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LALA LAJPATRAI INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT

SUB: HIGH PERFORMANCE


LEADERSHIP
TOPIC: MOTIVATION AND ITS THEORIES

Submitted to: Dr. Arati kale

By: Henston danty

Roll no: 31

Class: MMS-1 DIV-A

Batch: 2013-2015




Motivation
MEANING:
Motivation is derived from the Latin word movere which means to move or to energize or
to activate. Therefore we can say that Motivation is a state of mind, desire, energy or interest
that translates into action.
DEFINITION:
The processes that account for an individuals intensity, direction and persistence of effort
toward attaining a goal.
KEY ELEMENTS
1. Intensity: how hard a person tries
2. Direction: toward beneficial goal
3. Persistence: how long a person tries
Intensity : It is concerned with how hard a person tries. This is the element
most of us focus on when we talk about motivation.
Direction : Is the orientation that benefits the organization.
Persistence : Is a measure of how long a person can maintain his/her effort.
Motivated individuals stay with a task long enough to achieve their goal.
MOTIVATION PROCESS:





THEORIES OF MOTIVATION
Need based theories:
Need theories considers that individual needs are significant to the process
of motivation.
Cognitive or process based theories:
Cognitive or process based theories are concerned with, how individual behaviour is
energised, directed and maintained in self-directed human cognitive process









NEED THEORIES:
Maslows theory of Need
Hierarchy.
Alderfers ERG Theory
Theory X & theory Y
McClellands Theory
Hezbergs two factor theory
COGNITIVE THEORIES:
Equity Theory
Vrooms Expectancy Theory
Cognitive Evaluation
Theory
Reinforcement Theory
Self Efficacy Theory
Goal Setting Theory




NEED THEORIES
1. MASLOWS THEORY OF NEED HIERARCHY

One of the best-known theory of motivation is Abraham Maslows hierarchy of
needs .According to Maslow , within every human being, there exists a hierarchy
of five needs. they are differentiated in various levels they are:

Physiological: It includes hunger, thirst, shelter, sex, and other bodily needs.
Safety: Security and protection from physical and emotional harm.
Social: It Includes affection, belongingness, acceptance, and friendship.
Esteem: It Includes Internal factors such as self-respect, autonomy, and
achievement and external factors such as status, recognition, and attention.
Self-actualization: It is a drive to become what we are capable of becoming,
it includes growth, achieving our potential, and self-fulfillment.

Basic Assumptions for Maslows Theory
Once a need is satisfied, its role declines
Needs are complex, multiple needs acting simultaneously.
Lower level needs must be satiated before higher level needs are activated.
More ways exist to satisfy higher level needs.





Maslow classified the five needs into higher and lower orders. Physiological
and safety needs, where the theory says people start, were lower-order
needs , and social, esteem, and self-actualization were higher-order needs.
Higher-order needs are satisfied internally (within the person), whereas
lower-order needs are predominantly satisfied externally (by things such as
pay, union contracts, and tenure).



Maslows theory has received wide recognition, particularly among practicing
managers. It is logical and easy to understand. Many researchers have attempted to
revive this theory but till now they not come up with it. This theory helps to
identify what are factors that motivate a manager to achieve their needs.
2. ALDERFERS ERG THEORY
A three-level hierarchical need theory of motivation that allows for movement up
and down the hierarchy. A theory of human motivationthat focuses on three
groups of needs that form a hierarchy:
Existence Needs
Relatedness Needs
Growth Needs





The theory suggests that these needs change their position in the hierarchy as
circumstances change.
According to this theory an individual has three basic needs, these needs
correspond to Maslows theory, and models of this theory differ from how they are
satisfied. All these needs operate at one time.
1. Existence Needs
This group of needs is concerned with providing the basic requirements
for material existence, such as physiological and safety needs.
In a work context this need is satisfied by money earned in a job for the
purchase of food, shelter, clothing, etc.
2. Relatedness Needs
This group of needs focuses on the desire to establish and maintain
interpersonal relationships with family, friends, co-workers and
employers.
Interact with other people, receive public recognition, and feel secure
around people.
The amount of time most people spend at work this need is normally
satisfied to some extent by their relationships with colleagues and
managers.

