a
wldely accepLed seL of LnvlronmenLal and Soclal erformance SLandards LhaL can be
adapLed Lo mulLlple lndusLrles. lL has been used successfully ln Lhe global peLroleum lndusLry
and ls supporLed by Lhe Lhree AlberLlne operaLors. More lnformaLlon ls presenLed below.

ln addlLlon Lo seeklng good pracLlce from lnLernaLlonal sLandards, Lhe ugandan governmenL
ls updaLlng exlsLlng naLlonal leglslaLlon and regulaLlon and developlng new ones Lo gulde
peLroleum developmenL ln Lhe counLry. Clven Lhe relaLlvely rapld pace of developmenL
expecLed, Lhe governmenL wlll requlre a degree of f|ex|b|||ty from |ndustry as these
standards are deve|oped and |ntroduced.

ln addlLlon, Lhe governmenL wlll look for |ndustry cooperat|on as |t pursues |ts nat|ona|
content strategy to ach|eve max|mum Ugandan part|c|pat|on as lndusLry operaLlons move
lnLo an lnLense perlod of acLlvlLy.

llnally, governmenLs wlll expecL a degree of soc|a| |nvestment as Lhe companles bulld
goodwlll ln local communlLles. Cne of Lhe maln challenges for companles ls Lo avold
becoming the de facto local government by providing services that should rightly be
dellvered by governmenL. 1hls wlll be dlscussed furLher ln subsecLlon 1.6 below.

lL ls worLh noLlng LhaL soclal lnvesLmenL (or phllanLhropy) ls noL synonymous wlLh corporaLe
soclal responslblllLy. CS8 encompasses a broad range of Lools and processes LhaL help
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companles sLraLeglcally manage Lhelr relaLlonshlps wlLh a wlde range of sLakeholders, for
muLual beneflL. Soclal lnvesLmenL ls [usL one dlmenslon of CS8. Soclal lmpacL assessmenL,
sLakeholder consulLaLlon and engagemenL, local conLenL and LransparenL dlsclosure of
environmental and social performance are other examples of full-spectrum CSR.

11.2.2 Lxpectat|ons from Commun|t|es of Industry
1hose communlLles mosL dlrecLly affecLed by lndusLry operaLlons have slgnlflcanL
expecLaLlons of lndusLry some of whlch may be unreallsLlc and a source of Lenslon.

CulLe rlghLly, communlLles expecL Llmely, LransparenL
lnformaLlon, dellvered by means Lhey can absorb
(language, medlum, eLc.). CommunlLles also have an
approprlaLe expecLaLlon Lo be consulLed and lnvolved
ln declslons LhaL wlll dlrecLly affecL Lhelr llves, such as
land acqulslLlon, anLlclpaLed operaLlonal lmpacLs,
pro[ecL schedules, eLc.

CLher communlLy expecLaLlons may be more dlfflculL Lo address. lor example, affecLed
communlLles may expecL dlrecL employmenL opporLunlLles. Whlle slgnlflcanL numbers of
[obs are expecLed Lo resulL from Lhe more labour-lnLenslve consLrucLlon phase, when Lhe
lndusLry moves lnLo producLlon, Lhere are Lyplcally few full-Llme poslLlons. lL ls also llkely
LhaL affecLed communlLles wlll expecL Lo provlde goods and servlces Lo Lhe companles, such
as food producLs, consLrucLlon maLerlals, elecLrlcal and oLher servlces. Whlle Lhese
expectations are in line with the governments goal to maximize Ugandan participation,
Lhere may be sLrlcL quallLy and safeLy lndusLry guldellnes Lo be meL. ln Lurn, local suppllers
may look Lo lndusLry Lo provlde programs Lo help Lhem achleve such sLandards.

CommunlLles wlll also welcome and lndeed expecL some level of soclal lnvesLmenL from
Lhe companles. 1he companles operaLlng ln Lhe Craben accepL Lhls responslblllLy, buL are
concerned on Lwo fronLs. llrsL, soclal lnvesLmenLs should be susLalnable ln naLure: LhaL ls,
Lhey should be self-susLalnlng lnlLlaLlves wlLh deep communlLy lnvolvemenL, such LhaL Lhe
sponsoring company can avoid ongoing ownership of the projects operation. Second, these
lnvesLmenLs should noL place Lhe company ln Lhe poslLlon of dellverlng key servlces LhaL are
rlghLly Lhe responslblllLy of governmenL. lL may be accepLable for a company Lo conLrlbuLe a
helplng hand Lo core servlces such as healLh and educaLlon, buL Lhls should be done ln a
manner LhaL helps Lo bulld long-Lerm governmenL accounLablllLy.

AL Lhe far end of Lhe specLrum, some resldenLs of affecLed communlLles may expecL llLeral
compensation stemming from the oil under our feet. It will be important for the
governmenL Lo clearly dlspel Lhls noLlon, emphaslzlng LhaL mlneral rlghLs ln uganda clearly
belong Lo Lhe naLlon, lndlvlduals and communlLles are only enLlLled Lo surface rlghLs.

11.2.3 Lxpectat|ons of Industry from Government
ln conversaLlons wlLh Lhe Lhree lndusLry players, Lhere was a common concern abouL Lhe
wave of acLlvlLy LhaL ls expecLed, and Lhe capaclLy of Lhe governmenL and lLs agencles Lo
provlde Lhe necessary overslghL ln a Llmely fashlon. 1here are Lhree global players
CuoLe from sLakeholder ln Lhe
norLhern parL of Lhe AlberLlne when
dlscusslng recenL oll exploraLlon:
``So far we`ve been blessed wlLh dry
wells.``
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slmulLaneously developlng resources across Lhe AlberLlne Craben. 1hls breadLh of acLlvlLy
would have Lhe poLenLlal Lo overwhelm Lhe capaclLy of any governmenL leL alone a
governmenL wlLh llmlLed experlence wlLh Lhe oll lndusLry.

As a consequence, lndusLry ls very supporLlve of efforLs by Lhe governmenL Lo lnvesL ln Lhe
number (and capablllLles) of speclallsLs needed Lo oversee lndusLry acLlvlLy ln an effecLlve
and Llmely way.

lndusLry also looks Lo governmenL for Lhe followlng:

regulaLory/flscal cerLalnLy
a reasonable pace of revlew/approvals for proposed developmenLs
clarlLy on Lhe ground rules for developmenL ln senslLlve areas (parks/reserves,
shorellne), where wlll developmenL be consldered, whaL areas wlll be off-llmlLs
conLlnued upgrades of lnfrasLrucLure over Llme (e.g., roads, power, waLer)
leadershlp (as well as parLnershlp) ln Lhe senslLlzaLlon of communlLles
Llmely, effecLlve leadershlp on producL reflnlng and exporL

11.2.4 Lxpectat|ons of Commun|t|es from Governments
AffecLed communlLles also have hlgh expecLaLlons of governmenLs boLh local and naLlonal.

MosL lmporLanLly, Lhey wlll expecL governmenLs Lo exerclse approprlaLe conLrols over Lhe
lndusLry. 1hls would lnclude monlLorlng of lndusLry performance agalnsL leglslaLlon and
regulaLlon.

Land managemenL ls also cruclal for governmenL Lo manage on behalf of affecLed
communlLles. As dlscussed below, land LlLle, reseLLlemenL and compensaLlon have slgnlflcanL
poLenLlal Lo become flashpolnLs ln Lhe Crabens development.

AffecLed communlLles wlll expecL Lo see a vlslble enhancemenL ln governmenL servlces and
local lnfrasLrucLure. 1hey are llkely Lo reason LhaL - slnce Lhe oll revenues are derlved from
resources locaLed ln Lhelr communlLles - a slgnlflcanL share of Lhe revenues should be
lnvesLed locally. 1hls wlll no doubL be a balanclng acL for Lhe naLlonal governmenL, as all
ugandans wlll expecL Lo beneflL from lndusLry acLlvlLy ln Lhe Craben. noLe LhaL a slgnlflcanL
lncrease ln local servlces ls llkely Lo lncrease Lhe currenL lnflux of ugandan naLlonals and LasL
Afrlcan lmmlgranLs/refugees seeklng beLLer opporLunlLles.

Means of Manag|ng Lxpectat|ons
lL ls belleved LhaL mechanlsms for managlng Lhe relaLlonshlps and expecLaLlons beLween
lndusLry and governmenL generally exlsL. lL ls far more challenglng Lo manage Lhe
expecLaLlons of affecLed communlLles, and of all ugandans who hear medla reporLs of Lhe oll
lndusLry bonanza expecLed.

ln 2011, Lhe 8rooklngs lnsLlLuLlon publlshed a paper LlLled, Africas New Oil Economy:
Managing Expectations. 1hls paper consldered recenL oll dlscoverles ln Chana, LLhlopla,
Slerra Leone, Sao 1ome and rlnclpe and uganda. 1helr analysls summarlzed seven
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approaches for managlng socleLal expecLaLlons LhaL may be helpful ln Lhe
AlberLlne/ugandan conLexL:

lmprove Lhe quallLy of lnsLlLuLlons and lnslsL on accounLablllLy and Lransparency of
resource revenues
rovlde rellable and Llmely lnformaLlon Lo all sLakeholders lnvolved lncludlng local
communlLles, clvll socleLy organlzaLlons, Lhe broader publlc, naLlonal and local
governmenL, arllamenL, oll companles, prlvaLe secLor and Lhe buslness communlLy
SLrengLhen Lhe capaclLy of Lhe legal sysLem, governmenL audlLors, parllamenLary
commlsslons and clvll socleLy Lo regulaLe Lhe secLor and monlLor acLlvlLles on Lhe
ground
LsLabllsh a long-Lerm developmenL sLraLegy wlLh broad consensus on spendlng
prlorlLles
ueslgn and lmplemenL supporLlng pollcles, such as flscal sLraLegles Lo smooLh Lhe
boom and bust cycle; consider subsidies/tax relief for non-resource exporL secLors
hurL by a loss of compeLlLlveness
use naLural resource revenues Lo lnvesL ln long-Lerm accumulaLlon of all forms of
caplLal (human, physlcal and lnsLlLuLlonal) as opposed Lo flnanclng currenL
consumpLlon
Conslder placlng some of Lhe resource revenues lnLo flscal reserves or soverelgn
wealLh funds Lo avold over-use of revenues and safeguard Lhe lnLeresLs of fuLure
generaLlons

11.3 Land

11.3.1 Comp|ex Land Use 1rad|t|ons
ln order for peLroleum acLlvlLles Lo proceed ln an orderly fashlon, companles musL be able Lo
secure lands under a well-undersLood process, ln a Llmely fashlon, aL predlcLable raLes. 1he
land acqulslLlon process has already been a source of some communlLy dlssaLlsfacLlon, and
Lhe anLlclpaLed pace of developmenL could see land lssues becomes a source of slgnlflcanL
confllcL.

ln Lhe AlberLlne Craben, a complex seL of pracLlces formal and lnformal creaLe slgnlflcanL
uncerLalnLy surroundlng ownershlp and LlLle of land.

ln cerLaln parLs of Lhe AlberLlne (e.g., 8ulllsa), Lhere ls slgnlflcanL lack of documenLaLlon
regardlng land LlLle. ln some locaLlons Lhe very concepL of formal LlLle Lo land ls forelgn.

