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Resonant detector for multiple-qp Hall spectroscopy Alessandro Bra gg io CNR-SPIN , Genoa
Resonant detector for multiple-qp Hall spectroscopy Alessandro Bra gg io CNR-SPIN , Genoa
Resonant detector for multiple-qp Hall spectroscopy Alessandro Bra gg io CNR-SPIN , Genoa
Resonant detector for multiple-qp Hall spectroscopy Alessandro Bra gg io CNR-SPIN , Genoa

Resonant detector for multiple-qp Hall spectroscopy

Alessandro Braggio CNR-SPIN, Genoa

M. Sassetti Genoa

M. Sassetti Genoa M.Carrega Pisa-Genoa New. J. Phys. 16 043018 (2014)
M. Sassetti Genoa M.Carrega Pisa-Genoa New. J. Phys. 16 043018 (2014)
M. Sassetti Genoa M.Carrega Pisa-Genoa New. J. Phys. 16 043018 (2014)

M.Carrega

Pisa-Genoa

M. Sassetti Genoa M.Carrega Pisa-Genoa New. J. Phys. 16 043018 (2014) D.Ferraro Marseille N.
M. Sassetti Genoa M.Carrega Pisa-Genoa New. J. Phys. 16 043018 (2014) D.Ferraro Marseille N.

New. J. Phys. 16 043018 (2014)

D.Ferraro

Marseille

M. Sassetti Genoa M.Carrega Pisa-Genoa New. J. Phys. 16 043018 (2014) D.Ferraro Marseille N. Magnoli Genoa
M. Sassetti Genoa M.Carrega Pisa-Genoa New. J. Phys. 16 043018 (2014) D.Ferraro Marseille N. Magnoli Genoa

N. Magnoli Genoa

FQHE: edge states & qps

• • • •
xy = ⌫ e 2 h xx = 0
xy = ⌫ e 2
h
xx = 0
states & qps • • • • xy = ⌫ e 2 h xx = 0

Topological protected edge states

Fractional statistics & charges

Laughlin PRL’83

Chiral edge states with gapless modes

Wen PRB90,Halperin PRB 82, Buttiker PRB 88, Beenakker PRL 90

1

1

1

5 , .

Laughlin sequence

2np + 1 = 1, 3 ,

=

p 2 ⌫ = 2np + 1 = 5 2 , 3 ,
p
2
⌫ =
2np + 1 = 5 2 ,
3 ,

Jain sequence

Jain, PRL’89Jain, PRL’89

Jain PRL’89, Wen & Zee PRB’92, Kane & Fisher PRB’95

!

Kane & Fisher PRB’95

Hierarchical models

Edge states & Multiple-qp

Chiral Luttinger liquids

Wen, Kane & Fisher ,….

L = 1 ⇡ ( K ij @ x i @ t j + V
L
= 1 ⇡ ( K ij @ x i @ t j + V ij @ x i @ x j + 2 ✏ µ ⌫ t j @ µ j A ⌫ )
!
4
• Multiple-qps excitations
l ( x ) / e l T · K ·

Filling factor

⌫ = t T · K 1 · t
⌫ = t T · K 1 · t

Fractional charges

qp 2-qps e
qp
2-qps
e

3-qps

1 q l = 2⇡ l T · K 1 · t = me ⇤
1
q l = 2⇡ l T · K 1 · t = me ⇤
✓ l = 2⇡ l T · K 1 · l

2

phase in a loop

Fractional statistics

Monodromy: qp aquires

around

e

Wen & Zee PRB 92, J. Fröhlich et al JSTAT 97

Multiple qp excitations

Hierarchical theories

m = 1 ! ! Single-qp 1 ! e ⇤ = 2 np + 1
m = 1
!
!
Single-qp
1
!
e ⇤ =
2 np + 1
!

( m ) ( x ) m > 1

m-agglomerate m me ⇤ Abelian + = ( m ) ( x ) e i
m-agglomerate
m
me ⇤
Abelian
+
=
( m ) ( x ) e i ✓ m sgn( x y )
( m ) ( y )

G ( m ) ( ) = h ( m ) ( ) ( m ) (0) i

G ( m ) ( ) / | | m

Scaling dimension

Fractional statistics

( m ) ( x ) ( m ) ( y ) =

Laughlin PRL 83, Arovas, Schrieffer & Wilczek PRL 84

QPC:Current & Noise

• ! m-qps • ( m ) ( m ) / T 2 m 2
!
m-qps
(
m )
( m )
/ T 2 m 2
G
I
B
B

Weak backscattering current

2 I = ⌫ e h V I B I B ⌧ I Power-law signatures
2
I = ⌫ e h V I B
I B ⌧ I
Power-law signatures in the
scaling dimension
m
/ V 2 m 1

