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Introduction to Chemistry 7

1.1
FOCUS
Objectives
1.1.1Identify ve traditional areas of
study in chemistry.
1.1.2Relate pure ce!istry to
applied chemistry.
1.1."Identify reasons to study
chemistry.
#uide for Readin$#uide for Readin$
%uild &ocabulary
'araprase (elp students translate
the denition of technology into their
own words. For example, means might
be a way that something gets doneas
in means to an end.
Readin$ Strate$y
Su!!ari)e (ave students *rite a
summary of this section and then
check the summaries to see if the sum
maries answer the key concepts !ues
tions on p. ".
I+S,RUC,
#a$e students study the photograph
and read the text that opens the sec
tion. %sk, &hy would large amounts
of sulfur and sulfur dio-ide be a si$n
tat te volcanoes on Io.s surface are
active/'(hese chemicals are usually
released when volcanoes erupt on
Earth.) On September 21, 2003 Galileos
mission ended when its supply of pro
pellant was almost depleted.&ithout
propellent, )alileo couldn*t point its
antenna toward +arth or a$oid a
collision with ,upiter*s moon +uropa.
-cientists programmed )alileo to col
lide with and disintegrate in ,upiter*s
atmosphere.
0at Is Ce!istry/
1iscuss1iscuss
(o nd out if students understand the
scope of the category matter , ask them
to classify items as matter or non
matter.
1
1
22
22
2
2
22
Section Resources
'rint
3#uided Readin$ and Study 0or4boo45
-ection ...
3Core ,eacin$ Resources5 Section 1.1
/e$iew, Interpreting )raphics
3,ransparencies5 ,16,2
,ecnolo$y
3Interactive ,e-tboo4 *it Ce!7S7'5
%ssessment ...
3#o Online5 Section 1.1
Connecting to Your WorldConnecting to Your WorldConnecting to Your World
-ection ... Chemistry 7 7
1.1Ce!istryCe!istry
(he )alileo spacecraft was
placed in orbit around ,upiter to collect data about the planet and its
moons. Instruments aboard )alileo analy0ed the atmosphere of the
moon Io.(hey found large amounts of sulfur and
sulfur dioxide. (hese chemicals are usually
released when $olcanoes erupt on +arth.
-o the presence of these chemicals
$eried that the $olcanoes on Io*s
surface are acti$e. Chemistry helped
scientists to study the geology of
a distant ob1ect in the solar system.
In this section, you will learn about
chemistry in general and ways you can
use your knowledge of chemistry.
#uide for Readin$#uide for Readin$
8ey Concepts
&hy is the scope of chemistry
so $ast2
&hat are $e traditional areas
of study in chemistry2
#ow are pure and applied
chemistry related2
&hat are three general reasons
to study chemistry2
&ocabulary
matter
chemistry
organic chemistry
inorganic chemistry
biochemistry
analytical chemistry
physical chemistry
pure chemistry
applied chemistry
technology
Readin$ Strate$y
Relatin$ ,e-t and &isuals 7s
you read,look closely at Figure ..3.
+xplain how this illustration helps
you to understand the traditional
areas of study in chemistry.
0at Is Ce!istry/
In autumn thousands of $isitors tra$el to 4ew +ngland to $iew $i$id colors
like those in Figure .... (hese colors appear as the trees approach the win
ter months when growth no longer takes place. (he bright pigments are
produced by a complex chemical process, which depends on changes in
temperature and hours of daylight. (he color pigments in lea$es are an
example of matter. 5atter is the general term for all the things that can be
described as materials, or stu6. 9atteris anything that has mass and
occupies space. 7ou don8t ha$e to be able to see something for it to !ualify
as matter. (he air you breathe is an example of in$isible matter.
Ce!istry is the study of the composition of matter and the changes
that matter undergoes. Because living and nonliving things are made
of matter, chemistry affects all aspects of life and most natural events.
Chemistry can explain how some creatures sur$i$e deep in the ocean
where there is no light, or why some foods taste sweet and some taste bitter.
It can e$en explain why there are di6erent shampoos for dry or oily hair.
Fi$ure 1.1 Ce!ical can$es
that occur in lea$es can cause
brilliant displays of color.