Its been a historic practice for individuals or groups to use vacant land for a variety of
purposes: agrlculLure, grazlng, dwelllngs and oLher sLrucLures. WlLh Lhe advenL of peLroleum
acLlvlLy, some lnvesLors have acqulred formal LlLle Lo such lands, aL Llmes wlLhouL Lhe
knowledge of Lhe communal users. Some clalm Lhese acqulslLlons have occurred as a resulL
of lack of knowledge by local land offlcers, oLhers allege LhaL Lhese LlLle Lransfers are an
lndlcaLlon of corrupLlon. 8egardless, Lhese LlLle sales have led Lo confuslon and confllcL.

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ln oLher cases, lndlvlduals and famllles LhaL have been absenL from Lhe reglon for a number
of years have reLurned Lo clalm whaL Lhey see as ancesLral lands.

Despite the governments efforts to contain land sales in the region, and to set prices
formally through the Chief Land Valuers office, it appears that exceptions have occurred.

1he many complexlLles surroundlng land lssues ln Lhe AlberLlne Craben wlll sLymle lndusLry
progress. lL may have an unlnLended consequence of leadlng lndusLry Lo locaLe lLs faclllLles
ln less-seLLled areas of Lhe AlberLlne, wlLh posslble consequences for wlldllfe and
blodlverslLy.

11.3.2 Land Va|uat|on and Specu|at|on
lL ls clearly Lhe responslblllLy of Lhe ulrecLoraLe of Land ManagemenL (wlLhln Lhe MLPuu) Lo
esLabllsh Lhe approprlaLe value of lands LhaL are LargeLed for developmenL. ?eL some
sLakeholders have soughL lnflaLed compensaLlon from oll companles, bellevlng Lhey wlll pay
these prices so that they might get on with business. There is an important challenge for
Lhe MLPuu Lo be lncreaslngly vlslble and acLlve on Lhls flle.

1here ls an addlLlonal consequence of recenL land sales LhaL represenLs a complex challenge.
ln a number of cases, some unsophlsLlcaLed landowners have (freely) sold Lhelr properLles aL
marglnal value and have seen Lhelr cash evaporaLe qulckly, wlLh no plan for Lhe fuLure. ln
the meantime, they see new buyers re-selllng Lhe same lands aL lnflaLed values. 1hls
creaLes Lwo poLenLlal problems: lmpoverlshed local resldenLs and anlmoslLy Loward Lhe new
landowners.

Cn a global basls, lL ls common for land values Lo lncrease wlLh lndusLrlal acLlvlLy. lL ls
undersLandable LhaL Lhe governmenL wlshes Lo proLecL Lhe lnLeresLs of communal land users
from speculaLors and aggregaLors. lL ls hoped LhaL a process of educaLlng resldenLs of Lhelr
land rlghLs and a conLrolled, LransparenL processlng of LlLles LhroughouL Lhe AlberLlne
Craben wlll mlLlgaLe posslble lndusLry/communlLy confllcL.

11.3.3 Invo|untary kesett|ement
1he land requlremenLs of Lhe lndusLry can someLlmes be Lemporary and modesL. lor
example, a drllllng operaLlon for a slngle well may dlsLurb an area of 100 square meLres,
whlch mlghL be furLher reduced Lo 8 square meLres when a well ls suspended or abandoned.
ln such cases, land can ofLen be reLurned Lo Lhe orlglnal owners/resldenLs, followlng
approprlaLe remedlaLlon by lndusLry.

1he larger land requlremenLs wlll come from cenLral processlng faclllLles, camps for sLaff,
equlpmenL and sLorage, and for plpellnes. 1he planned peLroleum reflnery ls parLlcularly
slgnlflcanL, aL 29 square kllomeLres, and wlll dlsplace an esLlmaLed 30,000 people. lf
lmproperly handled, reseLLlemenL has Lhe poLenLlal Lo creaLe lasLlng problems for
governmenL and lndusLry.

As noLed on page lv of Lhe november 2013 llnal urafL 8eporL of Lhe 8eseLLlemenL ollcy
Framework (RPF) for the Albertine Region, The World Banks safeguard policy on
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lnvolunLary reseLLlemenL, C 4.12 ls Lo be complled wlLh where lnvolunLary reseLLlemenL,
lmpacLs on llvellhood, acqulslLlon of land or resLrlcLlons Lo access naLural resources, may
take place as the result of the project.

Still on page iv, the RPF further states the World Bank policy goes further to highlight
Lhe lmporLanL relaLlonshlp beLween properLy rlghLs, human seLLlemenL and Lhe need Lo
malnLain peoples source of livelihood. It compliments existing law in Uganda related to
properLy rlghLs and land ownershlp by recognlzlng Lhe soclo economlc value Lhls presenLs Lo
persons affecLed. 1he hlgher of Lhe Lwo pollcles wlll be followed ln Lhls pollcy framework.

resumlng Lhe llnal urafL 8eporL ls approved by Lhe World 8ank, Lhe 8l provldes a solld
foundaLlon. As always, Lhe challenge wlll lle ln effecLlve, Llmely and conslsLenL appllcaLlon of
Lhe pollcy.

key componenLs of Lhe 8l lnclude:

LransparenL deLermlnaLlon of ellglblllLy
developlng subpro[ecL-speclflc 8eseLLlemenL AcLlon lans
llvellhood resLoraLlon asslsLance
esLabllshmenL of a CompensaLlon CommlLLee and a Crlevance 8edress CommlLLee, as
well as a MonlLorlng and LvaluaLlon Leam

As noLed LhroughouL Lhls chapLer, Lhe effecLlve lmplemenLaLlon of Lhe 8l wlll requlre
slgnlflcanL resources, ln Lerms of avallable personnel and Lhelr Lralnlng. 1ransparency
regardlng Lhe crlLerla for ellglblllLy and Lhe crlLerla used Lo deLermlne compensaLlon wlll be
cruclal.

Wherever lnvolunLary seLLlemenL occurs, asslsLance for llvellhood resLoraLlon has been
dlfflculL Lo achleve. 1he challenge here cannoL be underesLlmaLed.
11.4 Inst|tut|ona| resence]Capac|ty

An acLlve peLroleum lndusLry requlres a capable seL of governmenL offlclals Lo succeed.
Ugandas citizens have the right to expect government to provide meaningful oversight of
Lhe lndusLry and lLs lmpacLs poslLlve and negaLlve.

Clven Lhe rapld growLh ln acLlvlLy and petroleums status as a new industry Lhe
companies have expressed concern about the governments ability to promptly and
adequaLely sLaff a range of mlnlsLrles. Some mlnlsLrles have dlrecL relaLlons wlLh lndusLry,
such as MLPuu, MLMu, WaLer and LnvlronmenL, Local CovernmenL, 1ransporL and Works,
and oLhers. Many addlLlonal mlnlsLrles have lndlrecL, buL sLlll lmporLanL, relaLlons wlLh
lndusLry, such as llnance, PealLh, AgrlculLure, Anlmal lndusLry & llsherles, SecurlLy and
many more.

uL slmply, Lhere ls an urgenL need for an lncrease ln Lhe number of capable MlnlsLry,
regulaLory and local governmenL offlclals. ln addlLlon, Lhe professlonal developmenL
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opporLunlLles for Lhese lndlvlduals need Lo be robusL. A well-Lralned, well-sLaffed
bureaucracy would provlde assurance Lo lndusLry regardlng Lhelr subsLanLlal caplLal
lnvesLmenLs. Slmllarly, an advanced lnsLlLuLlonal presence wlll glve comforL Lo communlLles
and clLlzens LhaL lndusLry ls operaLlng ln a responslble manner, wlLh approprlaLe overslghL
and approprlaLe sancLlons for any vlolaLlons of esLabllshed pollcy.

uganda should conslder cross-Lralnlng opporLunlLles for lLs offlclals ln llke-mlnded counLrles
LhaL have faced or are faclng slmllar challenges. lor example, Cabon has recenL oll
dlscoverles of a slmllar quanLlLy Lo uganda (2 bllllon barrels esLlmaLed). 1he facL LhaL
Gabons discoveries are offshore is a significant difference; still, there may be opportunities
for exchange and lessons learned.

