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International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 6308 (Print),

ISSN 0976 6316(Online), Volume 5, Issue 6, June (2014), pp. 73-86 IAEME
73











AN EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION ON STRENGTH PROPERTIES OF
ARTIFICIAL LIGHT WEIGHT AGGREGATE CONCRETE MADE FROM
AGRICULTURAL BY PRODUCT SUCH AS WOOD ASH


1
Dr. V.BHASKAR DESAI,
2
K.MALLIKARJUNAPPA,
3
A.SATHYAM,
4
G.RAJKUMAR

1
Professor, Dept. of Civil Engineering, JNTUA College of Engineering,
Anantapuramu 515002, A.P.
2
Dy. Executive Engineer, Dharmavaram Municipality, Dharmavaram 515671, & Research
Scholar, JNTUA College of Engineering, Anantapuramu 515002, A.P.
3
Conservation Assistant Gr-I, Archaeological Survey of India, Anantapuramu Sub Circle,
Anantapuramu & Research Scholar, JNTUA College of Engineering, Anantapuramu 515002, A.P.
4
M.Tech Student, JNTUA College of Engineering, Anantapuramu 515002, A.P.


ABSTRACT

Structural lightweight aggregate concrete is an important and versatile material, which offers
a range of technical, economic and environmental-enhancing and preserving advantages and is
designed to become a dominant material in the new millennium. By the development of economy
and increasing production of consumer goods the amount of waste materials is increasing. There
exists a serious need for recovery and reuse of industrial and agricultural wastes. Annually different
types of wastes are being generated in large quantities from the industries. One of them is wood ash.
In this investigation an attempt to convert wood ash into aggregates which can be used as
replacements for natural aggregates has been done. The reason for this approach is due to the
demand for artificial light weight aggregates while the natural aggregate resource is depleting.
Pelletization process is used to manufacture artificial lightweight aggregate using wood ash. A
review indicates that studies have not been much reported on the pelletization of wood ash
aggregates. In this study, the engineering performance of water cured wood ash pellets including the
effect of lime and cement additions for concrete production purposes are investigated and the results
obtained are quite satisfactory for the related design requirements.
In this present experimental investigation an attempt is made to study the strength properties
of light weight aggregate concrete, such as wood ash aggregate concrete. By varying the percentage
of wood ash aggregate in concrete replacing the conventional granite aggregate in percentages of 0,
25, 50, 75, 100 by volume/weight of concrete, the properties such as compressive strength, split
tensile strength, flexural strength, modulus of elasticity etc., are thought to be studied by casting and
testing around 120 samples consisting of 30 plain cube specimens of size (150mm*150mm*150mm),
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International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 6308 (Print),
ISSN 0976 6316(Online), Volume 5, Issue 6, June (2014), pp. 73-86 IAEME
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60 cylinders of size (150mm*300mm) and 30 beams of size (100mm*100mm*500mm). Present
investigation is expected to throw some light on better understanding of various engineering
properties of wood ash light weight aggregate concrete.

INTRODUCTION

The construction industry, one of the largest industries in the world, is notorious for having a
major role in depletion of natural raw materials that are used in the production of concrete. Concrete
is the major construction material and plays a vital role in the development of current civilization. It
is the most used man-made material in the world since its invention. The massive use of concrete as
a construction is due to its versatile properties. Properties such as strength, durability, affordability
and abundance of raw materials make concrete the first choice material for most of the construction
purposes. Increasing amount of industrial by products and Wastes has become a major environmental
problem. These by products and wastes are not only difficult to dispose but also they also
cause serious health hazards. The main aim of the environmental agencies and governments
is to minimize the problems of disposal and health hazards of these wastes and by-
products. The productive use of these materials is one of the best ways to alleviate
some of the problems of the solid waste management. One of the key solutions is to utilize these
wastes in the concrete. Because of the environmental and economical reasons, there has been
a growing trend for the use of industrial wastes or by-products as a supplementary material
in the production of the concrete. There are several types of industrial wastes or by-products
which can be utilized in the concrete either as a replacement of cement or sand or coarse
aggregate or as an additive material. Some of these wastes are Wood-ash, Fly Ash, Ground
Granulated Blast Furnace Slag, Metakaolin, Rice husk ash, Groundnut ash, Waste Glass,
Plastics etc. Utilization of these wastes enhance the properties of the concrete also. Significant
researches have been going on in various parts of the world related to these subjects. Some
waste products have established their credential in their usage in concrete while others are in
progress for finding the potential applications in concrete and construction industries.
This has lead towards the effort of integrating this waste wood-ash as main ingredient
in light weight aggregate production thus opening a new horizon in agro concrete research
and at the same time offering alternatives to preserve natural coarse aggregate for the use of
future generation. Success in incorporating this material as partial coarse aggregate
replacement in concrete making would contribute towards reduction in the quantities of wood-
ash ending up as waste.

