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Love for the Prophet Muammad (pbuh): Al-Tawbah 9:24

as Interpreted in Consecutive Classical Commentaries


by
Mustafa Suna

Dissertation
Submitted in the fulfilment of
the requirements for the degree
MASTER OF ARTS
in
ISLAMIC STUDIES
in
FACULTY OF HUMANITIES
at
UNIVERSITY OF JOHANNESBURG
SUPERVISOR: Prof. JF Janse van Rensburg
CO-SUPERVISOR: Dr. MAE Dockrat
MAY 2010
1




Love is the essence of servitude.
Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyyah (d.751/1350)

2
Abstract

By means of a conditional clause al-Tawbah 9:24 implicitly states that love for the
Prophet (peace be upon him, hereinafter pbuh) alongside love for Allah and
jihad in His way must be greater than affection for family and relatives, and
attachment to worldly property and possessions.

Various words and concepts, found in the said verse, have become the concern
of commentaries (tafsrs) on the Quran. For the purpose of the dissertation, ten
consecutive classical tafsrs are selected. They are those of al-abar
(d.310/922), al-Thalab (d.427/1035), al-Wid (d.468/1075), al-Baghaw
(d.516/1122), al-Zamakhshar (d.538/1143), Fakhr al-Dn al-Rz (d.606/1209),
al-Qurub (d.671/1272), al-Baiw (d.685/1286), Ibn Kathr (d.774/1372) and
Ab al-Sud (d.982/1574). They cover a period spanning approximately seven
centuries.

For each commentary an English translation is given as well as a general
discussion of the content. Authorities referred to are chronologically specified.
The commentaries are compared with regard to three foci, namely reason for
revelation (sabab al-nuzl), lexical contributions and the theme Love for the
Prophet (pbuh).
3

When focusing on sabab al-nuzl, the reason of revelation as expressed by each
of the ten mufassirs receives attention. Common trends among all of them are
also indicated such as the hijrah motif, the linking of 9:24 to 9:23 in a logical and
chronological way, and the multiple mentioning of discussions with the Prophet
and among the people as context within which the revelation took place.

Lexicographical statements bear evidence to a contextualization of the ancient
milieu of the verse with the sabab al-nuzl in mind. Keeping in mind tradition,
words or phrases are explained by means of synonyms or other words are as
follows: ashratu-kum (your tribe), iqtaraftum-h ([which] you earned), tijrah
(commerce), kasda-h (its decline), maskin (dwellings), tarawna-h ([which]
you are pleased with), tarabba (wait [you, plural]), l yahd (he does not guide),
and al-fsiqn (the rebellious). Contributions of individual interpreters are referred
to as well as general tendencies.

Regarding love for the Prophet (pbuh), the ten interpreters commentary on the
phrase aabba ilai-kum min Allhi wa rasli-hi wa jihdin f sabli-hi was
discussed, with the focus consecutively on aabba ilai-kum min Allhi wa rasli-
hi and wa jihdin f sabli-hi.
4

Evidence obtained from the scrutiny of al-Tawbah 9:24 while concentrating on
the three categories shows clearly that the hijrah operates strongly as leitmotif in
each of them during the interpretation of the said verse.

Shiite authors share in the traditions associated with Sunnite authors. However,
they have their own style and method of representing data. A study of al-s (d.
460/1067) and al-abrs (d. 548/1153) provides some interesting parallels and
points of difference.
5
TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER ONE ................................................................................................................ 9
INTRODUCTION .............................................................................................................. 9
1.1 PROBLEM STATEMENT ................................................................................. 9
1.2 LITERATURE REVIEW .................................................................................. 12
CHAPTER TWO ............................................................................................................. 17
AL-TAWBAH 9:24 AND COMMENTARIES: ANNOTATED TRANSLATION ....... 17
2.1 INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................. 17
2.1.1 List of the Mufassirs ..................................................................................... 17
2.2 METHOD OF TRANSLATION ........................................................................... 20
2.3 AL-TAWBAH 9:24 ............................................................................................... 29
2.2.1 The Quranic Arabic Text of al-Tawbah 9:24 .......................................... 30
2.2.2 Transcription of al-Tawbah 9:24 ................................................................ 30
2.2.3 English Translation of al-Tawbah 9:24 .................................................... 32
2.2.4 Linguistics Observations on al-Tawbah 9:24 .......................................... 34
2.3 COMMENTARIES (TAFSIRS) ON AL-TAWBAH 9:24 .................................. 36
2.3.1 Al-abar (d. 310/922), Jmi al-Bayn an Tawl y al-Qurn ........... 36
2.3.2 Al-Thalab (d. 427/1035), al-Kashf wa al-Bayn f Tafsr al-Qurn ..... 40
2.3.3 Al-Wid (d. 468/1075), al-Was f Tafsr al-Qurn al-Majd ............... 43
2.3.4 Al-Baghaw (d. 516/1122), Malm al-Tanzl f al-Tafsr......................... 46
2.3.5 Al-Zamakhshar (d.538/1143), al-Kashshf an aqiq al-Tanzl wa
Uyn al-Aqwl f Wujh al-Tawl ....................................................................... 49
2.3.6 Fakhr al-Dn al-Rz (d. 606/1209), Mafth al-Ghaib (also known as
Tafsr al-Kabr) ........................................................................................................ 54
6
2.3.7 Al-Qurub (d. 671/1272), al-Jmi li Akm al-Qurn ............................ 59
2.3.8 Al-Baiw (d.685/1286), Anwr al-Tanzl wa Asrr al-Tawl .............. 68
2.3.9 Ibn Kathr (d. 774/1372), Tafsr al-Qurn al-Am ................................ 70
2.3.10 Ab al-Sud (d.982/1574), Irshd al-Aql al-Salm il Mazy al-
Qurn al-Karm ....................................................................................................... 76
2.4 OVERVIEW OF THE TAFSIRS ......................................................................... 82
CHAPTER THREE ......................................................................................................... 87
SABAB AL-NUZL (REASON FOR REVELATION) OF AL-TAWBAH 9:24 ........ 87
3.1 INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................. 87
3.2 SOURCES ON THE SABAB AL-NUZL OF AL-TAWBAH 9:24 ................. 91
3.2.1 The Sabab al-Nuzl of al-Tawbah 9:24 inAsbb al-Nuzl by al-Wid
(d. 468/1075) ........................................................................................................... 91
3.2.2 The Sabab al-Nuzl of al-Tawbah 9:24 in Lubb al-Nuql by al-Suy
(d.911/1505) ............................................................................................................ 92
3.2.3 Sabab al-Nuzl of al-Tawbah 9:24 in Zd al-Masr by Ibn al-Jawz
(d.597/1201) ............................................................................................................ 93
3.3 SABAB AL-NUZL REPORTED BY INDIVIDUAL MUFASSIRS ................ 95
3.4 SABAB AL-NUZL PHRASEOLOGY SHARED .......................................... 112
3.5 SABAB AL-NUZL THEMES SHARED ........................................................ 116
3.5.1 Hijrah ............................................................................................................ 116
3.5.2 Al-Tawbah 9:23........................................................................................... 119
3.5.3 Conversations ............................................................................................. 123
3.6 CONCLUSION ................................................................................................... 126
CHAPTER FOUR ......................................................................................................... 129
LEXICAL APPROACH IN COMMENTARIES (TAFSIRS) ..................................... 129
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4.1 INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................... 129
4.2 LEXICALLY EXPLAINED WORDS AND PHRASES OF AL-TAWBAH 9:24
..................................................................................................................................... 130
4.2.1 Ashratu-kum (your tribe) .......................................................................... 130
4.2.2 Iqtaraftum-h ([which] you have earned) ............................................ 136
4.2.3 Tijrah (the commerce) ............................................................................. 140
4.2.4 Kasda-h ([which] you fear its decline)................................................. 141
4.2.5 Maskin (the dwellings) ............................................................................. 144
4.2.6 Tarawna-h ([which] you are pleased with) ......................................... 146
4.2.7 Tarabba (wait [you, plural]) ................................................................... 148
4.2.8 L yahd (He [Allah] does not guide) ....................................................... 150
4.2.9 Al-Fsiqn (the rebellious) ......................................................................... 152
4.3 CONCLUSION ................................................................................................... 154
CHAPTER FIVE ........................................................................................................... 160
LOVE FOR THE PROPHET (pbuh) .......................................................................... 160
5.1 ORIENTATION ................................................................................................... 160
5.2 MORE BELOVED TO YOU THAN ALLAH AND HIS MESSENGER ...... 163
5.3 AND [THAN] JIHAD IN HIS WAY .................................................................. 166
5.4 CONCLUSION ................................................................................................... 168
CHAPTER SIX .............................................................................................................. 171
THE SHIITE PERSPECTIVE ON AL-TAWBAH 9:24 ............................................ 171
6.1 INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................... 171
6.2 TWO PROMINENT SHIITE TAFSIRS ON THE VERSE ............................ 171
6.2.1 The Tafsir of al-Tawbah 9:24 by Ab Jafar al-s (d. 460/1067) in al-
Tibyn f Tafsr al-Qurn ..................................................................................... 171
8
6.2.2 The Tafsir of al-Tawbah 9:24 by Ab Al al-abrs (d. 548/1153) in
Majma al-Bayn f Tafsr al-Qurn .................................................................. 177
6.3 CONCLUSION ................................................................................................... 183
CHAPTER SEVEN ....................................................................................................... 185
CONCLUSION .............................................................................................................. 185
BIBLIOGRAPHY ........................................................................................................... 193



9
CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION

1.1 PROBLEM STATEMENT

Identifying a problem can be seen as a result of a specific focus and a
predetermined point of view.

In the case of the dissertation, the focus is a Quranic verse al-Tawbah 9:24
which is unique in the way it expresses love for the Prophet (pbuh), as well as
Allah, and jihad (striving) in His way.

The point of view of the dissertation is to concentrate on the chosen verse
through the eyes of ten consecutive classical Quranic interpreters of whom the
tafsirs can be dated from the 4
th
/10
th
to 10
th
/16
th
centuries.

Having decided upon the focus and the academic perspective, the main problem
manifesting itself is what the respective mufassirs (interpreters) had to say about
al-Tawbah 9:24.

10
The immediate problem is how their often technical and at times cryptic Arabic
can be interpreted in English in order to facilitate understanding. The first
objective is thus to establish a deciphered version of the original text.

A second problem to be answered is the cardinal one, namely to systematize the
contributions of the individual interpreters. The resulting second objective is thus
to group the available information into selected categories.

In order to achieve the first objective, Chapter Two provides an English
translation of the interpretative contributions of the ten chosen mufassirs,
together with extensive reference to Arabic and other sources.

For the second objective the outcome of an analysis of the ten mufassirs
elucidation of al-Tawbah 9:24 was classified in three successive chapters. Sabab
al-nuzl (Chapter Three) considers the classical interpreters view on the reason
(occasion) for the revelation of 9:24. This is followed by a focus on the lexical
approach in commentaries (tafsirs) (Chapter Four). Third; the theme love for the
Prophet (pbuh) (Chapter Five) receives attention. The choice of the three said
topics was predominantly motivated by the interpreters response to the Quranic
verse, reflecting a clear contextual and lexicographical interest. Love for the
11
Prophet (pbuh) as contextualized in 9:24, is a cardinal issue in the verse.
However, it is not specifically discussed by each of the mufassirs. Indirectly,
however, all their endeavours with regard to the verse can be related to it.

Following these analytical three chapters, the Shiite approach is dealt with by
presentation of two eminent Shiite mufassirs (Chapter Six). In the said chapter,
their differences from the ten chosen classical mufassirs are pointed out.

A final chapter (Chapter Seven) endeavours to present the accumulated findings
of study suggesting future lines of investigation.

The chapters as explained above represent a variety of approaches to the data
furnished by the ten mufassirs. Generalized, it could be said that method of
expression receives as much attention as contents. Furthermore individual
contributions are studied, but also trends. Overshadowing all the efforts of
mufassirs is the exegetical traditions of the forefathers that the interpreters
received and communicated in their own way.

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1.2 LITERATURE REVIEW

The approach of the dissertation to study the interpretative history of a single
verse by consulting the views of successive mufassirs is not uncommon in the
Quranic sciences. An interesting example is the study made by Walid A. Saleh
(2004:142-149) of the tafsir of al-Thalab and other classical interpreters
regarding srah 93:7. A comparable endeavour is that of Helmut Gatje (2000)
which provides tafsirs on Quranic texts deemed to be important for Western
readers.

Several studies focus on individuals among the classical Quranic interpreters. In
this regard the contribution of Walid A. Saleh (2006) on al-Wid and his
significance in the history of Quranic exegesis may be mentioned. Furthermore,
the work of Andrew J. Lane (2006) pays detailed attention to the Kashshf of al-
Zamakhshar, which he terms as a traditional Mutazilite Quran commentary.
Claude Gilliot (1988) wrote an overview, listing sixty six people who influenced
the intellectual development of al-abar.

The individual themes discussed in the dissertation are dealt with in numerous
articles. Andrew Rippen provides a bibliographical and terminological survey of
13
(what is termed by him as) the exegetical genre asbb al-nuzl. He mentions 19
manuscripts, updating the list of works cited by Nldeke. According to Rippen,
the actual term sabab seems to make its first appearance in the tafsir of al-abar
(2006:14).

As far as lexicography is concerned dictionaries immediately come to the mind. A
current study on Quranic usage (i.e., meanings ascribed to Quranic words) has
been done by Elsaid M. Badawi and Muhammad Abdel Haleem (2008). Their
dictionary does not however pay systematic attention to the focused
lexicographical contributions of mufassirs.

Regarding love for the Prophet (pbuh) as general theme, the following
books/studies may be mentioned.

Die Person Muhammeds in Lehre und Glauben Seiner Gemeinde (Tor Andrae
1918).

According to him, the concept of love embodies the aspects of
acknowledgement, thankfulness, admiration and seeking of blessing. Should the
14
question be asked how the pious person comes to love God, the answer is:
through love for His Prophet (pbuh).

And Muhammad is His Messenger: the Veneration of the Prophet in Islamic Piety
(Annemarie Schimmel, 1985).

The book deals with veneration of the Prophet Muammad (pbuh) in poetry and
other literature and refers to various studies done in this field. According to her,
the phenomenologist of religion as well as the psychologist will discover that
Islam offers highly interesting examples of loving devotion to the Prophet, who all
will agree that his personality is indeed, besides the Quran, the center of the
Muslims life.

Maabbah al-Rasl (all Allhu alaihi wa sallam) bain al-Ittib wa al-Ibtid
(Love for the Prophet (pbuh) between following and innovating) (Abd al-Raf
Muammad Uthmn, 1991, published MA)

He criticizes the excessive expression of love for the Prophet (such as mawlid
1

celebrations), categorizing it as bidah (innovation).


1
The word mawlid refers to the anniversary of the birthday of the Prophet Muammad (pbuh).
15
Sahbede Peygamber Sevgisi (Love for the Prophet in (the lives of) the
companions) (Seyit Avc, 1992, MA in Turkish)

In this study, it is firstly explained who a companion is and what love is, then the
examples are given of the love and respect of numerous companions of the
Prophet (pbuh).

Sufism, Mystics and Saints in Modern Egypt (Valerie J. Hoffman, 1995)

The author who focuses on Sufism in modern Egypt, by discussing the Prophets
place alludes to the conviction that, love for the Prophet is a spiritual duty for all
Muslims. Among Sufis, spontaneous outpourings of intense love for the Prophet
are entirely natural.

The Birth of the Prophet Muammad: Devotional piety in Sunni Islam (Marion
Holmes Katz, 2007)

Katz focuses on the mawlid narrative, with which love for the Prophet (pbuh) is
associated. Love is recognized as a legal obligation of Muslim believers.

16
In ancient sources two tendencies can be observed among scholars. Firstl; love
for the Prophet (pbuh) follows or is dependent upon love for Allah, e.g., al-
Ghazl (d.505/1111)
2
, Iy, IV/293 and Ibn Rajab al-anbal (d. 795/1393)
3
,
Istinshq, 34. Second; love for the Prophet (pbuh) is a religious duty (far), e.g.
al-Baihaq (d.458/1066)
4
, Shuab al-mn, I/363; al-Ghazl (d.505/1111), Iy,
IV/286; al-Q Iy (d.544/1149)
5
, al-Shif, II/13 and Ibn Rajab al-anbal (d.
795/1393), Istinshq, 85.

2
For al-Ghazls biography refer to al-Dhahab, Siyar Alm al-Nubal, XIX/322 (343); Ibn
Kathr, al-Bidyah wa al-Nihyah, XVI/213; al-afad, al-Wf bi al-Wafayt, I/211; Ibn
Taghrbard, al-Nujm al-Zhirah f Mulk Mir wa al-Qhirah, V/199; Ibn al-Imd al-anbal,
Shadhart al-Dhahab f Akhbr man Dhahab, VI/18.
It should be noted that with regard to Siyar, the page on which the death date is mentioned is
given in brackets; after the page number the biography of the scholar starts.
3
For Ibn Rajabs biography refer to Shadhart, VIII/579; Umar Ri Kalah, Mujam al-
Muallifn Tarjim Muannif al-Kutub al-Arabiyyah, II/74.
4
For al-Baihaqs biography refer to al-Samn, al-Ansb, I/438; Siyar, XVIII/163 (169); al-
Bidyah, XVI/9; al-Wf, VI/219; Shadhart, V/248.
5
He is Iy b. Ms al-Yaub. See: Ibn Khallikn, Wafayt al-Ayn wa Inb Abn al-Zamn,
III/483; al-Dhahab, Tadhkirah al-uff, IV/1304; Siyar, XX/212 (217); al-Wf, XXIII/121; al-
Bidyah, XVI/352; al-Dbj, 168; al-Nujm, V/276; Shadhart, VI/226.
17
CHAPTER TWO
AL-TAWBAH 9:24 AND COMMENTARIES: ANNOTATED TRANSLATION

2.1 INTRODUCTION

2.1.1 List of the Mufassirs

The following classical commentaries (tafsrs) will be cited and discussed:

1) Ab Jafar Muammad b. Jarr b. Yazd al-abar (d.310/923)
6
, Jmi al-
Bayn an Tawl y al-Qurn .
2) Ab Ishq Amad b. Muammad b. Ibrhm al-Thalab (d.427/1035)
7
, al-
Kashf wa al-Bayn f Tafsr al-Qurn.
3) Ab al-asan Al b. Amad b. Muammad al-Wid (d.468/1075)
8
, al-

6
See: Wafayt, IV/191; Tadhkirah al-uff, II/710; al-Dhahab, Siyar, XIV/267 (282); al-afad,
al-Wf, II/212; Ibn Kathr, al-Bidyah, XIV/846; Ibn Taghrbard, al-Nujm, III/230; Al-Suyt,
abaqt al-Mufassirn, 95; al-Dwd, abaqt al-Mufassirn, II/110; Ibn al-Imd, Shadhart,
IV/53.
7
See: Wafayt, I/79; Tadhkirah al-uff, III/1090 ;Siyar, XVII/435 (437); al-Wf, VII/201; al-
Bidyah, XV/659; al-Nujm, IV/285; al-Suyt, abaqt, 28; al-Dwd, abaqt, I/66; Shadhart,
V/127.
8
See: Wafayt, III/303; Siyar, XVIII/339 (342); al-Wf, XX/101; al-Bidyah, XVI/57; al-Nujm,
V/105 ; al-Suyt, abaqt, 78; al-Dwd, abaqt, I/394; Shadhart, V/291. (In al-Nujm, the
demise date of al-Wid is 469/1076).
18
Was f Tafsr al-Qurn al-Majd.
4) Ab Muammad al-usain b. Masd b. Muammad al-Baghaw (d.
516/1122)
9
, Malim al-Tanzl f al-Tafsr
5) Ab al-Qsim Mamd b. Umar b. Muammad al-Zamakhshar (d.
538/1143)
10
, al-Kashshf an aqiq al-Tanzl wa Uyn al-Aqwl f Wujh al-
Tawl
6) Ab Abdullh Muammad b. Umar b. al-usain al-Rz (also known as
Fakhr al-Dn al-Rz) (d. 606/1209)
11
, Maft al-Ghaib (or al-Tafsr al-Kabr)
7) Ab Abdullh Muammad b. Amad b. Ab Bakr
12
al-Qurub (d.
671/1272)
13
, al-Jmi Akm al-Qurn
14


9
See: Wafayt, II/136; Tadhkirah al-uff, IV/1257 ;Siyar, XIX/439 (442); al-Wf, XIII/41; al-
Bidyah, XVI/262; al-Nujm, V/219; al-Suyt, abaqt, 49; al-Dwd, abaqt, I/161;
Shadhart, VI/79.
10
See: Wafayt, V/168; Tadhkirah al-uff, IV/1283; Siyar, XX/151 (155); al-Wf, XXV/133; al-
Bidyah, XVI/335; al-Nujm, V/266; al-Suyt, abaqt, 120; al-Dwd, abaqt, II/314;
Shadhart, VI/194.
11
See: Wafayt, IV/248; Siyar, XXI/500 (501); al-Wf, IV/175; al-Bidyah, XVII/11; al-Nujm,
VI/175; al-Suyt, abaqt, 115; al-Dwd, abaqt, II/215; Shadhart, VII/40.
12
Contrary to other sources, this name is placed in abaqt of al-Suy as Ab Far (not Ab
Bakr).
13
See: Wafayt, IV/248; al-Wf, II/87; Ibn Farn, al-Dbj al-Mudhhab f Marifah Ayn al-
Madhhab, 317; al-Suyt, abaqt, 92; al-Dwd, abaqt, II/69; Shadhart, VII/584; al-Maqqar,
Nef al-b min Ghun al-Andalus al-Rab, II/210.
14
Its complete title is Jmi Akm al-Qurn wa al-Mubayyin li ma-taammana min al-Sunnah wa
y al-Qurn. This is according to al-Dbj al-Mudhhab (cf. id. 317) and al-Dwds abaqt
19
8) Ab al-Khair Abdullh b. Umar b. Muammad al-Baiw (d.
685/1286)
15
, Anwr al-Tanzl wa Asrr al-Tawl
9) Ab al-Fid Isml b. Umar b. Kathr (also known as Ibn Kathr) (d.
774/1372)
16
, Tafsr al-Qurn al-Am
10) Ab al-Sud Muammad b. Muammad b. Musafa al-Imd (d.
982/1574)
17
, Irshd al-Aql al-Salm il Mazy al-Kitb al-Karm
The focus of the present chapter is on interpretative literature of al-Tawbah 9:24,
together with a summary of the discussions.


(II/69). However, aj Khalfah gives information about the said book with the title, Jmi Akm
al-Qurn wa al-Mubayyin li ma-taammana min al-Sunnah wa y al-Furqn. Cf. jj Khalfah,
Kashf al-unn an Asm al-Kutub wa al-Funn, II/534.
15
See: al-Wf, XVII/206; al-Bidyah, XVII/606; Ibn abb, Tadhkirah al-Nabh f Ayym al-
Manr wa Banh, I/104; al-Ayn, Iqd al-Jumn f Trkh Ahl al-Zamn, II/357; al-Suy,
Bughyah al-Wuh f abaqt al-Lughawiyyn wa al-Nuh, 286; al-Dwd, abaqt, I/248;
Shadhart, VII/685.
16
See: Ibn ajar, al-Durar al-Kminah f Ayn al-Meah al-Thminah, I/373, Ibn ajar, Inb al-
Ghumr bi-Anbi al-Umr, I/45; al-Nujm, XI/98; al-Suy, Dhail abaqt al-uff li al-Dhahab,
361; al-Dwd, abaqt, I/111; Shadhart, VIII/397; al-Shawkn, al-Badr al-li bi-Masin
man bada al-Qarn al-Sbi, I/153.
17
See: Al b. Bl, al-Iqd al-Manm fi Dhikr Afil al-Rm, 440 (published together with al-
Shaqiq al-Numniyyah in one volume,); Nawzdah A, adiq al-aqiq f Takmilah al-
Shaqiq, 183; Kashf al-unn, I/65; Shadhart, X/584; al-Badr, I/261; al-Laknaw, al-Fawid al-
Bahiyyah f Tarjim al-anafiyyah, 81.
20

2.2 METHOD OF TRANSLATION

In the translation of the tafsirs of ten mufassirs the following procedures were
followed in rendering the Arabic into English.

The general approach to the translation of the Arabic text was to give, where
possible, a literal translation. In other words, for every Arabic word (particularly
nouns and verbs) an English equivalent was chosen. Arabic syntax, particularly
word sequence, was also retained in the translation where possible.

Even a literal translation, however, exacts the addition of words in order to
facilitate comprehension of the original.

Punctuation Used in Translation

1- Square brackets [ ]

When reading the English rendering of the Arabic, words in square
brackets should be regarded as an essential part of the translation. It
21
should be noted that these brackets mostly refer to the input of the
translator to understand the text.

Square brackets may be found throughout the translations in cases as the
following:

a) Revealing a concealed subject/object in case of pronouns:

Implied subjects that are common in Arabic verbal sentences are specified
throughout the translations by putting them into square brackets.

E.g., yaqlu is translated as He [Allah] says...
E.g., he [Umar b. al-Khab]

b) Supplying additional information about specific persons:

In order to facilitate the recognition of the authorities whose
interpretations or comments are narrated, square brackets are employed.

22
E.g. When Ab Raj is referred to in the Arabic text, his name is
complemented in the English rendering by [al-Utrid] which indicates the
tribe to which he belongs in brackets.

c) Insertion of extra word (or words) when an ellipsis of word (or words)
occurs

When the ellipsis of a word is implied in the Arabic text, the gap in the text
is filled by explanatory words in square brackets in English translation.

Where the quotation of a Quranic word or phrase is directly followed by
its elucidation additional information is given in square brackets.

E.g. the phrase att yat Allhu bi-amrih, bi-l-fati is interpreted as Until
Allah brings about his decision [means] the conquest.

Where a conjunction is not specified in the Arabic text, the necessary
conjunction is supplied.

E.g. and [if] the property that you have earned
23

d) Orientating the reader by giving necessary detail:

In some cases, mufassirs do not go into detail and write in a concise
manner. If it is the case, by means of square brackets the reader is
informed about what is being spoken:

E.g. when that verse [i.e. the previous verse, which commands to not
stand by (be friends with) the relatives who are unbelievers] was
revealed...

e) Separating the prepositions

Square brackets occasionally separate words that are part of the text as
prepositions (and facilitate understanding of a phrase), but that are not
focused upon in a specific instance.

E.g. [by] your separation ([bi]-firqi-kum)

24

2- Brackets ()

They are used for all explanations inserted in the text. These include:

a) Translating the retained Arabic statements in the text:

Brackets are used where the original Arabic is retained (by means of
transliteration) in the English rendering.

E.g., tabraka wa tal (May He be praised and exalted)
E.g., the taste of mn (faith)

b) Emphasizing key Arabic words

On some Arabic words of which the translation is given in the English
translation of the text are stressed by providing them in brackets.

E.g., (iqtaraftum-h)

25
c) Separating the mufassirs voice from the verse

E.g., Whoever of you takes them as friends (after the revelation of the
verse), they are the transgressors/wrongdoers (limn) (al-Tawbah
9:23).

d) Providing an English synonym or alternative:

In some cases, in addition to the English equivalent for the Arabic word,
another synonym is put in brackets.

E.g., f sablih is rendered as in his way (cause).

e) Informing of death dates of the authorities

E.g. Mujhid (d.103/721)

f) Reference to the place of the verse in the Quran

E.g., (al-Infir, 82:6)
26

3- Single Inverted Commas

Single inverted commas are used where someones direct words cited, or
where attention is drawn to specific words in the English rendering.

E.g., staying, the conquest of Mecca

4- Double Inverted Commas

They are used predominantly in chapter 2 (translation of tafsirs) in order to
cite the Quranic verses, adiths, the exact words of the authorities and
the scholars or the poems.