3. Growth Needs
These needs are about the fulfilment of desires to be creative, productive
and to complete meaningful tasks.




These needs are all about by personal development. In a work context a
person's job, career, or profession can provide a significant satisfaction of
growth needs.

Clayton Alderfer extended and simplified Maslow's Hierarchy into a shorter
set of three needs: Existence, Relatedness and Growth (hence 'ERG'). Unlike
Maslow, he did not see these as being a hierarchy, but being more of a
continuum.

3. THEORY X & THEORY Y

Douglas McGregor proposed two distinct views of human beings:
1. Basically negative, labeled Theory X,
2. Basically positive, labeled Theory Y.

Theory X
Management view that assumes workers generally dislike work and must be
forced to do their jobs.
Employees inherently dislike work and, whenever possible, will attempt
to avoid it.
Since employees dislike work, they must be forced, controlled, or
threatened with punishment to achieve goals.
Employee will avoid responsibilities and seek formal direction whenever
possible.

Theory Y
Management view that assumes workers like to work and under proper
conditions, employees will seek responsibility to satisfy social, esteem, and
self-actualization needs.
Under Theory Y- assumptions held by managers are:

Employees can view work as being as natural as rest or play.
People will exercise self-direction and self-control if they are committed
to the objectives.
The average person can learn to accept, even seek, responsibility.




The ability to make innovative decisions is widely spread throughout the
population and is not necessarily the sole responsibility of those in
management positions.

4. McCLELLANDS THEORY

The McClellands theory of needs was developed by David McClelland
and his associates. This theory lays importance on three needs.



1. Need for Achievement. (nAch)
The desire to do something better or more efficiently, to solve
problems, or to master complex tasks.

High need for achievement:
Prefer individual responsibilities.
Prefer challenging goals.
Prefer performance feedback.

2. Need For Affiliation. (nAff)
The desire to establish and maintain friendly and warm relations
with others.

High need for affiliation :
Are drawn to interpersonal relationships.
Seek opportunities for.






3. Need For Power (nPow)
The desire to control others, to influence their behavior, or to be
responsible for others.
Personalized Power: Need of controlling others
Socialized Power: 1. Need to make an impact on others
2. Use power to do something for others.

High need for power :
Seek influence over others.
Like attention.
Like recognition.

5. HEZBERGS TWO FACTOR THEORY

This theory is dived into 2 factors namely:
Hygiene factors.
Motivation factors

Motivation factors increase job satisfaction
Hygiene factors avoid job dissatisfaction


Hygiene Factors
Salary
Working
Conditions
Company
policy
Supervision
Work group
Motivating factors
Advancement
Development
Responsibility
Recognition
Achievement
Work itself




The two-factor theory has not been well supported in the literature, and it has many
detractors. Criticisms include the following:
1. Herzbergs methodology is limited because it relies on self-reports. When things
are going well, people tend to take credit. Contrarily, they blame failure on the
extrinsic environment.
2. The reliability of Herzbergs methodology is questionable. Raters have to make
interpretations, so they may contaminate the findings by interpret ting one response
in one manner while treating a similar response differently.
3. No overall measure of satisfaction was utilized. A person may dislike part ofa
job yet still think the job is acceptable overall.
4. Herzberg assumed a relationship between satisfaction and productivity, but he
looked only at satisfaction. To make his research relevant, we must assume a
strong relationship between satisfaction and productivity. Regardless of the
criticisms, Herzbergs theory has been widely read, and few managers are
unfamiliar with its recommendations.


COGNITIVE THEORIES

1. ADAMS EQUITY THEORY
This law states that Individuals compare their job inputs and outcomes with
those of others and then respond to eliminate any inequities.
According to this theory,If an employee believes his treatment is inequitable,
compared to others, he or she will be motivated to do something about it --
that is, seek justice.

Model of Equity Theory






Equity Theory - Exchange Scenarios
Case 1: Equity -- pay allocation is perceived to be to be fair - motivation is
sustained
Case 2: Inequity -- Underpayment. Employee is motivated to seek justice.
Work motivation is disrupted.
Case 3: Inequity - Overpayment. Could be problem. Inefficient. In other
cultures employees lose face.