PELLETIZING PROCESS

The Pelletization process is used to manufacture light weight Coarse aggregate. Some of the
parameters that need to be considered for the efficiency of the production of pellets are speed of
revolution of pelletizer disc, moisture content, angle of pelletizer disc and duration of Pelletization
(HariKrishnan and RamaMurthy, 2006)
1
. Usually the different types of pelletizer machines are used
in practice to make the pellets such as disc or pan type, drum type, cone type and mixer type. With
mixer type pelletizer small grains are formed initially and are subsequently increased. In the cold
bonded method, increase of strength of pellets depends on the increase of the lime and cement ratio
by weight. Moisture content and angle of drum parameter influence the size growth of pellets. The
dosage of binding agent is more important for making the Wood Ash (WA) aggregate balls. Initially
some percentage of water is added in the binder and remaining water is sprayed during the rotation
period because while rotating without water in the drum, there is a tendency (for Lime & Cement) to
form lumps and does not increase the even distribution of particle size. After number of trial mixes
International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 6308 (Print),
ISSN 0976 6316(Online), Volume 5, Issue 6, June (2014), pp. 73-86 IAEME
75

finally, the mix proportion in percentage of 47:47:6 i.e. pozzolanic material: lime: cement is adopted
for further work. The pellets are formed approximately in duration of 6 to 7 minutes. The cold
bonded pellets are hardened by normal water curing method for 28 days. Plate 1 shows a view of
drum pelletizer used for pelletization.

REVIEW OF LITERATURE

Etiegni and Campbell (1991) (2) studied the effect of combustion temperature on yield and
chemical properties of wood ash. For this investigation, lodge-pole pine saw dust collected from a
saw-mill was combusted in an electric furnace at different temperatures for 69 hours or until the ash
weight became constant. The results showed that wood ash yield decreased by 45% when
combustion temperature were increased from about 5501100

C. The average particle size of the


wood ash was found to be 230m. The concentration of potassium, sodium, zinc, and carbonate
decreased while concentrations of other metal ions remained constant or increased with increasing
temperature. The pH of wood ash was found to vary between 9 and 13.5.
Naik TR (1999) (3) determined the physical and chemical properties of wood ashes derived
from different mills. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) was used to determine shape of wood ash
particles. The SEM micrographs showed wood ashes as a heterogeneous mixture of particles of
varying sizes, which were generally angular in shape. The wood ash consisted of cellular particles,
which were unburned, or partially burned wood or bark particles. The average moisture content
values for the wood ash studied were about 13% for wood ash and 22% for bottom ash. The average
amount of wood ash passing through sieve No.200 (75m) was 50%. The average amount of wood
ash retained on sieve No. 325 (45m) was about 31% for wood ash. Test results for unit weight or
bulk density (ASTM C 29) exhibited average density values of 490 kg/m
3
for wood ash and 827
kg/m
3
for bottom ash. Wood ash had an average specific gravity value of 2.48. Specific gravity for
bottom ash showed an average of 1.65. The average saturated surface dry (SSD) moisture content
values were 10.3% for wood ash and 7.5% for bottom ash. The average cement activity index at the
age of 28 days for wood ash was about 66% of the control. The average water requirement for wood
ash exhibited a value of 116%. Autoclave expansion tests for wood ash exhibited a low average
expansion value of 0.2%.
Naik TR, Kraus RN (2003) (4) evaluated the wood ashes from five different sources for
possible use in making controlled low-strength materials (CLSM). They used wood ashes from five
different sources in Wisconsin (USA) and were designated as W1, W2, W3, W4, and W5. ASTM
standards do not exist for wood ash. Each source of wood ash exhibited different physical properties.
Fineness of the wood ash (% retained on 45m sieve) varied from 23 to 90%. SourceW1 andW5 met
the ASTM requirement for fineness (34% maximum), while sourcesW2, W3 andW4 exceeded the
ASTM limit. The strength activity index of the wood ash is a comparison of the compressive strength
development of 50mm mortar cubes that have 20% (by mass) replacement of cement with wood ash,
with compressive strength of standard cement mortar. Wood ashes W1 and W3 met the strength
activity index requirement of ASTM (75% minimum at either 7 or 28 days), while wood ashes W2,
W4 and W5 did not meet the requirement. However, sources W1 and W3 satisfied the requirement
for natural Pozzolana. The higher water requirement indicated that for concrete and CLSM
containing wood ash, more water would be required to produce same slump or flow as compared
with the control mixture. Unit weight values of the wood ashes W1, W2, W4, and W5 were 545, 412,
509, and 162 kg/m
3
, respectively. These unit weights were significantly less than the unit weight of a
typical ASTM Class C or Class F wood ash (approximately 100 to 1300 kg/m
3
). SourceW3 had a
unit weight of 1376 kg/m
3
. Specific gravity of wood ash sources ranged from 2.26 to 2.60. Specific
gravity of wood ash source W1 and W5 was lower than that of a typical coal wood ash
(approximately 2.402.60).
International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 6308 (Print),
ISSN 0976 6316(Online), Volume 5, Issue 6, June (2014), pp. 73-86 IAEME
76