E.g., al-Akhfash [al-Awsa] (d. 215/830) said: Arabs hardly pluralize
ashrah as ashrt; they only make it plural as ashir.

27

5- Italics

Words of foreign (Arabic) origin will be written in italics, e.g. hijrah, tafsir
etc. [Lengthening of vowels will be omitted unless in case where a direct
quotation of the Arabic text is deemed to be necessary.]

Likewise Quranic textual words are written in italics.
E.g. iqtaraftum-h

Where words have become generally known by their English form, they
will be used, e.g., jihad, Mecca, Medina rather than jihd, Makkah and
Madinah.

6- Bold

Bold typeface is mostly used within the Arabic text or English translation of
a tafsir for citation of al-Tawbah, 9:24.

E.g.
28
E.g. the rebellious people, those who depart from obedience.

7- Ellipsis ...

An incomplete citation of the text concerned in the Arabic is preceded or
followed in the English translation by dots.

E.g. If your fathers

Methodology of Citing adiths

When referring to a adith source, the method used by A.J. Wensick in
Concordance et Indices de la Tradition Musulmane is adopted. The said
method
18
is as follows:
(a) al-Bukhr: name of the author, name of the kitb, number of bb.
(b) Muslim: name of the author, name of the kitb and the number of the adith.
(c) Ab Dwd: name of the author, name of the kitb, number of bb.
(d) al-Nas: name of the author, name of the kitb, number of bb.

18
It should be noted that the method is here partially provided. It is shortened to include only the
authors whose compilations referred to in the dissertation. The method is detailed in Wensincks
Concordance.
29
(e) Ibn Mjah: name of the author, name of the kitb, number of bb.

2.3 AL-TAWBAH 9:24

This verse is the one that is clearest related to the dissertations theme because
it directly refers to love for the Prophet by means of the elative aabb (i.e., more
beloved/dearer or the most beloved/the dearest). As al-Q Iy (d. 544/1149)
has said, this [i.e. this verse 9:24] is sufficient as an indicator towards the
obligation of love for the Prophet (pbuh)
19
.

The root -b-b referred to above (cf.aabb) occurs 95 times in the Quran
20
.
Except one derivative meaning grain or seed that is used twelve times, the other
derivatives of the root are all about loving and preferring as a result of loving.

The keyword aabb ( ) is the elative form of abb, i.e. beloved or dear. In
al-Tawbah 9:24 it is used as a comparative adjective, accompanied by the
preposition min (). The form is found only three times in the Quran. Apart
from al-Tawbah 9:24, it is also used in Ysuf, 12:8 and 12:33
21
.

19
Cf. al-Shif, II/13.
20
Cf. Elsaid M. Badawi and Muhammad Abdel Haleem, Dictionary of quranic Usage, 186.
21
Cf. Hanna E. Kassis, A Concordance of the Quran, 509; Muammad Fud Abd al-Bq, al-
Mujam al-Mufahras li Alfz al-Qurn al-Karm, 245.
30

2.2.1 The Quranic Arabic Text of al-Tawbah 9:24



( 42 : 9 )

2.2.2 Transcription of al-Tawbah 9:24
22


The format of the verse is changed in order to identify and mark syntactically
related elements, which may be parts of speech or clauses.

a) qul:

b) in kna

ci) bu-kum

cii) wa abnu-kum

22
The transcription represents an adapted version of the text provided by the internet site,
http://www.transliteration.org (accessed on 7
th
March, 2008).
31

ciii) wa ikhwnu-kum

civ) wa azwju-kum

cv) wa ashratu-kum

d) wa amwlun iqtaraftum-h

e) wa tijratun takhshawna kasda-h

f) wa maskinu tarawna-h

g) aabba ilai-kum

hi) min Allhi

hii) wa rasli-hi

hiii) wa jihdin f sabli-hi
32

i) fa-tarabba

j) att yatiya Allhu bi-amri-hi

k) wa Allhu l yahd al-qawm al-fsiqn

2.2.3 English Translation of al-Tawbah 9:24

Above lines would be translated into English as follows:

a) Say:

b) If (it (the case) is (that))

ci) your fathers,

cii) and your sons,

ciii) and your brothers,

33
civ) and your wives
23
,

cv) and your tribe;

d) and the property that you have earned;

e) and the commerce that you fear for its decline;

f) and the dwellings which you are pleased with

g) are more beloved (or dearer) to you

hi) than Allah,

hii) and His Messenger,

hiii) and jihad (striving) in His way (or his cause);


23
The word zawj, which is the singular form of azwj is used in Qurn as follows: spouse
(husband or wife) (2:102); mate (39:6); one of a pair (6:143); kind, variety (22:5). (Cf. Badawi and
Haleem, Dictionary of Quranic Usage, 406). For the above azwj followed by kum, which is a
plural masculine possessive pronoun, the word azwaj has been translated as wives.
34
i) then wait

j) until Allah brings about His decision (or His command)

k) and Allah guides not the rebellious people.

2.2.4 Linguistics Observations on al-Tawbah 9:24

The verse is introduced by qul (), the imperative of qla, which is followed by a
conditional clause consisting of an if part (i.e. protasis or condition) and a then
part (i.e., apodosis or consequence). The conditional clause simultaneously
functions as a comparative clause using the expression aabba min. The then
part of the conditional sentence consists of an imperative followed by a
temporary clause (until). In conclusion, the verse contains a statement about
Allah, making an observation about the way Allah deals with the rebellious
people.

In the conditional clause the complement of predicate is expressed by root -b-b,
which appears as a comparative form of the adjective abb. Comparison in the
verse is expressed by the prepositional phrase min. The comparison is between
35
worldly relations (ci-cv), and possessions (d-f) on the one hand, and the
alternative religiously related focus (hi-hiii) on the other hand. As seen in c,
worldly relations consist of ties of kinship such as father, sons, brothers, wives
and tribe as a broader circle. And worldly possessions are property, commerce
and dwellings that can either cause fear (e) or pleasure (f). According to the
verse, love for the divine being, namely Allah, together with the Prophet, and
jihad in the heart of the believer must be greater than love for the said worldly
relations and possessions.

The result clause (apodosis) expresses a warning, threatening that if love for the
worldly relations and possessions is greater, Allahs subsequent decision (or
command) will have to be considered. In other words, the believers, who have
failed to love more that which is related to the religion, are told to wait until Allah
brings about His decision
24


Additional to the conditional sentence, another clause or loosely related
consequence is added, in which reference is made to the divine treatment
against people (al-qawm) who are fsiqn, in other words people who (in the
context of the verse) do not fulfil the condition of love for the divine.


24
Cf. al-Baqarah, 2:109.
36
2.3 COMMENTARIES (TAFSIRS) ON AL-TAWBAH 9:24

2.3.1 Al-abar (d. 310/922), Jmi al-Bayn an Tawl y al-Qurn

2.3.1.1 The Quranic Arabic Text of al-Tawbah 9:24



( 42 : 9 )

2.3.1.2 Arabic Text of the Tafsir
25
of al-Tawbah 9:24 by al-abar
26


:
:
:
, :
:
: .
.

:
, , :

25
The word tafsir here and in the following titles means interpretation.
26
Al-abar, Jmi al-Bayn An Tawl y al-Qurn, X/98, 99.
37
.
, , :
.
, :
: :
.
, : : .

2.3.1.3 Translation of the Tafsir of al-Tawbah 9:24 by al-abar
27


He [Allah] (may He be praised and exalted) says to His Messenger Muammad
(pbuh): Say O Muammad to those who fall behind with hijrah to dr al-Islm,
(the abode of Islam) and remain in dr al-Shirk (the abode of Polytheism), If
residing with your fathers, your sons, your brothers, your wives and your tribe;
and [if] the property that you have earned (iqtaraftum-h), He (Allah) means [lit.
says]: that you have acquired (iktasabtum-h), and the commerce that you fear
for its decline by your separation (bi-firqi-kum) from your town and the dwellings
you are pleased with, in which thus you have dwelled, are more beloved (dearer)
to you than hijrah from dr al-Shirk to Allah and His Messenger and than jihad in
his way, i.e. in helping the religion of Allah, with which he is pleased. Then wait
(fa-tarabba), He [Allah] means [lit. says]: then wait (fa-tanaar) until Allah

27
In this translation and the following translations, citations from the Quran are presented in bold
typeface.
38
brings about His decision, until Allah brings about the conquest of Mecca. And
Allah does not guide rebellious people. He [Allah] means [lit. says]: Allah does
not grant success in achieving goodness (al-khair) for those who leave (quit)
obedience to Him and are in rebellion against Him.

Similarly to what we said about this, the people of interpretation (ahl al-tawl)
said.

The account (dhikr) of those who say [like] that:

Muammad b. Amr narrated to me, saying: Ab im narrated to us, saying
s narrated to us from Ibn Ab Nujai, from Mujhid (d. 103/721)
28
Until Allah
brings about His decision [means] the conquest (fat).

Al-Qsim narrated to us, saying: ajjj narrated to me from Ibn Juraij from
Mujhid (d.103/721) then wait until Allah brings about His decision [means] the
Conquest of Mecca.

28
He is Mujhid b. Jabr al-Makhzm. His death date is not certain that there are claims varying
from 100 to 108. Except al-Dhahab, sources unanimously prefer 103 as Mujhids death date.
See: Ibn Sad, al-abakt al-Kubr, V/466; al-Bukhri, al-Trkh al-Kabr, VII/411; Ibn Qutaibah,
al-Marif, 444; Tadhkirah al-uff, I/92; al-Dhahab, Siyar, IV/449, (455); al-Bidyah, XIII/6; Ibn
ajar, Tahdhb al-Tahdhb, X/42; al-Dwd, abakt, II/305; Shadhart, II/19.
39

Muammad b. al-usain narrated to us, saying, Amad b. al-Mufaal narrated
to us, saying, Asb narrated to us from al-Sudd (d. 127/744)
29
and the property
that you have earned and the commerce that you fear for its decline, He [Allah]
means [lit. says]: You fear for its decline and then you sell it." And the dwellings
you are pleased with, he [al-Sudd] said they are the palaces and the homes.

Bishr narrated to us, he said that Yazd narrated to us, he said that Sad narrated
to us from Qatdah (d. 117/735)
30
, His word The property that you have earned
(iqtaraftum-h). He [Allah] means [lit. says]: that you have attained (aabtum-
h).


29
He is Isml b. Abd al-Ramn al-Sudd. See: Al-abakt al-Kubr, VI/323; al-Trkh al-Kabr,
I/361; Siyar, V/264, (265); al-Nujm, I/390 [According to al-Nujm, al-Sudd died in 128/745.];
Tahdhb al-Tahdhb, I/313; al-Dwd, abakt, I/110; Shadhart, II/119.
30
He is Qatdah b. Dimah. See: al-abaqt al-Kubr, VII/229; al-Trkh al-Kabr, I/361; al-
Marif, 462; Yqt al-amaw, Mujam al-Udab (Irshd al-Arb il Marifah Adb), V/2233;
Tadhkirah al-uff, I/122; Siyar, V/269, (283); al-Bidyah, XIII/76; Tahdhb al-Tahdhb, VIII/351;
al-Dwd, abaqt, II/47; Shadhart, II/80. In Shadhart, it informs that Qatdah died in 117 and
it was also said he died in 118.
40

2.3.2 Al-Thalab (d. 427/1035), al-Kashf wa al-Bayn f Tafsr al-Qurn

2.3.2.1 The Quranic Arabic Text of al-Tawbah 9:24



( 42 : 9 )

2.3.2.2 Arabic Text of the Tafsir of al-Tawbah 9:24 by al-Thalab
31


:

:
. :


32

33


:
: :
.

31
Al-Thalab, al-Kashf wa al-Bayn f Tafsr al-Qurn, III/177-178.
32
Or as in the other two copies (nuskhah) of Shar Dwn Ab Tammm of al-Tabrz.
See: Dwn Ab Tammm bi Shar al-Khab al-Tabrz, I/254.
33
Or . Cf. al-Tabrz (see the footnote above) I/254.
41

2.3.2.3 Translation of the Tafsir of al-Tawbah 9:24 by al-Thalab

Then He [Allah] said: Say O Muammad! to those who fall behind with hijrah and
jihad: [Pertaining the condition] If your fathers, your sons, your brothers, your
wives and your tribe, Ab Raj [al-Urid] (d.105/723)
34
and Yaqb (d.
205/820)
35
recited ashratu-kum as ashrtu-kum adding thealf, on the plural
form; and there are various recitations of it (ukhtulifa f-hi), on the authority of
im (d.128/745)
36
; and the property that you have earned (iqtaraftum-h), that
you have acquired (iktasabtum-h), Qatdah (d.118/736) also says [which] you
have acquired. and the commerce that you fear for its decline, it (kasd: decline)
is the opposite of nafq (being in demand; sold well) and its basis is staying

34
Various names are mentioned as his name. In addition to that, his death date is not certain. For
suggestions for his name and death date, see: al-abakt al-Kubr, VII/138; al-Trkh al-Kabr,
VI/410; al-Marif, 427; Siyar, IV/253, (257); al-Dhahab, Marifah al-Qurr al-Kitb al al-abakt
wa al-Ar, I/153; Ibn al-Jazar, Ghyah al-Nihyah f abakt al-Qurr, I/604; Shadhart, II/33.
However, according to Ibn al-Imd, most correctly (al al-aa), he died in 105. Likewise al-
Jazar mentions the same year as the death date.
35
He is Yaqb b. Ishq al-aram. He is one of the most renowned ten scholars of recitation
(qirah). See: al-abaqt al-Kubr, VII/304; al-Trkh al-Kabr, VIII/399; Wafayt, VI/390; Siyar,
X/169, (174); Marifah, I/328; Ghyah al-Nihyah, II/386; Tahdhb al-Tahdhb, XI/382; al-Nujm,
II/224; Shadhart, III/29.
36
He is im b. Ab al-Najd Bahdalah. It is also said he died in the end of the year, 127 AH.
See: al-Trkh al-Kabr, VI/487; Wafayt, III/9; Siyar, V/256, (260); Trkh al-Islm, VIII/22 and
138; Marifah, I/204; Ghyah al-Nihyah, I/346; Tahdhb al-Tahdhb, V/38; Shadhart, II/122.
42
(baq : not moving). The poet
37
says:

They (woman) stayed (kasadna) in their tribe
38
due to poverty
And no doubt, my residence
39
extended for them staying (kusdan)

And the dwellings which you are pleased with (tarawna-h), which please you

37
The poet is unknown. However, this couplet (bait) is placed in the dwn (collection of the
poems) of Ab Mijan Nuaib b. Rab (d.108/726). See footnote no. 3 in al-Qurub, Jmi al-
Akm al-Qurn, X/141.
A (shri) interpreter of Dwn Ab Tammm, al-Tabrz, gives some information about this
couplet: Nuaib b. Rabh had daughters, and he was stingy to let them get married with mawl
(servants). And the Arabs disliked to get married with them [his daughters]. A couplet [he means
the above said one] is uttered (yunshadu) in this meaning. And I did not [anywhere] find it
attributed to Nuaib. It is possible it belongs to any person other than him. After this explanation
he [al-Tabrz] presents the couplet. Cf. Dwn Ab Tammm bi Shar al-Khab al-Tabrz, ed.
Muammad Abduh Am, I/254.
Another author, al-Thalib, touches upon the situation [i.e., being unable to get married due to
their father] which the daughters of Nuaib b. Rab encountered, while expounding the
background of the idiom (arb mathal), bant Nuaib (Nuaibs daughters). Cf. al-Thalib,
Thimr al-Qulb f al-Muf wa al-Mansb, 222.
For the biography of Nuaib b. Rab, see: al-Juma, abaqt Ful Shuar, 529; Ibn
Qutaibah, al-Shir wa al-Shuar, I/371; Ab al-Faraj al-Ifahn, al-Aghn, I/305; Ibn Askir,
Trkh Madnah Dimashq, LXII/52; Ibn al-Jawz, al-Muntaam f Tawrkh al-Mulk wa al-Umam,
IV/592; Mujam al-Udab, VI/2752; al-Dhahab, Trkh al-Islm wa Wafayt al-Mashhr wa al-
Alm, III/330; Ibn Shkir al-Kutub, Fawt al-Wafayt, IV/197; al-Nujm, I/334; Dwd al-Ank,
Tazyn al-Aswk f Akhbr al-Ushshq, I/156; al-Zirikl, al-Alm, VIII/31.
The death date of Nuaib b. Rab varies. In al-Muntaam, it is 108 AH while Tazyn accepts 113
A.H. as death date, and informs that 111 AH is [also] said, and Fawt al-Wafayt even presents a
later date by saying: he died around 120 (tuwuffiya f udd al-ishrn wa al-miah). Cf. above-
mentioned sources.
38
Or in their home (f bayti-hunna), cf. footnote no. 32.
39
Or my blackness (sawd) cf. footnote no. 33.
43
(tujibu-kum); al-Sudd (d. 127/744) said: palaces and houses, are more beloved
(dearer) to you than Allah, His Messenger and jihad in His way (cause) then wait
(fatarabba), then expect (fantair), until Allah brings about His command,
At (d. 115/733)
40
said: His judgment (bi-qai-hi); Mujhid (d. 103/721) and
Muqtil (d. 150/767)
41
said: It means the conquest of Mecca
42
. And Allah does
not guide, (i.e.) does not lead and grant success, the rebellious people, (i.e.)
those who leave (quit) obedience for rebellion against him.

2.3.3 Al-Wid (d. 468/1075), al-Was f Tafsr al-Qurn al-Majd

2.3.3.1 The Quranic Arabic Text of al-Tawbah 9:24



( 42 : 9 )

40
He is At b. Ab Rab. Three various dates are mentioned about his death date. However, al-
Dhahab seems to accept [d.115/733], the date given above as his death date. For the other
dates, cf. al-abaqt al-Kubr, V/467; al-Trkh al-Kabr, VI/463; al-Marif, 444; Wafayt,III/261;
Siyar, V/78 (88); Ghyah al-Nihyah, I/513; Tahdhb al-Tahdhb, VII/199; al-Fs, al-Iqd al-
Thamn f Trkh al-Balad al-Amn, VI/84; Shadhart, II/69.
41
He is Muqtil b. Sulaimn. See: Al-abakt al-Kubr, VII/373; Wafayt, V/255; Siyar, VII/201,
(202); Tahdhb al-Tahdhb, X/279; al-Dwd, abakt, II/330; Shadhart, II/228. In Muqtils
biography, al-Dhahab states that Muqtil died in approximately 150.
42
Cf. Muqtil, Tafsr Muqtil b. Sulaimn, II/164.
44

2.3.3.2 Arabic Text of the Tafsir of al-Tawbah 9:24 by al-Wid
43











2.3.3.3 Translation of the Tafsir of al-Tawbah 9:24 by al-Wid

When that verse [i.e. the previous verse, which commands to not stand by (be
friends with) the relatives who are unbelievers] was revealed, someone said: Oh
Messenger of Allah! If we cut ourselves off from those who differ from us with
respect to religion [i.e. who are from another religion, polytheism in this context],
we will destroy the connection with our fathers and our tribe; our trade will
disappear; and our homes will be ruined.
44
And then Allah revealed: Say: If your

43
Al-Wid, al-Was f Tafsr al-Qurn al-Majd, II/486-487.
44
At a later time, it became permissible to have relations with unbelieving and non-hostile
relatives (cf. al-Mumtainah 60:8, 9). However, a controversy exists about whether these verses
45
fathers, until the end of the verse. And his word wa ashratu-kum, the tribe
(ashrah) of a man is his closest relatives
45
; and it was also recited [as] wa
ashrtu-kum, that it is bad (rad )
46
; al-Akhfash [al-Awsa] (d.215/830)
47
said:
Arabs hardly pluralize ashrah as ashrt; they only make it plural as ashir.
And his word and the property that you have earned, (iqtaraftum-h), i.e. that
you have obtained (kasabtum-h); earning (al-iqtirf) is obtaining (al-kasb); and
His (Allahs) word exemplifies [lit. from] it: Whoever obtains (performs) (yaqtarif)
a good deed (al-Shr, 42:23). He (Allah) says: If these things are more beloved
(dearer) to you than Allah, His Messenger and jihad in His way (cause) then wait.
Ibn Abbs (d.68/687)
48
said: Then wait with things you love: Beside Allah, there

were abrogated [manskh] by the later revelation, al-Tawbah 9:5 [nsikh], which is known as the
verse of the sword. See Ebrahim Moosa, Loyalty, Encyclopaedia of the Qurn, III, 239.
45
Similarly, Ibn Manr states that the ashrah of the man is the closest sons of his forefather.
See Ibn Manr, Lisn al-Arab, IV/2955.
46
It means the aforementioned variant recitation is (munkar) disapproved and (makrh) disliked.
Cf. Ibn Manr, Lisn al-Arab, III/1619. This evaluation of the recitation also attests/sets an
example of al-Wids sharp tongue. Cf. A. Saleh, Walid, The Last of the Nishapuri School of
Tafsir: al-Wid, Journal of the American Oriental Society, vol. 126 (2): 232.
47
He is al-Akhfash al-Awsa [the Middle, i.e. the second of the three famous scholars whose
names are al-Akhfash] Sad b. Masadah al-Mujshi. His death date is uncertain. It was said to
be 211, 215 or 221. See: al-Srf, Akhbr al-Nawiyyn al-Bariyyn Martibuhum wa Akhdhu
Baihim an Ba, 66; Ab al-ayyib al-alab, Martib al-Nawiyyn, 68; Ibn al-Nadm, al-Fihrist,
236; Ibn al-Anbar, Nuzhah al-Alibb f abaqt al-Udab, 107; Yqt al-amaw, Mujam al-
Udab, III/1374; Ibn al-Qif, Inbh al-Ruwh al Anbh al-Nuh, II/36; Wafayt, II/380; Siyar ,
X, 206, (208); al-Wf, XV/161; Bughyah, 258; Shadhart, III/73.
48
He is Abdullh b. Abbs. See: al-abaqt al-Kubr, II/365; al-Trkh al-Kabr, V/3; Ibn Abd al-
Barr, al-Istb f Marifah Ab, III/66; Ibn al-Athr, Usd al-Ghbah f Marifah al-abah,
III/172; Wafayt, III/62; al-Wf, XVII/121; Tadhkirah al-uff, I/40; Siyar, III/331, (359); al-
46
is no reward to you, for your faith. And his word until Allah brings about His
command, the majority [of scholars] said: It means the conquest of Mecca, [as
if] He [Allah] says: Because you prefer the residence at your homes beside your
families and abstain from hijrah, reside [while] being not rewarded until Allah
conquers Mecca, then the obligation of hijrah becomes invalid. The command of
waiting is a threatening command.

2.3.4 Al-Baghaw (d. 516/1122), Malm al-Tanzl f al-Tafsr

2.3.4.1 The Quranic Arabic Text of al-Tawbah 9:24



( 42 : 9 )

2.3.4.2 Arabic Text of the Tafsir of al-Tawbah 9:24 by al-Baghaw
49


: :
: ,

Bidyah, XII/78; Ibn ajar, al-Ibah f Tamyz al-abah, IV/121; Tahdhb al-Tahdhb, V/276;
al-Nujm, I/234; Shadhart, I/294.
49
Al-Baghaw, Malm al-Tanzl f al-Tafsr, II/277.
47
: :
, ,
:
, ,
: . : ,


2.3.4.3 Translation of the Tafsir of al-Tawbah 9:24 by al-Baghaw

Then He [Allah], the Exalted said: O Muammad! Say to those who fall behind
with hijrah

If your fathers

When the previous verse (9:23) was revealed, those who became Muslim but
had not emigrated to Medina said that If we emigrate, our property will be lost,
our trade will disappear, our homes will be destroyed and we will cut relations
with our relatives.

Then Allah revealed:

If your fathers, your sons, your brothers, your wives and your tribe (ashratu-
kum)
48

Ab Bakr (d.193/808)
50
, [who is a narrator of the recitation of the Quran, on
authority of im (d.128/745)], recited ashrtu-kum, with thealf of the plural
form. The others recited with no alf, in the singular form [i.e.ashratu-kum]. It is
because the plural of ashrah is ashir.

And the property that you have earned (iqtaraftum-h), that you have acquired
(iktasabtum-h), and the commerce that you fear for its decline and the
dwellings which you are pleased with, that is, which you find pleasant, namely
palaces and houses.

[If these] are more beloved (dearer) to you than Allah, his Messenger and jihad in
His way (cause), then wait (fa-tarabba), then expect (fa-ntair)

...until Allah brings about His decision.

At (d.114/732) said: [brings about] his judgment.
Mujhid (d.103/721) and Muqtil (d.150/767) said: [brings about] the conquest of

50
He is Ab Bakr b. Ayysh al-Asad. See: Al-abaqt al-Kubr, VI/386; al-Trkh, IX/14; al-
Marif, 509; Tadhkirah al-uff, I/265;Siyar, VIII/495, (507); Marifah, I/280; Ghyah al-Nihyah,
I/325; Tahdhb al-Tahdhb, XII/34; Shadhart, II/430.
49
Mecca.
This is a threatening order.

And Allah does not guide, does not grant success to, and does not lead the
rebellious people, those who depart from obedience.

2.3.5 Al-Zamakhshar (d.538/1143), al-Kashshf an aqiq al-Tanzl wa Uyn
al-Aqwl f Wujh al-Tawl

2.3.5.1 The Quranic Arabic Text of al-Tawbah 9:24



( 42 : 9 )

50

2.3.5.2 Arabic Text of the Tafsir of al-Tawbah 9:24 by al-Zamakhshar
51


. :
:


.
: .

( ) :
:
.
: . :
.








51
Al-Zamakhshar, al-Kashshf an aqiq al-Tanzl wa Uyn al-Aqwl f Wujh al-Tawl, III/25-
26.

51
2.3.5.3 The Translation of the Tafsir of al-Tawbah 9:24 by al-Zamakhshar

Before the conquest of Mecca, the faith of the believer was incomplete unless he
emigrates, cuts relations with his unbelieving relatives and terminates the
friendship with them
52
. Some people said: Oh Messenger of Allah! If we cut
(isolate) ourselves off from people who differ from us at the point of religion, we
will destroy the connection with our fathers, our sons and our tribes; our trade will
disappear; our property will be annihilated; our homes will be ruined and we will
become wretched
53
. Then the revelation came through
54
. And thereupon they
emigrated. Then it began [to happen] that a man, when his son or his father or
his brother or someone from his relatives visited him, did not turn his face
towards him [i.e., anyone from the said], and did not take him in as a guest, and
did not spend in favour of him. Afterwards, he [the man concerned] was permitted
[to be friendly] towards them
55
.

And this is also said that: The verse was revealed about nine people who

52
Al-Thalab and al-Wid provide this information in their tafsir while interpreting the previous
verse (i.e. 9:23) in which they inform that it is narrated from Ibn Abbs. Cf. al-Thalab, al-Kashf
wa al-Bayn, III/177; al-Wid, al-Was, II/486.
53
This sentence literally means We will remain losers.
54
The Arabic text literally means it was revealed but it is probably 9:24. See p. 117.
55
It has become permissible to have relations with unbelieving and non-hostile relatives with the
revelation of the Qurnic verses, 60:8 and 9. See footnote no. 44.
52
converted from Islam [i.e. who reverted to shirk (polytheism)], and went to
Mecca. Then Allah, the Exalted, prohibited friendship with them.
56


[Narrated] from the Prophet (pbuh): None of you will taste the taste of mn
(faith) until he loves [anything] for the sake of Allah (f-llh) and loathes [anything]
for the sake of Allah (f-llh); so that he loves for the sake of Allah the human
being farthest to him and loathes for Allah the one closest to him.