chem_TE_ch01_FPL.fm Page 7 Tuesday, August 3, 2004 9:21 AM
: Chapter .
Section 1.1 ;continued<
7reas of Study
1iscuss
%sk students to consider their acti$ities
during a single day. %sk them to gi$e
examples of things they do that
in$ol$e chemical processes or contact
with chemicals.(hen, ask if they can
think of four items or acti$ities that do
not in some way in$ol$e chemistry. 'It
will be hard to nd an! that do not" Stu#
dents could consider what the! eat, what
the! wear, the products the! use $or per#
sonal h!%iene, their normal mode o$
transportation, and their residence.
F=I
(he area that is most difcult to
describe at the start of a chemistry
course is physical chemistry, which is
highly theoretical. 9hysical chemists
in$estigate the underlying scientic
principles behind the changes that
occur in matter. % physical chemistry
course includes topics such as !uan
tum mechanics, thermodynamics,
kinetic molecular theory, and reaction
mechanisms.
7ddress 9isconceptions
:ased on how the term chemical is
used in the media 'and how it is
dened in most dictionaries;, students
may assume that the term chemical
refers exclusi$ely to harmful materials.
+xplain that chemical describes all
types of matter, including life
sustaining substances, such as
water and oxygen.
22
#ifted and ,alented
Challenge students to conduct research on
the traditional areas of study in chemistry.
+ncourage students to set up an inter$iew
with a chemist at a nearby college or local
research laboratory.(hey could also search for
information online.%sk students to share their
research with the class.
2"
1i>erentiated Instruction
: Chapter .
7reas of Study
:ecause the scope of chemistry is $ast, chemists tend to focus on one area.
Five traditional areas of study are organic chemistry, inorganic
chemistry, biochemistry, analytical chemistry, and physical chemistry.
5ost of the chemicals found in organisms contain carbon. <rganic
chemistry was originally dened as the study of these carbonbased chem
icals. (oday, with a few exceptions, or$anic ce!istry is dened as the
study of all chemicals containing carbon. :y contrast, inor$anic ce!istry
is the study of chemicals that, in general, do not contain carbon. Inorganic
chemicals are found mainly in nonli$ing things, such as rocks. (he study
of processes that take place in organisms is bioce!istry. (hese processes
include muscle contraction and digestion. 7nalytical ce!istry is the area
of study that focuses on the composition of matter. % task that would fall
into this area of chemistry is measuring the le$el of lead in drinking water.
'ysical ce!istry is the area that deals with the mechanism, the rate, and
the energy transfer that occurs when matter undergoes a change.
(he boundaries between the $e areas are not rm. % chemist is likely
to be working in more than one area of chemistry at any gi$en time. For
example, an organic chemist uses analytical chemistry to determine the
composition of an organic chemical. Figure ..3 shows how research in
these areas of study can be used to keep humans healthy.
Fi$ure 1.2 Ce!ists study
structures and processes in the
human body. Inferring =oes
a bone contain mainly organic
or inorganic chemicals?
Or$anic Ce!istry
%thletes inhale chemicals
de$eloped by organic
chemists to control
symptoms of asthma.
Inor$anic Ce!istry
%n inorganic chemist might
explain how a lack of
calcium can a6ect the
growth and repair of bones.
7nalytical Ce!istry
%nalytical chemists de$elop tests
to detect chemicals in the blood.
(he tests help to show if organs in
the body are working properly.
%ioce!istry
% biochemist might study how the
energy used for the contraction of
muscles is produced and stored.
'ysical Ce!istry
% physical chemist
might study factors
that a6ect breathing
rates during exercise.










chem_TE_ch01.fm Page !ed"esday, A#$%& 20, 200' (:'' AM
Introduction to Chemistry ?
'ure and 7pplied
Ce!istry
Use &isualsUse &isuals
Fi$ure 1." (ave students study te
photographs. %sk, &hat is the con
nection bet*een te poto$raps/
&'he bac(pac( is made o$ n!lon, which is
the material in the bea(er.) 'hen point
out that the study of the underlying
structure of bers was an example of
pure chemistry, which led to an exam
ple of applied chemistry>the com
mercial production of nylon. '4ylon is
discussed as an example of a conden
sation polymer in -ection 3?.@.(here is
a demo for making nylon on p. "A..;
RelateRelate
(he public*s perception and expecta
tions of science ha$e changed dramati
cally o$er the last two hundred years.