Some mulLllaLeral lnsLlLuLlons and forelgn governmenLs offer supporL for naLlons LhaL are
engaglng ln slgnlflcanL developmenL of naLural resources. lor example, 1he ueparLmenL of
lorelgn Affalrs, 1rade and uevelopmenL Canada has worked wlLh resource-rlch developlng
counLrles (lncludlng 1anzanla and eru) Lo lmprove Lhelr governance of naLural resources, Lo
sLrengLhen naLlonal, reglonal, and local governmenLs and regulaLory lnsLlLuLlons, and Lo
manage Lhe exLracLlve secLor LransparenLly and responslbly. 1he eLroleum Covernance
lnlLlaLlve (Cl), a bllaLeral collaboraLlon beLween Lhe CovernmenL of norway and Lhe World
8ank, also promoLes responslble resource governance. rograms such as Lhese could help
uganda develop lLs governance capaclLy.
11.S Coord|nat|ng Company]Commun|ty ]Nat|ona| Deve|opment |ans

1he oll companles have deLalled lnLernal processes for plannlng fuLure developmenLs. 1hese
plans, ln Lurn, are used Lo make subsLanLlal, long-lead-Llme commlLmenLs of caplLal,
equlpmenL and human resources. 1he companles have a leglLlmaLe concern LhaL
naLlonal/reglonal/local plannlng processes -- LhaL may Lake years Lo unfold may overLurn
years of Lhelr efforL, and may resulL ln cosLly modlflcaLlons and dlsrupLed operaLlons.

lL has been acknowledged LhaL lL would be preferable Lo approach hyslcal uevelopmenL
lans ln a serles of hlerarchlcal plans. lor example, a naLlonal lan would be esLabllshed Lo
drlve varlous 8eglonal lans, whlch ln Lurn would drlve Local lans. Clven Lhe lmmedlacy of
Lhe developmenL acLlvlLles planned for Lhe AlberLlne Craben, Lhe need for a speclflc
AlberLlne plan was clear, desplLe Lhe absence (for now) of a naLlonal hyslcal uevelopmenL
lan.

1here ls concern LhaL plans released subsequenL Lo Lhe AlberLlne Craben u could alLer Lhe
orlglnal plan dramaLlcally. AL presenL, lL ls noL clear whaL process wlll be followed Lo ensure
harmonlzaLlon among Lhe varlous lndusLry, naLlonal, reglonal and local plans. 1hls
represenLs a slgnlflcanL gap.

AL a deeper, more hlsLorlc level, local communlLles and famllles have had formal and
lnformal approaches Lo plan and develop Lhelr communlLles for generaLlons. 1hese
LradlLlonal approaches could be easlly overlooked or overwhelmed by formal processes
launched by companles or hlgher levels of governmenL. A respecLful plannlng process would
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Lake care Lo ensure LradlLlonal perspecLlves are heard and reflecLed ln Lhe plannlng process.

ln addlLlon, Lhere ls a clear need for coordlnaLlon among Lhe varlous mlnlsLrles LhaL have a
role Lo play ln Lhe success of Lhe AlberLlne Craben. Whlle Lhe u ls clearly under Lhe
mandaLe of Lhe MLPuu, and Lhe oll lndusLry under Lhe MLMu, Lhere are mulLlple polnLs of
connecLlon wlLh oLher mlnlsLrles, deparLmenLs and agencles. lallure Lo brldge Lhese
poLenLlal gaps ls llkely Lo resulL ln mlssed opporLunlLles, dupllcaLlon of efforL and confuslon
for all Lhose wlLh a sLake ln Lhe success of Lhe Craben.
11.6 Cha||enges and ke|ated 8est ract|ces

1hls subsecLlon explores several speclflc challenges faclng susLalnable developmenL of Lhe
AlberLlne Craben. lor each Loplc, suggesLed lnLernaLlonal or lndusLry besL pracLlces are
highlighted. Given Ugandas relative newcomer status as an oil-produclng naLlon, global besL
pracLlces presenL a slgnlflcanL opporLunlLy for Lhe counLry Lo creaLe an lndusLry framework
that would be globally respected, and to reduce the countrys learning curve.

11.6.1 Susta|nab|||ty erformance Standards
Cne of Lhe key ob[ecLlves of oll producLlon ln Lhe AlberLlne Craben ls Lo dellver developmenL
beneflLs Lo Lhe counLry wlLhouL compromlslng Lhe opporLunlLles for fuLure generaLlons of
ugandans. 1o complemenL naLlonal leglslaLlon, several lnLernaLlonal susLalnablllLy besL
pracLlces should be consldered.

1he Wor|d 8ank's env|ronmenta| and soc|a| safeguard po||c|es exlsL Lo prevenL and mlLlgaLe
harm Lo people and Lhelr envlronmenL as a resulL of developmenL. ln World 8ank-supporLed
pro[ecLs and programs, Lhe developmenL ouLcomes have subsLanLlally lncreased as a resulL
of aLLenLlon Lo Lhese pollcles. Safeguard pollcles have provlded a plaLform for Lhe
parLlclpaLlon of sLakeholders ln pro[ecL deslgn, and have been an lmporLanL lnsLrumenL for
bulldlng ownershlp among local populaLlons. (Source: web.worldbank.org)

1he Lhree ma[or companles lnvolved ln Lhe AlberLlne Craben have all commlLLed Lo allgn
Lhelr pracLlces wlLh Lhe Internat|ona| I|nance Corporat|on Lnv|ronmenta| and Soc|a|
erformance Standards. Launched ln 2006 and updaLed ln 2012, Lhe llC sLandards en[oy
wlde recognlLlon from lnLernaLlonal flnanclal lnsLlLuLlons, clvll socleLy and lndusLry. 1hey
have been lncorporaLed lnLo a number of naLlonal sLandards world-wlde.

1here ls a parLlcular opporLunlLy for Lhe llC Lo assume a formal role ln lmplemenLlng and
monlLorlng oll company compllance ln Lhe AlberLlne Craben. lL ls our oplnlon LhaL Lhls ls a
slgnlflcanL opporLunlLy LhaL should noL be mlssed.

8est pract|ces:

World 8ank LnvlronmenLal and Soclal Safeguard ollcles (web.worldbank.org)
llC LnvlronmenLal and Soclal erformance SLandards (www.lfc.org)

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11.6.2 kevenue 1ransparency
lssues of Lransparency are cenLral Lo galnlng communlLy and popular supporL for Lhe
planned lndusLry acLlvlLles ln Lhe AlberLlne Craben. ulsclosure of all paymenLs Lo
governmenLs by exLracLlve companles ls a fundamenLal elemenL of Lransparency.
8egulaLlons for companles based ln Lhe unlLed klngdom, Lhe Luropean unlon and Lhe unlLed
SLaLes requlre robusL and deLalled dlsclosure of all paymenLs Lo governmenLs, lncludlng
Laxes, royalLles, paymenL ln klnd and oLhers.

1ullow Cll has been commended by clvll socleLy (lncludlng Lhe lobllsb wbot oo loy
lnlLlaLlve) for breaklng down lLs paymenLs Lo governmenL on a pro[ecL-by-pro[ecL basls.

uganda has publlcly sLaLed LhaL lL ls examlnlng Lhe xttoctlve loJosttles 1toospoteocy
loltlotlve, Lhe counLry ls noL currenLly a slgnaLory. A number of clvll socleLy organlzaLlons
would applaud such a move.

Among African oil producers, Ghanas Petroleum Revenue Management Act, 2011 would be
an lmporLanL model for uganda Lo examlne.

1ransparency efforLs should exLend Lo Lhe reglonal and local level. AnLlclpaLed oll revenues
would llkely see lncreased funds and budgeLs flowlng Lhrough Lhe hands of local offlclals.
rograms such as Aotl-cottoptloo lo locol Covetoooce, offered by Lhe lnLernaLlonal AnLl-
CorrupLlon Academy (www.laca.lnL) could be a useful Lool.

8est pract|ces:

LxLracLlve lndusLrles 1ransparency lnlLlaLlve (www.elLl.org)
Ghanas Petroleum 8evenue ManagemenL AcL, 2011 (www.mofep.gov.gh)

11.6.3 Stakeho|der Lngagement
Cpen, LransparenL and respecLful engagemenL wlLh sLakeholders affecLed by developmenL ln
Lhe AlberLlne Craben ls essenLlal. 1hls ls especlally Lrue slnce Lhe affecLed communlLles have
no prlor experlence wlLh Lhe lndusLry.

Cll and gas developmenL ls complex and Lechnlcal. lL can be challenglng for sLakeholders Lo
grasp Lhe poLenLlal lmpacLs of lndusLry acLlvlLy.

varlous governmenL agencles naLlonal and local have held meeLlngs across Lhe AlberLlne
Lo senslLlze communlLles abouL Lhe lndusLry. 1he oll companles have also lnvesLed
conslderable efforL Lo explaln Lhelr lndusLry Lo sLakeholders. 1he accounLablllLy for
engagemenL has been and musL conLlnue Lo be shared beLween governmenL and
lndusLry.

Its important to emphasize that simply explaining the industry to stakeholders is essentially
a one-way communlcaLlon process. 1rue engagemenL lmplles an ablllLy for sLakeholders Lo
provlde lnpuL lnLo how lndusLry acLlvlLles are conducLed.

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CapLurlng and applylng sLakeholder lnpuL ls challenglng. 1he oll lndusLry ls caplLal-lnLenslve.
Companles lnvesL slgnlflcanL caplLal ln equlpmenL and Lechnology. 1hey frequenLly conducL
ln-depLh Lechnlcal sLudles on Lhe proposed locaLlon of speclflc faclllLles, Lhe anLlclpaLed
lmpacLs and mlLlgaLlon measures Lo be Laken, eLc. SLakeholders, meanwhlle, Lyplcally brlng a
non-Lechnlcal perspecLlve Lo planned lndusLry acLlvlLles. lssues such as communlLy hlsLory
and culLural LradlLlons may be more lmporLanL Lhan deLalled Lechnlcal analyses.