It [i.e. the relevant word in the verse] was recited [as] ashratu-kum and ashrtu-
kum. And al-asan [al-Bar] (d.110/728)
57
recited [it as]ashiru-kum.

Wait until Allah brings about His decision Ubaid [narrated] from Ibn Abbs
(d.68/687) that: It is the conquest (fat) of Mecca. And it is narrated from al-

56
This narration is found in an early mufassir, Muqtil b. Sulaiman. He provides the narration
while speaking of the reason for revelation of the verse, 9:23 and he mentions seven people not
nine people as found in the published tafsir. Cf. Muqtil, Tafsr Muqtil b. Sulaimn, II/164. In
addition to that, Ibn al-Jawz puts the narration among the other ones that he presented for sabab
al-nuzl of the verse 9:23. And it may imply an attempt to reconciliation; he just said a group of
people (nafar)... since there is difference in number of people. Cf. Zd al-Masr, III/411.
57
Al-asan b. Ab al-asan Yasr al-Bar. See: al-abaqt al-Kubr, VII/156; al-Trkh al-Kabr,
II/289; al-Marif, 440; al-Fihrist, 202; Wafayt, II/69; Tadhkirah al-uff, I/71; Siyar, IV, 563,
(587); Marifah, I/168; Ghyah al-Nihyah, I/235; al-Bidyah, XIII/54; Tahdhb al-Tahdhb, II/263;
al-Nujm, I/342; al-Dwd, abaqt al-Mufassirn, I/150; Shadhart, II/48; For his teachers with
regard to recitation (qirah) see: Ab al-Al al-Hamadhn, Ghyah al-Ikhtir f Qirah al-
Asharah Aimmah al-Amr, I/39 and 42.
53
asan [al-Bar]: It is an instantaneous [in the world] or delayed [to the next life]
punishment.

This is a [very] harsh verse, which [compared to any other verse] you can not [lit.
do not] see harsher than it. As if it reproaches human beings for their laxity
towards the covenant of the religion and their disorder at the binding of the
certainty (yaqn
58
)? So let the most cautious of human beings and the most pious
of them be just against [the evil of] his self (nafs): Is he able to find
59
in (inda)
himself inflexibility (solidity) concerning Allah and perseverance at the religion of
Allah to such extent that he prefers his religion to the fathers, the sons, the
brothers, the tribes, the property, the dwellings and all worldly pleasures,
abstaining from them on account of it [his religion, Islm]? Or does he set aside
(disregard) Allah, [considering Him] as the most worthless thing among them [i.e.
the above-mentioned] according to his benefit (interest) [he would gain], and then
does he know which one of his sides is longer? And does Satan mislead him
from the greatest pleasure amongst the religious pleasures; and does he not

58
Yaqn as a word means the knowledge (al-ilm), with which there is no doubt (shakk). Cf. al-
Jurjn, al-Tarft, 259. Ibn Manr stated that It is opposite of shakk (doubt) and ilm
(knowledge) is opposite of jahl (ignorance). Yaqn also means death as it is used in that sense in
the Quran, e.g. ijr, 15:99. Cf. Ibn Manr, Lisn, VI/4964; for the narrations which interpret the
said verse refer to al-abar, Jmi al-Bayn, XIV/74, 75. In addition, for a adith in which the
word, yaqn means death refer to al-Bukhr, Janiz, 3.
59
Although it literally means Does he find it is preferred to translate it in the said form because
it better suits the meaning of the comment.
54
mind, as if a fly alighted upon his nose and he [instantaneously] let it fly?

2.3.6 Fakhr al-Dn al-Rz (d. 606/1209), Mafth al-Ghaib (also known as Tafsr
al-Kabr)

2.3.6.1 The Quranic Arabic Text of al-Tawbah 9:24



( 42 : 9 )

2.3.6.2 The Text of the Tafsir of al-Tawbah 9:24 by Fakhr al-Dn al-Rz
60







.



.

60
Fakhr al-Dn al-Rz, Maft al-Ghaib (al-Tafsr al-Kabr), XVI/16, 17.
55

: :
.
: .
:

: .

:
:
.
: .
: .
:




.


2.3.6.3 The Translation of the Tafsir of al-Tawbah 9:24 by Fakhr al-Dn al-Rz

Know that this verse is the confirmation of the answer that Allah mentioned in the
56
first verse [i.e. the previous verse, 9:23]. It is because a group of the believers
said: Oh Messenger of Allah! How can it be possible to be free (separated)
(barah) from them totally? Verily, this freedom requires our separation from our
fathers, our brothers and our tribe; the disappearance of our commerce; the
annihilation of our property; the ruin of our homes and and our remaining at loss.

Then Allah stated that it requires the enduring of all these worldly harms for the
reason that the religion stays sound. And he mentioned that if the consideration
of these worldly benefits is worthier (awl) to you (inda-kum) than the obedience
to Allah, the obedience to His Messenger and the performing jihad (mujhadah)
in His way (cause), then wait with what you love, until Allah brings about His
command, namely an instantaneous [in the world] or a delayed [to the next life]
punishment
61
. The aim of this clause is a threat (al-wad). Then He said Allah
does not guide the rebellious people, which are those who leave (quit) obedience
to Him and are in rebellion against Him. This [statement] is also a threat. This
verse indicates that when a clash occurs between a benefit from the religious
benefits and all important worldly matters, Muslims must prefer religion to the
world.


61
Cf. al-Zamakhshar, p.53.
57
Al-Wid (d.468/1075) said about his [Allahs] word ashratu-kum that the
ashrah (kindred) of a man is the closest relatives (family). And they are on
intimate terms with him. Ab Bakr (d.193/808), narrating on the authority of im
(d.128/745) recited ashrtu-kum as plural (while) the others recited (it) in
singular form (i.e.ashratu-kum). As to people who recited [it as] plural; they
recited the plural, (ashrtu-kum) because everyone from the addressed people
has an ashrah (tribe). So when you make it plural, you say ashrtu-kum. And
people who recited singular [i.e. ashratu-kum] say ashrah is already plural and
so there is no need to make it plural. Supporting that [i.e. the previous idea] al-
Akhfash [al-Awsa] (d.215/830) said: Arabs hardly pluralize ashrah as ashrt;
they only make it plural as ashir.
62


His [Allahs] word The property that you have earned (iqtaraftum-h), earning
(al-iqtirf) is [i.e. refers to] acquisition (al-iktisb).

And know that He [Allah], the Exalted mentioned those things which result in
social intercourse with unbelievers. These are four things:


62
While the source used by Fakhr al-Dn al-Rz and al-Wid is the same, namely al-Akhfash,
we are unable to ascertain with certainty whether Fakhr al-Dn al-Rz quotes this word of al-
Akhfash from al-Wid. There is a slight variation of wording in the way al-Akhfashs word is
presented by the two said mufassirs.
58
First: The social intercourse with relatives. Of them, Allah mentioned these four
categories in detail: fathers, sons, brothers and wives. Then he made mention of
the others with a word that encompasses all, it is ashrah.
Second: The tendency for holding the earned property.
Third: The desire for collecting property by means of commerce.
Fourth: The desire for houses.

There is no doubt that this order is a beautiful order. So the biggest motivating
reason for the social intercourse is family relationship. Then by means of this
social intercourse, the earned property is retained. Then by means of the social
intercourse, the property that was not collected before is earned. And at the last
step, there is the desire for the construction (or the building) (bin) in the lands,
and for the houses with courtyard (al-dr)
63
, which are built for [the purpose of]
residing. So He [Allah], the Exalted mentioned these things in this essential
order, and stated at the end that considering religion is more superior to
considering all these things.


63
Dr is one of the plurals of the Arabic word, dr. Dr has several meanings; such as a
mansion, a house comprising courtyard, a dwelling and an abode (as in dr al-salm: the abode
of peace). In addition, it signifies a country, a city or a town. Cf. Lane, Edward William, An Arabic
English Lexicon, III/931. It is also defined as the place (al-maall) which comprises (yajma) the
building (al-bin) and the courtyard (al-arah). Cf. Ibn Manr, Lisn, II/1452.
59
2.3.7 Al-Qurub (d. 671/1272), al-Jmi li Akm al-Qurn

2.3.7.1 The Quranic Arabic Text of al-Tawbah 9:24



( 42 : 9 )

2.3.7.2 The Text of the Tafsir of al-Tawbah 9:24 by al-Qurub
64



:
: .
:
. :
.
.

:
.
: . .
: .
:

64
Al-Qurub, al-Jmi li Akm al-Qurn, X/140-142.
60



: .
.

. .
:
:
:



. .

. : .
. :

: .
. .



.
: :
... .
61
( : ) .
: ( ) ( .) .

2.3.7.3 The Translation of the Tafsir of al-Tawbah 9:24 by al-Qurub

When the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) was commanded to perform hijrah from
Mecca to Medina; son [lit. man] to his father, father to his son, brother to his
brother and husband to his wife started saying We have certainly been
commanded with hijrah. Then some of them rushed [to perform] it; and among
them some refused to emigrate. He [who was determined to emigrate] said [to
those who refused or showed reluctance to emigrate] By Allah, if you do not
depart to the abode of hijrah; I will never help (n-f-) you and never support (n-f-q)
you in any way. And among them, whom his wife and child were holding on and
saying to him I implore you by Allah (anshudu-ka bi-llhi) not to leave; [if you
do] then we become losers after you [i.e. your departure]. So among them some
felt pity, then refrained from hijrah and stayed with them.
65
And it was revealed

65
This account is narrated by [Muammad b. al-Sib] al-Kalb (d.146/763) through Ab li
(Bdhm) from Ibn Abbs. Cf. al-Thalab, al-Kashf wa al-Bayn, III/177; al-Wid, Asbb al-
Nuzl, 245; Ab al-Laith al-Samarqand, Bar al-Ulm, II/40; al-Baghaw, Malim al-Tanzl,
IV/24.
For the biography of al-Kalb, refer to: Ibn Sad, al-abaqt al-Kubr, VI/358; Ibn ibbn, Kitb al-
Majrn min al-Muaddithn wa al-uaf wa al-Matrkn II/253; Ibn Khallikn, Wafayt, IV/309;
Ibn ajar, Tahdhb al-Tahdhb, IX/178; al-Dwd, abaqt al-Mufassirn, II/149; Ibn al-Imd,
Shadhart, II/211.
62
[i.e. al-Tawbah 9:23]: O believers! Do not take your fathers, your brothers as
friends if they prefer kufr (unbelief or infidelity) to the faith. It means: If they
prefer staying in Mecca as infidels (al al-kufr) to believing Allah and performing
hijrah to Medina. And [quoting rest of the previous verse:] whoever of you
takes them as friends (after the revelation of the verse), they are the
transgressors/wrongdoers
66
(limn).

Then, about those who fell behind with [hijrah] and did not emigrate, it [al-Tawbah
9:24] was revealed: Say, If your fathers, your sons, your brothers, your wives and
your kindred (ashratu-kum), that [i.e.ashrah] is a group that refers (tarji) to a
certain decimal number (aqd) like ten (asharah)
67
, or a bigger one [i.e. any other
decimal number like twenty, thirty and so forth]. From it [i.e. the same verbal root,
a-sh-r] al-musharah [is derived]. And it means agreeing (ijtim) upon
something. And the property that you have earned (iqtaraftum-h), that you
have acquired (iktasabtum-h) in Mecca. The basis of iqtirf (earning) is taking
out something from its place to somewhere else. And the commerce that you fear
for its decline Ibn al-Mubrak (d.181/797)
68
said: It [the commerce] is the

66
Cf. Badawi and Haleem, Dictionary of quranic Usage, 586.
67
Ten (asharah) is first decimal number (uqd). Cf. Ibn Manr, Lisn, IV/2951.
68
He is Abdullh b. al-Mubrak. See: al-Trkh al-Kabr, V/212; al-Marif, 511; Ibn al-Jawz,
ifah al-afwah, IV, 134; Wafayt, III/32; Tadhkirah al-uff, I/274; Siyar, VIII/378, (418); al-
Bidyah, XIII/610; al-Dbj, 130; Tahdhb al-Tahdhb, V/382; al-Nujm, II/133; Shadhart, II/361.
63
daughters and the sisters; when they stayed at home, being unable to find (l
yajidna) a fianc for themselves
69
. A poet
70
says:

They (women) stayed (kasadna) in their tribe due to poverty
And no doubt, my residence extended for them staying (kusdan).

And dwellings which you are pleased with, He [Allah] says: and houses of which
the residing in them pleases you. [All these] are more beloved (dearer) to you
than Allah and His Messenger, than performing hijrah to Allah and His
Messenger in Medina.

Aabba is the complement (khabar) of kna. It is permissible, except in the
Quran, to read aabbu [instead of aabba) as the subject of a nominal
sentence (ibtid) and [as] predicate (khabar). [In this situation] the subject (or
noun) of kna is concealed. Sbawaih (d.180/796)
71
has recited
72
:

69
Cf. al-Mward, al-Nukat wa al-Uyn, II/349.
70
Refer to the footnotes no. 37, no. 38 and no. 39.
71
He is Amr b. Uthmn al-Bar, who was originally Persian. He is known as Sbawaih al-Naw
and one of the masters of Arabic grammar (naw). It was also said that he died in 188. See:
Akhbr al-Nawiyyn al-Bariyyn, 63; Martib al-Nawiyyn, 65; Fihrist, I/57; Nuzhah, 54; Mujam
al-Udab, V/2122; Inbh, II/346; Wafayt, III/463; Siyar, VIII/351, (352); al-Bidyah, XIII/606;
Bughyah, 366; Shadhart, II/277. Even though Ibn al-Imd mentions Sbawaih among the people
who died in 161 AH providing an account of Ibn al-Ahdal* (d.855/1451), he confirms the year 180
64

When I die, people are [divided into] two groups (infni): joyful (shmit)
And the other who praises (muthnin) [me] for all things I had been doing.
73


And he [Sbawaih] has also recited:

She is the healing for my disease if I would get her;
But (wa) the healing of the disease is not granted (mabdhl) by her.
74



AH as Sbawaihs death date, and he does not agree upon the year, 161 AH. For various dates
alleged as his death date, refer to Wafayt, III/464 and Shadhart, II/228.
*Ibn al-Ahdal referred to in the above explanation is usain b. Abd al-Ramn. For his
biography, refer to al-Sakhw, al-aw al-Lmi li Ahl al-Qarn al-Tsi, III/145 and al-Sakhw, al-
Tibr al-Masbk f Dhail al-Sulk, 358; al-Shawkn, al-Badr al-li, I/218, al-Zirikl, al-Alm,
II/240.
72
He recites this couplet and the following one in his renowned Arabic grammar book, al-Kitb.
Cf. Sbawaih, al-Kitb (Kitb Sbawaih), II/71.
73
This couplet belongs to Ab al-Farazdaq, al-Ujair b. Abdullh al-Sall (d. appr. 90/708). Cf.
the relevant footnote in al-Qurub, al-Jmi li Akm al-Qurn, X/141; al-Srf, Shar Abyt
Sbawaih, I/143. About al-Ujair b. Abdullh, refer to: abaqt Ful Shuar, 505; al-Aghn,
XIII/56; Ab al-Qsim al-mid, al-Mutalif wa al-Mukhtalif, 166; Ibn azm, Jamharah Ansb al-
Arab, 260; al-Alm, IV/217.
74
This couplet belongs to Hishm b. Uqbah al-Adaw. Cf. the relevant footnote in al-Qurub, al-
Jmi li Akm al-Qurn, X/141; al-Srf, Shar Abyt Sbawaih, I/421 He is one of the brothers
of the poet Dhu al-Rummah, Ghailn b. Uqbah (d.117/735)*. About Hishm b. Uqbah, refer to:
Shir wa al-Shuar, I/510; Jamharah, 200; Mujam al-Udab, VI/2782; Wafayt, II/501 and
IV/15; al-Alm, VIII/87.
* For the bioghrapy of Dhu al-Rummah, refer to Shir wa al-Shuar, I/506; Wafayt, IV/16-17;
Siyar, V/267; al-Bidyah, XIII/78; al-Alm, V/124.
65
In the verse, there is a sign (or directive) (dall) for the necessity (or obligation) of
love for Allah and for His Messenger. There is no disagreement regarding this
[necessity], amongst Muslims (al-ummah) and regarding the fact that it [i.e. the
necessity of love for Allah and for His Messenger (pbuh)] is put before (or given
priority over) every beloved one. The meaning of love for Allah, the Exalted, and
love for his Messenger was elucidated during the interpretation of l Imrn
75
.

And jihad in His way (cause), then wait, its [wording] formula [namely fa-
tarabba, then wait] is an imperative and its meaning is a threat. He [Allah] says
expect (intair).

Until Allah brings about His decision, i.e. the fight/war (qitl), and the conquest
(fat) of Mecca
76
; [the latter is] narrated from Mujhid (d.103/721). And al-asan
[al-Bar] (d.110/728) [says] an instantaneous [in the world] or a delayed [to the
next world] punishment.

In His word: than jihad in His way (cause), there is a sign (dall) for the
superiority of jihad, and preferring it to the comfort of oneself (nafs), and to ones

75
It is done while interpreting the verse, l Imrn, 3:31.
76
Similar to al-Qurub, al-Waidi likewise interprets this clause [bi-amri-hi] as the fight/war (qitl)
and the conquest of Mecca (fat Makkah) in his book named Asbb al-Nuzl. Cf. Asbb al-
Nuzl, 245.
66
[i.e., of the self] ties with the family and the property. [The subject of] the
superiority of jihad is going to come in the end of the srah [al-Tawbah]. In al-
Nis, a sufficient amount (kifyah) of the rules (akm) of hijrah is presented
77
;
all praise is due to Allah.

In a a adith [it is said]: Verily, Satan lay in wait for the son of Adam in three
places: (1) He lay [in waiting] for him on the way to Islam, and said: Why are you
quitting (tadharu) your religion and your fathers religion? He disagreed with him
and became a Muslim; (2) He lay [in waiting] for him on the way of hijrah, and
said to him: Do you leave your property and your family?He disagreed with him
and performed hijrah; (3) then he lay [in waiting] for him on the way to jihad, and
said to him: (When) you perform jihad, then you will be slain, then your wife will
be taken as spouse [by another man], and then your property will be distributed.
He disagreed with him and performed jihad and then it became incumbent upon
Allah to let him [the son of Adam] enter into Paradise.
78


Al-Nas (d.303/915)
79
narrated it [this adith], as the adith of Sabrah b. Ab

77
The explanations about hijrah that are referred to, can be found in the interpretation of the
verses, al-Nis 4:89 and 90. See: al-Qurub, Jmi al-Akm al-Qurn, VI/506.
78
This adith is found at Amad b. anbal, III/483 and al-Nas, Jihd, 19.
79
He is Amad b. Shuaib al-Nas. Cf. al-Samn, al-Ansb, V/484; Ibn al-Jawz, al-Muntaam,
VII/450; Wafayt, I/77; al-Wf, VI/256; Ibn Abd al-Hd, abaqt Ulam al-adth, II/418;
67
Fkih
80
. He [Sabrah] said that I heard from the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) saying
Verily Satan, and mentioned it [the adith above].
Al-Bukhr (d.256/869)
81
said: Ibn al-Fkih, and did not mention any
disagreement on this [the companions name].
Ibn Ab Ad (d.194/809)
82
said: It [Sabrah b. Ab Fkihs name] is mentioned as
Ibn al-Fkih, and also Ibn Ab al-Fkih. It [the discussion of the verse] has
come to end.


Tadhkirah al-uff, II/698; Siyar, XIV/125, (133); al-Bidyah, XIV/792; Tahdhb al-Tahdhb, I/36;
al-Nujm, III/209; Shadhart, IV/15.
80
He is a companion of the Prophet (pbuh). His death date is not mentioned in the biographic
sources. In the sources, several variants of his name are given. They are as follows: Sabrah b.
Fkih, Sabrah b. al-Fkihah, Sabrah b. Ab Fkih, Sabra b. Ab al-Fkih and Sabrah b. al-
Fkihah. Cf. Amad b. anbal, III/483 [Like al-Nas, he also mentions his name as Sabrah b.
Ab Fkih.]; al-Trkh, IV/187; Ibn Ab tim, al-Jar wa al-Tadl, IV/295; Ibn ibbn, al-Thiqt,
III/176; al-Mizz, Tahdhb al-Kaml, X/202; al-Kshif, I/426; al-Dhahab, Tajrd Asm al-aabah,
I/208; al-Istb, II/146; Usd al-Ghbah, II/276; al-Iqd al-Thamn, IV/512; al-Ibah, III/26;
Tahdhb al-Tahdhb, III/453; al-Wf, XV/112.
81
He is Muammad b. Isml al-Bukhr. Cf. al-Khab al-Baghdd, Trkh Baghdd aw Madnah
al-Salm, II/4; Wafayt, IV/188; abaqt Ulam al-adth, II/243; Tadhkirah al-uff, II/555;
Siyar, XII/391, (468), al-Wf, II, 148; Tahdhb al-Tahdhb, IX/47; al-Nujm, III/32; Shadhart,
III/252.
82
He is Muammad b. Ibrhm b. Ab Ad. Cf. al-abaqt al-Kubr, VII/292; al-Tarkh al-Kabr,
I/23; al-Dhahab, al-Kashif f Marifah Man Lah Riwyah f al-Kutub al-Sittah, II/154; Tadhkirah al-
uff, I/324; Siyar, IX/220, (221), Tahdhb al-Tahdhb, IX/12; al-Nujm, II/185; Shadhart, II/441.
68

2.3.8 Al-Baiw (d.685/1286), Anwr al-Tanzl wa Asrr al-Tawl

2.3.8.1 The Quranic Arabic Text of al-Tawbah 9:24



( 42 : 9 )

2.3.8.2 The Text of the Tafsir of al-Tawbah 9:24 by al-Baiw
83


.
. .
.
.
. .
.

2.3.8.3 The Translation of the Tafsir of al-Tawbah 9:24 by al-Baiw

Say, if your fathers, your sons, your brothers, your wives, or your kindred, your

83
Al-Baiw, Anwr al-Tanzl wa Asrr al-Tawl, I/400.
69
relatives (aqrib), [the said noun,ashrah] is derived (makhdh) from ishrah
(company); it is also said [that it is derived] from asharah (ten), as ashrah
(kindred) is a group which refers to (tarji) a decimal number (aqd) like the
decimal number,asharah (ten). Ab Bakr (d.193/808) recited wa ashratu-kum
[as] wa ashrtu-kum, and it is also recited [as] wa ashiru-kum; the property
that you have earned (iqtaraftum-h), that you have acquired (iktasabtum-h);
the commerce that you fear (takhshawna) for its decline, [you fear] the lapsing
(fawt) of the time of its being in demand [nafqi-h, i.e of its prosperous trade];
and the dwellings which you are pleased with, are more beloved (dearer) to you
than Allah, His Messenger, and jihad in His way (cause), [out of] facultative
(ikhtiyr) love, not natural/spontaneous (ab) [love]
84
; for it (natural/
spontaneous love) does not fall (l yadkhulu) under legal capacity (taklf), with
regard to avoiding (taaffu) it
85
. Then wait until Allah brings about His decision,
[it is] a response and a threat, and the decision is an instantaneous or delayed
punishment, and it is also said the conquest (fat) of Mecca. And Allah does not

84
A similar classification of love was made by al-Khab (d.388/998). Cf. al-Khab, Alm al-
adth, IV/1200. For his biography, refer to Yaqt al-amaw, Mujam al-Udab, II/486; Siyar,
XVII/23 (27); al-Bidyah, XV/479; al-Nujm, IV/201.
85
In order to elucidate, it may be said: It is almost impossible to avoid natural/inborn love.
Therefore nobody can be accountable for loving somebody with such love. However
facultative/spontaneous love is optional and anybody who prefers to love a certain person or thing
will be accountable for it. In accordance with the decree of the verse, a believer must not love [out
of spontaneous love [his relatives and worldly benefits more than Allah, His Messenger (pbuh)
and jihad.
70
guide (yahd) rebellious people, does not lead them (yurshidu-hum). In the verse,
there is strong emphasis [to give preference to divine love], and who are
rescued/saved from it [i.e. threat in the verse] are a few. )

2.3.9 Ibn Kathr (d. 774/1372), Tafsr al-Qurn al-Am

2.3.9.1 The Quranic Arabic Text of al-Tawbah 9:24



( 42 : 9 )

2.3.9.2 The Text of the Tafsir of al-Tawbah 9:24 by Ibn Kathr
86



: :
: :
:
:

: :
:

86
Ibn Kathr, Tafsr al-Qurn al-Am, IV/123, 124.
71
:
. : . :




:


- -
: :


.

2.3.9.3 The Translation of the Tafsir of al-Tawbah 9:24 by Ibn Kathr

Then [after the prohibition of assisting the unbelieving relatives in the previous
verse] the Most High [Allah] commanded His Messenger (pbuh) to threaten him
who preferred his family, his relatives and his tribe to Allah, and to His
Messenger and jihad in His way (cause) and said:

If your fathers, your sons, your brothers, your wives, or your kindred; the property
that you have earned (iqtaraftum-h), which you have acquired (iktasabtum-
72
h) and you have attained (aaltum-h), and the commerce that you fear for its
decline, and dwellings which you are pleased with (raawna-h), you like
(tuibbna-h) them because of their goodness and beauty, that is If these things
are more beloved (dearer) to you than Allah, His Messenger, and jihad in His
way (cause), then wait (fa-tarabba); that is, expect (fa-ntair) what happens
to you regarding his penalty and exemplary punishment (nakl) for you. And for
this [reason] He said until Allah brings about His decision: and Allah does not
guide the rebellious people.