%d$ances in technology can lead to
increased public concern about the
role that science plays in shaping the
future.(hese societal concerns are
reBected in the work of .Cth and 3Dth
century no$elists such as #. ).&ells,
+dward :ellamy, ,ules Eerne, )eorge
<rwell, and 5ary -helley.#a$e students
select a no$el by one of these no$elists
and critically examine it to determine
how the author addressed the role of
science, technology, and society in his
or her era.
=ownload a worksheet on %pplied
Ce!istry for students to co!@
plete, and nd additional teacher
support from 4-(% -ciFinks.
21
22
Answers to...
Fi$ure 1.2 Students sould infer
that a bone contains mainly inor
ganic materials.
Cec4point
-ilk
7spirin
In the late .C@Ds, =r. Fawrence Cra$en
obser$ed that gum containing aspirin, which
was used to relie$e pain after the remo$al of
tonsils, caused excessi$e bleeding in children.
#e hypothesi0ed that aspirin pre$ented the
blood from clotting.#e then began to pre
scribe aspirin to pre$ent heart attacks.
In .CGA, the F=% appro$ed aspirin for
patients who had su6ered a heart attack. In
.CCH, the F=% proposed using aspirin during
a suspected attack. In .CC", an ad$isory com
mittee recommended daily low doses of
aspirin for people at high risk of a heart
attack.
-ection ... Chemistry ?
'ure and 7pplied Ce!istry
-ome chemists en1oy doing research on fundamental aspects of chemistry.
(his type of research is sometimes called pure chemistry. 'ure ce!istry is
the pursuit of chemical knowledge for its own sake. (he chemist doesn*t
expect that there will be any immediate practical use for the knowledge.
5ost chemists do research that is designed to answer a specic !uestion.
7pplied ce!istry is research that is directed toward a practical goal or
application. In practice, pure chemistry and applied chemistry are often
linked. Pure research can lead directly to an application, but an
application can exist before research is done to explain how it works. 4ylon
and aspirin pro$ide examples of these two approaches.
+ylon+ylon For years, chemists didn*t fully understand the structure of materi
als such as cotton and silk. #ermann -taudinger, a )erman chemist,
proposed that these materials contained small units
1oined together like links in a chain. In the early
.C?Ds, &allace Carothers did experiments to test
-taudinger*s proposal. #is results supported the
proposal. =uring his research Carothers pro
duced some materials that don*t exist in nature.
<ne of these materials, nylon, can be drawn
into long, thin, silklike bers, as shown in
Figure ..?. :ecause the supply of natural silk was
limited, a team of scientists and engineers were
eager to apply Carother*s research to the commercial
production of nylon. :y .C?C, they had perfected a large
scale method for making nylon bers.
7spirin7spirin Fong before researchers gured out how aspirin works, people
used it to relie$e pain. :y .CAD, some doctors began to recommend a low
daily dose of aspirin for patients who were at risk for a heart attack. 5any
heart attacks occur when blood clots block the Bow of blood through arter
ies in the heart. -ome researchers suspected that aspirin could keep blood
clots from forming. In .C"., it was disco$ered that aspirin can block the
production of a group of chemicals that cause pain. (hese same chemicals
are also in$ol$ed in the formation of blood clots.
,ecnolo$y,ecnolo$y (he de$elopment of nylon and the use of aspirin to pre$ent
heart attacks belong to a system of applied science called technology.
,ecnolo$y is the means by which a society pro$ides its members with
those things needed and desired. (echnology allows humans to do some
things more !uickly or with less e6ort. It allows people to do things that
would be impossible without technology, such as tra$eling to the moon. In
any technology, scientic knowledge is used in ways that can benet or
harm people and the en$ironment. =ebates about how to use scientic
knowledge are usually debates about the risks and benets of technology.
Cec4pointWhich material found in nature does nylon resemble?
Fi$ure 1." 2on$5 tin nylon
bers are wo$en into the fabric
used in this backpack. <ther
ob1ects that can be made from
nylon are 1ackets, shing lines,
toothbrush bristles, and ropes.