8ecognlzlng Lhe unlque conLexL of Lhe AlberLlne Craben, Lhe companles have used a varleLy
of culLurally approprlaLe communlcaLlon Lools and Lechnlques for sLakeholder engagemenL,
lncludlng:

communlLy dlalogues
radlo Lalk shows
posLers
dramaLlzaLlons

lL needs Lo be sald LhaL effecLlve sLakeholder engagemenL does noL end when governmenL
permlLs are lssued or when Lhe lnLense perlod of fleld developmenL glves way Lo Lhe less-
lnLruslve sLaLe of operaLlon.

lormal documenLaLlon of ongolng lnLeracLlons wlLh sLakeholders ls crlLlcal. 1hls can help
ldenLlfy Lrends ln communlLy lssues and map Lrouble areas. lL would be ldeal lf Lhe Lhree
operaLlng companles shared a common plaLform or aL leasL common prlnclples of
capLurlng sLakeholder feedback. Cne example of leadlng-edge sLakeholder engagemenL
sofLware comes from Lhe Canadlan company 8orealls (www.borealls-ls.com).

SLakeholder feedback, complalnLs and grlevances are especlally lmporLanL Lo documenL and
address. 1hls was a core componenL of Lhe un Culdlng rlnclples on 8uslness Puman 8lghLs,
unanlmously endorsed by Lhe un Puman 8lghLs Councll ln 2011. llLCA, Lhe global oll and
gas lndusLry assoclaLlon for envlronmenLal and soclal lssues, has excellenL grlevance
mechanlsm Lools on lLs webslLe, www.lpleca.org.

Cne can also flnd a comprehenslve overvlew of sLakeholder engagemenL and Lhe exLracLlve
lndusLry ln a !une 2013 dlscusslon paper by Lhe ShlfL ro[ecL (www.shlfLpro[ecL.org).

8est pract|ces:

llC erformance SLandard 1 (AssessmenL and ManagemenL of LnvlronmenLal and
Soclal 8lsks and lmpacLs), www.lfc.org
llC SLakeholder LngagemenL: A Cood racLlce Pandbook for Companles uolng
8uslness ln Lmerglng MarkeLs. www.lfc.org
llLCA: CperaLlonal level grlevance mechanlsms: good pracLlce survey
(www.lpleca.org)
lCMM: CommunlLy uevelopmenL 1oolklL

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11.6.4 ro[ect-|nduced In-m|grat|on
1he AlberLlne reglon ls already seelng a wave of ln-mlgraLlon of ugandans seeklng
opporLunlLles Lhey belleve exlsL -- or wlll soon be generaLed -- Lhrough oll lndusLry acLlvlLy.
CLhers ugandans are arrlvlng ln Lhe anLlclpaLlon LhaL Lhe level of servlces (e.g., healLh care,
educaLlon) wlll be beLLer Lhan oLher reglons Lhanks Lo anLlclpaLed oll revenues and soclal
lnvesLmenL by Lhe companles. 1hls ln-mlgraLlon ls already placlng a severe sLraln on local
governmenL servlces. new arrlvals also compllcaLe Lhe land lssue, as mlgranLs may occupy
lands wlLh uncerLaln or no LlLles.

1here ls a mounLlng concern LhaL Lhe percepLlon of oll-based prosperlLy wlll also lncrease
Lhe lnflux of lndlvlduals from uemocraLlc 8epubllc of Congo and SouLh Sudan generaLlng
furLher sLress on local servlces. Cll companles expressed a deslre Lo see border conLrols
enhanced.

8est pract|ce:

Commuev: ltojects ooJ leople. A nooJbook fot AJJtessloq ltoject-loJoceJ lo-
mlqtotloo. (www.commdev.org)

1he case sLudy on Lhe Chad Cameroon lpellne would be of speclflc relevance Lo Lhe
ugandan conLexL.

11.6.S Loca| Content and Vocat|ona| 1ra|n|ng
Cn Aprll 30, 2014, Schlumberger ConsulLlng Croup released Lhe resulLs of lLs lndusLry
8uslness Survey. 1he sLudy esLlmaLes LhaL Lhe oll secLor has Lhe poLenLlal Lo creaLe beLween
100,000 and 130,000 [obs. Cf Lhese, some 13,000 [obs wlll be dlrecLly relaLed Lo
developmenL of Lhe AlberLlne Craben. AnoLher 23,000 Lo 30,000 lndlrecL [obs can be
generaLed Lhrough buslnesses such as envlronmenLal servlces, manpower agencles,
consLrucLlon maLerlals, food servlces, securlLy and more. A furLher 70,000 Lo 100,000
induced jobs will be generaLed as oll wealLh ls redlsLrlbuLed Lhrough Lhe economy. (5ootce.
New Report Outlines Opportunities in Oil. New Vision, May 1, 2014.)

Amld Lhls slgnlflcanL opporLunlLy, governmenL ls currenLly formulaLlng a naLlonal conLenL
pollcy. 1here ls a naLlonal ConLenL and CapaclLy 8ulldlng Cfflce wlLhln Lhe eLroleum
LxploraLlon and roducLlon ueparLmenL (Lu). Whlle Lhe companles broadly supporL Lhe
goal of local conLenL, Lhey are also concerned LhaL local flrms ofLen lack Lhe capaclLy or fall
Lo adhere Lo lndusLry sLandards and pracLlces. (5ee: Local Content: Ugandas mixed bag of
oil fortune. The Observer, 29 December 2013).

1oLal L& uganda sLaLes LhaL 80 of lLs dlrecL and lndlrecL sLaff are ugandan. 1hey currenLly
employ approxlmaLely 230 dlrecL sLaff, ouL of whlch abouL 60 per cenL are ugandans,
employed ln poslLlons varylng from englneers Lo personal asslsLanLs, boLh ln kampala and ln
Lhe area of operaLlons. ln addlLlon, more Lhan 2,300 personnel were employed by 1oLal as
conLracLors ln 2013, mosLly ln Lhe fleld, ouL of whom more Lhan 80 per cenL are ugandans.
1oLal ls also worklng Lo bulld Lhe capaclLy of lLs naLlonal employees. 1hey offer lnLernaLlonal
scholarshlps and Lhey LargeL sLudenLs LhaL wlsh Lo pursue masters degree programs ln oll
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and gas related fields. Students who successfully complete the masters programme are
employed by Lhe company. (Source: Total E&P confident to beat oil timeline, 1he
Cbserver, lebruary 18, 2014.)

vocaLlonal Lralnlng wlll be key Lo Laklng full advanLage of Lhe opporLunlLles presenLed by
lndusLry acLlvlLy.

1he lndusLry 8uslness Survey menLloned above ldenLlfled a serles of relaLed buslnesses
where Lralned workers would be needed, such as envlronmenLal servlces, manpower
agencles, consLrucLlon maLerlals and food servlces, among oLhers. 1here wlll also be an
urgenL need for quallfled candldaLes for governmenL servlces such as land valuers,
envlronmenLal and safeLy lnspecLors, eLc.

ln Lhe AlberLlne Craben 8eseLLlemenL ollcy lramework, Lhe governmenL noLed plans Lo
lmprove Lhe sLandard of Lralnlng lnsLlLuLlons such as Lhe uganda eLroleum lnsLlLuLe
klgumba and Lhe uganda 1echnlcal College klchwamba. 1hese Lwo lnsLlLuLes are expecLed Lo
recelve fundlng Lo supporL beLLer equlpped workshops relaLed Lo oll lndusLry Lrades as well
as upgraded Lralnlng and cerLlflcaLlon programs.

WorLh noLlng ls 1ullow provldlng fundlng and buslness supporL for Lhe openlng of an
enLerprlse cenLre ln Polma. 1hls cenLre ls run by a noL-for-proflL parLner, 1raldllnks, and
provldes Lralnlng and advlsory servlces for local enLrepreneurs and small- Lo medlum-slzed
enLerprlses.

8est pract|ce:
llLCA (global oll and gas lndusLry assoclaLlon): Local ConLenL SLraLegy: a Culdance
uocumenL for Lhe Cll and Cas lndusLry. www.lpleca.org.

Soc|a| Investment
As dlscussed earller ln Lhls secLlon, a sLraLeglc approach Lo soclal lnvesLmenL can help dellver
susLalnable beneflLs, bulld communlLy goodwlll, whlle preservlng Lhe proper roles of
governmenL vs. lndusLry wlLh respecL Lo communlLy developmenL.

It should be noted that a companys commlLmenL Lo soclal lnvesLmenL should noL be
measured ln flnanclal Lerms alone. Many expenslve phllanLhroplc pro[ecLs can have llLLle Lo
no lasLlng lmpacL.

Tullows support for Buliisa Health Centre IV is an interesting case study. With an investment
of approxlmaLely $2 mllllon, 1ullow has sponsored Lhe flrsL and largesL healLh cenLre ln Lhe
area, servlng a populaLlon of over 100,000. Powever, 1ullow has also found lL necessary Lo
sponsor supplemenLal sLaff for Lhe cllnlc. 1hey acknowledge LhaL Lhls should be a Lemporary
measure, raLher Lhan a permanenL arrangemenL. 1he declslon Lo locaLe Lhe cllnlc 8
kllomeLres ouLslde of Lhe Lown cenLre was negoLlaLed wlLh local offlclals and ls ln llne wlLh
fuLure developmenL plans. uesplLe Lhe sancLlon of local offlclals, esLabllshlng Lhe cllnlc
ouLslde 8ulllsa Lown ralsed some complalnLs. 1hls ls an example of why companles are
heslLanL Lo become ma[or supporLers of hlghly needed soclal servlces such as healLh and
educaLlon.
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Total stated that they have completely changed their approach. With respect to social
investment, they dont want to invest in bricks and mortar; they prefer to engage in long-
term sustainable projects. Their aim is to be an accelerating factor, without becoming
solely responslble for Lhe success of speclflc lnlLlaLlves. 1hey are looklng Lo offer supporL Lo
exlsLlng lnlLlaLlves LhaL have clear communlLy leadershlp.