Current noise signatures: charge measurement

+1 k B T ⌧ me ⇤ V S ( ! = 0) = Z
+1
k B T ⌧ me ⇤ V
S ( ! = 0) = Z
h { I B ( t ) , I B (0) } + i
I B = I B h I B i
1
S ( m ) ⇡ 2 k B T G B
( m )
S ( m ) = I
coth ✓ me 2 k B ⇤ T V
B
( m )
S ( m ) ⇡ me ⇤ I
B
k B T me ⇤ V

Multiple-qp evidences

Fractional charges: single-qps evidences

Theory:Kane & Fisher PRL 94, Fendley, Ludwig & Saleur PRL 95 Exp:De-Picciotto… Nature 97,Saminadayar.… PRL’97,Reznikov… Nature’99

Nature 97,Saminadayar.… PRL’97,Reznikov… Nature’99 Robert B. Laughlin, Horst L. Störmer and Daniel C. Tsui
Robert B. Laughlin, Horst L. Störmer and Daniel C. Tsui "for their discovery of a
Robert B. Laughlin, Horst L. Störmer and Daniel C. Tsui
"for their discovery of a new form of quantum fluid with fractionally charged excitations"
!

Multiple-qp. evidences

Chung…PRL03, Bid PRL03,Dolev….

Multiple-qp. evidences Chung…PRL03, Bid PRL03,Dolev…. Single qp Single qp Bunching Bunching e eff /e ⌫ =
Single qp Single qp Bunching Bunching
Single qp
Single qp
Bunching
Bunching
e eff /e ⌫ = 5/2
e eff /e
⌫ = 5/2

T (mK)

M. Heiblum (2/5,3/7,2/3,5/2,

),Willet(5/2),Yacoby

(2/3),…

Theoretical explanations 1

2 e ⇤
2 e ⇤
e ⇤
e ⇤

Single-qp and multiple-qp crossover

! ! ! !
!
!
!
!

!

= 2

5

Charge and neutral modes

g i ( ) =

1

1 + ! i | |

Fermi

G ( m ) ( ) g c ( ) m g n ( ) n

c

m

Mode velocity v n v c

!

n

!

c

D. Ferraro, A. B, M. Merlo, N. Magnoli, M. Sassetti PRL 08

Renormalization of scaling exponent

m = g c m + g n n

c

m

Coupling other degrees: Rosenow & Halperin PRL 02, Papa & MacDonald PRL 05 1/f noise + dissipation: A. B., D. Ferraro, M. Carrega, N. Magnoli, M. Sassetti NJP12

Theoretical explanations 2 Chung et al PRL 03 M. Heiblum data from Chung et al
Theoretical explanations 2
Chung et al PRL 03
M. Heiblum data from Chung et al PRL 03
4
ν =2/5
b
⌫ = 2
9mK
5
3
q=2e/5
Q
e ↵
2
e
1
82mK
q=e/5
0
0
20
40
60
Shot Noise, S (10 -30 A 2 /Hz)

D.

Ferraro, A. B., N. Magnoli, M. Sassetti, PRB10

D.

Ferraro, A. B., N. Magnoli, M. Sassetti, NJP10

Back Scattered Current, I B (pA)

S exc = Q e ( T ) coth Q e ( T T ) V I B ( V,T ) 2T G B ( T )

2

Q e ( T ) = "

3T

G

(tot)

B

d 2 S exc

dV 2

2 T d 3 I B

3

dV 3

#

1

2 V ! 0

I B i 3 ( e 2 I B )

h

1

2

V ! 0

Theoretical explanations 3

G B (10 − 6 S) Valid also for + 6= (2) (1) (1) I
G B (10 − 6 S)
Valid also for
+
6=
(2)
(1)
(1)
I
S exc (10 − 30 A 2 / Hz)

Data from M. Dolev and M.Heiblum

= 5/2

Non-Abelian theory

M. Carrega, D. Ferraro, A. B., N. Magnoli, M. Sassetti, PRL 107, 146404 (2011)

Abelian e eff /e Non-Abelian
Abelian
e eff /e
Non-Abelian

V ( µ V)

T (mK)
T (mK)

Why not at finite frequency ?

⇤ ! m = me V / ~
! m = me
V / ~

Josephson resonances

Blanter&Buettiker Phys.Rep.00, Rogovin&Scalapino Ann. Phys 74

Rich theoretical tools & interesting non-equilibrium phys.

Chamon

PRB95;

Sukhorukov

Chamon

EPL10;

PRB96;

Dolcini

PRB05;

Bena

PRB06;

Bena

PRB07;

Sukhorukov

PRB01;

Schoelkopf…03; Deblock…Science ’03; Engel…’04;Hekking….06;……

Interesting questions: how to measure it?