Imam
87
Amad (d.241/855)
88
said: Qutaibah b. Sad narrated to us, saying Ibn
Lahah narrated to us from Zuhrah b. Mabad (d.135/752)
89
. [He narrated to him]
from his grandfather
90
[a companion of the Prophet (pbuh)] Abdullh b. Hishm
91
;

87
It should be understood that the word imam in this context refers to a great or leading
scholar.
88
He is Amad b. Muammad b. anbal and mostly known as Amad b. anbal. See: al-
abaqt al-Kubr, VII/354; al-Trkh al-Kabr, II/5; al-Fihrist, I/285; Wafayt, I/63; abaqt Ulam
al-adth, II/81; al-Wf, VI/225; Tadhkirah al-uff, II/431; Siyar, XI/177, (334); al-Bidyah,
XIV/380; Tahdhb al-Tahdhb, I/72; al-Nujm, II/365; Shadhart, III/185.
89
It is also said that he died in 137. See: al-abaqt al-Kubr, VII/515; al-Trkh al-Kabr, III/443;
Siyar, VI, 147, (148) And Ibn ajar quoted from Ab Sad b. Ynus in Zuhrahs biography; he
[Ab Sad] said that he died in Alexandra (Iskandariyyah) in 127 and [Ibn ajar also said that] it
was said in 135, and in his [Ibn ajars] opinion, it [the date, 135] is more correct (aa) Cf.
Tahdhb al-Tahdhb, III/341-342; Shadhart, II/156.
90
Refer to Amad b. anbal, IV/336; Siyar, VI/147.
91
See: al-Jar wa al-Tadl, V/193; al-Thiqt, III/246; al-Istb, III/122; Usd al-Ghbah, III/90; al-
Kshif, I/605; Tajrd, I/339; Tahdhb al-Tahdhb, VI/63; al-Ibah, IV/217. As these sources lack
73
he [his grandfather] said: We were beside the Messenger of Allah (pbuh); he
was holding the hand of Umar b. al-Khab (d.23/643),
92
and he [Umar b. al-
Khab] said By Allah, verily you, Oh Messenger of Allah, are more beloved
(dearer) to me than every thing except my self (nafs). Then the Messenger of
Allah (pbuh) said: None of you becomes believer until I am more beloved
(dearer) to him than his self (nafs). And Umar said: So you are now, by Allah,
more beloved (dearer) to me [even] than my self (nafs). Then the Messenger of
Allah (pbuh) said: Now [it, the love is complete], Oh Umar!
93


Al-Bukhr (d. 256/869) stands alone by stating (ikhrj) it
94
[the above-mentioned
adith, with these following narrators]; he reported it from Yay b. Sulaimn,
from Ibn Wahb, from aywah b. Shuraij, from Ab Uqail Zuhrah b. Mabad
(d.135/752), that he heard from his grandfather, [who is] Abdullh b. Hishm,
(narrating) from the Prophet (pbuh) this [above-mentioned adith].


information about his [Abdullh b. Hishms] death date, we are unable to ascertain the date.
However, Ibn al-Athr (in Usd al-Ghbah) and Dhahab (in Tajrd) informs us about his birth date:
4/625 [see the said references].
92
See: al-abaqt al-Kubr, III/265; al-Istb, III/235; Usd al-Ghbah, III/318; Tadhkirah al-
uff, I/5; al-Ibah, IV/484; Tahdhb al-Tahdhb, VII/438; al-Wf, XII/283; Shadhart, I/177.
93
This adith is found at Amad b. anbal, IV/336.
94
This adith is found at al-Bukhr, al-Aymn wa al-Nudhr, 3.
74
Verily it is found in his [al-Bukhrs] Sa
95
that the Messenger of Allah (pbuh)
said: By whom my self (nafs) is in his hands [Allahs], none of you becomes a
believer until I am more beloved (dearer) to him than his father, his child and the
people, all of them.
96


Imam Amad [b. anbal]

(d.241/855) and Ab Dwd (d. 275/888)
97
to whom
the formulation [of the following adith] belongs, reported
98
from the adith
[narrated] from Ab Abdurramn al-Khursn, from At al-Khursn, from
Nfi (d.117/735)
99
from Ibn Umar (d.74/693)
100
; (and) he [Ibn Umar] said: I
have heard the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) saying : When you do trade of al-

95
It is al-Bukhrs complilation of adiths called al-Jmi al-a and also more commonly
known as a al-Bukhr.
96
This adith is found at al-Bukhr, al-mn, 8; Muslim, al-mn, 70; al-Nas, al-mn wa
Shariih, 19; Ibn Mjah, Muqaddimah, 9; Amad b. anbal, III/177, 207, 275, 278.
97
He is Ab Dwd, Sulaimn b. al-Ashath al-Sijistn. See: Wafayt, II/404; abaqt Ulam al-
adth, II/290; Tadhkirah al-uff, II/591; Siyar, XIII/203 (221); al-Bidyah, XIV/616; Tahdhb al-
Tahdhb, IV/169; Shadhart, III/313.
98
Amad b. anbal does not exactly report this adith; rather he reports two similar adiths of
Abdullh b. Umar through Shahr b. awshab. These adiths are almost same in meaning with a
little different in wording. Cf. Amad b. anbal, II/42 and 84.
99
He is Nfi, Ab Abdullh al-Qurash, and he was a mawl (servant) of Abdullh b. Umar.
Refer to: al-Trkh al-Kabr, VIII/84; al-Marif, 460; Wafayt, V/367; Tadhkirah al-uff, I/99;
Siyar, V, 95, (101); al-Bidyah, XIII/78; Tahdhb al-Tahdhb, X/412; Shadhart, II/81.
100
He is Abdullh b. Umar b. al-Khab. See: al-abaqt al-Kubr, II/373 and IV/142; al-Trkh
al-Kabr, V/2 and V/125; al-Istb, III/80; Usd al-Ghbah, III/42; Wafayt, III/28; Tadhkirah al-
uff, I/37; Siyar, III/203 (232). (As it is mentioned in Siyar, there are two dates given for his
death date: 73 and 74 AH. Al-Dhahab says [in Siyar] that he (Ibn Umar) died at the end of the
year, 73.); al-Bidyah, XII/233; al-Ibah, IV/155; Tahdhb al-Tahdhb, V/328; al-Nujm, I/247;
Shadhart, I/310. The date given above is according to Shadhart.
75
nah
101
, and hold the tails of the cattle, and you are pleased with the crop, and
quit [performing] jihad; Allah imposes on to you such humiliation (dhull) that he
does not clear away until you return to your religion [Islm].
102


Imam Amad (d. 241/855) also reported from Yazd b. Hrn from Ab Janb
from Shahr b. awshab (d.100/718)
103
that he had heard Abdullh b. Amr (d.
65/684)
104
[narrating] from the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) in that respect
105
. So
this [adith] is a shhid
106
[adith] for which was before it [for the preceding

101
Al-nah is a term referring to a covert rib (interest) operation. Cf. Erdoan, Mehmet, Fkh
ve Hukuk Terimleri Szl, 170. Its definition by Islamic jurisprudence schools varies. Cf. Sad
Ab Jaib, al-Qms al-Fiqh, 270. According to some (jurists), it is the sale of a material to
someone who needs a loan (qar) at a price higher than the market price in order to avoid the
prohibition of an interest bearing loan. According to some, it is sale of something on credit
(nasatan) in a (certain) price and then (immediately) his [the vendors] purchase of it cash
(naqdan) in a lower price from the (same) person who he sold it. Cf. Muammad Rawws Qalaj
and mid diq Qanb, Mujam Lughah al-Fuqah, 326.
102
This adith is found at Ab Dwd, Buy, 54.
103
The date given above is found in al-Trkh al-Kabr and Shadhart. However, there are various
narrations for his death date. Cf. al-abaqt al-Kubr, VII/449; al-Trkh al-Kabr, IV/258; al-
Marif, 448; Siyar, IV/372 (378); Tahdhb al-Tahdhb, IV/369; Shadhart, I/404.
104
He is Abdullh b. Amr b. al-. See: al-abaqt al-Kubr, II/373 and IV/261; al-Trkh al-
Kabr, V/5; al-Marif, 286; al-Istb, III/86; Usd al-Ghbah, III/49; Tadhkirah al-uff, I/41;
Siyar, III/79, (94); al-Ibah, IV/165; Tahdhb al-Tahdhb, V/337; Shadhart, I/290. In Siyar it is
also recorded that Amad b. anbal says he (Abdullh b. Amr) died in 63/682.
105
It is possible that the author (Ibn Kathr) is mistaken by referring to Ibn Amr, in place of Ibn
Umar as the above-mentioned sanad (the chain of narrators) mostly matches with the sanad of
the adith of Ibn Umar. Cf. Amad b. anbal, II/84.
106
Shhid is a adith which is narrated by a rw (narrator) and corresponds with (yuwfiq) the
adith narrated by another rw in the meaning (man) or in the wording (laf) and meaning, but
76
adith]. And Allah knows the best.

2.3.10 Ab al-Sud (d.982/1574), Irshd al-Aql al-Salm il Mazy al-Qurn
al-Karm

2.3.10.1 The Quranic Arabic Text of al-Tawbah 9:24



( :24 9 )

3.10.2 The Text of the Tafsir of al-Tawbah 9:24 by Ab al-Sud
107







:


through another companion (ab). Cf. Abdullh Sirj al-Dn, Shar al-Manmah al-
Baiqniyyah, 146; Ibn ajar, Shar al-Nukhbah: Nuzhah al-Naar, 352, 353.
107
Ab al-Sud, Irshd al-Aql al-Salm il Mazy al-Qurn al-Karm, II/535, 536.

77









( : 6 )


.





:




.

78
2.3.10.3 The Translation of the Tafsir of al-Tawbah 9:24 by Ab al-Sud

Say, a variation (talwn) of the address [i.e. the method of addressing adopted in
9:23 is changed with this word]. [It is] a command to him [the Prophet (pbuh)] to
consolidate the believers, and to strengthen their determination to abandon (al-
intih) supporting the fathers and the brothers, from which they have been
prohibited, and [a command to him] to induce them to withdraw from them [i.e.
the fathers and the brothers] and from the sons, the wives, who are in the similar
status to them, and [a command to him] to cut their ties off from the ornaments
(zakhrif ) of the world, and its decoration (znah) by using the method of
reprimanding (al-tawbkh) and frightening (al-tarhb).

If your fathers, your sons, your brothers, your wives, the sons and the wives were
not mentioned in the previous [verse]. [It is] because friendship with [supporting]
the sons and the wives is not a custom contrary to loving [them]. Your kindred,
(ashratu-kum) namely your relatives (aqribu-kum); it [i.e.ashrah] is derived
from ishrah, that means ubah (companionship). It is [also] said: [it is derived]
from asharah (ten) as they [members of ashrah, kindred] are a group (jamah)
that refers to a decimal (number) like group of ten. It was recited it [as] ashratu-
kum and ashiru-kum.

79
And property that you have earned (iqtaraftum-h), i.e. that you have acquired
(iktasabtum-h); verily it is described like that, with reference to its (the
propertys) value among (inda) them, due to its attainment (ul) through (bi-)
hard work of [their] right hand.

And the commerce (tijrah), i.e. namely goods (amtiah), which you bought
(ishtaraitum-h) for trade and [making] profit. That you fear for its decline, due
to the lapsing of its time of being in demand (marketability, rawj) because of
your absence (ghaibah) from the Exalted Mecca during the festive season
(ayym al-mawsim) [lit. the festive days].

And dwellings (maskin) which you are pleased with, i.e. houses (manzil) where
the staying in pleases you: the houses with courtyard (dr)
108
and the gardens
(bastn).

The touching on (or giving attention to) the above-mentioned qualities is in order
to announce that the reproach of love for the ornament (znah) of worldly life
which is mentioned is in order not to forget the foundations (mabd) of love and
motives of the desire (raghbah) for it [worldly life], which are within it [worldly life].
[And it is in order to announce that] with its variety of the beautiful things, it [the

108
For futher explanation about the meaning of dr, refer to footnote no. 63.
80
worldly life] is detached from preferring love for it to love for Him [Allah], the
Exalted, and love for his Messenger (pbuh); as it is (stated) in His [Allahs] word
(the glory and the majesty be His): What deceived you about your Generous
Lord ?(al-Infir, 82:6),

...are more beloved (dearer) to you than Allah, His Messenger through facultative
(ikhtiyr) love that generates its consequence, which is adherence and not
detachment. [It is] not natural/spontaneous (jibill) love, of which human beings
are not devoid; so it (spontaneous love) is excluded from the legal capacity
(liability) (taklf), which is concerning the capability (qah) [for facultative love].

And (than) jihad in His way (cause), love for it [jihad] is composed in the line of
[i.e. after] love for Allah (the glory and majesty be His) and love for His
Messenger (pbuh), praising its status and calling attention to that it [jihad] is
among what is necessarily to be loved besides (falan an) to be disliked
109
; and
announcing that love for it depends on love for them (dual) [Allah and His
Messenger (pbuh)]. And (indeed), jihad consists of fighting against the enemies
of them [Allah and His Messenger (pbuh)], on account of their enmity. Whoever

109
This statement evokes al-Baqarah, 2:216 which mentions that It (fight: qitl) is a dislike for you
(kurh). For the further explanation on the verse, refer to Ab al-Sud, Irshd al-Aql al-Salm,
I/337.
81
loves them he must love fighting against those who do not love them.

Then wait (fa-tarabba), i.e. expect (intair), until Allah brings about His
decision, according to [the tradition narrated from] Ibn Abbs (d. 68/687) (may
Allah be pleased with both of them [i.e. Ibn Abbs and his father, Abbs b. Abd
al-Mualib (d.32/652)
110
], it [His decision] is the conquest (fat) of Mecca. It is
[also] said that it is an instantaneous (jil) or a delayed (jil) punishment.

And Allah does not guide the rebellious people, those who leave (quit) obedience
[to Him] by supporting the polytheists, or all the rebellious (fsiqn) people. They
[the disobedient to Allah, which are mentioned in the verse] are the first to join
the group of them [i.e. all the rebellious people]. [Allah does not guide (l yahd)
the rebellious people] i.e. Allah does not lead (l yurshidu) them to what is better
(khair) for them. And in this precious verse, there is such a threat from which
people are scarcely saved, except whom a favour (kindness) from his Lord [Allah]
reaches. And Allah is the one whose help is sought (al-Mustan).


110
For biography of Abbs b. Abd al-Mualib, refer to al-abaqt al-Kubr, IV/5 and IV/142; al-
Trkh al-Kabr, VII/2; al-Wf, XVI/360; Siyar, II/78, (100); al-Bidyah, X/247; al-Istb, II/358;
Usd al-Ghbah, II/543; al-Ibah, III/511; Tahdhb al-Tahdhb, V/122; al-Nujm, I/114;
Shadhart, I/194. Ibn Kathr informs that two other narrations said about the death date of Abbs
b. Abd al-Mualib are 33/653 and 34/654. Cf. al-Bidyah, X/249.
82
2.4 OVERVIEW OF THE TAFSIRS

In the next three chapters, attention will be given to the aspects of sabab al-
nuzl, lexicography and the theme love for the Prophet (pbuh). In the overview
below data will be presented in such a way that it relates to the focus of chapters
three, four and five.

Al-abar adds contextual information to qul, also linking bi-amri-hi (His
command) to a specific event. He comments lexically on iqtaraftum-h ([which]
you earned), kasda-h (its decline), maskin (dwellings), l yahd (He does not
guide) and al-fsiqn (the rebellious). The aabbu min (more beloved) phrase is
exlained in a geographical way, and jihad is linked to dn (religion). Authorities,
plus isnd, are quoted with regard to bi-amri-hi, amwl (property), tijrah (trade)
and maskin (dwellings) phrases.

Al-abar adds contextual information to qul, also linking bi-amri-hi (His
command) to a specific event. Lexical commentary is given for ashratu-kum
(your tribe), iqtaraftum-h ([which] you earned), kasda-h (its decline),
tarawna-h ([which] you are pleased with), tarabba (wait), l yahd (He does
not guide) and al-fsiqn (the rebellious). Theaabbu min (more beloved) phrase
is not specifically commented upon. Authorities are cited as regards to bi-amri-hi,
83
ashratu-kum, iqtaraftum-h and maskin. Poetry is used to explain kasda-h.

Al-Wid refers to views expressed by people as sabab al-nuzl, and relates bi-
amri-hi to an event, adding a motivation. Lexical comments are provided for
ashratu-kum, iqtaraftum-h and tarabba. The aabbu min (more beloved)
phrase is not specifically elucidated. Authorities are referred to in connection with
ashratu-kum and tarabba. In the case of iqtaraftum-h a Quranic reference
is given.

Al-Baghaw draws attention to peoples comments as sabab al-nuzl.
Furthermore he associates bi-amri-hi with an event. Lexicographical remarks are
made with respect to ashratu-kum, iqtaraftum-h, maskin and tarawna-h,
and tarabba. Theaabbu min (more beloved) phrase is not explicitly explained.
Authorities are mentioned in connection with bi-amri-hi and ashratu-kum.

Al-Zamakhshar provides several traditions as sabab al-nuzl; and he interprets
bi-amri-hi by referring to an event, and by relating it to specific times. His
lexicographic comments are with respect to ashratu-kum. Theaabbu min
(more beloved) phrase is elaborated upon in a general way by means of a
discussion touching upon several aspects, and including an appeal to the
84
readers. Sources are quoted when he elucidates ashratu-kum.

Fakhr al-Dn al-Rz sheds light upon the sabab al-nuzl by referring to what
people in Prophetic times had said, and by elaborating upon it. He does not refer
to the interpretation of bi-amri-hi. Words discussed lexicographically are
ashratu-kum and iqtaraftum-h. Theaabbu min (more beloved) phrase is
commented upon. Furthermore the contents of the verse as a whole is
systematized and generalized. Authorities are mentioned in connection with
ashratu-kum.

Al-Qurub reports several discussions concerning sabab al-nuzl, also referring
to historical occurrence. He interprets bi-amri-hi by mentioning and event and
instantaneous or future (delayed) happenings. Lexicographical elucidations are
given for ashratu-kum, iqtaraftum-h, tijrah and kasda-h, maskin and
tarawna-h and tarabba. In the aabbu min (more beloved) phrase, aabbu
is commented upon as well as the rest of the phrase [Allah, His Messenger and
jihad in His way]. Authorities from the early tradition are cited with respect to bi-
amri-hi, tijrah and kasda-h, and aabbu. The latter word is also discussed
grammatically by referring to poetry. In support of the main idea of the verse
three adiths are reported, mentioning the source in two cases.
85

Al-Baiw does not refer to a specific sabab al-nuzl for the verse (9:24). In the
case of bi-amri-hi he mentions immediate and future (delayed) consequences.
Lexicographical comments are offered with respect to ashratu-kum,
iqtaraftum-h, kasda-h and al-fsiqn. The aabbu min (more beloved)
phrase is elucidated. An authority is mentioned during the discussion of ashratu-
kum.

Ibn Kathr does not directly provide information about the sabab al-nuzl of the
verse (9:24). He furthermore comments on bi-amri-hi by mentioning penalty as
connotation. Lexical interpretations are given for iqtaraftum-h and tarawna-
h. No immediate elucidation is provided for the aabbu min (more beloved)
phrase. Neither is any authority referred to connection with the above terms. The
concept of love, as well as related issues, is however expounded by means of a
few adiths, specifying the sources and isnds.

Ab al-Sud provides a context for the verse (9:24), and relates bi-amri-hi to a
specific event. The latter phrase is also elaborated upon by referring to its
immediate and future (delayed) consequence. Lexical interpretations abound. He
furnishes information about ashratu-kum, iqtaraftum-h, tijrah and kasda-h,
86
maskin and tarawna-h, tarabba, l yahd and al-fsiqn. Theaabbu min
(more beloved) phrase, and love in general is discussed in some detail.
Authorities are only referred to in the case of bi-amri-hi.


87
CHAPTER THREE
SABAB AL-NUZL (REASON FOR REVELATION) OF AL-TAWBAH 9:24

3.1 INTRODUCTION

By sabab al-nuzl is meant the knowledge about the reasons for the revelations,
i.e. the knowledge about the particular event and circumstances in history that
are related to the revelation of particular passages from the Quran.
111


This said definition will be accepted as point of departure in the dissertation. In
other words the aim will be to ascertain the specific sabab (reason) for the
revelation of 9:24, as expounded by the respective mufassirs. The historicity of a
given sabab al-nuzl will not be challenged. For the purpose of the dissertation
sabab al-nuzl will be used in a broader sense, featuring all related statements in
the tafsirs
112
.

In literature pertaining to sabab al-nuzl there are several scholars whose works
have become prominent. The first to compose a work in this field is Al b. al-

111
Von Denffer, Ahmad, Ulm al-Qurn, 90.
112
A narrower definition of sabab would include only those narratives that included the phrase fa-
anzala Allah or a variant as in the case of al-Wid (d.468/1075). Cf. Rippin, A., The Exegetical
Genre asbb al-nuzl : A Bibliographical and Terminological Survey, 15.
88
Madn (d.234/848)
113
, who is the teacher of al-Bukhr. One of the most
renowned works is al-Wids book
114
. Ibn ajar (852/1448)
115
has also
composed a book in this field. However he died when he was still busy with
writing his work, and it is therefore incomplete. Al-Suy (d.911/1505)
116
has
written a comprehensive (fil) and a conscise (mjaz) book, which he has
named Lubb al-Nuql f Asbb al-Nuzl.
117


Among the preceding books the endeavours of al-Wid and al-Suy will be
taken into consideration. Both these authors have underlined the need for sabab
al-nuzl in interpreting the Qurn. Al-Wid states the knowledge about the
interpretation of a verse and its intent cannot be possible without comprehension
of (al-wuqf al) its story and explanation of its revelation.
118
The other eminent

113
He is Al b. Abdullh al-Sad and also known as Ibn al-Madn. Cf. al-Bukhr, al-Trkh al-
Kabr, VI/284; al-Dhahab, Siyar, XI/41 (59), Tadhkirah, II/428; Ibn ajar, Tahdhb al-Tahdhb,
VII/349; Ibn Kathr, al-Bidyah, XIV/339; Ibn Taghribard, al-Nujm, II/332; Ibn al-Imd,
Shadhart, III/159.
114
It is called Asbb al-Nuzl.
115
He is Ahmad b. Al al-Asqaln. Cf. al-Nujm, XV/259; al-Sakhw, al-aw al-Lmi, II/36, al-
Tibr al-Masbk, 230; al-Suyt, abaqt al-uff, 552, usn Muarah f Trkh Mir wa al-
Qhirah, I/363; Shadhart, IX/395.
116
He is Abd al-Ramn b. Ab Bakr al-Suy. Cf. al-Sakhw, al-aw al-Lmi, IV/65; Ibn olun,
Mufkahah al-Khilln f awdith al-Zamn, 243; al-Ghazz, al-Kawkib al-Sirah bi-Ayn al-
Miah al-shirah, I/226; al-Shawkn, al-Badr al-li, I/328.
117
According to al-Suyt, a book similar to his book of Lubb had not been composed. Refer to
al-Suy, al-Itqn f Ulm al-Qurn, I/189.
118
Wid, Asbb al-Nuzl, 8; al-Suyt, al-Itqn, I/190
89
scholar in the field of asbb al-nuzl
119
, al-Suy remarks: There are benefits
(fawid) in the knowledge about asbb al-nuzl. One of its benefits is
comprehension of the meaning or removal of the obscurity (ishkl)
120
.

Argued form the orthodox point of view, it is therefore obvious that studying the
context of a verse and illustrating the circumstances of its revelation require
knowledge of sabab al-nuzl as a necessary first step in its interpretation. As Ibn
Daqq al-d (d.702/1302)
121
said the explanation of sabab al-nuzl is a strong
way (arq qaw [reliable way]) for comprehending the meanings of the
Quran.
122
Similarly, Ibn Taymiyyah (d.728/1327)
123
states that the knowledge of
sabab al-nuzl determines the understanding of a verse, as the knowledge of
sabab (the reason) causes (leads to) the knowledge of musabbab (the caused)
124
. Lastly the author of Kashf al-unn, jj Khalfah (d.1067/1656)
125
says that

119
The word, asbb is the plural of sabab and thus asbab al-nuzl means reasons for the
revelation.
120
al-Suyt, Lubb al-Nuql f Asbb al-Nuzl, 3. He mentions more benefits of sabab al-nuzl
in his other book called al-Itqn. Cf. al-Itqn, I/190.
121
He is Muammad b. Al al-Manfal. Cf. abaqt Ulam al-adth, IV/265; al-Wf, IV/137;
al- Tadhkirah al-uff, IV/1481; Fawt al-Wafayt, III/442; Ab al-Fal Udfuw, al-li al-Sad,
567, al-Bidyah, XVIII/30; al-Dbj, 324; al-Nujm, VIII/164; Shadhart, VIII/11.
122
Al-Suyt, al-Itqn, I/190.
123
He is Amad b. Abd al-alm Ibn Taymiyyah. Cf. abaqt Ulam al-adth, IV/279;
Tadhkirah al-uff, IV/1496; Fawt al-Wafayt, I/74; al-Wf, VII/11; al-Bidyah, XVIII/295, 304;
al-Nujm, IX/196; Shadhart, VIII/142.
124
Al-Suyt, al-Itqn, I/190; Ibn Taymiyyah, Majmah al-Fatw, XIII/181.
90
without comprehending sabab al-nuzl, the knowledge of interpretation of a
verse is impossible.
126
All these quotations show that sabab al-nuzl is crucial in
tafsir.

It is therefore clear that the sabab al-nuzl is regarded as indispensable by the
above scholars.

Tafsirs usually provide an indication of (sabab nuzl) the occasion for revelation
of a particular verse or a certain group of verses, or an entire chapter. Each of
the ten cited tafsirs will thus be scrutinized in this regard. Prior to the discussion
of the selected tafsirs (3.3), however, attention will be drawn to important
statements found in three sources, al-Wid, al-Suy and Ibn al-Jawz. The first
two are pre-eminent contributors to sabab al-nuzl literature, while the third may
be noted for the substantial information he presents on sabab al-nuzl in a neat
and orderly manner. (cf. 3.2.1, 3.2.2 and 3.2.3).


125
He is Muafa b. Abdullh, Ktib Chalab. Shaikh Mamad Afand, Waqi al-Fual, I/262;
al-Baghdd Isml Bsh, Hadiyyah al-rifn (Asm al-Muallifn wa thr al-Muannifn),
II/440; Georgie Zaidan, Trkh Adab al-Lughah al-Arabiyyah, II/333; al-Zirikl, al-Alm, VII/236.
126
jj Khalfah, Kashf al-unn, I/76.
91

3.2 SOURCES ON THE SABAB AL-NUZL OF AL-TAWBAH 9:24

With regard to the sources for the sabab al-nuzl of 9:24, attention will first be
paid to the above-mentioned authorities, and then to the contributions of the ten
aforementioned tafsirs.

3.2.1 The Sabab al-Nuzl of al-Tawbah 9:24 inAsbb al-Nuzl by al-Wid (d.
468/1075)

The complier of one of the most prominent books dealing with asbb
127
al-nuzl
of the Quranic verses, Wid, deals with this verse (9:24) together with the
previous verse (9:23) in one paragraph in his work al-Asbb al-Nuzl. With
regard to the reason for the revelation, he states that it was revealed about those
who stayed behind in Mecca and did not perform hijrah.
128


This explanation is also echoed by some of the ten mufassirs, and thus seems to
be part of a common tradition.


127
It is plural of sabab and as a phrase asbb al-nuzl means the reasons for the revelation.
128
Al-Wid, Asbb al-Nuzl, 245.
92
3.2.2 The Sabab al-Nuzl of al-Tawbah 9:24 in Lubb al-Nuql by al-Suy
(d.911/1505)

In his valuable and concise work, al-Suy briefly touches on asbb al-nuzl of
al-Tawbah 9:24. He provides a narration from Ibn Srn (d. 110/728)
129
, which
relates that Al b. Ab lib (d.40/661)
130
[after the command of hijrah to Medina]
came to Mecca and said to a group of people whom he had called: Are you not
emigrating (performing hijrah)? Are you not joining the Messenger of Allah
(pbuh)? Then they said We are staying with our brothers
131
, our tribes (ashir)
and our dwellings (maskin). Therefore, Allah revealed the verse, Say [to them]
if your fathers... up to the end of the verse.
132


As source of the above narration, Al b. Ab lib is mentioned; the same
companion referred to in the account of Ibn al-Jawz below. Al-Suy however
provides a more extensive version of the narration.

129
He is Muammad b. Srn al-Bar. Cf. al-abaqt al-Kubr, VII/193; al-Trkh al-Kabr, I/90; al-
Marif, 442; Wafayt, IV/181; abaqt Ulam al-adth, I/151; Tadhkirah al-uff, I/77; Siyar,
IV/606, (621); Trkh al-Islm, VII/20; al-Bidyah, XVIII/56; Tahdhb al-Tahdhb, IX/214; al-Nujm,
I/342; Shadhart, II/52. It is said (in Shadhart) that he (Ibn Srn) died hundred days later than al-
asan al-Bar [d.110/728].
130
See: al-abaqt al-Kubr, III/19; al-Istb, III/197;Usd al-Ghbah, III/282; Mujam Udab,
IV/1809; Tadhkirah al-uff, I/10; al-Wf, XXI/177; al-Bidyah, X/682; al-Ibah, IV/464;
Tahdhb al-Tahdhb, VII/334; Shadhart, I/221.
131
As plural of akh (brother), ikhwn; in a broad context may refer to siblings.
132
Al-Suy, Lubb al-Nuql, 103.
93

3.2.3 Sabab al-Nuzl of al-Tawbah 9:24 in Zd al-Masr by Ibn al-Jawz
(d.597/1201)

A compilation of presumed reasons for the revelation of al-Tawbah 9:24 can be
found in the work of sixth century scholar Ibn al-Jawz (d.597/1201)
133
. In his
work Zd al-Masr fi Ilm al-Tafsr
134
, he identifies three reasons postulated by
early scholars for this verse:

1) It was revealed about those who stayed behind with their families in
Mecca and did not perform hijrah. Ab li (d. appr.120/738)
135
said this on the
authority of Ibn Abbas (d.68/687).