ForA 2in4s on 7pplied
Chemistry
&isitA ***.Sci2in4s.or$
0eb CodeA cdn@1B11
Facts and Fi$ures





chem_TE_ch01_FPL.fm Page 9 Tuesday, August 3, 2004 9:21 AM
1B Chapter .
Section 1.1 ;continued<
0y Study Ce!istry/
,C7C(CR1e!o ,C7C(CR1e!o
C-plainin$ te +atural 0orld
'urpose Students see tat ce!istry
is in$ol$ed in many natural processes.
9aterials slides so*in$ events or
structures such as a $olcanic eruption,
a forest re, a limestone ca$e, a Bood,
lightning, a plowed eld, a reworks
display, someone skateboarding, pi00a
being remo$ed from an o$en, some
one pumping gasoline
7dvance 'rep Collect a set of slides
that show a wide $ariety of e$ents or
structures. 9ick slides for which you
can make a connection to chemistry
without ha$ing to supply details that
students will study later.9ublic libraries
and $isitorinformation bureaus often
ha$e slides that can be borrowed.
'rocedure Run trou$ te set of
slides once without discussion. =iscuss
the common thread among the
images.(hen go through the slides a
second time and explain the connec
tion to chemistry.
Relate
%sk students to $olunteer to talk about
careers they are considering. #a$e
each $olunteer brieBy describe what
kinds of acti$ities are in$ol$ed in each
career. Challenge the class to think of
ways that knowledge of chemistry
would be helpful for each career.
21
22
1B Chapter .
0y Study Ce!istry/
-hould you use hot water or cold water to remo$e sunblock from a shirt2
#ow could studying chemistry help you to be a better nurse, reghter,
reporter, or chef2 If your local go$ernment wanted to build a solid waste
incinerator in your town, what !uestions would you ask about the pro1ect2
Chemistry can ha$e an impact on all aspects of your life. Chemistry
can be useful in explaining the natural world, preparing people for
career opportunities, and producing informed citizens.
C-plainin$ te +atural 0orld 7ou were born with a curiosity about
your world. Chemistry can help you satisfy your natural desire to under
stand how things work. For example, chemistry can be seen in all aspects of
food preparation. Chemistry can explain why peeled apples turn brown
upon exposure to air. It can explain why the texture of eggs changes from
runny to rm as eggs are boiled or scrambled. Chemistry can explain why
water expands as it free0es, sugar dissol$es faster in hot water, and adding
yeast to bread dough makes the dough rise. %fter you study this textbook,
you will know the answers to these !uestions and many more.
'reparin$ For a Career :eing a chemist can be rewarding. -ection ..3
will present some examples of how chemists contribute to society. In this
book, you will nd features on careers that re!uire knowledge of chemistry.
-ome of the choices may surprise you. 7ou do not need to ha$e the word
chemist in your 1ob title to benet from knowing chemistry. For example, a
reghter must know which chemicals to use to ght di6erent types of
res. % reporter may be asked to inter$iew a chemist to gather background
for a story. (urf managers are admired for the patterns they produce on a
ball eld while mowing grass, but their more important task is keeping the
grass healthy, which re!uires an understanding of soil chemistry. % photo
grapher, like the one in Figure ..@, uses chemical processes to control the
de$elopment of photographs in a darkroom.
Fi$ure 1.D Cven after te
in$ention of the digital camera,
many photographers still work
with lm. (hey use chemical
processes to de$elop lm and
produce prints in a darkroom.
Inferrin$ &hy isn8t lm
developed under natural
light conditions?













chem_TE_ch01.fm Page 10 !ed"esday, A#$%& 19, 200( ':'2 PM
Introduction to Chemistry 11
C27SS 7ctivity7ctivity C27SS
Ce!istry in te +e*s
#a$e students scan local and national
newspapers for current news stories
related to chemistry. %sk students to
cut out one article and prepare a short
presentation on the content of the
article and how it relates to chemistry.
7SSCSS
Cvaluate Understandin$Cvaluate Understandin$
(o determine students* understanding
about the eld of chemistry, ask, In
your o*n *ords5 o* *ould you
dene ce!istry/'Chemistry is the
stud! o$ the composition o$ matter and
the chan%es it under%oes.) &hat do
ce!ists do/'Chemists study the com
position and behavior o$ matter.)