CnCCC has acknowledged LhaL, as a comparaLlvely new player ln Lhe reglon, Lhey have
made only modesL soclal lnvesLmenLs Lo daLe. 1helr phllosophy ls complemenLary Lo 1ullow
and 1oLal: Lhey are looklng Lo supporL lnlLlaLlves LhaL are susLalnable, LhaL come from Lhe
communlLy and LhaL are clearly llnked Lo Lhe developmenL of Lhe communlLy.

8est pract|ce:
CommDev. StraLeglc CommunlLy lnvesLmenL: A Cood racLlce Pandbook for
Companies Doing Business in Emerging Markets. (www.commdev.org).

11.7 Issues ke|evant to the D

1here are several areas of speclflc relevance Lo MLPuu, glven Lhe lnformaLlon presenLed ln
Lhls secLlon.

Land lssues are clearly of Lhe greaLesL slgnlflcance Lo Lhe u, from Lhe perspecLlve of
Lhe oll companles. 1he currenL complexlLles are generaLlng frusLraLlon flr all parLles
and have Lhe poLenLlal Lo generaLe slgnlflcanL confllcL. 1he ma[or players ln Lhe
AlberLlne Craben have experlenced slmllar lssues ln oLher counLrles. lL may be Llme Lo
start with a blank slate in terms of the current approach to title, control of land values
and compensaLlon for reseLLlemenL. AL Lhe leasL, a survey of Lhe global experlences of
Lhe Lhree players ln Lhe AlberLlne would be useful.

MLPuu musL hlghllghL and engage wlLh relevanL mlnlsLrles regardlng Lhe subsLanLlal
soclal and envlronmenLal lmpacLs LhaL wlll be lmpllclL ln Lhe recommendaLlons of Lhe
u. MLPuu should model Lhe behavlour of sharlng lnformaLlon wldely and ln a Llmely
way lncludlng wlLh local governmenLs and lndusLry.

MLPuu should be a champlon for adopLlng a serles of lnLernaLlonal besL pracLlces ln
Ugandas oil industry, especially the IFC Environmental and Social Performance
SLandards. Whlle Lhere ls place for made-ln-uganda soluLlons Lo many lssues, Lhe pace
of development and Ugandas newcomer status call for such standards as a leg up.

MLPuu musL bulld a sLrong, daLa-based case Lo Lhe cenLral governmenL Lo lncrease
sLafflng/capaclLy of Lhe offlclals needed Lo provlde proper overslghL of Lhe lndusLry
and managemenL of lLs soclal and envlronmenLal lmpacLs. Whlle MLPuu musL
advocaLe for lLs own resources, lL musL also advocaLe for oLher deparLmenLs whose
own success ls clearly Lled Lo Lhe success of Lhe u.

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:<6"%$%+4"
V(3('%P+($,

Introduct|on
1hls ChapLer provldes a hlgher level overvlew of
Lconomlc uevelopmenL ln Lhe AlberLlne, and puLs lL ln
Lhe conLexL of uganda's overall economy and uganda's
poslLlon ln Lhe LasL Afrlcan CommunlLy. 1he poLenLlal
slgnlflcance of Lhe new peLroleum secLor ls puL lnLo
perspecLlve wlLh respecL Lo Lhe ma[or exlsLlng, long-
Lerm componenLs of agrlculLure and Lourlsm.
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12.1 Macro-Lconom|c Cverv|ew - Uganda
uganda ls a low-lncome economy
63
wlLh a gross domesLlc producL (Cu) of 39,626 bllllon
ugandan shllllngs (abouL uS$ 23.1 bllllon), wlLh a per caplLa lncome of 1.6 mllllon ugandan
shllllngs (uS$ 626) as of 2013
66
.

In real terms (i.e. at constant prices, removing the inflation), Ugandas GDP grew aL an
average of 6.6 per year over Lhe lasL Len years, whlle growLh raLe of real Cu per caplLa
was abouL 2.7 per year for Lhe same perlod. 8ehlnd Lhls ls Lhe hlgh populaLlon growLh Lhe
counLry has been experlenclng 1he average populaLlon growLh raLe ls esLlmaLed Lo be 3
per year for Lhe perlod of 2000 Lo 2012
67
. 1hus, over Lhe lasL Len years, Lhere were a couple
of years when Lhe real growLh raLe of Cu per caplLa was negaLlve as Lhe populaLlon growLh
raLe surpassed Lhe overall Cu growLh, as shown wlLh Lhe orange llne (dlpplng ln 2009 and
2012) ln llgure 12-1 below.

I|gure 12-1: kea| GD and GD er Cap|ta (2002 constant pr|ces), 2002-2013

Sources: 201J 5totlstlcol Absttoct, uganda 8ureau of SLaLlsLlcs (u8CS), AugusL 2013, and
World Lconomlc CuLlook (WLC) uaLabase Aprll 2014
<<hLLp://www.lmf.org/exLernal/pubs/fL/weo/2014/01/weodaLa/lndex.aspx>>,
lnLernaLlonal MoneLary lund (lMl), downloaded on May 1, 2014.

Colng forward, Lhe lMl forecasLs 6.4 Lo 7.4 of robusL annual growLhs of real Cu for
uganda for Lhe perlod up Lo 2019
68
.

1he populaLlon of uganda ls esLlmaLed Lo be 33.4 mllllon for mld-2013, of whlch 18.1 ls
consldered urban resldenLs
69
. 1he counLry has a ferLlllLy raLe of 6.0 blrLhs per woman, whlch

63
World 8ank classlflcaLlon as of May 1, 2014.
66
LaLesL Cu flgures from World Lconomlc CuLlook (WLC) uaLabase Aprll 2014
<<hLLp://www.lmf.org/exLernal/pubs/fL/weo/2014/01/weodaLa/lndex.aspx>>, lnLernaLlonal MoneLary lund
(lMl), downloaded on May 1, 2014, currenL prlces.
67
World uevelopmenL lndlcaLors (Wul) daLabase <<hLLp://daLa.worldbank.org/producLs/wdl>>, World 8ank,
downloaded on May 1, 2014.
68
World Lconomlc CuLlook (WLC) uaLabase Aprll 2014
<<hLLp://www.lmf.org/exLernal/pubs/fL/weo/2014/01/weodaLa/lndex.aspx>>, lnLernaLlonal MoneLary lund
(lMl), downloaded on May 1, 2014.
69
201J 5totlstlcol Absttoct, uganda 8ureau of SLaLlsLlcs (u8CS), AugusL 2013.
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ls among Lhe hlghesL ln Lhe LasL Afrlcan CommunlLy (LAC) arLner SLaLes along wlLh 8urundl,
whose ferLlllLy raLe ls 6.1 blrLhs per woman
70
. 1he proporLlon of Lhe younger populaLlon ls
on Lhe rlse.

ln Lerms of Lhe economlc sLrucLure, Lhe prlmary secLor remalns Lo be Lhe largesL
employment provider for Ugandans workforce, accounting for 70% of the total employment
although the sectors contrlbuLlon Lo Lhe Cu ls llmlLed Lo less Lhan a quarLer of Lhe LoLal.
1he servlce secLor, whlch employs 22 of worklng labour force, produces abouL 30 of Lhe
LoLal Cu, as presenLed ln I|gure 12-2 below. Cf all Lhe employmenL, abouL 80 ls ln Lhe
lnformal secLor
71
.

I|gure 12-2: Ugandas Economic Structure Lmp|oyment vs. Contr|but|on to GD


noLe: 1he employmenL flgure ls as of 2009/10, whlle Lhe Cu flgure ls as of 2012. lL should be noLed LhaL Lhe above flgures use sllghLly
different classifications and not entirely comparable. Primary sector includes, in addition to agriculture, forestry and fishlng, mlnlng and
extraction of oil and gas. In the above, mining and extraction of oil and gas are included in primary sector under employmenL flgure buL
are included in industry under the GDP figure. Regardless, mining and extraction of oil and gas are very small aL Lhls sLage, and Lhe above
provides a reasonable view of Ugandas economic structure in a comparative manner between employment and GDP contribution. The
consulLanL also compared Lhe secLor conLrlbuLlon Lo Lhe naLlonal Cu as of 2008, Lhe secLor conLrlbuLlons Lo Cu as of 2008 are abouL Lhe
same as Lhe 2012 flgure presenLed above.
Source: 201J 5totlstlcol Absttoct, u8CS, AugusL 2013.

While the agricultural sectors contribution to the national GDP is less Lhan a quarLer of Lhe
LoLal, Lhe agrlculLural producLs conLlnue Lo provlde abouL half of Lhe LoLal exporLs of uganda
(ln Lerms of value), wlLh coffee, flsh and flsh producLs, Lobacco, Lea and sugar belng among
Lhe Lop agrlculLural exporL commodlLles. ln parLlcular, coffee ls Lhe slngle mosL lmporLanL
exporL commodlLy, conLrlbuLlng 18 of Lhe LoLal exporL value earned by uganda ln 2013
72
.
1he commodlLy ls an lmporLanL source of cash lncome for many farmers ln uganda
73
.


70
World uevelopmenL lndlcaLors (Wul) daLabase <<hLLp://daLa.worldbank.org/producLs/wdl>>, World 8ank,
downloaded on May 1, 2014.
71
As of 2009/2010. 201J 5totlstlcol Absttoct, uganda 8ureau of SLaLlsLlcs (u8CS), AugusL 2013.
72
uaLa provlded by uganda 8ureau of SLaLlsLlcs (u8CS).
73
uganda Coffee lederaLlon (uCl) esLlmaLes LhaL as much as 20 of Lhe enLlre ugandan populaLlon earn all or
large parL of Lhelr cash lncome from coffee. Source: uCl webslLe <<
hLLp://www.ugandacoffeeLrade.com/ugandacoffee.asp>>
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Whlle Lhe agrlculLural secLor remalns Lo be a very lmporLanL secLor of employmenL ln
Uganda, the countrys agricultural value added per worker has remained more or less at the
same level over Lhe lasL Lwo decades
74
. 1he crop producLlon lndex lndlcaLes LhaL Lhe
lncrease ln producLlon ln uganda over Lhe lasL Len years ls modesL aL besL compared Lo lLs
nelghbourlng counLles, kenya, uganda, and 8wanda, all of whlch have doubled crop
producLlon ln Lhe same perlod
73
.

