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########################## III B.Tech(cse-b) I Semester
Student HandbookFor
Data Communication and Computer Networks
Faculty: Mr.P.Anjaiah
UNIT ISyllabus:Data communications and
networking,network models,protocols and standards,the OSI model,TCP/IP protocol
suite,Addressing, data and signals,digital transmission,,analog transmission,
Objectives:To understand the basic concepts of various topologies and models
To understand the TCP/IP protocol suites To understand thethe digital and
analog signals Lecture plan:S.No.#Topic#No. of Lectures##1#Data communications
and networking#1##2#network models, protocols and standards#2##3#the OSI
model#2##4#TCP/IP protocol suite ,Addressing#1##5#data and signals#1##6#digital
transmission#1##7#analog transmission,#1###TOTAL#9##Important Questions:1. What
are some of the factors that determine whether a communication system is
a
LAN or WAN? 2. What is an internet? What is the Internet? 3. Why are protocols
needed? 4. Why are standards needed? 5.How do the layers of the Internet model
correlate to the layers of the OSI model? 6.. What does the Nyquist theorem have
to do with communications? 7. What does the Shannon capacity have to do with
communications8.Explain
a) Define the characteristics of a selfsynchronizing signal.
b) List five line coding schemes discussed in this
book.
c) Define block coding and give its purpose.
d) Define
scrambling and give its purpose.Assignment Questions:1. For each of the
following four networks, discuss the consequences if a connection fails.
a.
Five devices arranged in a mesh topology b. Five devices arranged in a star
topology (not counting the hub)
c. Five devices arranged in a bus topology
d. Five devices arranged in a ring topology2. What are the
responsibilities of the various layers in OSI model? 3. What does the amplitude
of a signal measure? What does the frequency of a signal
measure? What does
the phase of a signal measure? 4. How can a composite signal be decomposed into
its individual frequencies? 5. Which characteristics of an analog signal are
changed to represent the digital signal
in each of the following digitalto-analog conversion?
a. ASK
b. FSK
c. PSKd. QAMCASE STUDY:
1.
How to use the OSI Model to Troubleshoot Networks?
2. Give a case study
on one organizations computer networks What is the bit rate for high-definition
TV (HDTV) in real time? Suppose a computer sends a packet at the network layer to
another computer somewhere in the Internet. The logical destination address of
the packet is corrupted. What happens to the packet? How can the source computer
be informed of the situation?
UNIT
IISyllabus: Band width utilization ,transmission media,switching,telephone and
cable networks for data transmission,digital subscriber line,cable TV
networks,cable TV FOR Data transfer.Objectives:To understand bandwidth of
channelsTo understand cable TV networks To understand digital subscriber line
Lecture plan:#Topic#No. of lectures##1#Band width utilization#1##2#transmission
media#
1##3#switching#2##4#telephone and cable networks for data
transmission#1##5#digital subscriber line#1##7#cable TV FOR Data transfer.#
1###TOTAL#7## Important questions1. a)Distinguish between multilevel TDM,
multiple slot TDM, and pulse-stuffed TDM.
b) Distinguish between synchronous
and statistical TDM.2. a). Define spread spectrum and its goal. List the two
spread spectrum techniques discussed
in this chapter.
b). Define FHSS and
explain how it achieves bandwidth spreading.
c). Define DSSS and explain how
it achieves bandwidth spreading.3. Name the two major categories of
transmission media. How do guided media differ from
Unguided
media and
what are the three major classes of guided media? What is the significance?
Of the
twisting in twisted-pair cable? 4. What are the two approaches to
packet-switching? Compare and contrast a circuit-switched
Network and a
packet-switched network.5. What is DSL technology? What are the services
provided by the telephone companies?
Using DSL? Distinguish between a DSL
modem and a DSLAM.Assignments: 1. a) Distinguish between multilevel TDM,

multiple slot TDM, and pulse-stuffed TDM.


b) Distinguish between synchronous
and statistical TDM.2. What is the purpose of cladding in an optical fiber?
Name the advantages of optical fiber over
twisted-pair and coaxial cable.