Equity Theory Applications
Develop tools to pay people in proportion to their contributions
Let employees know who their pay referents are in the pay system: identify
pay competitors and internal pay comparators.
Strive for consistent pay allocations
Monitor internal pay structure and position in the labor market for
consistency.

Consequences of Inequity
The employee is motivated to have an equitable exchange with the
employer.
To reduce inequity, employee may
Reduce inputs (reduce effort)
Try to influence manager to increase outcomes (complain, file
grievance, etc.)
Try to influence co-workers inputs (criticize others outcomes or
inputs)
Withdraw emotionally - or physically (engage in absenteeism,
tardiness, or quit)

2. VROOMS EXPECTANCY THEORY

One of the most widely accepted explanations of motivation is Victor
Vrooms expectancy theory.
A process theory that states that motivation is determined by the outcomes
that people expect to occur as a result of their actions on the job.






1. Effort-performance relationship. The probability perceived by the individual
that exerting a given amount of effort will lead to performance.

2. Performance-reward relationship. The degree to which the individual
believes performing at a particular level will lead to the attainment of a
desired outcome.

3. Rewardspersonal goals relationship. The degree to which organizational
rewards satisfy an individuals personal goals or needs and the attractiveness
of those potential rewards for the individual.


Expectancy theory helps explain why a lot of workers arent motivated on
their jobs and do only the minimum necessary to get by.
People will be motivated to perform in those work activities that they find
attractive and that they feel they can accomplish.


3. GOAL-SETTING THEORY (EDWIN LOCKE)

In 1960s, Edwin Locke put forward the Goal-setting theory of motivation.
This theory states that goal setting is essentially linked to task performance.
It states that specific and challenging goals along with appropriate feedback
contribute to higher and better task performance.
In simple words, goals indicate and give direction to an employee about what
needs to be done and how much efforts are required to be put in.
The willingness to work towards attainment of goal is main source of job
motivation. Clear, particular and difficult goals are greater motivating factors
than easy, general and vague goals.




Specific and clear goals lead to greater output and better performance.
Unambiguous, measurable and clear goals accompanied by a deadline for
completion avoids misunderstanding.
Goals should be realistic and challenging. This gives an individual a feeling
of pride and triumph when he attains them, and sets him up for attainment of
next goal.
Better and appropriate feedback of results directs the employee behavior and
contributes to higher performance than absence of feedback. It helps
employees to work with more involvement and leads to greater job
satisfaction.
Employees participation in goal is not always desirable.
Participation of setting goal, however, makes goal more acceptable and leads
to more involvement.

Managerial Implications of Goal Setting Theory
Set specific and challenging goals.
Provide ongoing feedback so that individuals can compare their performance
with the goal.

4. SELF- EFFICACY THEORY

Also called a social cognitive theory or Social learning theory.
An individuals belief that he or she is capable of performing a task.
Individuals with high self efficacy increase their efforts after receiving
negative feedback.
Individuals with low self efficacy decrease their efforts after receiving
negative feedback.












5. REINFORCEMENT THEORY
It is a combination of rewards and punishments is used to reinforce desired
behavior or extinguish unwanted behavior.


Two types of Reinforcements:
1. Positive
Behavior that results in a pleasant outcome is likely to be repeated,
while behavior that results in an unpleasant outcome is not likely to be
repeated.
Positive reinforcement result when desired behaviour (Performance)
followed by valued Consequences (Reward).

2. Negative
The withdrawal of negative consequences to increase the likelihood
of repeating the desired behavior in similar settings.
Negative reinforcement results when an undesirable behavioural
consequence is suspended being repeated





6. COGNITIVE EVALUATION THEORY

Classifies persons as intrinsically motivated or extrinsically motivated.
Each individual evaluates situation & responds to it accordingly to his frame of
reference.
Intrinsically motivated people are getting motivated by intrinsic motivators like
nature of job, responsibility, competition, actual performance etc.
Extrinsically motivated people are dependent on extrinsic motivators such as pay
promotion, feedback, working conditions etc.
Intrinsic Rewards
These arise within individual
Feelings of companionship
Comfort
Sense of achievement
Enjoyment of status and recognition,
Interest in the job
Responsibility
Pride in the organizations success
Extrinsic Rewards
These are external to the individual, and given by others, such as:
Wage or salary
Bonuses and prizes
Working conditions




Transportation
Training opportunities.