Another key industry is tourism. Ugandas tourism sector has steadily grown over the years,
and Lhe number of forelgn LourlsLs vlslLlng uganda more Lhan doubled beLween 2006 and
2012, from 339,000 persons Lo almosL 1.2 mllllon persons
76
. Accordlng Lo Lhe World 1ravel
and 1ourlsm Councll (W11C), lL ls esLlmaLed LhaL, as of 2013, Lhe Lourlsm secLor of uganda
(boLh forelgn and domesLlc Lourlsm) conLrlbuLed uS$ 2.1 bllllon Lo Lhe Cu ln LoLal and
employed 451,000 people. With Ugandas GDP of US$ 21.1 billion in 2013, the tourism
secLor conLrlbuLlon amounLs Lo almosL 10 of Lhe LoLal Cu, and Lhe secLor ls expecLed Lo
conLlnue growlng aL over 3 per year (ln Lerms of value) for Lhe nexL foreseeable fuLure as
presenLed ln I|gure 12-3.

I|gure 12-3: Tourism Sectors Contribution to GDP and Employment, 2000-2020


noLe: 2014 onward ls pro[ecLlons.
Source: World 1ravel and 1ourlsm Councll <<hLLp://www.wLLc.org/research/economlc-
daLa-search-Lool/>>





74
World uevelopmenL lndlcaLors (Wul) daLabase <<hLLp://daLa.worldbank.org/producLs/wdl>>, World 8ank,
downloaded on May 1, 2014.
73
World uevelopmenL lndlcaLors (Wul) daLabase <<hLLp://daLa.worldbank.org/producLs/wdl>>, World 8ank,
downloaded on May 1, 2014.
76
World uevelopmenL lndlcaLors (Wul) daLabase <<hLLp://daLa.worldbank.org/producLs/wdl>>, World 8ank,
downloaded on May 1, 2014.
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12.2 Uganda |n the Last Afr|ca Commun|ty

uganda ls Lhe 3
rd
largesL economy
77
of Lhe LAC, whlch conslsLs of flve parLner sLaLes
namely, uganda, kenya, 1anzanla, 8wanda, and 8urundl
78
wlLh Lhe 3
rd
largesL LerrlLory and
populaLlon. ln Lerms of Cu per caplLa, however, uganda ls, LogeLher wlLh 8urundl, one of
Lhe Lwo LAC counLrles LhaL are below Lhe reglon-wlde average.

1ab|e 12-1: Uganda and Last Afr|can Commun|ty artner States

County
GD
GD per
cap|ta
opu|at|on Surface Area
overty
kate
+

uS$ bn* of LAC uS$* Mllllon** of LAC
000km
2
*
*
of LAC

Uganda 21.2 21 S96 36 24 242 13 38
kenya 40.7 41 943 43 29 380 32 43
1anzanla 28.3 28 633 48 32 947 32 68
8wanda 7.1 7 682 11 7 26 1 63
8urundl 2.3 3 286 10 7 28 2 81
LAC 100.0 100 676
++
148 100 1,823 100 -
* lrom World Lconomlc CuLlook (WLC), lnLernaLlonal MoneLary lund (lMl). As of 2002.
** lrom World uevelopmenL lndlcaLor (Wul) uaLabase, World 8ank. As of 2002.
+
uslng Lhe lnLernaLlonal poverLy llne of $1.23/day. As of: 2009 for uganda, 2003 for kenya, 2007 for 1anzanla,
2011 for 8wanda, and 2006 for 8urundl.
++
Estimated based on EACs total GDP from IMF WEO and total population from World Bank WDI.

uganda ls a landlocked counLry, and lLs prlmary access Lo sea ls vla Lhe orL of Mombasa,
kenya (Lhe norLhern Corrldor). Whlle Lhe counLry also uses Lhe CenLral Corrldor Lo access
Lhe orL of uar es Salaam, Lhe use of uar es Salaam porL for LransporLlng goods Lo/from
uganda ls negllglble Loday
79
.

1here ls currenLly no crude producLlon ln Lhe LAC counLrles, and uganda has 100 relled on
imported petroleum products to satisfy its petroleum needs. Thus, the countrys single most
lmporLanL lmporL commodlLy has been peLroleum and peLroleum producLs, valued aL over
uS$ 1.3 bllllon (over 20 of Lhe LoLal lmporL value of uS$ 3.8 bllllon as of 2013). MosL of Lhe
oll has been lmporLed Lhrough Lhe orL of Mombasa, as ls Lhe case for oLher lmporL
commodlLles, and LransporLed Lo uganda by Lrucks or a comblnaLlon of a plpellne and
Lrucks
80
.

1he recenL dlscovery of commerclally recoverable oll reserves ln Lhe AlberLlne reglon,
however, can Lurn uganda a neL producer and exporLer of peLroleum (boLh crude and
producLs). 1he lnlLlal refinery capacity of 30,000 bbd is expected to suffice Ugandas national
demand for Lhe flrsL number of years, wlLh a small amounL lefL for exporLs, when Lhe

77
ln Lerms of Cu.
78
lL ls undersLood LhaL SouLh Sudan and LLhlopla have recenLly applled for a membershlp of Lhe LAC.
79
LsLlmaLed Lo be less Lhan 1 of LoLal frelghL, accordlng Lo uganda Shlppers Councll.
80
1rucks can plck up peLroleum producLs aL Mombasa, kunza, klsumu, and LldoreL, and nakuru Lermlnals.
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reflnery ls expanded Lo produce 60,000 bbd, lL ls expecLed LhaL uganda wlll serve parL of Lhe
peLroleum demand of Lhe reglon.

12.3 1he A|bert|ne |n Uganda
This section discusses the roles of the Albertine region in Ugandas economy, focusing on the
maln economlc secLors. WhaL ls presenLed below ls, by any means, noL an exhausLlve llsL of
all Lhe lmporLanL economlc acLlvlLles of Lhe reglon, buL provldes a hlgh-level overvlew of Lhe
key economlc secLors of AlberLlne reglon and lLs role/shares ln Lhe overall ugandan
economy.

12.3.1 Agr|cu|ture Crop roduct|on
As ls Lhe case for Lhe overall uganda, Lhe ma[orlLy of Lhe populaLlon of Lhe AlberLlne reglon
relles Lhelr llvlng on agrlculLural acLlvlLles. 8elow provldes a brlef overvlew of ma[or
agrlculLural acLlvlLles relevanL Lo Lhe AlberLlne reglon.

Ma[or Iood Crops
1he AlberLlne reglon occuples abouL 23 of Lhe LoLal land area of uganda and produces
about 30% of the total production of Ugandas major food crops. Of the production of the
AlberLlne reglon, abouL a Lhlrd ls produced ln Lhe SLudy Area SouLh.

I|gure 12-4: Contr|but|on of A|bert|ne keg|on |n Nat|ona| Iood Crop roduct|on, 2008]09

noLe: 1he crops lncluded ln Lhe above are: lanLaln
bananas, flnger mllleL, malze, sorghum, rlce, sweeL
poLaLoes, lrlsh poLaLoes, cassava, beans, fleld peas, cow
peas, plgeon peas, ground nuLs, soya beans, and slm-
slm.
Source: 201J 5totlstlcol Absttoct, u8CS, AugusL 2013.

1he largesL food crop produced ln Lhe AlberLlne reglon ln Lerms of volume ls planLaln
bananas, wlLh Lhe SLudy Area SouLh produclng Lhe mosL. 1he AlberLlne reglon also produces
abouL 30 of Lhe LoLal naLlonal producLlon of cassava, of whlch abouL half ls produced ln Lhe
SLudy Area norLh. lor Lhe SLudy Area CenLral, cassava and malze are Lhe crops produced ln
Lhe largesL volume, buL Lhelr producLlon ls relaLlvely small as a porLlon of Lhe LoLal maln food
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crops produced ln uganda. Chapter 10 provldes a deLalled dlscusslon of AgrlculLure ln
uganda.

I|gure 12-S: roduct|on of Iour 1op Iood Crops (metr|c tonnes), 2008]09


Source: LsLlmaLed based on 201J 5totlstlcol Absttoct, u8CS, AugusL 2013.

Ma[or Lxport Agr|cu|tura| Commod|t|es Coffee, 1obacco, and 1ea
As menLloned above, coffee ls Lhe largesL forelgn currency earner of uganda and ls Lhe
ma[or cash crop for a large number of farmers of Lhe counLry. lL ls esLlmaLed LhaL LhaL Lhere
are 300,000 coffee farms (mosLly smallholders) wlLh 2.8 mllllon coffee workers ln uganda
and LhaL as much as 20 of Lhe enLlre ugandan populaLlon earns all or large parL of Lhelr
cash lncome from coffee
81
. 1he ma[or coffee growlng reglons are MounL Llgon reglon aL Lhe
kenya border, Lake vlcLorla reglon, MounL 8wenzorl reglon, and Lhe WesL nlle reglon. Cf
Lhose, Lhe laLLer Lwo reglons MounL 8wenzorl and WesL nlle are locaLed wlLhln Lhe
AlberLlne reglon
82
, ln Lhe SLudy Area SouLh and Lhe SLudy Area norLh, respecLlvely. 1he
coffee produced ln Lhe wesLern parL of uganda, l.e. MounL 8wenzorl reglon, ls sald Lo be of
Lhe hlghesL quallLy.

1obacco ls Lhe 2
nd
largesL agrlculLural exporL commodlLy of uganda, wlLh lLs exporL earnlngs
of uS$ 120 mllllon wlLh a volume of abouL 36,000 Lonnes ln 2013. lLs maln producLlon reglon
ls WesL nlle reglon locaLed wlLhln Lhe SLudy Area norLh.