Case Study:Give a case study on private cable networks ? UNIT IIISyllabus:Error
detection and correction,CRC, Data link control,framing,flow and error
control,point point protocol,HDLC,Multiple Access And Random Access,ALOHA and
controlled AccessObjectives:To understand the various error detection techniques
To understand various point to point protocols To understand the various
multiple access methods
Lecture plan S.No#Topic#No. of lectures##1#Error
detection and correction #1##2#CRC#1##3#Data link control,framing#1##4#flow and
error control#1##5#point point protocol#1##6#HDLC#1##7#Multiple Access And
Random Access#1###ALOHA and controlled Access#1####7##Important Questions:1.
How does a single-bit error differ from a burst error? Discuss the concept of
redundancy in
error detection and correction and Distinguish between forward
error corrections versus error correction by retransmission.? 2. Compare and
contrast the Go-Back-NARQ Protocol with Selective-Repeat ARQ. And
Compare and
contrast HDLC with PPP. Which one is byte-oriented; which one is bit-oriented?
3. Explain why collision is an issue in a random access protocol but not in
controlled access or channelizing protocols. Compare and contrast a random
access protocol with a controlled access protocol. Compare and contrast a random
access protocol with a channelizing protocol.Assignment:1. In CRC, show the
relationship between the following entities (size means the number of bits):
a. The size of the data word and the size of the codeword
b. The size of the
divisor and the remainder
c. The degree of the polynomial generator and the
size of the divisor
d. The degree of the polynomial generator and the size of
the remainder2.Which of the following CRC generators guarantee the detection of
a single bit error?
a. x3 + x + 1
b. x4 + xl c. 1 d. x2 + 13. Explain
the reason for moving from the Stop-and-Wait ARQ Protocol to the 00Back- NARQ
Protocol.4. Compare and contrast a controlled access protocol with a
channelizing protocol. and Do we need multiple access protocol when we use the
1ocalloop of the telephone company to access the Internet? Why? Case Study:Why
does a circuit-switched network need end-to-end addressing during the setup and
teardown phases? Why are no addresses needed during the data transfer phase for
this type of network
UNIT-IV
Syllabus:Connecting LANs,Backbone networks vrs virtual LANs,connecting
devices,Backbonenetworks,cellulartelephony,satellitenetworks,SONET/SDH,Sonet
Networks,Virtual Circuit Networks, ,And ATM,ATM LANS.Objectives:To understand
the Backbone networks, To understand the virtual networks.To understand about
SONET,
ATM LANsLecture planS.No#Topic#No. of lectures###ConnectingLANs,
#1###Backbone networks vrs virtual LANs#1###Cellular telephony#1###connecting
devices,Backbonenetworks#1###SONET/SDH,Sonet Networks,#1###Virtual Circuit
Networks#1###Frame Relay Networks#1###ATM,ATM LANS.#1####8##Important Questions:
What are the common Standard Ethernet implementations? What are the common Fast
Ethernet implementations? What are the common Gigabit Ethernet implementations?
and What are the common Ten-Gigabit Ethernet implementations? What is the
difference between a BSS and an ESS? Discuss the three types of mobility in a
wireless LAN and How is OFDM different from FDM? What is the relationship
between D-AMPS and AMPS? What is GSM? What is the function of the CDMA in IS95? What is the relationship between SONET and SDH? What is the relationship
between STS and STM ? Briefly describe the issues involved in using ATM
technology in LANs.Assignment: What are the common Standard Ethernet
implementations? What are the common Fast Ethernet implementations? What are
the common Gigabit Ethernet implementations?
and What are the common TenGigabit Ethernet implementations? Compare and contrast CSMAlCD with CSMAICA.How
does a VLAN save a company time and money? How does a VLAN provide extra
security for a network? How does a VLAN reduce network traffic? What is the
basis for membership in a VLAN? What is the function of a SONET regenerator? What
are the four SONET layers? Discuss the functions of each SONET layer? Case Study:
When we have an overseas telephone conversation, we sometimes experience a
delay. Can you explain the reason? Can you explain why the vulnerable time in
ALOHA depends on Tpf' but in CSMA depends on Tp? In analyzing ALOHA, we use only
one parameter, time; in analyzing CSMA, we use two parameters, space and time.