133
He is Ab al-Faraj Abd al-Ramn b. Al. Refer to: al-Mundhir, al-Takmilah f Wafayt al-
Naqalah, I/394; Tadhkirah al-uff, IV/1342; Siyar, XXI/365,(379); al-Bidyah, XVI/706.
134
Refer to Zd al-Masr, 3/412.
135
He is Ab li Bdhm or Bdhn. His death date is not stated in the biographical sources.
However, through a statement of al-Dhahab, it may be assumed that he died around 120 AH. In
his Siyar, al-Dhahab says that he [Ab li Bdhm] had lived about twenty years more after
Ab li al-Sammn [d.101/719] and in his another book, Trkh al-Islm, he supplies Ab li
Bdhms biography among the scholars and important persons of twelfth period [that is between
110-120].

Many scholars have critised Ab lis worth as a scholar. With respect to reliability in
narrations, some scholars regarded him as weak (af) or not trustworthy (laisa bi-thiqah). He
was even described as a liar (kadhdhb). Likewise some had labeled him dorogh zan in
Persian, which means liar. It is perhaps because he considered Ab li to be a liar; it is said
that Mujhid used to restrain (the people) from his tafsir. Ibn ibbn maintains that Ab li
94

2) Al b. Ab lib (d.40/661) came to Mecca and asked a group of people:
Are you not performing hijrah?. They replied: we are staying with our brothers,
our tribes and our dwellings. Then this verse was revealed. Ibn Srn (d. 110/728)
said this.

3) When the previous verse (9:23) was revealed, they (some people) said:
Oh Messenger of Allah! If we cut off (isolate) ourselves from people who differ
from us with regard to religion, we will destroy the connection (link) with our
fathers and our tribes; our trade will disappear; our homes will be ruined. Then
this verse (9:24) was revealed. Some commentators [according to Ibn al-Jawz]
have cited this as the reason for the revelation of this verse and some have
proffered it as a reason for the previous verse i.e. 9:23, as it was related as a
reason for 9:23 on the authority of Ibn Abbs.
136



narrated adith from Ibn Abbs while he did not see and hear from him. This allegation raises
some doubts over the narrations of Ab li from Ibn Abbs regarding their accuracy. See: al-
abaqt al-Kubr, V/302 and VI/296; al-Bukhr, al-Trkh al-Kabr, II/144, al-Trkh al-aghr,
I/238; al-Marif, 479; Ibn Ab tim, al-Jar wa al-Tadl, II/431; Ibn ibbn, Kitb al-Majrn,
I/71,185; Siyar, V/37,(38); Trkh al-Islm, III/211; Tahdhb al-Tahdhb, I/416.
136
This reason was expressed by al-ak [d.102/720] who narrated from Ibn Abbs, about the
previous verse. cf. Zd al-Masr, 3:411.
95
With regard to al-Tawbah 9:24, of three occasions of revelation provided by Ibn
al-Jawz, the first is more generally stated; the second is related to the first,
indicating Al b. Ab lib (d.40/661) as focalized person. And the third does not
mention the hijrah, but directs the attention of the reader to the dissent of a group
of people who are reluctant to cut their ties with their unbelieving relatives.

There is a striking similarity between first narration of Ibn al-Jawz and that of al-
Wid.

Attention will now be given to reason(s) for revelation of al-Tawbah 9:24, as
explained by the ten chosen tafsirs.

3.3 SABAB AL-NUZL REPORTED BY INDIVIDUAL MUFASSIRS

The ten chosen mufassirs (interpreters) will be discussed individually, focusing
on the sabab al-nuzl (reason for the revelation) furnished with regard to Quranic
verse 9:24. Attention will be given to specific markers such as their introductory
remarks regarding the verse and their interpretation of the Quranic clauses:
Wait until Allah brings about His decision. Where possible, the said interpreters
will be compared, particularly when they make use of similar traditions.
96

3.3.1 Al-abar (d.310/923)

Al-abar supplies information preceding and following the Quranic qul (say:
second person masculine singular; 9:24). By way of an introductory clause
(preceding qul) the speaker is identified as Allah, tabraka wa tal (May He be
Praised and Exalted) and the addressee as His Prophet Muammad (pbuh).
After qul (say!) the Prophet is again referred to by means of a vocative, O
Muammad. Furthermore the audience is specified as [a]l-mutakhallifna an al-
hijrati, i.e. those who fall behind with the hijrah. The hijrah is elucidated as being
to dr al-Islm (abode of Islam); the phrase those who fall behind (with) is
expounded with those who remain in dr al-shirk (abode of polytheism).

This chronological positioning of the vers, (9:24) is again echoed later in the tafsir
when reference is made to [by] separation ([bi]-firqi-kum) from your town
(baladi-kum). And even more significant is the amplification of the Quranic
statement to more beloved to you than hijrah from dr al-shirk to Allah and His
messenger, and than jihd in his way.

97
Supporting the said contextualization of the verse is also al-abars interpretation
of until Allah brings about His command (bi-amri-hi) as the conquest of Mecca.
As source for the latter view Mujhid (d.103/721) is quoted. However, along
another isnd (chain of transmitters) Mujhid is cited as having explained the
said phrase as the conquest, implying but not specifying Mecca.

The exegetical tradition handed down to al-abar thus accentuates the hijrah as
context for 9:24. The Prophet of Allah, Muammad (pbuh) has left Mecca, and
emigration of the believers to Medina is encouraged. An early period of the
nascent Muslim community is thus envisaged. This entails the beginning of the
armed resistance. Al-abar nevertheless expounds jihd in His way in a
relatively neutral manner as helping the religion of Allah, with which He is
pleased.

3.3.2 Al-Thalab (d.427/1035)

Al-Thalab to some extent supplies a shortened version of abars tafsir. The
introduction is for example shorter, and no information is supplied regarding the
abode from where, or to where the hijrah takes place. There are, however, some
significant differences compared with the tafsir of al-abar. After the word say O
98
Muammad to those who fall behind with hijrah, al-Thalab adds and jihad.
Elsewhere, however, al-Thalab omits an insertion of al-abar, referring to jihad,
and keeps (without comment) the Quranic words more beloved to you than
Allah, His messenger, and jihad in His way. Finally, al-Thalab quotes the
elucidation the conquest of Mecca (mentioning both Mujhid and Muqtil
(d.150/757) as authorities), but also adds an independent tradition ascribed to
At (d.115/733) namely his judgement.

As the case with al-abar, al-Thalab sees the occurrence of people refraining
from hijrah as sabab al-nuzl. There are, however, indications of a more general
contextualization when he characterizes the addressees of the verse as those
who refrain from hijrah and jihd. The consequence of neglecting religious
devotion (love) is also interpreted as having to wait for the judgement of Allah,
together with the elucidation conquest of Mecca.

In his discussion of 9:23, however, al-Thalab strongly emphasizes the hijrah
tradition that Allah (He is Mighty and Great) ordered believers, and that was
before the conquest of Mecca. As prelude to the revelation of 9:23 (insisting on
dissociation from unbelieving fathers and brothers) Muslims are said (Ibn Abbs
as authority) to have stated words that would also have been applied to 9:24.
99
They are: If we cut ourselves from who differs in religion from us, then we sever
links with our fathers and our tribes, and our trade would be ruined and our
houses would be destroyed. Furthermore al-Thalab connects 9:23 with nine
people who renegated away from Islam.

3.3.3 Al-Wid (d.468/1075)

In his tafsir al-Wid refers, as sabab al-nuzl of 9:24, to the previous verse
(9:23) as occasion for a discussion and eventually the revelation of 9:24. The
verse, 9:23 states: O you who believe, take not your fathers and your brothers as
helpers (awliy) if they choose (-b-b, tenth form) disbelief (kufr) over belief.
This leads to a question by an unknown speaker (the text simply states qla, i.e.
he said) who introduces a negotiation by way of a conditional clause: If we cut
ourselves (itazaln) from who differs from us (man khlafa-n) in religion (fi al-
dn)... Cutting links (-z-l, eighth form) is a response to the order (take not...)
formulated in 9:23. Who[ever] differs from us (khlafa-n) uses the same root,
(kh-l-f ) but in a different form (third form versus fifth form) and meaning than that
used by al-abar and al-Thalab (cf. al-mutakhallafna). Having stated the
condition, the unknown speaker pictures the consequence: then we will sever
links (naqau) with our fathers and our tribe, our trade (tijratu-n) will disappear
100
(tadhhabu) and our homes (diyru-n) will be ruined (takhrabu). These words to
a great extent resemble those which al-Thalab relates to the revelation of 9:23.
In the case of al-Wid, however, the complaint of the people was followed by
the revelation of the verse, 9:24 (cf. fa-anzala Allh). The Prophet as mediator of
the divine communication is not referred to. The said verse and the apodosis part
of the speaker quoted words relate through the mutual concepts fathers, tribe,
and trade.

The statement of the unknown person makes no mention of hijrah. In al-Wids
interpretation of fa-tarabba att yatiya Allh bi-amri-hi (and wait until Allah
brings about his decision) attention is drawn to the fact that divine punishment is
due: because He [Allh] says (yaqlu) you prefer staying at your homes and are
abstaining (tatrukna) from the hijrah. As al-abar and al-Thalab, al-Wid
also mentions the near consensus opinion (the most [scholars] say) relating it to
the conquest of Mecca. He adds, however, an explanation that the hijrah order
was an injunction with a time limit. The tradition reported by al-Wid thus sees
as sabab al-nuzl (reason for the revelation) of 9:24 a divine response to a
hesitance of people to respond positively to the injunction mentioned in 9:23. The
hijrah motive is present, but plays a secondary role. There is no mention of jihd
in the interpretation (cf. al-Thalab).
101

3.3.4 Al-Baghaw (d. 516/1122)

The introductory words of al-Baghaw, i.e. those which precede and follow qul in
9:24 are a repetition of those that are found in Thalab. In common with al-
Wid, al-Baghaw also links 9:24 to 9:23. The latter also, as al-Wid,
mentions a discussion ensuing 9:23. Those who become a Muslim, but did not
emigrate to Medina, said that If we emigrate, our property (amwlu-n) will be
lost, our trade-relations (tijratu-na) will disappear (dhahabat), our homes (dru-
n) will be destroyed (kharibat) and we will cut relations with our relatives. The
trend of the complaint resembles that of al-Wid but the formulation differs.
Even where there is an overlapping with the latter such as the allegation our
trade will disappear... al-Baghaw uses the perfect (dhahabat) rather than the
imperfect form (tadhhabu) of the verb, and the plural (not the singular) of tijrah.
As far as the interpretation of bi-amri-hi (his decision) is concerned, al-Baghaw
quotes the same options (judgement, and conquest of Mecca) and sources (At,
Mujhid and Muqtil) as al-Thalab.

Al-Baghaw thus also refers to the discussion preceding the revelation as is the
case in al-Wids tafsir, but provides his new variation of it. He furthermore
102
conforms to al-Thalab as far as the double interpretation of bi-amri-hi is
concerned. No reference is made to the hijrah. However he mentions the hijrah
as reason for the revelation of the verse 9:23, alluding to information which is
differently stated, but similar in content to that provided by al-Thalab.

3.3.5 Al-Zamakhshar (d. 538/1143)

Al-Zamakhshar gives an extensive overview of the reason for revelation. He has
an introductory remark about the requirements for faith qabla fati Makkah
(before the conquest of Mecca). Then follows a complaint to the Prophet (pbuh),
introduced by fa-ql (and/thus they said) and structured in the form of a
conditional sentence. The sequence of terms and words reminds one of those
mentioned by al-Wid, with the exception that the perfect (al-Zamakhshar)
rather than imperfect (al-Wid) is used. Furthermore al-Zamakhshar adds the
statement wa halakat amwlu-n, also referred to by al-Baghaw, but with
different words. Next, two announcements are made: and [the verse] was
revealed, and (or then, fa-) they emigrated.

Attention is thus drawn to the revelation of 9:24, and the positive response (that
is, complying with the call to hijrah) of those who attempted to negotiate with the
103
Prophet (pbuh). The account related to the verse then continues mentioning the
ensuing custom of inhospitality towards relatives (who were unbelievers). Once
again a situation or attitude of the new emigrants to Medina is portrayed in the
interim before the conquest of Mecca. The impression is created of an agreed or
prescribed behaviour. Only afterwards (thumma) a man was permitted [to be
friendly] towards them. In terms of contents the said account reminds one of al-
Thalabs tradition quoted in his discussion of 9:23 (I will not help you with
anything ever, neither give you [anything], nor feed you).

As an alternative or additional sabab al-nuzl of 9:24, al-Zamakhshar mentions
the tradition that the verse was revealed pertaining to (f) nine people who
renounced Islam (cf. (irtadd) and returned to (or reunited with, liq) Mecca.
Taking the said sabab al-nuzl as point of departure, the place and time of
revelation of 9:24 is not clear-cut. It even seems as if the tafsir (interpretive
tradition) better fits 9:23 because it is concluded with the words: Then Allah, He
is the Most High, prohibited friendships with them ([an] muwlti-him). The latter
word is similar to the word awliy (plural of wal) found in the verse preceding
9:24 [i.e. the verse, 9:23]. Al-Thalab (cf. al-Baiw) also uses this tradition when
discussing the reason for revelation of 9:23.

104
The above contextualization of the verse is strengthened by a Prophetic tradition,
once again asserting the remark at the beginning of al-Zamakhshars tafsir of
9:24, namely that faith (mn) implies sacrifice, and also a redefinition of
traditional ties of affection. No isnd (chain of transmitters) is given.

Regarding the Quranic injunction, Wait until Allah brings about his decision, al-
Zamakhshar quotes the generally accepted, or majority (cf. al-Wid)
interpretation that the command refers to the conquest of Mecca. As source Ibn
Abbs (d. 68/687) is mentioned. An alternative elucidation is also cited as
narrated from al-asan [al-Bar] (d. 110/728). The latters explication (an
instantaneous or delayed punishment) only vaguely relates to the conquest of
Mecca tradition.

To summarize, one may venture to say that al-Zamakhshar demonstrates an
own style of tafsir composing. In the previous discussion it has, however been
shown that al-Zamakhshar uses one tradition related to that mentioned by al-
Wid, and two traditions used by al-Thalab. The first of the said al-Thalabs
traditions is also found in the tafsir of al-Baiw. Al-Thalab, however quotes
these traditions in connection with the Quranic verse, 9:23.

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3.3.6 Fakhr al-Dn al-Rz (d.606/1209)

Fakhr al-Dn al-Rz connects 9:24 with the previous verse (9:23), calling it taqrru
al-jawbi alladh dhakara-hu [Allhu] f al-yati al-l (the confirmation (or
account) of the answer that He [Allah] mentioned in the previous verse).

This contention is supported with the sabab al-nuzl that Fakhr al-Dn al-Rz
cites, mentioning the question of a group of believers to the messenger of Allah:
How is it possible to be free from them (i.e. the unbelieving fathers and brothers)
totally? Fakhr al-Dn al-Rz then adds his own version of the typical conditional
sentence previously rendered in the tafsir of al-Thalab (9:23), al-Baghaw and al-
Zamakhshar. However the items referred to by Fakhr al-Dn al-Rz closest
resembles that of al-Zamakhshar.

In his subsequent comments Fakhr al-Dn al-Rz gives a paraphrase and
explanation of 9:24. Regarding the command (in the said verse) of Allah to wait
until He brings about His command, Fakhr al-Dn al-Rz does not refer to the
conquest of Mecca as all the previous commentators have done. He rather
chooses only to quote (without mentioning of any source) the alternative
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interpretation of bi-amri-hi mentioned by al-Zamakhshar, namely that it refers to
an instantaneous or delayed punishment.

It could thus be said, in general, that the tafsir of Fakhr al-Dn al-Rz reflects a
reworking of the tafsir of al-Zamakhshar. There is, however no indication of a
Meccan context, or of a hijrah connotation. (Cf. al-abar, al-Thalab, al-Wid,
al-Baghaw (9:23) and al-Zamakhshar (by way of implication)).

3.3.7 Al-Qurub (d.671/1272)

The seventh, in chronological order, among the chosen commentators links 9:24
to 9:23. Previously mentioned mufassirs who have the same approach are al-
Thalab, al-Wid and al-Baghaw (cf. al-Zamakhshar and Fakhr al-Dn al-Rz).

With respect to 9:24, al-Qurub simply states then [the verse] was revealed
pertaining to those who fell behind [with hijrah] and did not emigrate. Falling
behind with hijrah as sabab al-nuzl of 9:24 is also mentioned by al-Thalab (kh-
l-f, fifth form), al-Wid (t-r-k) and al-Baghaw (kh-l-f, fifth form).

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The background to the above contextualization of 9:24 is provided by al-Qurub
in his elucidation of 9:23. In his discussion of 9:23 al-Qurub likewise refers to the
hijrah. He, however, refers to it as a command given to the Messenger of Allah
and thus by implication to the Prophets followers. The latter group also affirms
this interpretation of the order by saying to one another: We have been
commanded to undertake the hijrah. Family contexts are envisaged with father
communicating with son, brother with brother, and husband with wife. The family
discussions, according to al-Qurub leads to a dual response among them, that
is either positive (cf. tasraa) or negative (ab). This leads to two separate
discussions focusing on persons who decided to emigrate.

In the first the emigrant (muhjir) takes the initiative threatening those who are
dependent upon him: If you do not depart (takhraj) to the house (i.e. abode) of
hijrah, I will not help you, neither ever support you [with regard to] anything. As in
the case of al-abar, the desired destiny is portrayed as house, but in the
present instance the designation house of hijrah (al-Qurub, cf. al-Thalab at
9:23) is used and not house of Islam (al-abar). The statement itself reminds
one of a similar (although slightly longer) announcement used by al-Thalab in
his introduction to 9:23, where a man warns by Allah (wa-Allhi) those who
refuse his companionship (and did not emigrate). I will not ever help you with
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anything, and not give you [anything], and not support you. The said declarations
together with those of al-Zamakhshar denying hospitality pictures the mujhirn
(the emigrants) or anr (the helpers [to the emigrants]) in a position of
dominance.

In the second of the aforementioned discussions, a woman with child addresses
a husband who is about to participate in the hijrah. As in the previous
conversation the introductory term by Allah... (bi-Allhi) is used to give an oath
character to the pronouncement. The communication of the lady to her spouse is:
I implore you that you do not leave [for hijrah] so that [otherwise] we become
wretched) after you [i.e. your departure]. This emotional appeal has the effect of
having the would-be emigrant reverse his decision and deciding to stay. The said
state of affairs brings about a Divine response through the revelation of 9:23.

Among all the chosen commentators, al-Qurub is the only one who does not
reflect on the order in 9:24: Then wait until Allah brings about His command. He
does, however strongly focus on the hijrah as context. Parallel to al-abar, al-
Qurub even explains the phrase, ... [are more beloved to you] than Allah and
his Messenger as than going-on (performing) hijrah to Allah and his Messenger
in Medina.
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3.3.8 Al-Baiw (d.685/1286)

Al-Baiw does not present any sabab as introduction to the revelation of 9:24.
He does however provide some contextualization when elucidating the order
(command), Then wait until Allah brings about his decision/command. Without
referring to any authorities al-Baiw elucidates the clause with ...and the
decision is an instantaneous or delayed punishment. The latter explication
echoes the interpretation of al-Zamakhshar and Fakhr al-Dn al-Rz. In the line
with al-Zamakhshar, al-Baiw also adds [it is also said] the conquest of Mecca
but unlike his predecessor [al-Zamakhshar], mentioning of Mecca follows the
interpretation referring to an instantaneous or delayed punishment.

3.3.9 Ibn Kathr (d.774/1372)

Ibn Kathr also attests to the relatedness of 9:23 and 9:24 in a general way by
introducing his interpretation of 9:24 with the conjunction thumma (then).
According to Ibn Kathr, Allah commanded (amara) his Messenger to threaten
(an yatawaada) whosoever (man) preferred his family, relatives and tribe to
Allah, his Messenger, and jihad in His way.
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Interpretation and sabab al-nuzl here coincide. It is Allah himself (according to
Ibn Kathr) who orders the Prophet to threaten. Other commentators refer, of their
own accord, to the threatening connotation of the verse. Al-Wid stated: and
the command (al-amr) for waiting is a threatening command (amru tahdd), and
similarly al-Baghaw: wa hdh amru tahdd. Al-Zamakhshar, in turn,
characterised the verse (yah) as shaddah ([a] harsh [one]).

No further sabab al-nuzl is added by Ibn Kathr in the immediate interpretation of
the verse. With respect to the order to wait for the commad of Allah, Ibn Kathr
states: watch out/expect (n--r, eighth form) until occurs (happens) to you (what
constitutes) His punishment. No place is mentioned, neither is any indication
given of a time limit (e.g. instantaneous or delayed punishment).

Ibn Kathr furthermore substantiates his explanation of 9:24 with separate
traditions. The first (with two separate lines of isnd) draws commentary with
attention to a discussion of the Prophet with Umar b. al-Khab. And the second
links being a believer to love for the Prophet, which exceeds that towards
someones father, children and people. The third tradition warns (with two
separate isnds) that giving preference to business of nah [which involves
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interest (rib)], cattle-breeding and farming (the crops) to the religion results in
constant humiliation (dhull).

All the adths are claimed to have their origin in communications by the Prophet
(pbuh) himself. They are all, however, to be classified as interpretative comments
elucidating the contents of the verse, by not exactly explaining the reason
(sabab) for the revelation of the verse 9:24.

3.3.10 Ab al-Sud (d.982/1574)

The last of the chosen mufassirs regards 9:24 as a command (amr) to the
Prophet in order to provide [further] evidence (bi-an yuthabbita) to the believers
and [so] to strengthen their determination to sever links with their [unbelieving]
fathers and brothers. The said verse (9:24) (according to Ab al-Sud) also links
to the preceding one by adding to fathers and brothers (mentioned in the 9:23)
[the close family] relations of sons and wives who are in similar status to them
(majr-hum). Additionally the verse 9:24 refers to ornaments of the world.

No other explicit reason (excepting 9:23) is given for revelation. Regarding the
interpretation of the clause, wait until Allah brings about his decision/command,
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the conquest of Mecca is mentioned, as well as the elucidation that it refers to an
instantaneous or delayed punishment. As proof of the Meccan contextualization,
Ibn Abbs [d. 68/687] is mentioned.

The hijrah is only indirectly alluded to in the explication of the Quranic reference
to commerce you fear its decline, where attention is drawn to the lapsing of its
time of being in demand because of your absence from Mecca during the festive
season.

With regard to the Quranic phrase, jihad in His way, Ab al-Sud opines that it
pertains to fighting (qitl) against the enemies of them (i.e. Allah and His
Messenger (pbuh)). This interpretation possibly reflects the conditions in the time
of the interpreter, more than the occasion of revelation. Al-abar elucidates jihad
as helping the religion of Allah.

3.4 SABAB AL-NUZL PHRASEOLOGY SHARED

Al-abars introductory words yaqlu tabraka wa tal li-nabiyyi-hi is
comparable with thumma qla of al-Thalab and al-Baghaw and thumma amara
(ordered) of Ibn Kathr, cf. Ab al-Sud wa amrun la-h.

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After the Quranic qul, al-abar, al-Thalab and al-Baghaw add y Muammad.
According to al-abar, the verse (9:24) was directed to those who fall behind
with hijra to the abode of Islam (li al-mutakhallifna an hijrati il dr al-Islmi).
The last three words are replaced by wa al-jihdi while al-Thalab and al-
Baghaw present a shorter version: li al-mutakhallifna an hijrati.
The objections of the above addressees are stated by means of a conditional
sentence, with a protasis and apodosis. As protases In nanu itazaln man
khlafa-n f al-dni is found in the interpretations of al-Wid, al-Zamakhshar
and al-Thalab (with regard to 9:23).

The apodosis of the said conditional sentence is phrased in comparable ways by
mufassirs as:
Naqau ba-n wa ashrata-n (al-Wid)
Qatan ba-n wa ashrata-n (al-Zamakhshar)
Fa-qatan ba-n wa ashrata-n (al-Thalab, 9:23)
Cf. al-Zamakhshar and al-Baiw (9:23): Qatan ba-n wa abna-n wa
ashira-n and Fakhr al-Dn al-Rz: Inqitu-n an bi-n wa ikhwni-n wa
ashrati-n.

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There is also likeness among mufassirs with regard to other arguments that are
raised, such as:
Wa tadhhabu tijratu-n (al-Wid)
Wa dhahabat tijratu-n (al-Baghaw, al-Zamakhshar, al-Thalab, 9:23, al-
Baiw, 9:23, Ab al-Sud, 9:23)
cf. Fakhr al-Dn al-Rz: Wa dhahbu tijrati-n.
Furthermore,
Wa takhrabu diyru-n (al-Wid)
Wa kharibat diyru-n (al-Baghaw, al-Zamakhshar, Ab al-Sud, 9:23)
Wa kharibat dru-n (al-Thalab, 9:23), cf. Fakhr al-Dn al-Rz, wa kharbu
diyri-n
and
Wa halakat amwlu-n (al-Zamakhshar, Ab al-Sud, 9:23)
Wa halku amwli-n (Fakhr al-Dn al-Rz)

The more beloved than statement in 9:24 is expanded by al-abar as
aabba ilaikum min al-hijrati il-llhi wa rasli-hi min dr al-shirk and explained
by al-Qurub as ...min an tuhjiru il-llhi wa rasli-hi bi-l-madnati.

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Attitude (in al-Zamakhshar) or intended behaviour (in al-Thalab, 9:23) towards
[those] who did not emigrate is expressed in a related way by interpreters:
Wa l yunfiqu (he will not support) alai-hi. (al-Zamakhshar)
Wa l unfiqu (I will not support) alai-kum. (al-Thalab, 9:23)

A tradition contextualizing the verse (9:24) in connection with nine people
accused of apostasy from Islam has parallel versions, namely nazalat f al-tisati
irtadd (al-Zamakhshar (9:24) and al-Thalab, 9:23) followed by wa laiq (and
joined) bi-Makkati (al-Zamakhshar), or an Islmi (al-Thalab, 9:23),
and fa-nah llhu tal an muwlti-him (al-Zamakhshar)
fa-nah llhu azza wa jalla an wilyati-him (al-Thalab, 9:23).

Expressed in terms of authors, there is a strong resemblance among al-abar,
al-Thalab and al-Baghaw with regard to the introductory part (identifying the
Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) and characterizing the intended audience).

Objections of the addressees, phrased as a conditional sentence bears testimony
to the likeness among the tafsirs of al-Thalab (regarding 9:23), al-Zamakhshar
and al-Wid, with occasional similar statements by al-Baghaw and Fakhr al-Dn
al-Rz.
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Linking the more beloved phrase to the hijrah is a feature that al-abar and al-
Qurub have in common. Threats of the mujhirs (emigrants) towards those that
did not partake in or fall behind with the hijrah is found, with comparable
phraseology, in the commentaries of both al-Zamakhshar and al-Thalab
(regarding 9:23).

The same two authors (i.e. al-Zamakhshar and al-Thalab regarding 9:23) also
attest to the tradition of the apostasy of nine people.

3.5 SABAB AL-NUZL THEMES SHARED

3.5.1 Hijrah

Hijrah (emigration from Mecca to Medina) is a prominent feature in most of the
interpretations. Only Fakhr al-Dn al-Rz does not mention it, and Ab al-Sud
refers to it indirectly. Early traditions thus reflect a split or difference in opinion
among believers in Mecca on the hijrah issue. People had to make a decision to
join the Prophet (pbuh) in his departure to Medina, or whether to remain in
Mecca. Those who had not immediately joined the emigrants were known as al-
mutakhallifn an hijrah (those who fall behind with hijrah) (al-abar, al-Thalab
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and al-Baghaw). According to al-Baghaw, they were those who had become
Muslim but did not go on hijrah (alladhna aslam wa lam yuhjir).