1ea ls Lhe 3
rd
largesL agrlculLural crop ln exporL value (uS$ 86 mllllon). 1he maln produclng
areas of Lea are: Lake vlcLorla reglon, Lhe lower slopes of 8wenzorl MounLalns (kabarole

81
uganda lnvesLmenL AuLhorlLy (ulA) << hLLp://www.ugandalnvesL.go.ug/lndex.php/2013-10-24-13-08-
31/coffee>> and uganda Coffee lederaLlon << hLLp://www.ugandacoffeeLrade.com/ugandacoffee.asp>>
82
uganda Coffee lederaLlon << hLLp://www.ugandacoffeeLrade.com/ugandacoffee.asp>>
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dlsLrlcL), and above WesLern 8lfL valley (8ushenyl, ken[o[o, klbale, Polma, and kanungu)
83
.
1he laLLer Lwo belong Lo Lhe AlberLlne reglon. 1ea processlng planLs are locaLed LhroughouL
Lhe AlberLlne reglon, buL Lhey are more concenLraLed ln Lhe SLudy Area SouLh.

Cther Crops
ln addlLlon Lo Lhe above, Lhe ma[or agrlculLural crops produced ln Lhe AlberLlne reglon
lnclude: sugar with large sugar plantations and the countrys second largest sugar plant,
klnyara Sugar lacLory, near Maslndl, and coLLon producLlon ln Lhe SLudy Area SouLh (close Lo
u8C).

12.3.2 Agr|cu|ture I|sher|es
1he volume of flsh caughL ln ugandan waLers has
lncreased by 10 from 2009 Lo 2012, from 367,000
Lonnes Lo 404,000 Lonnes. uurlng Lhe same Llme
perlod, flsh caLch ln Lhe Lake AlberL has Lrlpled,
from 36,000 Lonnes Lo 132,000 Lonnes. 1oday,
LogeLher wlLh Lhe caLch from Lhe Lake Ldward Lhe
AlberLlne reglon provldes almosL 40 of Lhe LoLal
flsh caughL ln uganda.



I|gure 12-6: I|sh Catch by Water Source, 2009-2012





This increase is suspected to be due to the recent opening up of the Albertine region (the
SLudy Area CenLral) Lo kampala, Lhe largesL markeL of uganda, vla a beLLer road (Lhe
kampala-Polma road). lL has been reporLed LhaL Lhe flsh caughL ln Lhe Lake AlberL does noL
reach Lhe local populaLlon, buL ls mosLly LransporLed Lo kampala Loday. 1he llshery ls
furLher dlscussed ln boLh Chapters 8 and 9.


83
Cali, Managua, Future Climate Scenarios for Ugandas Team Growing Areas: Final Report, International
CenLer for 1roplcal AgrlculLure, !uly 2011.
uurlng Lhe fleld consulLaLlons, some
expressed concern LhaL Lhe flsh
caughL ln Lhe reglon no longer reach
Lhe local populaLlon because lL all
geLs senL Lo kampala for sale ln
larger and beLLer (and probably
more proflLable) markeLs, whlch can
posslbly mean poorer nuLrlLlon
lnLake for Lhe local populaLlon.
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llsh caLch from Lhe Lake vlcLorla decreased by over 13 durlng Lhe same perlod. Whlle Lhe
Lake vlcLorla conLlnues Lo be Lhe largesL source of flsh supply ln uganda, and Loday, lL
provldes only 43 of LoLal as compared Lo over 60 ln 2009.

12.3.3 Agr|cu|ture Cther
CLher lmporLanL agrlculLural subsecLors ln uganda lnclude foresLry and llvesLock/meaL
producLlon. lL has been reporLed LhaL commerclal foresLry ls on Lhe rlse LhroughouL uganda,
buL lL ls noL known exacLly how much of LhaL ls ln Lhe AlberLlne reglon. lor llvesLock/meaL
subsecLor, based on Lhe avallable daLa on Lhe number of llvesLock by dlsLrlcL
84
as proxy, lL ls
estimated that the Albertine regions share is about 24% of the total.

12.3.4 1our|sm
1ourlsm ls an lmporLanL lndusLry secLor ln uganda, conLrlbuLlng an esLlmaLed uS$ 2.1 bllllon
to the countrys GDP in 2013, as mentioned ln Lhe Sect|on 12.1 above.

1here ls no concreLe daLa avallable Lo esLlmaLe Lhe slze of Lhe Lourlsm secLor of Lhe AlberLlne
reglon and lLs conLrlbuLlon Lo Lhe overall ugandan economy. Powever, some (and rough)
esLlmaLe can be made from the number of visitors to the countrys national parks, which are
Lhe ma[or Lourlsm aLLracLlons of uganda. 1he naLlonal parks locaLed ln Lhe AlberLlne reglon
namely, Murchlson lalls, Cueen LllzabeLh, klbaale, Semllkl, and 8wenzorl MounLalns
naLlonal arks had a LoLal of 134,600 vlslLors ln 2012.
83
1hls represenLs 74 of Lhe all
visitors to Ugandas national parks.

I|gure 12-7: Number of V|s|tors to Nat|ona| arks, 2012


Source: 201J 5totlstlcol Absttoct, u8CS, AugusL 2013.

Accordlng Lo Lhe W11C, of Lhe LoLal Cu conLrlbuLlons by Lhe Lourlsm secLor, 36.4 ls
esLlmaLed Lo be buslness Lrlp-relaLed. 1o be conservaLlve, lL ls assumed LhaL Lhe buslness-
relaLed spendlng ls cenLred around kampala, Lhus ouLslde Lhe AlberLlne reglon and ls

84
uaLa from Lhe 2008 LlvesLock Census, presenLed ln 201J 5totlstlcol Absttoct, uganda 8ureau of SLaLlsLlcs
(u8CS), AugusL 2013.
83
LsLlmaLed based on 201J 5totlstlcol Absttoct, u8CS, AugusL 2013.
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excluded from estimating the Albertine regions Lourlsm conLrlbuLlon. AfLer subLracLlng Lhe
buslness Lrlp-relaLed spendlng, and slmply based on proporLlon of Lhe number of vlslLors Lo
Lhose parks locaLed ln Lhe AlberLlne reglon as Lhe proxy for Lhe reglonal share of Lhe naLlonal
tourism revenue, the contribution of the Albertine regions tourism sector can be esLlmaLed
LhaL lL ls as much as US$ 1 billion, or about the half of the countrys tourism sector
conLrlbuLlon Lo Cu.

12.3.S etro|eum Industry
1he peLroleum lndusLry of uganda ls aL lLs lncepLlon phase. 1he recenLly dlscovered
commerclally recoverable oll deposlLs are esLlmaLe Lo be abouL 3.3 bllllon barrels. 1he oll
flelds are locaLed ln Lhe AlberLlne reglon, and wlLh a reflnery planned Lo be bullL ln Polma
(Lhe SLudy Area CenLral), lL ls expecLed LhaL much of Lhe oll-relaLed acLlvlLles wlll Lake place
ln Lhe reglon, parLlcularly cenLered around Polma where, besldes Lhe planned reflnery, oll
companles are expecLed Lo place Lhelr offlces.

1he developmenL dlrecLly relaLed Lo Lhe oll secLor ln Lhe AlberLlne reglon ls expecLed Lo
lnclude, buL noL necessarlly llmlLed Lo:

A 60,000 bbd-capaclLy reflnery developmenL ln Polma, whlch wlll lnlLlally be bullL
wlLh a 30,000 bbd capaclLy and ls expecLed Lo be operaLlonal ln 2017/18
86
,
Cll wells developmenL, whlch ls already underway,
Crude plpellne developmenL for crude exporL,
roducL plpellne developmenL for dlsLrlbuLlon of peLroleum producLs from Lhe
reflnery, wlLh a ma[or dlsLrlbuLlon Lermlnal near kampala, Lhe largesL demand cenLre.

1here have also been dlscusslons on poLenLlal peLro-chemlcal lndusLry canLered around Lhe
Polma reflnery, buL no concreLe plans or deLalled sLudles have been prepared Lo daLe Lo our
knowledge. 1he acLual prospecLs for such an lndusLry may be llmlLed glven Lhe relaLlvely
small oll reserves and shorL perlod of pro[ecLed producLlon.

12.3.6 M|n|ng
ln 2012, uganda produced 1.7 mllllon Lonnes of mlnerals, of whlch more Lhan half, 940,000
Lonnes, ls llmesLone
87
. 1he remalnder lncludes pozzolana, kaolln, vermlcullLe, cobalL, and
lron ore, among a few oLhers.

1he llmesLone, Lhe largesL mlneral produced ln uganda, ls malnly mlned ln MoroLo
(norLheasL uganda), kasereml (near 1ororo), and kasese. Cf Lhese places, kasese ls locaLed
ln Lhe AlberLlne reglon (Lhe SLudy Area SouLh). Cne of Lhe ma[or cemenL producers of
uganda, Plma CemenL (Lafarge), has a planL ln kasese and also operaLe lLs own llmesLone
mlne.
8esldes Lhe above, Lhere are number of mlnes wlLh hlgh poLenLlal for producLlon. 1he mosL
noLable ones are:

86
uganda has a furLher plan Lo lncrease Lhe capaclLy of Lhe reflnery Lo 120,000 bbd, buL no Llmeframe ln place
as of Loday.
87
201J 5totlstlcol Absttoct, uganda 8ureau of SLaLlsLlcs (u8CS), AugusL 2013.
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Copper ln kasese (kllembe Mlne), and
hosphaLe ln Sukulu Pllls (near 1ororo).