Lesovik

JETP97;Gavish

U

PRB00;Gavish

U

arXiv:0211646; Bednorz

PRL13; Aguado

PRL00;

Symmetrized or non-symmetrized ? [ I ( t ) , I ( t 0 )]
Symmetrized or non-symmetrized ?
[ I ( t ) , I ( t 0 )] 6= 0
Symmetrized noise (Landau docet)
+
1
(
m )
S ( m ) ( ! ) = Z 1
e i ! t h { I B ( t ) , I B (0) } + i = X S
(
! )
!
i
i
Non-symmetrized (Emission/absorption from QPC)

S

Aguado PRL00

+1

( ! ) = Z

(

m )

+/

1

e ± i ! t h I

(

m )

B

(

(

m )

B

t ) I

(0) i

Finite frequency detection

Lesovik G B and Loosen R JETP 65 295 (1997); Gavish U,….arXiv:0211646

!

( m ) ( ! ) Emission S 50⌦ + T T c 25 k
(
m )
( ! ) Emission
S
50⌦
+
T
T
c
25 k ⌦
! )
Absorption
S ( m )
(

Resonant

! = p 1 /LC
! = p 1 /LC

Cold detector T c T

( m ) ( Resonant ! = p 1 /LC Cold detector T c ⌧ T

Hot detector T c T

/LC Cold detector T c ⌧ T Hot detector T c T ! • Impedance matched

!

Impedance matched resonant detection scheme

Altimiras…1404.1792

! 5GHz

T 15 mK

h x 2 i • Output power proportional to variation of LC energy h (
h x 2 i
• Output power proportional to variation of LC energy
h
(
m )
(
m )
(
m )
S meas ( ! ) = K n S
( ! ) + n B ( ! )
S
( ! ) S ( m ) ( ! ) io
+
+
!
1
n B ( ! ) =
K = ⇣
(
m )
e ! /T C 1
2 L ⌘ 2 2⌘ 1 ⌧ 1
! < e h G
(
! ) i
ac

Noise properties in QPC-LC

Detector quantum limit (Cold detector)

k B T c ⌧ !
k B T c ⌧ !
• Detector quantum limit (Cold detector) k B T c ⌧ ! • ! ! (

!

!

( m ) ( m ) S meas ( ! ) ⇡ KS ( !
(
m )
(
m )
S meas ( ! ) ⇡ KS
( ! ) + O ( e ~! /k B T c )
+
k B T c ! ( m ) ( m ) ( m ) S
k B T c !
(
m )
( m )
( m )
S meas ( ! ) ⇡ K n S
( ! ) k B T c < e h G
( ! ) io
+
ac
( ! ) ⇡ K n S ( ! ) k B T c < e

Absorbitive QPC limit (Hot detector)

Is it measurable?

! 0 = e ⇤ V / ~
! 0 = e ⇤ V / ~

T = T c S meas ⌘ S ex
T = T c
S meas ⌘ S ex

Lowest order in the tunnelling

| t m | 2

(purely additive)

( m ) ( m ) S sym ( ! ) = X sym (
(
m )
(
m )
S sym ( ! ) = X sym ( ! )
!
S
S meas ( ! ) = X S
meas ( ! )
m
m
( m ) ( E )
Keldysh formalism blow up in Fermi’s rule: rate
Non-interacting result ⌫ = 1 S meas ( ω , ω 0 ) /K S
Non-interacting result
⌫ = 1
S meas ( ω , ω 0 ) /K
S sym ( ω , ω 0 )
Electron
T c = 15mK
! = 7. 9GHz(60mK)
a
)
c
)
!
= 660GHz(5K)
c
/ V
/ V

T = 0. 1, 5 , 15 , 30 [mK]

˜ S | t 1 | 2 1 0 ˜ S sym ( ! ,
˜
S
| t 1 | 2
1
0
˜
S sym ( ! , ! 0 )=2
[ ✓ ( ! 0 ! ) ! 0 + ✓ ( ! ! 0 ) ! ]
S 0 = e 2
!
2 2⇡↵ 2
!
c
c
!
˜
S meas ( ! , ! 0 ) ⇡ KS + ( ! , ! 0 ) = K ✓ S sym ( ! , ! 0 ) 2
S
k B T c ⌧ !
0
2
!
c ◆
(1) ( E ) / ✓ ( E ) E

Lesovik G B and Loosen R JETP 65 295 (1997)

Interacting case: Laughlin

S sym ( ω , ω 0 ) b )
S sym ( ω , ω 0 )
b
)
Interacting case: Laughlin S sym ( ω , ω 0 ) b ) ⌫ = 1
Interacting case: Laughlin S sym ( ω , ω 0 ) b ) ⌫ = 1
Interacting case: Laughlin S sym ( ω , ω 0 ) b ) ⌫ = 1