ReteacReteac
9oint out that learning about the princi
ples of chemistry will enable students to
better understand the modern world.
%sk students what is essential in their
li$es, and make a short list on the board.
#a$e students think of one or two
examples of how chemistry plays a part
in each essential product or acti$ity.
-tudents* answers will $ary, but
should re$eal an understanding of
the denition of technology.
withChem ASAP
If your class subscribes to the
Interacti$e (extbook, use it to
re$iew key concepts in -ection ....
22
"
"
22
21
Answers To . . .
Fi$ure 1.D Students !ay infer tat
natural light causes unwanted
changes to the lm.
Section 1.1 7ssess!ent
1. Fi$ing and nonli$ing things are made of
matter,and chemistry is the study of matter.
2. organic chemistry, analytical chemistry,
biochemistry, physical chemistry, and
inorganic chemistry
". 9ure research can lead directly to an appli
cationI an application can exist before
research is done to explain how it works.
D. explaining the natural world, preparing
people for career opportunities, and
producing informed citi0ens
E. a and c
F. 4o, a biochemist studies processes that
take place in organisms.
7. % possible answer is that knowledge of
chemistry helps a citi0en e$aluate data
and arri$e at an informed opinion about a
public issue that in$ol$es technology.
-ection ... Chemistry 11
Fi$ure 1.E %y re$isterin$ to vote5
these citi0ens in Chicago, Illinois,
can ha$e a say in the decisions
made by their go$ernment. (hose
decisions include how much money
to pro$ide for scientic research.
withChem ASAP
%ein$ an Infor!ed Citi)en%ein$ an Infor!ed Citi)en Industry, pri$ate foundations,
and the federal go$ernment all pro$ide funds for scientic
research. (he a$ailability of funding can inBuence the direction
of research. (hose who distribute funds ha$e to balance the
importance of a goal against the cost. :ecause there is a limit to
the money a$ailable, areas of research often compete for funds.
For example, space exploration research could not take
place without federal funding. Critics argue that the money
spent on space exploration would be better spent on programs
such as cancer research. (hose who support space exploration
point out that 4%-% research has led to the de$elopment of
many items used on +arth. (hese include smoke detectors,
scratchresistant plastic lenses, heart monitors, and Batscreen
tele$isions. &hat if all the money spent on space exploration
was used to nd a cure for cancer2 %re there enough $alid a$e
nues of research to take ad$antage of the extra funding2 &ould
there be !ualied scientists to do the research2
Fike the citi0ens shown in Figure ..A, you will need to make
choices that will inBuence the de$elopment of technology. 7ou
may $ote directly on some issues through ballot initiati$es or
indirectly through the oJcials you elect. 7ou may speak at a
public hearing or write a letter to the editor or sign a petition.
&hen it comes to technology, there is no one correct answer.
:ut knowledge of chemistry and other sciences can help you
e$aluate the data presented, arri$e at an informed opinion, and
take appropriate action.
1. 8ey Concept +xplain why chemistry a6ects all
aspects of life and most natural e$ents.
2. 8ey Concept 4ame the $e traditional areas
into which chemistry can be di$ided.
". 8ey Concept =escribe the relationship
between pure chemistry and applied chemistry.
D. 8ey Concept Fist three reasons for
studying chemistry.
E. &orkers digging a tunnel through a city nd some
ancient pots decorated with geometric designs.
&hich of the following tasks might they ask a
chemist to do2 +xplain your answer.
a. =etermine the materials used to make the pots.
b. +xplain what the designs on the pots represent.
c. /ecommend how to store the pots to pre$ent
further damage.
F. &ould a geologist ask a biochemist to help identify
the minerals in a rock2 +xplain your answer.
7. +xplain how knowledge of chemistry can help
you be a more informed citi0en.
1escribin$ ,ecnolo$y 'ic4 one activity tat
you can do faster or with less e6ort because of
technology. &rite a paragraph in which you des
cribe the acti$ity, identify the technology, and
explain how the technology a6ects the acti$ity.
7ssess!ent 1.1 ,est yourself
on the concepts in -ection ....
1.1Section 7ssess!ent
chem_TE_ch01_FPL.fm Page 11 Tuesday, August 3, 2004 9:21 AM