Udoeyo FF, Inyang H, Young DT, Oparadu, EE (2006) (5) reported the physical properties of
waste wood ash (WWA), used as an additive in concrete. They used wood waste collected from a
dump site at the timber market in Uyo, Akwa Ibom State of Nigeria. The waste was subjected to a
temperature of 1000

C in an oven to incinerate it into ash before it was used as an additive in


concrete. The WWA had a specific gravity of 2.43, a moisture content of 1.81%, and a pH value of
10.48. The average loss on ignition of the ash was found to be 10.46.
Abdullahi (2006) (6) determined the properties of wood ash to be used as partial replacement
of cement. The wood ash used was powdery, amorphous solid, sourced locally, from a bakery. The
wood ash was passed through BS sieve 0.075mm size. The specific gravity of wood ash was found to
be 2.13. The bulk density of wood ash was found to be 760 kg/m
3
.
From the brief literature available on the usage of artificial light weight aggregate in concrete,
very limited work is reported. Hence the research in this direction is attempted.

EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION

An experimental study has been conducted on concrete with partial replacement
of conventional coarse aggregate i.e., granite by pre soaked light wood ash aggregate i.e., WA
aggregate. The test program consists of carrying out compressive tests on cubes, split tensile
tests on cylinders, modulus of elasticity tests on cylinders, flexural strength on beam elements.
Analysis of the results has been done to investigate effect of WA aggregate on the compressive
strength, split tensile strength, flexural strength and modulus of elasticity properties. Variations
of various combinations have been studied.

MIX DESIGN OF CONCRETE

The concrete mix has been designed for M
20
grade concrete using ISI method. The mix
proportion obtained is 1:1.55:3.04 with constant water cement ratio 0.50.

DESCRIPTION OF CONSTITUENT MATERIALS AND PROPERTIES USED IN THE
INVESTIGATION
Table 1. Properties of Materials
Sl.No Name of the material Properties of material Result
1 OPC 53 Grade
Specific Gravity 3.07
Initial setting time 60 min
Final Setting time 489 min
Fineness 4 %
Normal consistency 33.50 %
2 Fine Aggregate passing 4.75mm sieve
Specific Gravity 2.60
Fineness modulus 3.24
3
WA Aggregate passing
20 10 mm
Specific Gravity 1.68
Fineness modulus 4.50
Bulk density in Loose 890 kg/m
3

Bulk density compacted 1030 kg/m
3

4
Natural Aggregate passing
20 10 mm
Specific Gravity 2.68
Fineness modulus 4.63
Bulk density compacted 1620 kg/m
3

Bulk density loose 1480 kg/m
3

5 Water
Locally available potable water which is free from
concentration of acids and organic substances has been
used in this work.
A view of the constituent materials used is presented in plate 2.
International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 6308 (Print),
ISSN 0976 6316(Online), Volume 5, Issue 6, June (2014), pp. 73-86 IAEME
77

