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COLUMN DESIGN

UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN STOUT


COLLEGE OF SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, ENGINEERING, AND MATHEMATICS
LECTURE IX
Dr. Jason E. Charalambides

COLUMNS
AXIAL LOAD AND BENDING
!
We tend to have this image of
columns that we envision as
symmetrically shaped massive pilasters.
They assume the loads applied upon
them in a perfectly axial manner and
transfer them straight down upon the
foundations that support the structure.
!
However, beside axial loads, moments
are also assumed by columns, either
through the application of eccentric
loading conditions, or by the
eccentricity of the forms.



HOW BENDING IS APPLIED TO
COLUMNS
!
Consider the
effect of varying
lengths of bays and
the transferred
moments from the
beams.
!
Then also
consider the effect
of lateral forces.

HOW ARE MOMENTS
PRODUCED
!
Gravity and lateral loads generate
moments on the structure. Again,
asymmetrical structural forms or
variation in loading patterns are the
generators of bending moments.
!
We will address:
"
Behavior of elastic homogeneous
column,
"
Behavior of RC column,
"
Uncracked,
"
Cracked,
"
Ultimate
"
Design of RC column.
!
First we shall address slices of a
column and then we will extrapolate
to entire columns (short vs. long).



ELASIC HOMOGENEOUS
COLUMN
!
Now the
Neutral Axis
and the
geometric
centroid are
no longer at
the same
location. The
location of the
N.A. is
dependant
upon the
eccentricity of
the resultant
of loads.
!=(P/A)+(M*y/I)

HOW TO LOCATE THE
NEUTRAL AXIS
!
Measure from the
geometric centroid:
!
At N/A !=o:
cc
cc



EQUILIBRIUM
!
How equilibrium is
established:


RC COLUMN ANALYSIS
!
For beams, service level behavior (cracking, deections) is
very important. Structural behavior tends to be
controlled more by the ultimate behavior of the column,
rather than service level behavior.
!
So we place less emphasis on service level behavior of
columns.
"
Prior to Cracking:
!
Use uncracked, transformed section. Concrete cracks at
fr=7.5!f`c
"
After Cracking:
!
Use cracked, transformed section.



RC COLUMN ANALYSIS
fc is the.computed compression flexural fiber stress at service loads
fs is the calculated stress in reinforcement at service loads.
f's is the stress in compression reinforcement.
fy is the.strength of steel
fr is the point where concrete cracks (modulus of rupture) 9.5.2.3
Ec is the Young's modulus of Elasticity of concrete
n is the ratio of Elastic moduli of steel and concrete

In Class Example:
!
Construct the M-" curve for
the section shown. The
section is subjected to a load
at an eccentricity of 15 inches
from its center.



In Class Example cont:

In Class Example cont:



ln class example cont:
!
After Cracking:
!
Locate NA by trial and error:
"
Choose #c=>fc (reference only)
"
Guess kd
"
Calculate f`s, fs
"
Calculate P & M
"
See if calculated eccentricity (M/P) equals
given ecc,
"
Repeat as necessary.
"
Note that the initial chosen fc is arbitrary.
We compute P as a linear function of fc,
and M as a linear function of fc. Then
ecc=M/P is independent of fc.)

In Class Example cont:



In Class Example cont:
Taking Moments around the Centroid:

In Class Example cont:



In Class Example cont:

In Class Example cont:



In Class Example cont:

In Class Example cont:



In Class Example cont:

In Class Example cont:
/in M (k`) Comments
1.85E-05 47.56 just before cracking
4.177E-05 47.56 just after cracking
1.147E-04 130.62 fc=0.7*f`c
2.51E-04 286.26 fs=fy (assumes linear behavior)



Reading & Assignment
!
Reading:
"
Required: Furlong, Chapter 7 (7.1 through 7.5 incl.)
"
Recommended: McCormac & Nelson, Chapter 9 and 10 (pp. 278-299) for
this weeks lectures.
!
Practice:
"
Furlong: Example 7.3.
"
McCormac & Nelson: Example 10.2.
!
Assignment:
"
Assignment 8 is due one week from today.