= 1/3

case: Laughlin S sym ( ω , ω 0 ) b ) ⌫ = 1 /

e = e

3

Single-qp T c = 15mK ! = 7. 9GHz(60mK) ! c = 660GHz(5K)

T = 0. 1, 5 , 15 , 30 [mK]

S meas ( ω , ω 0 ) /K d )
S meas ( ω , ω 0 ) /K
d
)
. 1 , 5 , 15 , 30 [mK] S meas ( ω , ω 0
. 1 , 5 , 15 , 30 [mK] S meas ( ω , ω 0
(1) 3 1 S sym ( ! , ! 0 ) ⇡ | ! !
(1)
3 1
S sym ( ! , ! 0 ) ⇡ | ! ! 0 | 4
1
/

Detector quatum limit

QPC Shot noise

Chamon, Freed & Wen PRB95,PRB96

• QPC Shot noise Chamon, Freed & Wen PRB95,PRB96 k B T c ⌧ ! k

k B T c !

k B T ! 0

( m ) ( m ) S meas ( ! , ! 0 ) ⇡
(
m )
(
m )
S meas ( ! , ! 0 ) ⇡ S
( ! ) ⇡ K ( me ⇤ ) 2 ( m ) ( ! + m ! 0 )
! ⇠ ! 0
+
2
(
m )
S meas ( ! , ! 0 )
returns directly the rates…….
m = 1
m = 1
Rate detection ⌫ = 1/3, 1/ 5, 1/ 7 T c = 10, 30, 60
Rate detection
= 1/3, 1/ 5, 1/ 7
T c = 10, 30, 60 , 90 mK
S meas (ω , ω 0 )/K
S ex ( ω , ω 0 ) /K
T c = T
Dashed lines
theoretical
rates
(1)
= ⌫
T = 10mK
a
)
b
)
2
It is possible to extract the scaling dimensions
without requiring an extended window in frequency
and bias simplifying the experimental requirements
Note that
T = T c
S meas ⌘ S ex
⌫ = 1/3 T c = 15mK ! = 7. 9GHz(60mK) ! c = 660GHz(5K)
⌫ = 1/3
T c = 15mK
! = 7. 9GHz(60mK)
! c = 660GHz(5K)

Hotter is better?

T c = 5, 15 , 30, 60 mK

∂ S meas ( ω , ω 0 ) K ∂ω 0 d )
∂ S meas ( ω , ω 0 )
K ∂ω 0
d
)
S meas ( ω , ω 0 ) /K b)
S meas ( ω , ω 0 ) /K
b)
( ω , ω 0 ) K ∂ω 0 d ) S meas ( ω ,
( ω , ω 0 ) K ∂ω 0 d ) S meas ( ω ,

The QPC cannot excite detector modes only absorptive

The QPC excites detector The combined effect is an enhancement of jump/peak

Resolving m-qp scalings? S sym 2 2 ⌫ = T = 0. 1, 5 ,
Resolving m-qp scalings?
S
sym
2
2
⌫ =
T
= 0. 1, 5 , 15 , 30 [mK]
⌫ =
5
3
S sym ( ω , ω 0 )
S sym ( ω , ω 0 )
e ⇤ = e
e ⇤ = e
5
3
a
)
b
)
(
m)
(
m )
1
S sym ( ! , ! 0 ) ⇡ | ! ! 0 | 4
Chamon, Freed & Wen PRB95,PRB96
! ⇡ m ! 0
Josephson resonances
Peaks (
(
m )
) or dips (
(
m )
)
< 1/ 4
> 1/ 4

Thermal effect spoil the signatures

Multiple-qp spectroscopy: S meas ⌫ = 2 T = 0. 1, 5 , 15 ,
Multiple-qp spectroscopy: S meas
⌫ = 2
T
= 0. 1, 5 , 15 , 30 [mK]
⌫ = 2
5
3
S meas (ω , ω 0 )/K
S meas (ω , ω 0 )/K
e ⇤ = e
e ⇤ = e
5
3
c
)
d
)
Note that
T = T c
S meas ⌘ S ex
S meas ( ! , ! 0 ) ⇡ ↵ 1 (1) ( ! 0 ! ) + ↵ 2 (2) (2! 0 ! )
Rates are directly fitted: scaling dimensions at finite T

Multiple-qps are observed in different window

Conclusion

QPC+LC resonator is a powerful tool

f.f. noise resolve the presence of multiple qps

Multiple-qp spectroscopy can be done at realistic T

Information on qps by analysing bias behaviour

Changing detector temperature increases the sensibility

Validate composite edge model theories

This techniques can be used in other systems New. J. Phys. 16 043018 (2014)