Tradition also refers to Muslims who in fact departed on hijrah. Instances referred
to by mufassirs, however, differ with regard to the time of the said event. Al-
Thalab (commenting on 9:23) and al-Qurub place the compliance with the
hijrah call before the revelation of 9:23. According to Ab al-Sud the said action
took place after the revelation of 9:23. Because al-Zamakhshar dealt with both
verses (9:23 and 24) together it is not clear which verse he refers to when he
says nazalat (it was revealed). However, he most probably meant 9:24 as the
other commentaries are taken into consideration. The latter also mentions a
separate tradition that gives account of an anti-hijrah movement (nine people
who become apostates) prior to 9:24. Al-Baiw (9:23) refers to the same
tradition, but preceding 9:23.

Two religious or believer categories are thus created, namely those who
emigrated and those who did not. Al-Zamakhshar refers to the conviction in the
early Meccan days (before its conquest) that belief (mn) of a person was not
complete (lam yatimma) unless the person concerned emigrated. Interpreters do,
however, not always distinguish clearly between mutakhallifn (those who fall
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behind [with hijrah]) and unbelievers. The tradition manifested in the tafsir of al-
Wid (cf. al-Thalab, 9:23, al-Zamakhshar) characterizes the latter group as
man khalafa-n f al-dn (who[soever] differs from us in religion). Al-Qurub
typifies them as those who choose to persist in unbelief (al-iqmata al l-kufri).

Among the chosen mufassirs there is also a close link between hijrah and jihad.
According to al-Thalab, the Prophet (pbuh) was instructed to direct the verse,
9:24 to those who fell behind with hijrah and jihad. In his amplification of the
more beloved to you than phrase his predecessor al-abar inserts the words
than hijrah from dr al-shirk to Allah and His messenger, and than jihad in his
way as compared to al-Qurub: than your going on hijrah to Medina. Al-Qurub
cites a tradition (focusing on Satans temptations) which mentions jihad as a
logical endeavour following hijrah.

The hijrah connotation of 9:24 brings into focus the localities Mecca and Medina,
depicted as religious alternatives. Mecca, in the earliest period of Islam, was
portrayed as dr al-shirk (as shown above) and Medina as dr al-Islm. Not
going on hijrah to Medina was subject to the threat of having to wait for the divine
decision (bi-amri-hi). In the interpretative tradition it was commonly explained as
the conquest (fat) of Mecca.
119

This view however placed a time limit to the injunction. Thus seen, the threat
implied by the verse was, according to al-Wid, forfeiting the opportunity of
being rewarded (muthbna) until Allah conquers Mecca. Thereafter, al-Wid
opines, the command or duty (far) with regard to the hijrah would become null
and void (yasquu).

This limited application of the verse, however, is not the only one reflected by
tradition. In an alternative interpretation with A (d. 115/733) as authority, al-
Thalab elucidates the meaning of bi-amri-hi ([wait until Allah brings about] his
decision) as his judgment. An interpretation of early origin (al-asan [al-Bar]
(d.110/728)) which takes into account both the hijrah situation and the general
applicability of the verse is uqbah jilah aw jilah (an instantaneous or
delayed punishment).

3.5.2 Al-Tawbah 9:23

Srah al-Tawbah 9:23 and 9:24 have different introductory words. Al-Tawbah
9:23 commences with the phrase O you who believe, while 9:24 has qul (Say [O
Muhammad]) as first word. The former verse (9:23) warns Muslims not to take as
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awliy (helpers or supporters) unbelieving fathers or brothers. Al-Tawbah 9:24
(by implication) exhorts the religious community to give priority to Allah, His
Messenger (pbuh) and jihad in His way over fathers, sons, wives and their
tribe[s], as well as wealth and so forth.

The two verses thus diverge as far as focus is concerned, and as well as
addressees or people referred to are concerned. A majority of the chosen
mufassirs, however, link 9:23 to 9:24. They do it in different ways.

Al-Thalab introduces his tafsir of 9:24 with the conjunction, thumma (then [He,
Allah said]). In his interpretation of 9:23 al-Thalab (using an Ibn Abbs tradition)
specifies the chronological position of the said verse as before the jihad...when
Allah... ordered (cf. Ibn Kathr and Ab al-Sud) believers [to perform] the
hijrah...before the conquest of Mecca... Al-Thalab also reports a discussion
between the Prophet (pbuh) and some of His contemporaries which relates to
that [stage] which other mufassirs associate with the context of 9:24 (cf. the
previous subdivision).

Al-Wid, as al-Thalab, formally links 9:24 to 9:23 with the conjunction thumma.
He states that the revelation of 9:24 was revealed subsequent to a complaint to
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the Prophet (pbuh) about the consequences of adhering to the order in 9:23,
which insists on the severing relations with (unbelieving) people (fathers and
tribe) who differ with regard to religion.

As had been the case with al-Thalab, al-Baghaw also introduces his discussion
of 9:24 with the conjunction thumma (then). Similar to al-Wid he
contextualizes 9:24 as divine response to the reservations expressed by people
who had become Muslims but did not emigrate. Reference can also be made to
al-Baghaws commentary on 9:23, which he regards as an injunction to [recently]
emigrated people who had second thoughts about their decision. The Quranic
verse, 9:23 (which specifically calls for not taking as helpers or supporters
unbelieving fathers and brothers) is also seen as an order prohibiting relations
with nine people (cf. al-Zamakhshar on 9:24, and al-Thalab on 9:23) who had
become apostates from Islam in the sense that they had returned to Mecca.

Al-Zamakhshar does not specifically refer to verse 9:23 in his tafsir, but his
introductory words And before the conquest of Mecca who[soever] believed, his
faith would not be complete (lam yatimma) if he did not emigrate (yuhjiru) and
did not cut relations (yurimu) with his unbelieving relative, reminds of similar
words used by al-Thalab with regard to 9:23.
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Fakhr al-Dn al-Rz states in the introductory sentence to his tafsir of 9:24:
Know that this verse, it is the confirmation (taqrr) of the answer that Allah
mentioned in the first verse (9:23). It was, according to Fakhr al-Dn al-Rz for
that (i.e. in response to) a group of believers who raised certain objection
regarding with drawing (al-baratu) themselves form their fathers, brothers and
tribe[s].

The version of Fakhr al-Dn al-Rz appears to be a stylistic variation to the fixed
pattern (cf. al-Wid and al-Baghaw) of verse, 9:23 followed by objections,
followed by the revelation of 9:24.

Al-Qurubs tafsir presents events in the late Meccan and the early Medinan
period as follows: Firstly he refers to the command to perform hijrah. Then he
reports about a positive and negative response among Meccan people. Next, the
revelation of 9:23 is reported as response to those who felt pity (yariqqu) towards
the plight of their close family relations, and then refrained (fa-yaau) from
performing the hijrah. Subsequently 9:24 was revealed as a divine
communication in the case (f) of those that fell behind [with hijrah] (takhallaf)
and did not emigrate.
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Al-Baiaw does not formally refer to 9:23 in his explanation of 9:24. However in
his tafsir of 9:23, he refers to objections raised against partaking in the hijrah.

Ibn Kathr condenses the revelation history of 9:24. He refers to the revelation of
9:23, skips subsequent events, and then mentions the revelation of 9:24 as threat
to those that gave preference to family, relatives and tribe to religious obligations.

Ab al-Sud relates 9:24 to 9:23 in the sense that 9:24 had the function to
strengthen (yuthabbita) believers, and to consolidate (wa yuqawwiya) their
determination to adhere to 9:23 (refraining from prohibited relations) and to
induce them (yuzahhida-hum) to sever links from more relations and from the
ornaments of the world.

3.5.3 Conversations

Two kinds of conversations giving the background (or reason) for revelation of
9:24 are reported. The first is between the Prophet (pbuh) and early Muslims,
and the second among Muslims themselves.

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In the previous subdivisions it has been shown that there is formal similarity in
the traditions (pertaining to the discussions) used by the various authors.
However, analyzed in terms of contents some additional observations need to be
made. A discussion with the Prophet (pbuh) regarding the consequences of the
hijrah is reported by all the mufassirs as sabab al-nuzl of 9:24 or 9:23 (al-
Thalab, al-Baiw and Ab al-Sud) except al-abar, al-Qurub and Ibn
Kathr. Objections of the people who were still considering partaking in the hijrah
were phrased in the form of a conditional sentence. The protasis usually
commences with the conjunction in [If]. Only Fakhr al-Dn al-Rz formulates the
protasis by way of a question (Kaifa...). Topic of the protasis is the aspect of
separation. In the apodosis all the mufassirs concerned refer to the foreseen
consequence of the severing (q-- ) of relationship, and the disappearance (dh-h-
b) of trade as the first two aspects (excepting al-Baghaw) of concern. Next,
follows the loss (h-l-k) or (-y- : al-Baghaw) of property (amwl) in the tafsirs of
al-Zamakhshar, Fakhr al-Dn al-Rz and Ab al-Sud (9:23). The destruction
(kh-r-b) of houses is also a common theme (excepting al-Baiw, 9:23),
mentioned last (except al-Baghaw).

There is thus a remarkable agreement among interpreters regarding the said
aspects of concern. Only al-Baghaw reports a different sequence of aspects
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mentioned, as well as using a different verb with one item (at amwlu-n).
Contrary to the other interpreters he does not specify the relative concerned after
the verb (q-- ) but uses a general term arma-n.

As consequence of the complaints of the people concerned, the mufassirs
mention the revelation of 9:23 (al-Thalab, 9:23; al-Baiw, 9:23; Ab al-Sud,
9:23), or 9:24 (al-Wid, al-Baghaw, al-Zamakhshar, Fakhr al-Dn al-Rz). Al-
Wid adds a note and Fakhr al-Dn al-Rz an explanation.

Regarding the discussions among the people, two pairs of traditions are reported.
The first, dating from Ibn Abbs, is reported by al-Thalab in his interpretation of
9:23. A man (rajul) addresses dependants who were unwilling to join him on
hijrah (but clung to him), threatening them (in the first person) to stop helping (n-f-
), giving (--y, fourth form) them anything or feeding (n-f-q, fourth form). A
second scene, related to the first, is then depicted of a wife, dependant and child
imploring [the man] not to cause their ruin (-y-, fourth form). This appeal leads
to a third portrayal, picturing the man whose heart as a result became tender
(softened) (fa-yariqqu), remaining stationary (yajlisu), and giving up (yaau)
hijrah.

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A similar tradition series is attested by al-Qurub. Both al-Thalab and al-Qurub
refer to the subsequent revelation of a verse (9:23, al-Thalab; 9:24, al-Qurub).

The second conversational scene is documented by al-Zamakhshar (9:24), and
repeated by Ab al-Sud (9:23). It focuses on the strained relationship between
the muhjirn and those who did not emigrate. Son, father, brother and some
relatives visit a man, but he does not pay attention to them (yulfitu) neither does
he grant them hospitality (yunazzilu) or provide them food (yunfiqu). Only later
(thumma) the emigrants were allowed (r-kh-) to re-establish relationships.

3.6 CONCLUSION

The discussion regarding the reason(s) for revelation focuses upon the ten
mufassirs, sharing traditions, but nevertheless demonstrating to a greater or
lesser extent their own style.

Seen within broader perspective one may venture to say that the mufassirs were
convinced that the Quranic sequence 9:23 and 9:24 reflected the chronology of
the verses revelation. Context associated with the respective verses, however,
has proved not to be so clearly distinguished in tradition. The sabab al-nuzl
127
related to the one verse by one mufassir is linked to the next verse by another
interpreter.

Leitmotif among mufassirs is the hijrah context. This may point to an early
conviction that those who have departed from Mecca to Medina had availed
themselves of a unique opportunity. Those who were unwilling had forsaken the
opportunity to do a meritorious act. They had to wait for the command of Allah.
This was seemingly understood as the command for a military onslaught on
Mecca leading to its eventual conquest with all the accompanying misery.

A parallel tradition however gives the implied threat of the verse a more general
interpretation referring to an instantaneous or a delayed punishment. Seen
within hijrah context this would mean that not participating in the emigration
would have a permanent negative outcome.

The Prophet (pbuh) himself is assumed to have resided in Medina by particularly
al-abar and al-Qurub.

The conservations with the Prophet (pbuh) that are reported however create the
impression that dialogue between the Prophet and the people contemplating the
128
hijrah took place in Mecca. The conversations among the local people in
Prophetic times accentuate the divisions among people who made a decision for
or against the requirements of Islam. They also give evidence of the incisiveness
of choices affecting even the closest family relations, namely that of husband and
wife, and father and child.
129
CHAPTER FOUR
LEXICAL APPROACH IN COMMENTARIES (TAFSIRS)

4.1 INTRODUCTION

In his al-Mujam al-Arab: Ishklt wa Muqribt, al-amzaw studies the link
between tafsir and lexicon based on his study of Muammad al-hir b. shr
(d.1393/1973)
137
s al-Tarr wa al-Tanwr. Here he calls upon the scholarly
community to exhibit a greater sensitivity to the complexity of the relationship that
exists between al-majim (lexicons) and tafsir (exegesis).

Lexical observations of Quranic exegetes facilitate and enable interpretation
which ultimately aims at, and shares the same semantic field as kashf
(revelation) and ihr (disclosure)
138
. To ensure facilitation of the understanding
of the Quran, commentators generally explain words which are rarely used and
less known. They do so in a variety of ways: e.g. providing synonyms, offering
closely related words, providing definitions, showing the etymological origin,
presenting poems to support the meaning.

Apart from al-Zamakhshar (d. 538/1143) all other commentators have explained

137
For his biography refer to Kalah, Mujam al-Muallifn, III/363.
138
Cf. al-Zarkash, al-Burhn f Ulm al-Qurn, II, 147.
130
the individual words. What is clearly noticeable is that they generally gave
explanations of the same words which imply a tradition of interpretation over
centuries. In addition to providing synonyms or closely related words, some of the
commentators define certain words and elaborate on them.

4.2 LEXICALLY EXPLAINED WORDS AND PHRASES OF AL-TAWBAH 9:24

The words or phrases that are explained with their synonyms or other words are
as follows: ashratu-kum (your tribe), iqtaraftum-h ([which] you earned), tijrah
(commerce), kasda-h (its decline), maskin (dwellings), tarawna-h ([which]
you are pleased with), tarabba (wait [you, plural]), l yahd (he does not guide),
and al-fsiqn (the rebellious).

Each one of the explained words will be presented separately below.

4.2.1 Ashratu-kum (your tribe)

The word is a compound consisting of ashratu(n) and kum. Ashratu(n) is
derived from the root a-sh-r, and it is a singular noun. To ashratu(n) is added
131
kum, the possessive pronoun, you plural. Of this root a-sh-r, 12 forms occur 27
times in the Quran. The word ashratun is used three times.
139


The approach that the commentaries (tafsirs) use when they deal with this word
may be categorized as lexical and grammatical. They make these observations
accordingly based on the various readings.

4.2.1.1 The Lexical Discussion of Ashratu-kum (your tribe)

There are three different explanations for what ashrah is. They are as follows:

1) Ashrah (kindred) of a man is his closest relatives (family) (ahlu-h al-
adnawn). This definition is first mentioned by al-Wid, among the said
commentators. A later commentator, Fakhr al-Dn al-Rz also quoted this
definition, with reference to him. However Fakhr al-Dn al-Rz adds the
elaboration and they are on intimate terms with him (yushirna-h).

2) Ashrah (kindred) is a group (jamah) that refers to (tarji) a certain
decimal number (aqd) like ten (asharah), or even bigger (fa-m zda [lit. what
exceeds]).

139
Cf. Badawi and Haleem, Dictionary of quranic Usage, 621.
132

This definition is first mentioned by al-Qurub, among the above-mentioned
commentators. After him, al-Baiw and Ab al-Sud also cite this definition,
simply stating that it was said... without mentioning his [al-Qurubs] name.
Al-Baiw repeats the above suggestion about the definition of ashrah, namely
that ashrah (kindred) is a group (jamah), which refers to a decimal number
(aqd) like the decimal number, ten (asharah). However, prior to the said
definition, he touches on the derivation of the word, ashrah, saying that ashrah
is derived from asharah (ten). Following him, Ab al-Sud repeats what al-
Baiw states about this word.

As it was said above, neither of them mentions al-Qurub, who presented the
suggestion about the definition of the word, ashrah before them.

3) Ashrah (kindred) is relatives [in general] (aqrib ).
This description is first made by al-Baiw, explaining the expression, your
ashrah (ashratu-kum) with your relatives (aqribu-kum).Then he elaborates
on its derivation by saying it is derived from ishrah (company).

133
Ab al-Sud repeats al-Baiws said definition, and in addition he explains the
word, ishrah (company) with ubah (companionship).

4.2.1.2 The Recitation and Grammatical Discussion of Ashratu-kum (your
tribe)
140


According to the ten above-mentioned tafsirs, there are two different recitations
other than ashratu-kum. They are namely ashrtu-kum and ashiru-kum.
Within the tafsirs those who recited ashratu-kum differently are occasionally
mentioned. They are Ab Raj (d.105/723), al-asan [al-Bar] (d.110/728), Ab
Bakr (d.193/808) who is a narrator of im (d.128/745), and Yaqb (d.205/820).

With the exception of al-abar, al-Qurub and Ibn Kathr, all the above-
mentioned commentators inform about the alternative recitations. They differ
from each other in the way they present the different recitation(s), as well as the
way they interpret the verse. Some of the commentators give the different
recitations together with grammatical information, while some only give the
alternative recitations. Furthermore some of the commentators mention only the

140
Because recitation and grammatical issues are dealt with together in some of the tafsirs, the
discussion of these two aspects will be given simultaneously.
134
variant recitation(s), while others mention it together with the scholars name who
recited in this way.

Below, the said two different recitations will be individually discussed in
accordance with information found in the above-mentioned tafsirs.

1- Ashrtu-kum:

Ashrtu-kum as a variant recitation was mentioned by all seven commentators
except al-abar, al-Qurub and Ibn Kathr. Some of these seven commentators
present the alternative recitation without referring to any scholar. According to the
commentators who refer to a scholar, the variant recitation was recited by
141
Ab
Raj (d.105/723), Ab Bakr (d.193/808) and Yaqb (d.205/820).

Only al-Thalab mentions that Ab Raj and Yaqb recited ashrtu-kum. As to
Ab Bakr, the recitation accompanied by his name, was referred to by al-
Baghaw, Fakhr al-Dn al-Rz and al-Baiw. Even though al-Thalab does not

141
Another scholar who recited the word, ashratu-kum differently [as ashrtu-kum, in plural
form] but who is not explicitly mentioned in the said tafsirs is al-Mufaal [d.168/784]. See
Ghyah al-Ikhtisr f Qirt al-Asharah Aimmah al-Amr, II/507.
Al-Mufaal is also a narrator of im [d.128/745], like Ab Bakr [d.193/808]. His full name is al-
Mufaal b. Muammad al-abb. For his biography, refer to Marifah, I/275; Ghyah al-Nihyah,
II/307.
135
refer to Ab Bakr, the following statement by him, There have been various
recitations
142
of it [narrated] by im (d.128/745), indicates that he was probably
aware of Ab Bakrs different recitation.

Some of the commentators, namely al-Thalab, al-Baghaw and Fakhr al-Dn al-
Rz, besides simply giving the recitation of ashrtu-kum, emphasize that it
(ashrtu-kum) is recited [as] plural [of ashrtu-kum]. However, in al-Wids
and al-Baghaws commentaries, the discussion about its grammatical use
indicates their disapproval on that recitation.

Al-Wid after giving this different recitation, expresses his opinion about it: it is
bad (rad), and as a supportive argument he quotes a remark
143
of al-Akhfash
[al-Awsa] (d.215/830) regarding the plural of ashrah in common usage by the
Arab. Al-Baghaw refers to the recitation of a plural form, ashrtu-kum and then
states and the others [recited it as] singular (i.e. ashratu-kum) because its
[ashrahs] plural is ashir. In a way his disagreement with the recitation of
ashrtu-kum is thus implicit. Unlike the other scholars, Fakhr al-Dn al-Rz

142
The concept of various recitations renders the Arabic expression ukhtulifa f qirati-hi, which
implies that there was not an agreement on a specific recitation.
143
He said: Arabs hardly pluralize ashrah as ashrt; they only make it plural as ashir.
136
offers reasonable explantions
144
for both recitations ashrtu-kum and ashratu-
kum. For the recitation of the singular form ashratu-kum he finds support in the
remark of al-Akhfash [al-Awsa] (see footnote 144).

2- Ashiru-kum:

This variant recitation is mentioned by only three commentators among the
above-mentioned ten commentators, namely al-Zamakhshar, al-Baiw and
Ab al-Sud. Al-Zamakhshar said that al-asan [al-Bar] (d.110/728) recited
ashiru-kum. Unlike al-Zamakhshar, al-Baiw and Ab al-Sud simply
provide the recitation, ashiru-kum, without referring to al-asan [al-Bar].

4.2.2 Iqtaraftum-h ([which] you have earned)

Iqtaraftum() is derived from the root q-r-f and in the eighth form, second person
plural. -h is a pronominal suffix referring to [i.e. in the place of] amwl (the
property) and is the object of the verb iqtaraftum.


144
He says: the people who recited [it] as plural, they recited ashrtu-kum because everyone
from the addressed people has an ashrah. So when you make it plural, you say ashrtu-kum.
And people who recited the singular form (i.e. ashratu-kum) say ashrah is used as plural, and
so there is no need to make it plural.
137
Of the root q-r-f, two forms occur five times in the Qurn. The verb iqtarafa,
which is used here, occurs four times.
145


All the said commentators, except al-Zamakhshar, explained this word. The
words which are used to explain iqtaraftum-h ([which] you have earned) are
iktasabtum-h ([which] you have acquired), aabtum-h ([which] you have
attained), kasabtum-h ([which] you have obtained) and aaltum-h ([which]
you attained). All these verbs, namely iktasaba, aba, kasaba and aala are
synonyms of the verb iqtarafa.

Among the commentators, only al-abar and al-Thalab refer to an early scholar.
The person to whom both [al-abar and al-Thalab] refer is Qatdah
(d.118/736). Al-abar firstly explains iqtaraftum-h ([which] you have earned)
with iktasabtum-h ([which] you have acquired) without referring to anything.
He later refers to Qatdahs explanation as aabtum-h at the end of the
interpretation of the verse. As to al-Thalab, he both explains iktasabtum-h
with iktasabtum-h, and refers to Qatdah mentioning that he (Qatdah) said
[the same], namely iktasabtum-h.


145
Cf. Badawi and Haleem, Dictionary of quranic Usage, 753.
138
It would therefore appear that for this word two different interpretations (or
explanations) by Qatdah were narrated.

Slightly differing from the previous explanations, al-Wid explains iqtaraftum-
h with kasabtum-h ([which] you have obtained). Following this explanation, he
states iqtirf (earning) is kasb (obtaining), thus providing the verbal nouns
(madir) of both verbs. In addition, he refers to the usage of iqtarafa in the
Quran (42:23) in this sense [i.e. obtaining].

The other commentators also explain the word with iktasabtum-h; however
some of them differ in the way they elucidate the verb.

Al-Baghaw and later commentator al-Baiw only explain the word iqtaraftum-
ha with iktasabtum-h, ([which] you have acquired). Likewise Fakhr al-Dn al-
Rz just says that earning (iqtirf) is acquisition (iktisb). And Ibn Kathr
provides another synonym, aaltum-h ([which] you have attained) in addition
to iktasabtum-h ([which] you have acquired).

139
The other two commentators, al-Qurub and Ab al-Sud, who explain the word,
seem not to have considered the explanation iktasabtum-h as sufficient.
Therefore they elaborate on iqtaraftum-h.

Al-Qurub expounds the act of earning/obtaining by adding information of the
place, Mecca, to the word iktasabtum-h ([which] you have acquired).
Furthermore, he presents the lexical origin of iqtirf (earning) by saying that it is
taking out (iqti) something from its place to somewhere else.

After explaining the word, iqtaraftum-h with the same word, iktasabtum-h,
Ab al-Sud clarifies why the property (amwl) is described as it is in the verse
[i.e. expressing that it was obtained by them]. He suggests it is described like that
with reference to its [the propertys] value (izzati-h) to them, due to its
attainment through their hands hard work.

It may be noticed the practice of referring to an early source did not continue after
the first two commentators, even though the same word or verbal root had been
selected throughout the period of over six centuries for the explaining the same
word.

140
4.2.3 Tijrah (the commerce)

It is a verbal noun (madar)
146
derived from the root t-j-r.

Of the root t-j-r, only the verbal noun form, which is tijrah occurs nine times in
the Quran
147
.

Only Ab al-Sud, explains the word tijrah (the commerce) with amtiah, (the
goods) which you bought for trade (tijrah) and [making] profit (rib).

Rather than elucidating tijrah itself, several commentators have chosen to
explain the word, kasda-h (its decline) in the attributive relative phrase
takhshawna kasdah ([which] you fear its decline), which follows tijrah (the
commerce), rather than elucidating tijrah itself.


146
Cf. Ibn Manr, Lisn, I/420.
147
Cf. Badawi and Haleem, Dictionary of quranic Usage, 131.
141

4.2.4 Kasda-h ([which] you fear its decline)

The word is a compound consisting of kasd(a) and -h. Kasd is a verbal noun
of the root k-s-d. -h is the feminine pronominal suffix referring to the feminine
noun, i.e. tijrah.

Of the root k-s-d only the word kasd, which is a verbal noun, occurs once (9:24)
in the Quran
148
.

Half of the chosen commentators, namely al-abar, al-Thalab, al-Qurub, al-
Baidw and Ab al-Sud dealt with the explanation of this word, kasda-h or
the phrase, in which it is found. It can be observed that two approaches have
emerged in dealing with the word concerned: the first one is a lexical approach to
explain the word, kasd (decline), and the other one is an interpretative approach
which explains the meaning of the word, kasda-h, by connecting it to the
circumstances or the conditions at the time in which 9:24 was revealed.


148
Cf. Badawi and Haleem, Dictionary of quranic Usage, 806.
142
Only al-Thalab explains the word, kasd (decline), lexically. Al-Thalab directly
explains it by saying: it is opposite of nafq
149
(being in demand) and its basis is
baq (staying). Then he quotes a poem
150
using the verb kasadna (they
[woman] stayed) and its verbal noun kusd (staying).

A later commentator, al-Qurub prefers to quote an interpretation about tijrah
(the commerce)
151
by Ibn al-Mubrak (d.181/797). According to that
interpretation, the decline of that which is feared is the girls and the daughters,
when they stay (kasadna) in the house being unable to find a fianc (or a
husband; khib) for themselves. Then al-Qurub quotes the same poem as al-
Thalab quoted, saying the poet said Even though al-Qurub does not explain
the word, kasd, like al-Thalab, the word, kasadna, in the interpretation by Ibn
al-Mubrak, and the verb, kasadna, and its verbal noun, kusd, in the said poem
all reflect the sense of staying. A link is thus established between the Quranic
kasda-h (referring to tijrah), the sisters and the daughters who stay
(kasadna), and the feminine persons in the poem who stay (kasadna) in their
tribe. Thus argued the Quranic passage under discussion may be translated as:

149
Cf. Ibn Manr, Lisn, V/3872.
150
It is They (women) stayed [kasadna] in their tribe due to poverty / And no doubt, my residence
extended for them staying [kusd]. Its poet was not identified in al-Thalabs tafsir. Cf. footnote
no. 37.
151
That is It [i.e. tijrah, the commerce] is the daughters and the sisters; when they stay at home,
being unable to find themselves a fianc. Cf. al-Mward, al-Nukat wa al-Uyn, II/349.
143
And the merchandise which you fear its being static (stagnant or unsold) (al-
Tawbah, 9:24).