1he kllembe Mlne ls locaLed ln Lhe SLudy Area SouLh and has recenLly been concessloned Lo
a Chlnese consorLlum by Lhe MlnlsLry of llnance. Powever, no deLalls on Lhe expecLed
producLlon levels or Llmeframe are avallable. lurLher, Lhere are a number of oLher ma[or
deposlLs as follows (noL exhausLlve):

ln AlberLlne 8eglon:
- ulaLomlLe ln akwach ulaLomlLe can be used for beer fllLerlng.
- 8enLonlLe ln Lhe area around Polma 8enLonlLe can be used as drllllng mad for
peLroleum drllllng. 1he CovernmenL of uganda ls reporLedly Lrylng Lo encourage
Lhe oll companles Lo use Lhls local benLonlLe.
- SalL ln kasese 1here ls a governmenL-owned salL facLory, whlch ls noL operaLlonal
Loday.
- Class sand ln Masaka Area (ullmu and 8ukakaLa) 1here used Lo be LasL Afrlcan
Class Works company as Lhe area produces hlgh-quallLy glass sand. lL used Lo be
mlned, buL noL mlned Loday.
- kaolln ln Mbarara 1here are hlgh-quallLy kaolln deposlLs, buL noL mlned Loday.
CuLslde AlberLlne 8eglon:
lron ore ln kabale A Chlnese company ls LesL-drllllng, buL no concreLe plan for
mlnlng ln place.

1here are subsLanLlal poLenLlals of mlnlng ln uganda as above. 1here are reporLedly many
speculaLors holdlng exploraLlon llcenses wlLhouL any acLlvlLles, and lL ls noL clear aL Lhls sLage
lf/when Lhese mlnes wlll sLarL commerclal producLlons.
12.4 Cpportun|t|es and L|m|tat|ons]Constra|ns
12.4.1 C|| Sector Impact on Uganda
1he developmenL of Lhe oll secLor ln uganda, whlch wlll be physlcally locaLed ln Lhe
AlberLlne reglon, ls expecLed Lo reallze addlLlonal employmenL opporLunlLles and assoclaLed
economlc developmenL ln Lhe reglon and Lhe enLlre counLry. 1he opporLunlLles dlrecLly
relaLed Lo Lhe oll secLor developmenL lnclude:

ulrecL employmenL opporLunlLles ln Lhe oll secLor (labour for developmenL of oll
wells, plpellnes, Lhe reflnery, eLc. and Lhelr operaLlon)

Supply of goods and servlces Lo Lhe oll secLor, lncludlng supply of food (l.e.
agrlculLural produce
88
) Lo Lhe oll secLor workers, supply of consLrucLlon maLerlals,
eLc.


88
An lrlsh ald organlzaLlon, 1raldLlnks, ls acLlvely worklng ln Lhe reglon Lo connecL local farmers wlLh Lhe oll
secLor ln order Lo enable Lhe local farmers Lo Lake Lhe opporLunlLy Lo provlde Lhelr agrlculLural produce Lo Lhe
oll companles.
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1hen, Lhere wlll be addlLlonal spln-off effecLs of lncreased economlc acLlvlLles ln Lhe
reglon, where lncreased employmenL, Lhus lncreased lncome, wlll lead Lo more
spendlng ln Lhe reglon, whlch would sLlmulaLe furLher economlc acLlvlLles. 1hese
lmpacLs wlll llkely be mosL sLrongly felL ln Lhe AlberLlne reglon where Lhe physlcal
developmenL of Lhe oll secLor Lakes place.

lL ls also expecLed LhaL, assumlng LhaL oll producLs from Lhe Polma reflnery ls Lo be
provlded aL a lower cosL as compared Lo Lhe currenL producL whlch are lmporLed
Lhrough Mombasa, Lhe provlslon of cheaper peLroleum producLs wlll help faclllLaLe
more economlc acLlvlLles by lowerlng Lhe cosLs of LransporL and lnpuLs LhroughouL
uganda.

1he above-menLloned economlc opporLunlLles and expecLed lmpacLs are poslLlve and
are expected to contribute to the growth of Ugandas economy and GDP. The
prellmlnary, worklng drafL of Lhe Macroeconomlc lramework belng prepared by Lhe
naLlonal lannlng AuLhorlLy (nA) ln preparaLlon of Lhe 2nd naLlonal uevelopmenL
lan (nu ll) 2013/16-2019/20 forecasLs over 30 lncrease ln Lhe oll secLor
contribution to Ugandas GDP in the year when the refinery is expecLed Lo be
commlssloned (l.e. 2017)
89
.

Powever, Lhose beneflLs menLloned above have Lo be Laken wlLh a cauLlon. 1he peak
of employmenL opporLunlLles ln Lhe oll secLor as well as Lhe peak of Lhe oll secLor
demand for goods and servlces wlll be durlng Lhe consLrucLlon perlod. 1he oll secLor
ls noL a labour-lnLenslve lndusLry, and once consLrucLlon ls compleLe, Lhere wlll be a
drasLlc reducLlon ln demand for labour, goods and servlces.

ln addlLlon, Lhe oll secLor ls a hlghly sophlsLlcaLed lndusLry, where developmenL of
necessary experLlse wlll noL happen overnlghL. Slnce Lhe dlscovery of Lhe
commerclally vlable oll reserves, uganda has been Laklng lnlLlaLlves Lo prepare lLself
by developlng experLlse wlLhln Lhe MlnlsLry of Lnergy and Mlneral uevelopmenL
(MLMu), whlch has lncluded sendlng selecLed offlclals Lo overseas Lo sLudy. lL has
also been worklng Loward developlng skllls and experLlse among lLs populaLlon
Lhough provldlng speclal oll & gas secLor courses and Lralnlngs aL unlverslLles and
Lralnlng lnsLlLuLlons. 1hese are necessary and poslLlve developmenLs ln order for
uganda Lo properly manage lLs oll secLor. Powever, ln Lerms of Lhe overall dlrecL
employmenL durlng Lhe consLrucLlon and operaLlon, lL ls sLlll expecLed LhaL many
skllled workers wlll have Lo be broughL ln from abroad where Lhere are well-
developed oll secLors wlLh necessary experLlse. 1hus, lL would be safe Lo be
conservaLlve Lo esLlmaLe LhaL dlrecL employmenL ln Lhe oll secLor wlll be of relaLlvely
llmlLed naLure.

12.4.2 C|| Sector Deve|opment w|th|n Nat|ona| Deve|opment |an
8egardless of Lhe expecLed poslLlve economlc developmenL lmpacL menLloned above,
however, lL has Lo be noLed LhaL oll ls noL Lhere forever. 1he commerclally recoverable oll

89
Matovu, John Mary, et al, Macroeconomlc lramework nu ll 2013/16-2019/20, Version April 6, 2014,
naLlonal lannlng AuLhorlLy. lL ls a prellmlnary worklng drafL, sub[ecL Lo furLher revlslons and reflnemenL.
SI1UA1ICN ANALSIS kLCk1 | reparaLlon of a hyslcal uevelopmenL lan
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deposlL of uganda ls small ln comparlson Lo Lhose oll-rlch counLrles, such as Saudl Arabla
and venezuela. WlLh Lhe currenL plan of a 60,000 bbd reflnery and planned crude exporL of
over 200,000 bbd
90
, the 3.5 billion barrels of Ugandas crude oil reserve will be depleted in
23-33 years.

1hus, whlle Lhe developmenL and proper managemenL of Lhe oll secLor ls lmporLanL for
uganda ln order Lo maxlmlze Lhe beneflL of Lhe resources lL has dlscovered, lL ls llkely more
lmporLanL LhaL Lhe counLry conLlnues lLs efforLs for lmprovemenL and furLher developmenL
of exlsLlng economlc secLors and dlverslflcaLlon of economlc acLlvlLles for lLs conLlnued and
susLalnable growLh ln Lhe long run and Lo avold Lhe uuLch dlsease. 1he nA correcLly
recognlzes Lhls as seen ln Lhe sLaLemenL below:

Whlle Lhe dlscovery of oll resources ls expecLed Lo avall exLra resources Lo spur lnvesLmenLs
ln physlcal lnfrasLrucLure and human caplLal development, Ugandas comparative advantage
remalns ln agrlculLure whlch ls noL yeL fully explolLed Lo lLs maxlmum poLenLlal... Lhe secLor
ls noL well llnked Lo lndusLry ln form of agro-processlng... 8esldes Lhe underdevelopmenL
exhlblLed ln Lhe agrlculLure secLor, Lhe
composlLlon of exporLs ln uganda has noL
changed slgnlflcanLly beLween Lhe perlod
1963 and 2010. uganda has a slgnlflcanL
presence ln many of Lhe perlpheral producLs,
parLlcularly, Lree crops llke coffee and flowers,
anlmal producLs and flsh whlch are noL
verLlcally lnLegraLed Lo lLs lndusLrlal secLor. uganda has Lhe poLenLlal Lo dlverslfy lnLo food
processlng whlch would have slgnlflcanL lmpacL on producLlon by farmers and Lhereby
enhance Lhe wealLh creaLlon process.
91


1he NPAs drafL Macroeconomic Framework also specifically refers to the needs to
circumvent the Dutch disease associated with oil discovery
92
.

ln shorL, Lhe drafL Macroeconomlc lramework advocaLes for value chaln developmenL for
Lhe agrlculLural secLor Lo creaLe more value added, developmenL of mlnlng secLor Lo explolL
the countrys rich resource endowment, further development manufacturing sector through
secLor-speclflc clusLer developmenL, and promoLlon of prlvaLe secLor Lhrough human and
lnfrasLrucLure developmenL. Oil sector will provide extra resources to augment Ugandas
efforLs for economlc developmenL, Lhe oll secLor revenue ls expecLed Lo be lnvesLed ln
development of infrastructure that will support the countrys economic development.


90
uganda CounLry Analysls noLe, unlLed SLaLes Lnergy lnformaLlon AdmlnlsLraLlon (uSLlA)
<<hLLp://www.ela.gov/counLrles/counLry-daLa.cfm?flps=ug>>
91
Matovu, John Mary, et al, Macroeconomic Framework nu ll 2013/16-2019/20, Version April