MIXING, CASTING AND CURING

In this present investigation it is aimed to study the different strength variations by modifying
the conventional concrete with WA aggregate. It is added to concrete in percentages of 0%,
25%, 50%, 75% & 100% by volume of concrete and designated as mixes WA-0, WA-25,
WA-50, WA-75 & WA-100 respectively. Hence cement, fine aggregate, coarse aggregate,
i.e., Granite and WA aggregate in required percentages are calculated and then mixed.
Required quantity of water is added to this and mixed thoroughly by hand mixing.
WA aggregate is added to concrete in 5 different volumetric fractions to prepare five
different mixes which are designated as follows: Super plasticizer was not used due to use of pre
wetted WA aggregate.
To proceed with the experimental program initially all the moulds of size 150x150x150
mm and cylinders of size 150mm diameter, 300mm height and beams of size 100x100x500mm
were taken and these moulds were cleaned and were brushed with machine oil on all inner
faces to facilitate easy removal of specimens afterwards.
To start with, all the materials were weighed in the ratio of 1:1.55:3.04. First fine
aggregate and cement were added and mixed thoroughly and then granite coarse aggregate and
partially replaced pre wetted WA aggregate was mixed in required volume and proportion. All of
these were mixed thoroughly by hand mixing.

Table 2. Details of Specimens
Name of the Mix
Percentage by volume of natural coarse
aggregate and wood ash aggregate
No of specimens cast
WA -0 100 0 24
WA -25 75 25 24
WA -50 50 50 24
WA -75 25 75 24
WA -100 0 100 24
Total specimens 120

Each time 3 plain cubes of size 150 x 150 x 150mm, 3 flexure beams of size 500 x 100 x
100mm and 6 cylinders of size 150mm diameter & 300mm height were cast. The cast specimens are
shown in plate 3. For all test specimens, moulds were kept on the vibrating table and the
concrete was poured into the moulds in three layers each layer being compacted thoroughly
with tamping rod to avoid honey combing. Finally all specimens were vibrated on the table
vibrator after filling up the moulds up to the brim. The vibration was effected for 7 seconds
and it was maintained constant for all specimens and all other castings.
However the specimens were demolded after 24 hours of casting and were kept
immersed in a clean water tank for curing. After 28 and 90 days of curing the specimens
were taken out of water and were allowed to dry under shade for few hours. For each age of
curing at least 3-specimens were cast for each variable. Here specimens were cured and tested after
90 days of curing to observe the strength behavior after 3 months.

TESTING OF SPECIMENS

A) Plain Cube Specimens
The compression test on the plain cubes was conducted on 3000 KN digital
compression testing machine. The plain cube specimens were placed in the compression
testing machine such that load was applied centrally. The top plate of the testing machine
International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 6308 (Print),
ISSN 0976 6316(Online), Volume 5, Issue 6, June (2014), pp. 73-86 IAEME
78

was brought into contact with the surface of the plain cube specimen to enable loading. The
cube test results are presented in table 3.

B) Split Tensile Strength Test on Cylinders
The cylindrical specimen was kept horizontally between the compressive plates of the
testing machine. The load was applied uniformly until the cylinder fails, the loads related to
ultimate load are recorded. This test was conducted for cylinders with different WA aggregate
additions. The split tensile strength was calculated by the standard formula.
Split tensile strength ( f
t
) =


Where P = Maximum load in Newton
D = Diameter of the cylinder in mm
L = Length of the cylinder in mm
The results are presented in table 4.

C) Testing Of Beams for Flexural Strength
The loading arrangement to test the specimens for flexure is as follows. The element was
simply supported over the span of 500mm. The specimen was checked for its alignment
longitudinally and adjusted if necessary. Required packing was given using rubber packing. Care is
taken to ensure that two loading points at the same level. The loading was applied on the specimen
using 15 ton pre-calibrated proving ring at regular intervals. The load was transmitted to the element
through the I- section and two 16mm diameter rods were placed at 166.67mm from each support. For
each increment of loading the deflection at the centre and at 1/3
rd
points of beam were recorded using
dial gauge. Continuous observations were made. Before the ultimate stage the deflection meters were
removed and the process of load application was continued. As the load was increased the cracks got
widened and extended to top and finally the specimen collapsed in flexure. At this stage the load was
recorded as the ultimate load. Making use of the above data flexural strength was calculated using
the following formula.
Flexural strength (f) =

in N/mm
2
Where M = Bending moment in N.mm
Z =

= Section modulus in mm
3

The results have been tabulated in table 9 and graphical variations have been studied.