The other three commentators, who dealt with the word, kasd , namely al-
abar, al-Baiw and Ab al-Sud, interpreted it by considering its context
according to the situation during which the verse, 9:24, was revealed.
Accordingly they explain either the decline (kasd) or the reasons leading to it.

Al-abar suggests a reason for the decline (kasd): by your separation (bi-firqi-
kum) from your town (balad). This interpretation implies that those who fall
behind with hijrah (to Medina) fear the decline of their trade if they leave their
town, Mecca.

As to al-Baiw, he interprets kasd (the decline) as fawt waqt nafqi-h, the
lapsing of the time of its being in demand [i.e. the time of a prosperous trade].
Another later commentator, Ab al-Sud, suggests the reason for kasd (the
decline) by elucidating the interpretations of al-abar and al-Baiw: [you fear
its decline] due to the lapsing of its time of being in demand (marketability)
because of your absence (bi-ghaibati-kum) from the Exalted Mecca during the
festive season (ayym al-mawsim [lit. the festive days]).
144

As it clearly seen above, the said interpreters, namely al-abar, al-Baiw and
Ab al-Sud, dealt with the word kasd in the specific context of the
circumstances and the conditions during which the verse, 9:24 was revealed,
such as hijrah and the festive season in Mecca.

4.2.5 Maskin (the dwellings)

It is derived from the root s-k-n. The word is a noun in the plural form. Its singular
is maskan (house, dwelling).

Of the root s-k-n, 13 forms occur 69 times in the Quran. The word maskin
occurs 11 times while its singular form, maskan, occurs once only
152
.

Among the selected ten commentators, some of them, namely al-Wid, al-
Zamakhshar, al-Baiw and Ibn Kathr, chose not to explain this word.

As an explanatory word or equivalent (synonym), the following can be found in
the tafsirs which expound the meaning of the word maskin (dwellings): awn

152
Cf. Badawi and Haleem, Dictionary of quranic Usage, 444.
145
(lands), al-dr (houses with courtyard), al-bastn (gardens), qur (palaces) and
manzil (houses).

The earlier commentators, al-abar and al-Thalab refer to the explanation of al-
Sudd (d.127/744), namely al-qusr wa al-manzil (the palaces and the houses)
for the word, maskin. Al-Baghaw also explains the word using the same words,
al-qusr wa al-manzil (the palaces and the houses), but he does not refer to al-
Sudd.

A later commentator, Fakhr al-Dn al-Rz, refers to the ruin of our homes
(kharb diyri-n) and later to the desire (raghbah) for houses (maskin), which
he eventually explains as manzil (houses) , al-bin f awn (construction in
lands) and dr (houses with courtyard), without directly mentioning the
synonyms.

The following commentator, al-Qurub, explains the word maskin with manzil
(houses) only, not referring to any earlier source.

146
The last commentator, Ab al-Sud, elucidates maskin with manzil (houses),
in which you like staying in, namely al-dr (houses with courtyard) and al-bastn
(gardens).

4.2.6 Tarawna-h ([which] you are pleased with)

Tarawna is derived from the root r--w or r--y and is an imperfect in the second
person plural form. -h is a pronominal suffix referring to maskin (the dwellings)
and object of the verb tarawna.

Of the root r--w/y, 11 forms occur 73 times in the Quran. The verb raiya, as
either perfect or imperfect occurs 38 times
153
.

Half of the commentators explained the meaning of this word, while the other half
did not deem it necessary and preferred not to explain it. Equivalents used to
explain tarawna-h ([which] you are pleased with) are: tujibu-kum ([which]
please you/pleases you), tastabna-h ([which] you find pleasant) and
tuibbna-h ([which] you love).


153
Cf. Badawi and Haleem, Dictionary of quranic Usage, 368.
147
The first commentator among the above-mentioned ones, who explains the word
tarawna-h, is al-Thalab. He suggests the word tujibu-kum to explain it. Two
later commentators, al-Qurub and Ab al-Sud also use the same word, tujibu-
kum, for its explanation. However, there are differences in their usage of the
word.

According to al-Thalabs explaination, the subject (fil) of tujibu-kum ([which]
please you) is the preceding word, maskin [i.e. dwellings which please you].

As to the others, al-Qurb and Ab al-Sud, they elaborate on the word by
saying tujibu-kum al-iqmah f-h ([in which] staying pleases you), thus adding
the phrase, al-iqmah f-h (staying in). The subject of tujibu-kum is thus
changed to al-iqmah (staying). According to their interpretation it is therefore
not (only) the houses the people like, but moreover the staying in them.

Unlike the preceding three commentators, al-Baghaw and Ibn Kathr, present two
different words for tarawna-h. The former commentator [al-Baghaw], who is
the earlier one, explains the word tarawna-h with tastabna-h ([which] you
find pleasant). This explanatory word emanates from the root -y-b, and of which
the verbal noun, b, means goodness or being pleasant.
148

As to the latter [Ibn Kathr], who is the later one, he expounds the word tarawna-
h with tuibbna-h ([which] you love) and adds an object [which explains the
reason for delight], namely their goodness/being pleasant (b) and their beauty
(usn).

4.2.7 Tarabba (wait [you, plural])

It is an imperative of the verb tarabbaa, which is fifth form of the root r-b-. The
command to wait (tarabba) is addressed to a plural audience.

Of the root r-b-, four forms occur 17 times in the Quran. The verb, tarabbaa as
either perfect or imperfect occurs 13 times.
154


All of the above-mentioned tafsirs, except al-Zamakhshar and al-Baiw, all
dealt with the word, tarabba (wait). Four of them picked synonyms deriving
from the same root, namely n--r. While al-abar used (tanaar) (wait), the
rest, namely al-Thalab, al-Baghaw and Ab al-Sud have only explained it with
a synonym, (i)ntair (expect). The rest of them, al-Wid, Fakhr al-Dn al-Rz,

154
Cf. Badawi and Haleem, Dictionary of quranic Usage, 343.
149
al-Qurub and Ibn Kathr, elucidate tarabba by referring to the context of the
verse, or touching on its grammatical aspect.

Al-Wid quotes only the interpretation of Ibn Abbs (d. 68/687) about
tarabba: then wait (fa-tarabba) with things you love (bi-m tuibbna):
Beside Allah there is no reward (thawb) to you, for your faith. While explaining
the following phrase, bi-amri-hi (His decision (or command)); al-Wid also says
that the order of tarabba is a threatening order (amr tahdd). Later, Fakhr al-
Dn al-Rz repeats a phrase from the above interpretation of Ibn Abbs
(d.68/687), namely with things you love without referring to Ibn Abbs. Neither
al-Wid nor Fakhr al-Dn al-Rz explains the word, tarabba with (i)ntair.

As to al-Qurub, he firstly gives a grammatical explanation of tarabba (wait),
and then informs about its meaning by saying its formula is an imperative
(ghah amr) and it means [lit. its meaning is] threat (al-tahdd). Then he adds
that He [Allah] says (or means) (i)ntair (expect).

Lastly Ibn Kathr also gives, as equivalent for tarabba, the synonym (i)ntair
(expect), and then adds an object clause. The full statement reads: Expect
150
((i)ntair) what happens to you regarding his penalty (iqb) and exemplary
punishment (nakl) for you.

Most of the cited commentators thus explain the word tarabba (wait) with
(i)ntair (expect), while some of them add an explanation.

4.2.8 L yahd (He [Allah] does not guide)

L is a particle of negation (arf al-nfiyah). Yahd is derived from the root h-d-y
and is an imperfect, third person singular form.

Of the root h-d-y, 11 forms occur 291 times in the Quran. The verb had as
either perfect or imperfect occurs 114 times
155
.

When they have come to the interpretation of the last phrase of the Quranic
verse, some of the commentators do not comment on it, while others explain
either l yahd (He does not guide) or the last word, al-fsiqn (the rebellious).


155
Cf. Badawi and Haleem, Dictionary of quranic Usage, 981.
151
In the explanation of this verbal phrase (l yahd), two parallel expressions,
namely yurshidu (to guide or lead) and yuwaffiqu (to grant success) are used by
the above-mentioned commentators. The first verb, yurshidu, is a synonym of
yahd,
156
the fourth form of the root, r-sh-d. The other one, yuwaffiqu is the third
form of the root, w-f-q.

Among the commentators, some of them use one word to explain l yahd (He
[Allah] does not guide), while others use two words.

Al-abar, al-Baiw and Ab al-Sud provide one clause (verbal expression) in
their explanation. Al-abar explains the verbal phrase, l yahd (He [Allah] does
not guide) with l yuwaffiqu li-al-khair (He (Allah) does not grant success in
achieving the goodness), while al-Baiw explains it with l yurshidu-hum (He
[Allah] does not lead them). And later, Ab al-Sud repeats the version of al-
Baiw, but in addition to l yurshidu-hum (He [Allah] does not lead them), he
provides the prepositional phrase il m huwa khairun la-hum (to what is
better for them).

Two other commentators who explain l yahd (He [Allah] does not guide),
namely al-Thalab and al-Baghaw, use two statements in the explanation at

156
Cf. Ibn Manr, Lisn, III/1649.
152
once. They mention together l yurshidu (He [Allah] does not lead them) and l
yuwaffiqu (He [Allah] does not grant success). The only difference between al-
Thalab and al-Baghaw is the sequence in which they put the words. Al-Thalab
says l yurshidu wa l yuwaffiqu (He [Allah] does not lead and does not grant
success), while al-Baghaw says l yuwaffiqu wa l yurshidu (He [Allah] does not
grant success and does not lead).

Putting together these phrases l yurshidu (He [Allah] does not lead them) and l
yuwaffiqu (He [Allah] does not grant success) possibly originates from other
sayings, which have a combination of the words from the same roots, r-sh-d and
w-f-q. For instance muwaffaq rashd (successful and rightly guided), Rashidta
amra-ka wa wafiqta raya-ka (You are well guided in your matter and you are
right (or agreeable) in your opinion)
157
.

4.2.9 Al-Fsiqn (the rebellious)

The word is a plural noun, in the form of fil, active participle. It is derived from
the root f-s-q. In al-Tawbah 9:24, it is the adjective describing the object [i.e. al-
qawm] in the last phrase of the verse.


157
Cf. Ibn Manr, Lisn, VI/4884.
153
Of the root f-s-q, five forms occur 54 times in the Qurn. The form, fsiq occurs
twice while fsiqn [including fsiqn] occurs 35 times.
158
The same phrase (Wa
Allhu l yahd al-qawma al-fsiqn) is found four times in the Quran. Meanwhile,
a slightly different variant of this phrase, (Inna Allha l yahd al-qawma al-
fsiqn) occurs only once, (63:6).
159


Some of the commentators, namely al-abar, al-Thalab, al-Baghaw, Fakhr al-
Dn al-Rz and Ab al-Sud explain the rebellious (people) (al-qawm) al-fsiqn
with al-khrijn an al-ah those who leave (quit) the obedience, differing from
each other with a small addition or some elaboration.

Among them, al-Baghaw explains al-fsiqn with al-khrijn an al-ah (those
who leave (quit) the obedience) without adding any word or elaboration. One of
the earlier commentators, al-Thalab, and a later commentator, Fakhr al-Dn al-
Rz explain the word al-fsiqn with the same words plus an addition, al-khrijn
an al-ah il maiyatih (those who leave (quit) obedience for rebellion against
Him). However, the latter [Fakhr al-Dn al-Rz] differs by adding a comment on
the closing clause, namely and this is also a threat (tahdd). And al-abars
explanation is almost the same as al-Thalabs. Al-abar says al-khrijn an al-

158
Cf. Badawi and Haleem, Dictionary of quranic Usage, 710.
159
Cf. Abd al-Bq, al-Mujam al-Mufahras, 660.
154
ah wa f maiyatih (those who leave (quit) the obedience and are in rebellion
against Him.) And al-Thalab says al-khrijn an al-ah il maiyatih (those
who leave (quit) obedience for rebellion against Him.)

The latest one among the above-mentioned commentators, Ab al-Sud,
expounds the word al-fsiqn with both those who leave (quit) the obedience
[towards Allah] by supporting the polytheists (f muwlh al-mushrikn), and the
rebellious people (aw al-qawm al-fsiqn). The term, muwlh is probably an
allusion to awliy (friends or helpers) of al-Tawbah, 9:23.

All five cited commentators have the explanation of the word al-fsiqn with
those who leave (quit) the obedience in common. To this statement, most of
them add some lesser or greater (cf. Ab al-Sud) detail.

4.3 CONCLUSION

In the preceding chapter, nine words or phrases were examined. Firstly
grammatical information was supplied. Subsequently statistics about frequency of
usage were provided. Eventually the explanations of the respective tafsirs, where
155
available, were given. Among the words and phrases ashratu-kum and its
variant readings received most attention in the discussions.

A non-evaluative approach was followed in the presentation of the material. The
objective was to classify and relate information reflected by the said ten
mufassirs.

When reflecting on the kind of words in al-Tawbah 9:24 that are commented
upon, it becomes clear that the ten chosen commentators only explain items
which, in their opinion, needed explanations. Words like fathers, sons,
brothers, and wives are referred to (e.g. Ab al-Sud), but no lexical
elucidations are provided.

The contributions of individual mufassirs were indicated during the discussion of
each of the nine terms (and subsections) above. Comparing the interpreters in
terms of the number of lexical expressions dealt with is not so easy. The scrunity
of items is done in different ways and in various combinations. Bearing these
factors in mind it is nevertheless evident that the lexicographer par excellence is
Ab al-Sud (reflecting on all 9 items), followed by al-abar (8 items), al-Thalab
and al-Qurub (7 items), and al-Baghaw (6 items). Among the mufassirs with the
156
least interest in explaining individual words are al-Zamakhshar (1 item), al-
Wid and Ibn Kathr (3 items), and Fakhr al-Dn al-Rz (4 items). It is, however,
interesting to note that Fakhr al-Dn al-Rz compensates through an elaborate
discussion of the verse, while Ibn Kathr provides a few Prophetic traditions.

Citing of authorities is done systematically by al-Thalab and al-abar. The
former only refers to the ultimate authority while al-abar provides a short isnad.
Al-Qurub mentions a poem and Sbawaih as authority. The other interpreters
like al-Baghaw, al-Zamakhshar, Fakhr al-Dn al-Rz and al-Baiw refer to a
source only in the case of ashratu-kum.

Ultimate authorities of whose lexical expertise use is made are al-Sudd
(d.124/744) (cited by al-abar); Ab Raj [al-Utrid] (d. 105/723), Yaqb (d.
205/820), im (d. 128/745) and Qatdah (d. 118/736) (cited by al-Thalab); al-
Akhfash [al-Awsa] (d.215/830) and Ibn Abbs (d. 68/687) (cited by al-Wid);
al-asan [al-Bar] (d. 110/728) (cited by al-Zamakhshar) and Ab Bakr (d.
193/808) (also cited by al-Baiw). Use is also made of poetry which can be
traced to the dwn of Ab Mijan Nuaib b. Rab (d. 108/726)
160
. The said
authorities are thus predominantly from the 2
nd
/8
th
century.


160
See footnote no. 37.
157
Having discussed the lexical contributions of the ten commentators listed at the
beginning of the article, the natural question to ask by way of conclusion is
whether, and to what extent the what and the why as presented above may be
generalized.

Pertaining the what, the use of definitions as well as etymology as lexical
strategies is found to describe the nominal phrase`ashratu-kum (and its
orthographical variant). Definitions are also given for the verbal phrase
iqtaraftum-h, but moreover a list of synonyms, either as grammatical
equivalent of the expounded term, or by citing the latter as well as the alternative
word in terms of their verbal roots. An isolated instance of cross referencing to
another Quranic verse is also demonstrated. tijrah, regarded as noun, is
elucidated by means of a single definition. An interesting definition explains the
compound noun kasda-h through the use of grammatical and semantic
categories. In addition, two lines from a poem are quoted to illustrate the shade
of meaning that is relevant for the Quranic phrase. Definitions are also found,
one of them reflecting a particular presupposed context (Mecca during the festive
season). The noun maskin is elucidated by means of single synonyms and sets
of nouns (x + y, e.g. the palaces and the houses) that reflect the surmised
context. Synonymous verbal phrases (similarly or syntactically differently
158
structured) are cited to explain tarawna-h. tarabba is explained by means of
a synonym, and by supplying an object clause ([wait for] what happens...) or a
prepositional clause ([wait] with what you love). The negative statement l yahd
is elucidated by one or two verbal expressions, be it synonymous (l yurshidu-
hum) or explicative (l yuwaffiqu li al-khair: He does not grant success). Finally
al-fsiqn is paraphrased by a synonymous article plus particle to which words
are added.

The same situations of multiple approaches, each determined by the particular
case, are also found when scrutinizing the why of the six examples.
Commentaries reflect attempts to relate the concept `ashratu-kum to the
preceding list of people (i.e. fathers, sons, brothers and wives). Lexical
commentary of iqtaraftum-h originates from the fact that the ancient Quranic
meaning of the said term was no longer in common use during later times. The
definition of tijrah prepares the way for the lexical interpretation of kasda-h,
which in turn, bears testimony to the problem of determining the exact meaning
of a technical term. A solution is found in reconstructing (based upon tradition) a
specific context within which the verbal noun and its suffix is viewed. A seemingly
exaggerated way of interpreting an everyday concept maskin is given to explain
how houses can prohibit people from the required religiously inspired love.
159

Finally the potentially ambiguous meaning of the Quranic tarawna-h gives rise
to the suggestion of synonymous explicative verbal phrases. The interpretation of
tarabba is dependent upon the explanation given to the prepositional phrase
bi-amri-hi, leading to various kinds of amplifications. l yahd, with Allah as
subject, is a theological statement leading to mufassirs providing a general or
applied understanding. al-fsiqn (the rebellious) would within Quranic context
refer to those who do not adhere to the injunction of 9:24. Interpreters therefore
characterize these people as those who quit obedience....

Lexicographical statements thus bear evidence to a contextualization of the
ancient milieu of the verse with the sabab al-nuzl (as explained in the previous
section) in mind.
160
CHAPTER FIVE
LOVE FOR THE PROPHET (pbuh)


In this chapter the focus will be on the ten chosen mufassirs interpretation of the
aabbu ilai-kum phrase in 9:24. Their elucidation will be preceded by an
orientation or background of the Quranic verses referring to the Prophet (pbuh),
and the respect due to him. At the end of the chapter a few general conclusions
will be drawn.

5.1 ORIENTATION

The Quran informs its readers and listeners about a number of Prophets and
their peoples, while focusing on the interaction between Prophets and people.
Furthermore the Quran also reveals great attributes of the Prophets and qualities
of their peoples, e.g. the Prophet li and his people (qawm), Thamd.

The Quran particularly deals with Prophet Muammad (pbuh) and the people to
whom he had been sent as a prophet. When the relevant portions and verses are
examined, it becomes clear that there is a strong focus on the attributes of the
Prophet (pbuh), showing his high position. Perhaps the most important of the
attributes is the fact that it was through him that the Quranic passages...had
161
been revealed to guide the nascent community...
161
. Furthermore the Prophet
(pbuh) is the recipient not only of His revelation, but also of His infinite
supervision, compassion and protection.
162
Therefore the Quran contains
several verses pertaining to the Prophet (pbuh) himself, some informing about (a)
his characteristics or his elevated position, while others (b) prescribe the correct
behaviour of believers towards him.

The said verses will be briefly discussed below.

(a) The verses
163
dealing with the characteristics and position of the Prophet
(pbuh).

Verses refer to his compassion (raf, 9:128), and denote the Prophet (pbuh) as
a human upon whom revelation is sent down (y, 18:110). He is also called a
mercy for all universes (ramatan li al-lamna, 21:107). He embodies a
beautiful example for the believers (33:21) as the messenger of Allah (raslu
llh, 48:29), and said to be of a magnificent character (al khuluqin, 68:4) and

161
Faizer, Rizwi, Muammad, Encyclopedia of Islam and the Muslim World, vol. 2, 478.
162
Rubin, Uri, Muammad, Encyclopaedia of the Qurn, vol. 3, 446.
163
As example, only some of the verses will be given. Although for some of the attributes of the
Prophet (pbuh) or the duties of the believers towards him, more than one verse can be found, for
instance obedience to him. Only one verse per characteristic will be referred to.
162
so forth.

In addition to the these examples, a verse that is very close to the content of
adiths
164
about 'love for the Prophet', indicating the priority, the entitlement and
nearness of the Prophet (pbuh) to Muslims is al-Azb 33:6, which states the
Prophet is closer (awl) to the believers than their (own) selves'.


(b) The verses that guide the believers, how to treat the Prophet, and that show
how their relationship must be.

These include verses referring the order to obey (a) Allah and the Prophet
Muammad (pbuh), e.g. (3:32), making him judge (-k-m, second form) in any
dispute and being content (s-l-m, second form) with his verdict (4:65),
submission to the decision of Allah and the Prophet (pbuh) without having a
choice (al-khiyaratu) (33:36), asking blessings and saluting him (all alai-hi wa
sallim) (33:56), showing respect for him (49:2), in addition to believing in him
(7:158; 48:8; 64:8)
165
.

164
Refer to: al-Bukhr, al-mn, 8; Muslim, al-mn, 69, 70; al-Nas, al-mn wa Shariuh, 19;
Ibn Mjah, Muqaddimah, 9; Amad b. anbal, III/177, 207, 275, 278. And for another relevant
adith, see: al-Bukhr, al-Aimn wa al-Nudhr, 3; Amad b. anbal, IV/336.
165
Cf. al-Q Iy, al-Shif, II/3.
163

Related to the above theme b is al-Tawbah 9:24, which contains the root verb -
b-b (to love). The relevance of the verse with regard to the theme, love for the
Prophet (pbuh) is confirmed by one of the most renowned sources, al-Shif
166

that deals with the attributes of the Prophet and his veneration. In the said source
one chapter which is titled on the necessity of love for the Prophet (pbuh) starts
by saying this (verse) is sufficient to be a proof for the compulsion (ilzm) of love
for him...
167


5.2 MORE BELOVED TO YOU THAN ALLAH AND HIS MESSENGER

It is evident that the theme, love for the Prophet (pbuh) in al-Tawbah 9:24 is
particularly derived from the phrase, ...aabba ilai-kum min Allahi wa Rasli-hi...,
i.e. ...more beloved to you more than Allah and His Messenger... Therefore
when scrutinizing the commentaries, special attention should be paid to the
mufassirs approach to this phrase.

Among the ten tafsirs that were dealt with, the relatively earlier ones (namely al-

166
The complete title of the book is al-Shif bi Tarif Huqq al-Muaf and it is written by al-Q
Iy (d.544/1149).
167
al-Q Iy, al-Shif, II/13.
164
abar, al-Thalab, al-Wid, al-Baghaw and al-Zamakhshar) do not mention
love for the Prophet (pbuh) explicitly. Only al-abar (cf. al-Qurub) explains the
said phrase by restating it in context of hijrah (emigration) as more beloved to
you than emigration (hijrah) from the abode of polytheism (dr al-shirk) to Allah
and His Messenger (pbuh). The rest of the above-mentioned mufassirs do not
explain the phrase. Of these said five earlier commentators, only al-Zamakhshar
alludes to the theme of love by a adith which states that the taste of faith
(mn) is dependent upon loving and loathing for the sake of Allah.

A later commentator, Fakhr al-Dn al-Rz interprets the phrase under discussion
as worthier (awl) beside you than obedience (ah) to Allah and obedience to
His Messenger. It is interesting that in this interpretation he presents two
concepts, worthiness and obedience, which are closely-related to love, rather
than love itself.
168


More than three centuries later than al-abar, al-Qurub interprets the said
phrase similarly to al-abar as: more beloved to you than performing hijrah to
Allah and His Messenger in Medina. Despite the fact that al-Qurub explains this

168
Al-Ghazl [d.505/1111] criticizes the interpretation of love with obedience. He states How is
love (ubb) interpreted with obedience (ah), while obedience is successor (taba ) to love and
its fruit/result (thamarah)? Cf. al-Ghazl, Iy Ulm al-Dn, IV/286.
165
phrase in the context of hijrah, he uniquely points out that in the verse there is a
sign (dall) for the necessity (or obligation, wujb) of love for Allah and for His
Messenger. Al-Qurubs statements thus generalize the contents of the verse
and place them within the wujb category of the shariah commandments.

Two later commentators, al-Baiw and Ab al-Sud both (the former briefly)
explain that the love which is meant in the verse is facultative/optional love (al-
ubb al-ikhtiyr) not natural love (al-ubb al-ab or jibill)
169
. Thus, in their
interpretation they come up with a classification of love. Ab al-Sud mentions
love for the Prophet (pbuh) twice alongside love for Allah. He does not
specifically expound on the theme, love for the Prophet (pbuh). He does
however deal with the aspects of facultative and natural love, elaborating on
natural love as that of which human beings are not devoid.

Another later commentator, Ibn Kathr, resembles early commentators in making
no comment on the said phrase, but he provides two very relevant adiths on the
theme, love for the Prophet (pbuh), which indirectly bear upon this theme.

To summarize, none of the said commentators explicitly expounds the theme,
love for the Prophet (pbuh). Some of them however, offer explanations that relate

169
See footnote no. 84 and no. 85.
166
to the phrase under discussion.

Apart from the phrase focused upon above, the whole verse (9:24) bears
testimony to facets of love for Allah and the Prophet (pbuh). Juxtaposed with the
said part of the verse is also the word group and jihad in His way which will be
discussed in the next subsection.

5.3 AND [THAN] JIHAD IN HIS WAY

The phrase, wa jihdin f sabli-h, which is linked to the previous phrase (cf. 5.2)
also occurs only once in the Quran. However, an almost similar version, which is
jihdan f sabl (in my way) (al-Mumtainah, 60:1)
170
, can be found.

Among the said ten mufassirs, only al-abar, Fakhr al-Dn al-Rz, al-Qurub
and Ab al-Sud comment on this phrase. Al-abar interprets f sablih, as in
helping (nurah) Allahs religion (dn Allh) with which He is pleased (irtahu).
Therefore, according to al-abar, jihd f sabli-h (jihad (striving) in His [Allahs]
way) means jihad (striving) in helping Allahs religion with which He is pleased.
While commenting on the verse, Fakhr al-Dn al-Rz substitutes jihd with its

170
Cf. Abd al-Bq, al-Mujam al-Mufahras, 233.
167
synonym, mujhadah, stating that performing the latter together with obedience
to Allah and His Messenger (pbuh) is worthier (awl) than worldly benefits. The
verbal expression mujhadah (the third form of j-h-d) also has the connotation to
fight.

The other two commentators, al-Qurub and Ab al-Sud, touch on the
significance and superiority of jihad in Islam. Accordingly al-Qurub, in the verse
(9:24) there is a sign (dall) for the superiority (fal) of jihad and preferring it
(thr) to the comfort (rah) of the self (nafs) and its attachment (aliq [lit. ties])
to the family and the property.

Lastly, Ab al-Sud elaborates upon the importance of jihad, even discussing its
sequence in the verse, namely the fact that it follows love for Allah and his
Messenger (pbuh). According to Ab al-Sud, the mention of love for jihad after
love for Allah and love for his Messenger (pbuh) indicates that the status of jihad
is praiseworthy. Ab al-Sud states that jihad is necessarily to be loved besides
(falan an) to be disliked (an yukraha). According to him, love for jihad depends
on love for Allah and His Messenger (pbuh) due to fact that jihad consists of
fighting against their enemies. It follows then that whoever loves them [Allah and
168
his Messenger (pbuh)] must necessarily love fighting against those who do not
love them.