Can you explain the reasonUNIT-VSyllabus:Network layer,logical
addressing,IPv4,IPv6,Addresses, internetworking ,internet

protocol,ICMP,IGMP,ICMPV6,Network
layer delivery,forwarding and RoutingUnicast routing protocols, multicast
routing protocols.Objectives :To understand about logical addresingTo understand
about various networking protocolsLecture planS.No#Topic#No. of
lectures##1#Network layer,logical
addressing,IPv4,IPv6,Addresses#1##2#internetworking ,internet
protocol,#1##3#ICMP,IGMP,ICMPV6#1##4#Network layer delivery,forwarding and
Routing#1##5#Unicast routing protocols, #1##6#multicast routing
protocols#2####7##Important Questions:What is dotted decimal notation in IPv4
addressing? What is the number of bytesin an IPv4 address represented in dotted
decimal notation? What is hexadecimal notation in IPv6 addressing? What is the
number of digits in an IPv6 address represented in hexadecimal notation? Define
fragmentation and explain why the IPv4 and IPv6 protocols need to fragment some
packets. Is there any difference between the two protocols in this matter? Why is
there a restriction on the generation of an ICMPv4 message in response toa
failed ICMPv4 error message? What is the purpose of including the IPv4 header
and the first 8 bytes of datagram data in the error-reporting ICMPv4 messages?
What is the basis of classification for the four types of links defined by OSPF?
Why do OSPF messages propagate faster than RIP messages? What is the purpose of
BGP? Assignment:
1. What is the address space in each of the following
systems?
a. A system with 8-bit addresses
b. A system with 16-bit
addresses
c. A system with 64-bit addresses2. Change the following IP
addresses from dotted-decimal notation to binary notation. a. 114.34.2.8
b.
129.14.6.8 c. 208.34.54.12
d. 238.34.2.13. Change the following IP addresses
from binary notation to dotted-decimal notation.
a. 01111111 11110000
01100111 01111101 b. 10101111 11000000 11111000 00011101
c. 11011111 10110000
00011111 01011101 d. 11101111 11110111 11000111 000111014. Find the class of the
following IP addresses. a. 208.34.54.12
b. 238.34.2.1
c. 114.34.2.8
d.
129.14.6.85. Find the class of the following IP addresses. a. 11110111 11110011
10000111 11011101 b. 10101111 11000000 11110000 00011101
c. 11011111 10110000
00011111 01011101 d. 11101111 11110111 11000111 000111016. Find the netid and
the hostid of the following IP addresses. a. 114.34.2.8
b. 132.56.8.6
c.
208.34.54.12 CASE STUDY:What is the maximum number of simultaneous calls in
each cell in an 15-136(D-AMPS) system, assuming no analog control channels?
Find out why there are two security protocols (AH and ESP) in IPv6.
UNIT-VISyllabus:Transport layer: processtoprocess delivery,UDP,TCP,and SCTP,
Congestion Control,And Quality of service,techniques to improve QOS,integrated
services,Differential services,Qos In Switched .Objectives:To understand the
transport layer services To know various protocols of transport layerTo know how
to achieve Quality of serviceLecture planS.No#Topic#No. of lectures##1#Transport
layer: processtoprocess delivery,UDP,TCP,and SCTP#2##2#Congestion Control,And
Quality of service#2##3#techniques to improve QOS,#1##4#integrated
services,Differential services#2###Qos In Switched .#1####8##Important Questions
1. Compare the TCP header and the UDP header. List the fields in the TCP header
that are missing from UDP header. Give the reason for their absence. 2. UDP is a
message-oriented protocol. TCP is a byte-oriented protocol. If an
application needs to protect the boundaries of its message, which protocol
should be used, UDP or TCP? 1. Explain the significance of dual signature in
SET? 3.The following is a dump of a UDP header in hexadecimal format.
0632000DOO lCE217 a. What is the source port number? b. What is the
destination port number?
c. What is the total length of the user datagram?
d. What is the length of the data? e. Is the packet directed from a
client to a server or vice versa? f. What is the client process? 4. An IP
datagram is carrying a TCP segment destined for address 130.14.16.17/16. The
destination port address is corrupted, and it arrives at destination
130.14.16.19/16. How does the receiving TCP react to this error? Assignment:1.