DISCUSSION OF TEST RESULTS

1) Influence of Wa Aggregate on Cube Compressive Strength
In the present study, WA aggregate has been added in the volumetric percentages of
0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% replacing the natural conventional granite aggregate. The
corresponding cube compressive strengths at 28 days and 90 days are presented in table 3. The
variation of compressive strengths and percentage of increase or decrease verses percentage
of WA aggregate addition are shown in fig 1 for 28 days and 90 days. From the above figs, it
may be observed that with the addition of WA aggregate the cube compressive strength
decreases continuously up to 100% replacement of Granite by WA aggregate, but more than
the target mean strength of M
20
concrete has been achieved even when the natural granite
aggregate is replaced with 25% of WA aggregate as tabulated in table 3 for 90 days curing
period and the design strength of M
20
concrete is achieved when replaced with 25% of WA aggregate
as tabulated in table 3 for 28 days.


International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 6308 (Print),
ISSN 0976 6316(Online), Volume 5, Issue 6, June (2014), pp. 73-86 IAEME
79

2) Influence of Wa Aggregate on Split Tensile Strength
With the increase in percentage of replacement of granite by WA aggregate, the
percentage of decrease of split tensile strength is found to increase continuously up to 100%
as shown in fig 2 for 28 days and for 90 days. These are presented in table 4 for 28 days and for 90
days.

3) Influence of Wa Aggregate on Density
The variation of density and percentage of increase or decrease in density verses
percentage of WA aggregate added are presented in fig 3 for 28 days and for 90 days. The results
are tabulated in table 5. From the above figs and tables, it may be observed that with the
addition of WA Aggregate the density of the specimens decreases continuously up to 100%
replacement of Granite by WA Aggregate. Also the density increases with the increase of the age.

4) Influence of Wa Aggregate On Modulus of Elasticity
In this investigation E value has been calculated using two approaches. In the first approach
for calculating youngs modulus I.S.Code formula
7
, has been used because of the absence of specific
formula for light weight concrete.
E
c
= 5000f
ck
N/mm
2

Where
f
ck
= 28 days characteristic compressive strength in N/mm
2

Secondly an another formula suggested by Takafumi Naguchi et.al
8
is used, which is given below.
E
c
= k
1
x

k
2
(1.486 x 10
-3
) x
b

x
2
N/mm.
where
k
1
= correction factor for coarse aggregate i.e. 0.95
k
2
= correction factor for mineral admixture i.e. 1.026

b
= compressive strength of concrete in MPa.
= Density of concrete in kg/m
The modulus of elasticity results with various percentage replacements of natural
aggregate by WA Aggregate are presented in table 6 for 28 days and 90 days respectively. From
the results it is observed that modulus of elasticity has been decreasing with an increase in
replacement of natural granite aggregate by WA Aggregate. It is also observed that the modulus of
elasticity values are in satisfactory agreement with those calculated using both the empirical
formula. Fig 4 shows the variation of E value versus percentage of WA for 28 days and 90 days. It
also shows that E value increases with the age i.e. from 28 to 90 days.

5) Influence of Wa Aggregate on Flexural Strength

Concrete as we know is relatively strong in compression and weak in tension. In reinforced
concrete members, little dependence is placed on the tensile strength of concrete since steel
reinforcing bars are provided to resist all tensile forces. However; tensile stresses are likely to
develop in concrete due to drying shrinkage, rusting of steel reinforcement, temperature gradients
and many other reasons. Therefore, the knowledge of tensile strength of concrete is of importance.
Flexural strength of beams of size 500x100x100mm with various percentage replacements of natural
aggregate by WA aggregate are presented in the table 9 for 28 days and 90 days. From the results it
is observed that flexural strength of beams has been decreasing with an increase in replacement of
natural granite aggregate with WA aggregate. In addition flexural strength of beams is calculated
based on the I.S.code empherical formula 0.70

. These values are presented in the table 9 and


the graphical representation is shown in fig 5. Both the results are found to be in satisfactory
agreement with each other.
International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 6308 (Print),
ISSN 0976 6316(Online), Volume 5, Issue 6, June (2014), pp. 73-86 IAEME
80

6) Influence of Wood Ash Aggregate Concrete on Ratio of Cube To Cylinder Compressive
Strength
The ratios of cylinder compressive strength to cube compressive strength for various
percentage replacements of granite aggregate by wood ash aggregate are as shown in fig 6 for both
28 and 90 days curing periods. These are presented in table 7 & 8. From these tables of results by
and large it may be observed that the ratios of cube to cylinder compressive strength are more than
1.50 times for both the curing periods, and there is much variation is observed for all percentages of
WA aggregates for both the curing periods.