To conclude, Ab al-Sud expounds on the significance of jihad more than any
other commentator who is mentioned above. Al-Qurub briefly mentions the
superiority of jihad, which is found in the verse, 9:24, while al-abar just clarifies
what his [Allahs] way means.

5.4 CONCLUSION

The Quranic verse 9:23 exhorts believers not to take as helpers fathers and
brothers in istaabb al-kufra al al-mni (if they prefer disbelief to belief). The
verbal root -b-b, tenth form with the preposition (al) is used. In 9:24, a similar
construction is utilized. In ... aabbu ilai-kum... is used when referring to the
undesirable condition of regarding as beloved/dearer (aabbu) kinship ties and
highly valued possessions to Allah, His Messenger and jihad in His way.

Focus is on Allah, then on His Messenger, and jihad in His way. The Divine
Being is mentioned first, but not alone. Allah cannot be paid religious respect
without acknowledging the bearer of revelation, His Messenger, and accepting
169
the obligation of jihad.

The call upon believers to pay similar respect to Allah and His Messenger is also
found elsewhere in the Quran; for instance al-Taghbun 64:8 documents the
command fa-min (so believe) bi Allahi wa rasli-hi. An alternative (but not
contradictory) line of thought is that behaviour towards the Prophet is an
expression of respect for Allah. l Imrn 3:31 states regarding the Prophet
(pbuh): If you love Allah (in kuntum tuibbna Allha) follow me (fa-ttabi-n ).

In 9:24 the conditional clause preceding the comparative phrase aabbu ilai-kum
(beloved/dearer to you) refers, in the first place, to the attitude towards kinship
and possessions which Ab al-Sud terms maabbah ... min znati al-ayti al-
duny (love for the ornaments of the worldly life), al-Zamakhshar categorizes as
u al-duny (worldly pleasures), and Fakhr al-Dn al-Rz as muhimmt al-
duny (important matters of the world).

The alternative is to give priority to religious obligations. Al-Zamakhshar phrases
the desirable response as yastaibbu ([he] prefers) la-hu dna-hu (his religion).
Al-Qurub insists that the necessity of love for Allah... put before every beloved
one (wujb ubbi llhi...muqaddamun al kulli mabb).
170

The practical demonstration of religious devotion was according to the traditions
reported by al-abar and al-Qurub to perform the hijrah to Medina. Fakhr al-Dn
al-Rz, on the other hand sees the fulfilment in obedience (ah) to Allah and
obedience to His Messenger. The command to love Allah and His Messenger is
thus linked to the act of obedience. This expression of religious attitude fits into
Ab al-Suds typifying of love as al-ubb al-ikhtiyr.

In addition to love for Allah and His Messenger, al-Tawbah 9:24 also adds jihad
in his way, be it in the sense of helping His religion (al-abar), fighting against
enemies (Ab al-Sud) or simply sacrificing own comfort (al-Qurub). Its
interpretation depends upon the dating of al-Tawbah 9:24.
171
CHAPTER SIX
THE SHIITE PERSPECTIVE ON AL-TAWBAH 9:24

6.1 INTRODUCTION


Parallel and comparative with the Sunnite tradition is the Shiite interpretative
heritage. This will now receive cursory attention in the tafsirs of two eminent
Shiite scholars. Details which are highlighted have bearing upon sections
(chapters) discussed above.

6.2 TWO PROMINENT SHIITE TAFSIRS ON THE VERSE

In the presentation of these two tafsirs below a literal translation of their
respective texts is mostly used as basis.


6.2.1 The Tafsir of al-Tawbah 9:24 by Ab Jafar al-s (d. 460/1067) in al-
Tibyn f Tafsr al-Qurn
171


It should be noted that because Ab Jafar al-s (d.460/1067)
172
in his tafsir
divides the Quranic verse al-Tawbah 9:3 which is mostly accepted as one verse

171
Ab Jafar al-s, al-Tibyn f Tafsr al-Qurn, V/195-6.
172
Al-Dhahab, Siyar, XVIII/334; Ibn Kathr, al-Bidyah, XVI/16; Ibn Taghribard, al-Nujm, V/83;
al-Zirikl, al-Alm, VI/84. According to al-afad, al-s died in 459 AH. Cf. al-Wf, II/258.
172
without separation, into two verses (9:3 and 9:4)
173
, the verse in question, 9:24
happens to appear 9:25 in his tafsir.

Variant recitation

At the beginning of his interpretation of the verse, 9:24
174
al-s speaks about
the variant recitation of Ab Bakr (narrating im), wa ashrtukum (and your
tribes) in the plural, and the recitation of others, wa ashratukum (and your tribe)
in the singular.
He informs of the evidence of each recitation.
The evidence in favour of those reciting the plural form is the fact that each one
of the addressees of the verse has one ashrah (tribe).
The evidence in favour of those reciting the singular form is the fact that ashrah
(tribe) is already (taqau al) plural [in the sense of a collective noun].
Following the presentation of the said proofs, he quotes the popular word of Ab
al-asans [al-Akhfash al-Awsa (d.215/830)] commonly cited with regard to the
grammatical discussion of the word
175
, ashrah.
176


173
Al-s, al-Tibyn, V/170.
174
As said above, in his tafsir, it is numbered as 9:25 though, it will be referred to as 9:24 to avoid
any confusion or misunderstanding.
175
Arabs hardly pluralize ashrah as ashrt; they only make it plural as ashir.
176
Al-s, al-Tibyn, V/195.
173

Reason (sabab) for the revelation of the verse

Al-s explicitly/clearly does not touch on reason for the revelation of the verse.
However, when speaking about love (maabbah), he says that What
necessitated (iqta) the revelation of this verse is their love [for the worldly
matters] which prevented them from hijrah (emigration).

Addressees of the verse

The Prophet (pbuh) is ordered to address those who fell behind with (kh-l-f, fifth
form) hijrah (emigration) to Dr al-Islm (the abode of Islam) and remained in
Dr al-Kufr (the abode of Unbelief).

Furthermore al-s quotes [Ab Al] al-Jubbs (d.303/916)
177
word, It is an
addressing [that of the verse] intended to all Believers and it is a warning
(tadhr) to them against quitting jihad, and an exhortation (athth) for them into
performing jihad.


177
Al-Samn, al-Ansb, II/17; al-Dhahab, Siyar, XIV/183; al-afad, al-Wf, IV/55; Ibn Kathr,
al-Bidyah, XIV/798; Ibn Taghribard, al-Nujm, III/210; Ibn al-Imd, Shadhart, IV/18.
174
Lexicographical items in the verse

bu-kum : Those who have begotten you

abnu-kum : Those whom you have begotten. They are the male children.

azwju-kum : The plural of zawjah. She (zawjah) is the woman with whom (alai-
h) has been contracted a contract of a (legally) valid marriage (nik a).
However, the possession of right hand (milk al-yamn) [i.e. female slave to whom
the slaver is married] and one with whom (alai-h) is contracted a contract of
doubt (aqd shubhah) is not called as zawjah (wife).

ashratu-kum : It is a group which refers to (tarji) a decimal number (aqd) like
the decimal number,asharah (ten). From it (i.e. the same verbal root, a-sh-r) al-
musharah [is derived]. It is an agreement (ijtim) upon a general contract (aqd
yaumm). And from it (i.e. the same verbal root, a-sh-r) al-ishr al-nq
178

(pregnant she-camels) which have been ten months pregnant
179
[is derived].


178
Ishr and nq are plurals of ushar and nqah respectively. For detailed discussion of this
word, cf. Ibn Manr, Lisn, IV/2954; Lane, Arabic-English Lexicon, V/2052.
179
Lit. ...which ten months have passed over (at al) their pregnancy.
175
amwlun : the plural of ml (property)

iqtaraftum-h : i.e. iqtaatum-h (that you have taken), iktasabtum-h (that
you have acquired) and similar to it (mithlu-h) is al-itirf (acquisition)
180
. And
iqtirf (earning) is taking (iqtia) out something from its place to somewhere else.

maskinu : the plural of maskan (dwelling), and they are places/sites (mawi )
which you stay in and you are pleased with.

fa-tarabba : i.e. fa-tathabbat (proceed unhurriedly). And tarabbu is tathabbut
(proceeding unhurriedly) in a matter [fi al-amri] until (att) its [right] time comes.
Tarabbu (expecting), tanaur (waiting) [cf. al-abar] and tawaqquf
(pausing/waiting)
181
are synonyms/equivalents (nair) in the language [in
Arabic] (f al-lughah). Their antonym/opposite (naq) is taajjul (hastening/being
in a hurry) in a matter (bi-al-amri).

Interpreted phrases in the verse

tijratun takhshawna kasda-h : It means that those [things] that you have

180
Likewise, Ibn Manr explains the same word (itirf) with iktisb. Cf. Lisn, II/839.
181
Lane, Lexicon, VIII (suppl.)/2052.
176
bought in pursuit of profit (alaban li al-rib) fearing for their loss (khusrn).

aabba ilai-kum min Allhi wa rasli-hi wa jihdin f sabli-hi : It means that [if all
said things are] (more) preferable (thar) to yourselves (f nufsi-kum) and closer
to your hearts. Love (maabbah) is an exclusive will (irdah khssah) for
something (li shai). So whoever loves jihad desires doing it; whoever loves Allah
desires thanking (shukr) Him, and whoever loves the Messenger [pbuh] desires
exalting (ijll) and glorifying (im) him. What necessitated (iqta) the
revelation of this verse is their love [for worldly matters] which prevented them
from hijrah (emigration).

wa Allhu l yahd al-qawma al-fsiqn : Its meaning is that He does not guide
them to the reward (thawb) and Paradise (al-jannah). It is because He, the
Exalted, had [before] guided them to the faith (mn), as He stated As for [the
people of] Thamd, We guided them, then later they preferred blindness (am)
to guidance (hud). (Fuilat, 41/17)

Interpretations from previous scholars on the verse:

att yatiya Allhu bi-amri-hi: Mujhid said: His word until Allah brings about
177
His decision namely (min) an instantaneous [in the world] or delayed [to the next
life] punishment.
182


6.2.2 The Tafsir of al-Tawbah 9:24 by Ab Al al-abrs (d. 548/1153) in Majma
al-Bayn f Tafsr al-Qurn
183


Ab Al al-abris (d. 548/1153)
184
, in the introduction to his tafsir, acknowledges
his debt to al-ss tafsir, al-Tibyn
185
. This may indicate that he often benefits
from al-Tibyn as it can without any difficulty be inferred from the tafsir of the
verse in question below.

Al-abriss method in his tafsir is to deal with a few verses at a time and examine
them regarding the aspects of (1) qirah (recitation), accompanied with (2) ujjah
(evidence of a certain recitation), of (3) nuzl (reason/occasion for the revelation),
of (4) lughah (lexicography) and of (5) man (meaning) in turn. At the last phase
[i.e. man], al-abris combines lexicographical and interpretive items together.

182
This very interpretation is narrated from al-asan al-Bar. Cf. al-Zamakhshars tafsir, p.53.
183
Al-abris, Majma al-Bayn f Tafsr al-Qurn, V/25-6.
184
Al-urr al-mil, Amal al-mil, II/216; Abbs al-Qumm, Safnah al-Bir wa Madnah al-
ikam wa al-thr, II/80; al-Khwnsr, Rawt al-Jannt f Awl al-Ulam wa al-Sdt,
V/357; Musin al-Amn, Ayn al-Shiah, VIII/398; Mujam al-Muallifn, II/622; Muammad usain
al-Dhahab, al-Tafsr wa al-Mufassirn, II/107; al-Zirikl, al-Alm, V/148.
His name is also pronounced as al-Tabars. Cf. E. Kohlberg, al-Tabris, EI. (10:40).
185
Cf. E. Kohlberg, al-Tabris, EI. (10:40).
178
Al-abris dealt with the Quranic verses, 9:23 and 9:24 together. However,
whenever possible the interpretation of the previous verse (9:23) is detached
from that concerning the following verse, 9:24. Therefore the focus is much more
on the interpretation of 9:24 in particular.

1- Qirah (recitation)

Ab Bakr (narrating from im) recited [it as] wa ashrtukum (and your tribes)
in the plural form and the others recited [as] wa ashratukum (and your tribe) in
the singular form.

2- ujjah (evidence for recitation)

The evidence of those reciting in singular is the fact that ashrah (tribe) is already
(taqau al) plural [in the sense of collective noun].
Following that, he says that Ab al-asan [al-Akhfash al-Awsa (d.215/830)]
said: Arabs hardly pluralize ashrah as ashrt; they only make it plural as
ashir.

179
The evidence of those reciting [it] in the plural form is the fact that each one of
the addressees of the verse has one ashrah (tribe).

3- Lughah (lexicography)

al-ashrah : It is a group which refers to (tarji) a certain decimal number (aqd
wid) like the decimal number,asharah (ten). From it (i.e. the same verbal root,
a-sh-r) al-musharah [is derived].

al-iqtirf is taking (iqtia) out something from its place to somewhere else. For
instance, Qaraftu al-qarate (I pared the wound) idh qashartu-h (...when I
peeled it); wa al-qarfu al-qashru (qarf (paring) means qashr (peeling)).

tarabbu is tathabbut (proceeding unhurriedly) fi al-amri (in an affair) until (att)
its [right] time comes. Tarabbu (expecting), tathabbut, tanaur (waiting) (cf. al-
abar) and tawaqquf (pausing/waiting) are synonyms (nair) and their antonym
(naq) is taajjul (hastening/being in a hurry).

4- Nuzl (reason/occasion for the revelation)

180
It is narrated from Ab Jafar (d.114/743)
186
and Ab Abdullah (d.148/765)
187

(pbuh) that it is revealed about ib b. Ab Baltaah (d.30/650-1)
188
due to the
fact that (aithu) he wrote a letter to [the tribe of] Quraish to inform them of the
news of the Messenger
189
when he desired the conquest of Mecca.

Al-abris presents this occasion as reason for the revelation. However which
one of the verses he meant or if he means two of them [forming one revelation] is
not clear since he interpreted them together and used the verb nazalat (it is
revealed) without an apparent subject.
Nevertheless, when we look at al-ss tafsir it is clearly stated that this occasion
was the reason for the revelation of the Quranic verse, 9:23 which al-Ts
enumerates as 9:24.
190



186
His name is Muammad b. Al. He is regarded as the fifth imam by the major Shia sect, ithn
ashariyyah (twelver). Cf. Ibn Qutaibah, Marif, 215; al-Dhahab, Siyar, IV/401 (409); al-afad,
al-Wf, IV/76; Ibn Taghribard, al-Nujm, I/350; Ibn al-Imd, Shadhart, II/72. According to Ibn
Kathr, he died in 115 AH and according to Ibn Qutaibah in 117 AH. Cf. Ibn Kathr, al-Bidyah,
XIII/72.
187
His name is Jafar b. Muammad. He is regarded as the sixth imam by the said sect. Cf. al-
Dhahab, Siyar, VI/255 (269); al-afad, al-Wf, XI/98; Ibn Kathr, al-Bidyah, XIII/409; Ibn
Taghribard, al-Nujm, II/13; Ibn al-Imd, Shadhart, II/216.
188
Ibn Qutaibah, Marif, 317; al-Dhahab, Siyar, II/43 (45); al-afad, al-Wf, XI/209; Ibn Kathr,
al-Bidyah, X/235; Ibn Taghribard, al-Nujm, I/112; Ibn al-Imd, Shadhart, I/190.
189
In the text, following eulogy is found: peace and blessings be upon him and his family (li-hi).
190
Cf. al-s, al-Tibyn f Tafsr al-Qurn, V/194.
181
5- Man (meaning)

Qul : (Say) O Muhammad! to those who fall behind with hijrah (emigration) to Dr
al-Islm (the abode of Islam).

in kna
bu-kum : Those who have begotten you

wa abnu-kum : Those whom you have begotten. They are the male children.

wa ikhwnu-kum [your brothers] in the lineage (f al-nasab)

wa azwju-kum: those with whom (alai-h) you have contracted the contract of
marriage (uqdatu al-nik).

wa ashratu-kum : i.e. aqribu-kum (and your relatives).

wa tijratun takhshawna kasda-h : i.e. you fear for that (taksudu) it becomes
unmarketable when you are occupied with (ishtaghaltum bi-) the obedience to
Allah (ah Allh) and jihad.
182

wa maskina tarawna-h : i.e. (maskin) dwellings which you have
chosen/selected (ikhtartum-h) for yourselves (li-anfusi-kum) and
[regardingwhich] staying in (al-muqm f-h) pleases you (yujibu-kum).

aabba ilai-kum : It means that [if all said things are] (more) preferable (thara)
by your selves (f nufsi-kum) and closer to your hearts.

min Allhi wa rasli-hi : ...than the obedience to Allah (ah Allh) and the
obedience to His Prophet [pbuh] (ah rasli-hi).

wa jihdin f sabli-hi : i.e. than jihad in Allahs way/cause (f sabl Allh).

fa-tarabba : i.e. intair (Wait!)

att yatiya Allhu bi-amri-hi : i.e. [until He brings about] His decision/judgment
(bi-ukmi-hi) about you. It is said that [until He brings about] your punishment (bi-
uqbati-kum) due to your choosing (al ikhtiyri-kum) these things above jihad
and the obedience to Allah, (imm) be it [the punishment] (jilan) instantaneous
(imm) or (jilan) delayed one. Within it [this phrase], is a severe threat (wad
183
shadd). [This is said (by) narrating] from al-asan [al-Bar] and al-Jubb. It is
said that [until He brings about] the conquest of Mecca, (by) narrating from
Mujhid. Some of them [of the scholars] said: And this can not be correct (l
yaiu) because the srah Barah [i.e. al-Tawbah] was revealed after the
conquest of Mecca.
191


* wa Allhu l yahd al-qawma al-fsiqn : Its interpretation took place early on
(ma tafsru-hu).

6.3 CONCLUSION

There are great similarities between the Sunnite mufassirs and the two Shiite
ones.

Al-s (d. 460/1067) refers to the hijrah when discussing love. He gives
comparable explanations for chosen words. He adds, however, by discussing
the terms fathers, sons and wives, and giving a new synonym for fa-
tarabba. He defines love, refers to the tribe Thamd in connection with wa
Allhu l yahd al-qawma al-fsiqn.


191
Al-abris, Majma al-Bayn f Tafsr al-Qurn, V/26.
184
Al-abris (d. 548/1153) acknowledges his debt to al-ss tafsir. He deals with
the Quranic verses, 9:23 and 9:24 together, but focuses on 9:24 whenever
possible. He gives a new example for al-iqtirf as well as for tarabbu . As far as
sabab al-nuzl is concerned al-abris refers to a companion who sent a letter to
[the tribe of] Quraish to inform them of the news of the Messenger when he
desired the conquest of Mecca. He also discusses fathers, sons, brothers and
wives. He explains love for Allah and his Messenger by mentioning obedience. In
connection with bi-amri-hi he also cited the conquest of Mecca, but also refers to
a tradition which states that al-Tawbah was revealed after the conquest of
Mecca.

185
CHAPTER SEVEN
CONCLUSION

The dissertation focused on the Quranic verse al-Tawbah 9:24, seen from the
perspective of ten classical mufassirs (4
th
/ 10
th
10
th
/ 16
th
centuries). Attention
was given to an annotated rendering of the chosen Arabic tafsirs into English.
Information provided was systematized by means of the categories sabab al-
nuzul, lexicography and Love for the Prophet (pbuh).

In the annotated translation, biographical and other details are furnished
regarding the mufassirs, their work and the authorities quoted by them.
Observations are confirmed, or alternative views are given, through the use of
authoritative Arabic or some other sources. The translations of individual
interpretations are done in a relatively literal way. Due to the cryptic nature of the
text, various techniques are used to facilitate the understanding of the Arabic.
The translation is followed by an overview of the individual authors contributions
stated in terms of the subdivisions mentioned above.

When focusing on sabab al-nuzul, the reason of revelation as expressed by each
of the ten mufassirs receives attention. Common trends among all of them are
also indicated such as the hijrah motif, the linking of 9:24 to 9:23 in a logical and
186
chronological way, and the multiple mentioning of conversations with the Prophet
and among the people as context within the revelation took place.

With regard to the hijrah, attention is drawn to the division it caused in the early
Muslim community, different views about the time it took place, its theological
status, the link between hijrah and jihad, and the role of the cities Mecca and
Medina. Note is also taken of views that do not so specifically link the verse to
the hijrah. Fakhr al-Dn al-Rz (d.606/1209), does not mention it, and Ab al-
Sud (d.982/1574) refers to it only indirectly.

Pertaining to the verse (9:23) that preceded the one focused upon (9:24) in al-
Tawbah, mufassirs were convinced that the Quranic sequence 9:23 and 9:24
reflected the chronology of the verses revelation. Context associated with the
respective verse is, however, not so clearly distinguished in tradition. The sabab
related to one verse by one mufassir is linked to the next verse by another
interpreter.

When deliberating about the sabab al-nuzl of 9:24 (and sometimes 9:23), a
prominent place is allocated to conversations, firstly between the Prophet (pbuh)
and early Muslims, and secondly among the Muslims themselves. People
187
complained to the Prophet (pbuh) about the consequences of their isolation from
the community should they immigrate. There is a great homogeneity in the
structuring of this first kind of discussions reported by the consecutive
interpreters as context for 9:24 (and 9:23). Only al-Baghaws version differs
slightly from that of the others. Discussions among Muslims reflect two strands of
tradition. The first kind (threat against those that fall behind with hijrah) is attested
by al-Thalab and al-Qurub, and the second kind (not providing hospitality to
non-muhjirn) is found in the tafsirs of al-Zamakhshar and Ab al-Sud.

Lexicographical statements bear evidence to a contextualization of the ancient
milieu of the verse with the sabab al-nuzl (as explained in the previous section)
in mind. The words or phrases that are explained by means of synonyms or other
words are as follows: ashratu-kum (your tribe), iqtaraftum-h ([which] you
earned), tijrah (commerce), kasda-h (its decline), maskin (dwellings),
tarawna-h ([which] you are pleased with), tarabba (wait [you, plural]), l
yahd (he does not guide), and al-fsiqn (the rebellious).

Among the words and phrases ashratu-kum and its variant readings receive
most attention in the lexicographical discussions. Among the interpreters, the
lexicographer par excellence is Ab al-Sud (reflecting on all 9 items), followed
188
by al-abar (8 items), al-Thalab and al-Qurub (7 items), and al-Baghaw (6
items). Among the mufassirs with the least interest in explaining individual words
are al-Zamakhshar (1 item), al-Wid and Ibn Kathr (3 items), and Fakhr al-Dn
al-Rz (4 items). It is, however, interesting to note that Fakhr al-Dn al-Rz
compensates through an elaborate general discussion of the verse, while Ibn
Kathr provides a few Prophetic traditions.

Various lexicographical strategies are followed by the mufassirs, and an ad hoc
reason can be suggested for the interpretation of each of the items. Citing of
authorities is done systematically by al-Thalab and al-abar. The former only
refers to the ultimate authority while al-abar provides a short isnad. Al-Qurub
mentions a poem and Sbawaih as authority. The other interpreters like al-
Baghaw, al-Zamakhshar, Fakhr al-Dn al-Rz and al-Baiw refer to a source
only in the case of ashratu-kum.

Lexicographical contributions are thus strongly linked to tradition. They reflect a
practical interest, try to counter possible ambiguities in the text, and bear
testimony to the fact that in the second century already archaic words (like
iqtaraftum-h), and commercial terms with a technical meaning (such as
kasda-h) were not so easy to comprehend.
189

The concept Love for the Prophet (pbuh) is the third category used for
systematizing information provided by the ten mufassirs in their interpretation of
9:24. For the purposes of this subdivision the said interpreters commentary on
the phrase aabba ilai-kum min Allhi wa rasli-hi wa jihdin f sabli-hi was
discussed, with the focus consecutively on aabba ilai-kum min Allhi wa rasli-
hi and wa jihdin f sabli-hi. Seen as a whole the focus is on Allah, then on His
Messenger, and finally on jihad in His way. The divine name is mentioned first,
but not alone (cf. al-Taghbun 64:8). Allah cannot be paid religious respect
without acknowledging the bearer of revelation His Messenger (cf. l Imrn
3:31), and accepting the obligation of jihad.

In 9:24 the conditional clause preceding the comparative phrase aabbu ilai-kum
(beloved/dearer to you) refers, in the first place, to the attitude towards kinship
and possessions which Ab al-Sud terms maabbah ... min znati al-ayti al-
duny (love for the ornaments of the worldly life), al-Zamakhshar categorizes as
u al-duny (worldly pleasures), and Fakhr al-Dn al-Rz as muhimmt al-
duny (important matters of the world).

The alternative is to give priority to religious obligations. Al-Zamakhshar phrases
190
the desirable response as yastaibbu ([he] prefers) la-hu dna-hu (his religion).
Al-Qurub insists that the necessity of love for Allah... [be] put before every
beloved one (wujb ubbi llhi...muqaddamun al kulli mabb).

The practical demonstration of religious devotion was according to the traditions
reported by al-abar and al-Qurub to perform the hijrah to Medina. Fakhr al-Dn
al-Rz, on the other hand sees the fulfilment in obedience (ah) to Allah and
obedience to His Messenger. The command to love Allah and His Messenger is
thus linked to the act of obedience. This expression of religious attitude fits into
Ab al-Suds typifying of love as al-ubb al-ikhtiyr.

In addition to love for Allah and His Messenger, al-Tawbah 9:24 also adds jihad
in his way, be it in the sense of helping His religion (al-abar), fighting against
enemies (Ab al-Sud) or simply sacrificing own comfort (al-Qurub). Its
interpretation depends upon the dating of al-Tawbah 9:24.

Bearing in mind the aforementioned discussion of the three identified categories,
speaking in general it is clear that the hijrah operates strongly as leitmotif in each
of them during the interpretation of 9:24. The early interpreters in particular,
namely Al-abar al-Thalab, al-Wid, al-Baghaw and al-Zamakhshar, do not
191
discuss the concept love explicitly. But they do honour the Prophet. As a matter
of fact, to them the call of the verse was to sacrifice everything in favour of
immigrating to Medina (al-Qurub, cf. al-abar) where the Messenger of Allah
(pbuh) was. This interpretation had the danger of adding an expiry date (!) to the
text. Among the first Muslims, traditions about the wider contextualizing of the
verse were therefore already extant.

The Shiite authors share in the traditions associated with Sunnite authors.
However, they have their own style and method of representing data. For the
purpose of this study the work of two authors has been consulted. They are al-
s (d. 460/1067) and al-abris (d. 548/1153). Al-s (d. 460/1067) refers to
the hijrah when discussing love. He gives comparable explanations for words
discussed lexically in the dissertation. He adds, however, to the discussion of the
terms fathers, sons and wives, and gives a new synonym for fa-tarabba. He
defines love, and refers to the tribe of Thamd in connection with wa Allhu l
yahd al-qawma al-fsiqn. Al-abrs (d. 548/1153) acknowledges his debt to al-
ss tafsir. He deals with the Quranic verses, 9:23 and 9:24 together, but
focuses on 9:24 whenever possible. As far as sabab al-nuzl is concerned he
refers to a companion who sent a letter to [the tribe of] Quraish to inform them of
the news of the Messenger (pbuh) when he desired the conquest of Mecca. In
192
connection with bi-amri-hi he also cites the conquest of Mecca, but furthermore
refers to a tradition which states that al-Tawbah was revealed after the conquest
of Mecca. Part of his lexical contribution is to discuss the terms fathers, sons,
brothers and wives. He also gives a new example for al-iqtirf, and provides a
synonym for tarabbu. He explains love for Allah and His Messenger by
mentioning obedience.

During the course of the study presented above, similarities and dissimilarities
among the mufassirs were pointed out regularly. This information was, however,
not systematically categorized in order to highlight the broad influences of
predecessors upon successors, as well as detail relationships between the
interpreters. A study of this nature would be a natural sequel of the present one.

193
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