How are congestion control and quality of service related? What is a traffic
descriptor? 2. What is the relationship between the average data rate and the
peak data rate? 3. What is the definition of bursty data? What is the difference
between open-loop congestion control and closed-loop congestion control? 4. Name
the policies that can prevent congestion. Name the mechanisms that can alleviate
congestion.5. What determines the sender window size in TCP? How does Frame
Relay control congestion? 6.What attributes can be used to describe a flow of
data? What are four general techniques to improve quality of service? Case study:

1. Find more information about ICANN. What was it called before its name was
changed? 2. TCP uses a transition state diagram to handle sending and receiving
segments.Find out about this diagram and how it handles flow and control.3. SCTP
uses a transition state diagram to handle sending and receiving segments.Find
out about this diagram and how it handles flow and control.
UNIT-VIISyllabus:Domain Name space, distribution of namespace, DNS messages,
types of records, registers,DDNS,Remote Logging,Email,Telnet and file Transfer
Objectives:To know about Network Management ArchitectureTo understand about
various versions of SNMPTo know about SNMP message formatsLecture plan:
S.No#Topic#No. of lectures##1#Domain Name space#1##2#distribution of
namespace#2##3#Intrusion Detection Systems#1##4#DNS messages, types of
records#1##5#DDNS#1###Remote Logging,Email#1###Telnet and file Transfer#1####8##
Important Questions: What is an advantage of a hierarchical name space over a
flat name space for a system the size of the Internet?
2. What is the
difference between a primary server and a secondary server?
3. What are the
three domains of the domain name space?
4. What is the difference between
local and remote log-in in TELNET? How
are control and data characters
distinguished in NVT? How are options
negotiated in TELNET? Describe the
addressing system used by SMTP.In electronic mail, what are the tasks of a
user agent? In
electronic mail,
what is MIME? Assignment:What is an
FQDN? What is a PQDN? What is a zone? How does caching increase the Efficiency
of name resolution? What are the two maincategories of DNS messages? Why was
there a need for DDNS? Determine which of the following is an FQDN and which is a
PQDN.
a. xxx
b. xxx.yyy.
c. xxx.yyy.net
d. zzz.yyy.xxx.edu.
3. Determine which of the following is an FQDN and
which is a PQDN.
a. mil.
b. edu.
c. xxx.yyy.net
d. zzz.yyy.xxx.edu
Case Study:In SMTP, show the connection termination phase from aaa@xxx.com to
bbb@yyy.com.What do you think would happen if the control connection were
accidentally severed
during an FTP transfer?
UNIT-VIIISyllabus:WWW and HTTP,Network Management:SNMP, multimedia,Digitizing
audio and vedio,streaming line audio / video,real time interactive
audio/vedio,VOIP.Objectives:To know about Application Layer ProtocolsTo
understand Audio and video conceptsLecture Plan:S.No#Topic#No. of
lectures##1#WWW and HTTP#2##2#Network Management:SNMP#2##3#multimedia,Digitizing
audio and vedio#2###streaming line audio / video#1###real time interactive
audio/vedio#1###VOIP.#1####9##Important Questions:How is HTTP related to WWW?
How is HTTP similar to SMTP? How is HTTP similar to FTP? What is a URL and what
are its components? What is a proxy server and how is it related to HTTP? Show
the effect of the following HTML segment.The publisher of this book is <A
HREF="www.mhhe">McGraw-Hill Publisher <fA>
3. What is the purpose of RTSP
in streaming stored audio/video?
How does jitter affect real-time
audio/video? Discuss how SIP is used in the
Transmission of multimedia?
When would you use JPEG? When would you use MPEG? In JPEG, what is the function
of
blocking? Why is the DCT needed in JPEG? Assignment:
1. Decode the
following. a. 02 04 01 02 14 32
b. 30060201 11 0201 14 c. 300904034143420202
14 14 d. 30 OA 40 04 2351 6271 0202 14 122. Find the meaning of the source
description items used in the RTCP source description
packet. Specifically,
find the meaning of CNAME, NAME, EMAIL, PHONE, LOC,
TOOL, NOTE, and PRIY.
CASE STUDY:length Find the format of an RTCP bye message. Pay particular
attention to the packet and the parts repeated for each source. Give case study
#### Dept. of Computer Science Engineering, School of Engineering, Anurag Group
of Institutions
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