TABLE 3: Comparision of Cube Compressive Strength Results

Sl.
No

Name of
the mix

Percentage replacement of
coarse aggregate

Compressive strength
(N/mm
2
)
Percentage of increase or
decrease in compressive
strength w.r.t WA-0
Natural
aggregate
Pelletized
WA
aggregate

28 Days

90 Days

28 Days

90 Days
1. WA-0 100 0 41.08 47.39 0.00 0.00
2. WA-25 75 25 20.93 35.02 -49.05 -23.21
3. WA-50 50 50 16.93 18.74 -58.79 -60.46
4. WA-75 25 75 13.32 14.93 -67.58 -68.50
5. WA-100 0 100 9.11 13.53 -77.82 -71.45

Table 4: Comparision of Split Tensile Strength Results

Sl.
No

Name of
the mix

Percentage replacement of
coarse aggregate

Split tensile strength
(N/mm
2
)
Percentage of increase or
decrease in Split tensile
strength w.r.t WA-0
Natural
aggregate
Pelletized
WA
aggregate
28 Days 90 Days 28 Days 90 Days
1. WA-0 100 0 3.58 4.00 0.00 0.00
2. WA-25 75 25 3.55 3.90 -0.84 -2.50
3. WA-50 50 50 2.69 2.79 -24.86 -30.25
4. WA-75 25 75 1.89 2.37 -47.21 -48.50
5. WA-100 0 100 1.50 1.94 -58.10 -62.00

Table 5: Comparision of Density Results

Sl.
No

Name of
the mix
Percentage replacement of
coarse aggregate
Density
(Kg/m
3
)
Percentage of increase or
decrease in density w.r.t
WA-0
Natural
aggregate
Pelletized WA
aggregate
28
Days
90
Days
28 Days 90 Days
1. WA-0 100 0 2279.01 2452.35 0.00 0.00
2. WA-25 75 25 2226.91 2324.44 -2.29 -5.22
3. WA-50 50 50 2202.96 2205.43 -3.34 -10.07
4. WA-75 25 75 1988.15 2125.93 -12.76 -13.31
5. WA-100 0 100 1896.30 1981.33 -17.10 -22.67

International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 6308 (Print),
ISSN 0976 6316(Online), Volume 5, Issue 6, June (2014), pp. 73-86 IAEME
81

Table 6: Comparision of Youngs Modulus Results

Sl.
No

Name of the mix
Percentage replacement of
coarse aggregate

Youngs modulus
E=k
1
*k
2
*1.486*10
-3
*
b

*
2
(N/mm) x 10
4

k
1
=0.95, k
2
=1.026
Youngs
modulus
(*10
4
N/mm
2
)
Natural
aggregate
Pelletized
WA
aggregate
28 Days 90 Days
28
Days
90 Days
1. WA-0 100 0 2.60 3.15 3.20 3.20
2. WA-25 75 25 2.14 2.51 2.29 2.29
3. WA-50 50 50 1.70 1.85 2.06 2.06
4. WA-75 25 75 1.60 1.74 1.82 1.82
5. WA-100 0 100 1.34 1.66 1.51 1.51

Table 7: Ratio of Cube Compressive Strength To Cylinder Compressive Strength (28 Days)

Sl.
No

Name of
the mix
Percentage replacement of
coarse aggregate
Compressive
strength
(N/mm
2
)
Ratio of cube to cylinder
compressive strength
Natural
aggregate
Pelletized WA
aggregate
Cylinder Cube
1. WA-0 100 0 28.01 41.08 1.47
2. WA-25 75 25 12.60 25.53 2.02
3. WA-50 50 50 12.34 24.80 2.00
4. WA-75 25 75 11.45 21.62 1.89
5. WA-100 0 100 9.53 18.43 1.93

Table 8: Ratio of Cube Compressive Strength To Cylinder Compressive Strength (90 Days)

Sl.
No

Name of
the mix
Percentage replacement of
coarse aggregate
Compressive strength
(N/mm
2
)
Ratio of cube
to cylinder
compressive
strength
Natural
aggregate
Pelletized WA
aggregate
Cylinder Cube
1. WA-0 100 0 27.11 47.39 1.74
2. WA-25 75 25 18.73 35.02 1.86
3. WA-50 50 50 17.07 26.93 1.58
4. WA-75 25 75 16.81 23.85 1.42
5. WA-100 0 100 12.77 20.76 1.62

Table 9: Comparision of Flexural Strength Results

Sl.
No

Name of
the mix
Percentage replacement of
coarse aggregate
Flexural strength as
per I.S.code (f
th
)
(N/mm
2
)
Flexural Strength
(f
ex
) in N/mm
2

Natural
aggregate
Pelletized WA
aggregate
28 Days 90 Days 28 Days 90 Days
1. WA-0 100 0 4.49 4.82 6.83 7.35
2. WA-25 75 25 3.20 4.03 3.68 4.22
3. WA-50 50 50 2.80 2.88 3.03 3.50
4. WA-75 25 75 2.45 2.55 2.70 2.98
5. WA-100 0 100 2.10 2.28 2.13 2.57
International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 6308 (Print),
ISSN 0976 6316(Online), Volume 5, Issue 6, June (2014), pp. 73-86 IAEME
82



Plate 1. Drum Pelletizer Plate 2. Constituent Materials



Plate 3. Specimens after Moulding in Green State Plate 4. Spcimens Curing Pond




Plate 5. Test Set Up of Cube Compressive
Strength (Before Testing)

Plate 6. Test Set Up Of Cube Compressive
Strength (After Testing)


International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 6308 (Print),
ISSN 0976 6316(Online), Volume 5, Issue 6, June (2014), pp. 73-86 IAEME
83


Plate 7. Test Set Up of Split Tensile
Strength (Before Testing)

Plate 8. Test Set Up of Split Tensile
Strength (After Testing)

Plate 9. Test Set Up of Flexural Strength
(Before Testing)

Plate 10. Test Set Up of Flexural Strength
(After Testing)

Plate 11. Test Set Up of Cylinder
Compressive Strength (Before Testing)

Plate 12. Test Set Up of Cylinder
Compressive Strength (After Testing)
International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 6308 (Print),
ISSN 0976 6316(Online), Volume 5, Issue 6, June (2014), pp. 73-86 IAEME
84
















Fig 1. Superimposed Variation between Cube Compressive Strength and Percentage of
Pelletized Wa Aggregate Replacing Natural Aggregate

0 25 50 75 100
0.0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
S
p
l
i
t

T
e
n
s
i
l
e

s
t
r
e
n
g
t
h
% age of Wood Ash aggregate replacing Natural aggregate
28 days
90 days
Scale
X-axis 1 unit = 25%
Y-axis 1 unit = 0.5 N/Sqmm

Fig 2. Superimposed Variation between Split Tensile Strength and Percentage of Pelletized Wa
Aggregate Replacing Natural Aggregate

0 25 50 75 100
1800
1850
1900
1950
2000
2050
2100
2150
2200
2250
2300
2350
2400
2450
2500
D
e
n
s
i
t
y
% of Wood Ash aggregate replacing Natural aggregate
28 Days
90 Days
Scale
X-axis 1 unit = 25%
Y-axis 1 unit = 100 Kg/m
3

Fig 3. Superimposed Variation between Density and Percentage of Pelletized Wa Aggregate
Replacing Natural Aggregate
International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 6308 (Print),
ISSN 0976 6316(Online), Volume 5, Issue 6, June (2014), pp. 73-86 IAEME
85

0 25 50 75 100
0
5000
10000
15000
20000
25000
30000
35000
40000
Y
o
u
n
g
'
s

M
o
d
u
l
u
s

N
/
m
m
2
)
% of Wood Ash aggregate replacing Natural aggregate
IS Code Formula
Emperical Formula
90 days
Scale
X-axis 1 unit = 25%
Y-axis 1 unit = 5000N/mm
2

Fig 4. Superimposed Variation between Youngs Modulus and Percentage of Pelletized Wa
Aggregate Replacing Natural Aggregate

0 25 50 75 100
0.0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
5.5
6.0
6.5
7.0
7.5
8.0
F
l
e
x
u
r
a
l

S
t
r
e
n
g
t
h
% age of Wood Ash aggregate replacing Natural aggregate
28 days
90 days
Scale
X-axis 1 unit = 25%
Y-axis 1 unit = 0.5 N/Sqmm

Fig 5. Superimposed Variation Between Flexural and Percentage of Pelletized Wa Aggregate
Replacing Natural Aggregate


Fig 6. Superimposed Variation between Ratio of Cylinder Strength to Cube Strength and
Percentage of Pelletized Wa Aggregate Replacing Natural Aggregate
0 25 50 75 100
0.00
0.05
0.10
0.15
0.20
0.25
0.30
0.35
0.40
0.45
0.50
0.55
0.60
0.65
0.70
0.75
R
a
t
i
o

o
f

C
y
l
i
n
d
e
r

s
t
r
e
n
g
t
h

t
o

C
u
b
e

s
t
r
e
n
g
t
h

Percentage of pelletized GSA aggregate replacing natural aggregate
28 Days
90 Days
Scale
x-axis 1 Unit = 25%
y-axis 1 Unit = 0.05
International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 6308 (Print),
ISSN 0976 6316(Online), Volume 5, Issue 6, June (2014), pp. 73-86 IAEME
86

CONCLUSIONS

From the limited experimental study carried out in this investigation the following conclusions
are seem to be valid.

1) From the study it may be concluded that the cube compressive strength has been
observed to decrease continuously with the increase in percentage of WA Aggregate
i.e., from 0 to 100% replacement of Granite aggregate by WA Aggregate.
2) From the study it may be concluded that the split strength has been observed to
decrease continuously with the increase in percent age of WA Aggregate i.e., from 0
to 100% replacement of Granite aggregate by WA Aggregate.
3) From the study it may be concluded that the youngs modulus has been observed to
decrease continuously with the increase in percentage of WA Aggregate i.e., from 0 to
100% replacement of Granite aggregate by WA Aggregate.
4) From the study it may be concluded that the density has been observed to decrease
continuously with the increase in percentage of WA Aggregate i.e., from 0 to 100%
replacement of Granite aggregate by WA Aggregate.
5) The modulus of elasticity values calculated from experimentation and theoretical
formulae are found to be more or less in satisfactory agreement.
6) The flexural strength is found to decrease continuously with the percentage increase in WA
aggregate content. The flexural strength values calculated through experimentation are found
to be slightly more than those calculated through empherical formula.
7) From the study it is concluded that the density has been increased with increase in curing
period
8) From the study it is concluded that the compressive strength, split tensile strength, youngs
modulus, flexural strength are all increasing with increase in curing period.

REFERENCE

1) Harikrishnan KI, Ramamurthy (2006). Influence of Pelletization Process on the Properties of
Fly Ash Aggregates. Waste Manag., 26: 846-852..
2) Etiegni L, Campbell AG (1991), Physical and Chemical Characteristics of Wood Ash,
Bio-resource Technology, Elsevier Science Publishers Ltd., Vol.37, No.2, Pp.173178.
3) Naik TR (1999), Tests of Wood Ash as a Potential Source for Construction Materials,
UWM Centre for By-Products Utilization, Report No.CBU-1999-09, Pp.61.
4) Naik, T R Kraus, R N (2003), A New Source of Pozzolanic Material, American Concrete
Institute, ISSN: 0162-4075, OCLC: 4163061, Vol.25, No.12, Pp.55-62.
5) Udoeyo FF, Inyang H, Young DT, Oparadu, EE (2006), Potential of Wood Waste Ash as an
Additive on Infrastructural Development and the Environment, University of Philippines,
Building Materials, Vol. 23, Pp 2641-2646.
6) M.Abdullahi (2006), Characteristics of Wood ash/Opc concrete, Leenardo Electronics
Journal of Practices and Technology, ISSN 1583-1078, Issue No.8, Pp. 9-16.
7) I.S.Code 456-2000 Code of practice for plain and reinforced concrete Bureau of Indian
Standards, New Delhi.
8) Takafumi Noguchi, et.al (2009) A Practical Equation for Elastic Modulus of Concrete.
ACI structural journal/Sept-Oct 2009, technical paper title no. 106-SXX.
9) Dr. V. Bhaskar Desai, A. Sathyam and S. Rameshreddy, Some Studies on Mode-Ii Fracture
of Artificial Light Weight Silica Fume Pelletized Aggregate Concrete International Journal
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Print: 0976 6308, ISSN Online: 0976 6316.