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2. Prestressing classification and types,
materials and equipment
2.1 Prestressing classification and types
2.2 Prestressing materials
steel
concrete
2.3 Prestressing equipment
2.4 Prestressed vs. reinforced concrete
advantages
disadvantages
2.1 Prestressing classification and
types
Prestressed concrete structures can be classified in a
number of ways, depending upon their features of design
and construction
Classification 1: Pre-tensioning and post-tensioning
Classification 2: Externally or internally prestressed
Classification 3: Linear or circular prestressing
Classification 4: End-anchored or non-end-anchored tendons
Classification 5: Bonded or unbonded tendons
Classification 6: Precast, cast-in-place , composite construction
Classification 7: Partial or full prestressing
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2.1.1 Classification 1: Pre-tensioning
Pre-tensioning
Stage 1:
The steel is tensioned between abutments and fixed to
them
Stage 2:
Fresh concrete placed in moulds around the tensioned steel
Stage 3:
When concrete has achieved sufficient compressive
strength, the steel is released from the abutments,
transferring the prestress force to the concrete through the
bond that now exists between the steel and the hardened
concrete
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2.1.1 Classification 1: Post-
tensioning
Post-tensioning
Stage 1:
The formwork exists and the concrete is cast around a protective duct
which follows the pre-determined profile of pre-stressing tendons
Tendons may or may not be passed through the protective duct prior
to placing the concrete around it
Stage 2:
When the required concrete strength has been achieved, the
prestressing steel is stressed against the ends of the concrete
unit/structure
Stage 3:
When the required tension force is applied to the prestressing steel end
anchorage is placed at the end of the prestressing tendon against the
end of the concrete unit thus putting the concrete into compression
stressing from one end only
stressing from both ends
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2.1.2 Classification 2: Externally or
internally prestressed
Two types of external prestressing:
by adjusting external reactions
by using deviators and externally led tendons
External Reactions
Although this course is devoted to the design of prestressed
concrete structures internally prestressed, presumably with high-
tensile steel, it must be mentioned that it is sometimes possible to
prestress a concrete structure by adjusting its external reactions
Externally lead prestressing tendons
Outside the section
External Prestresing
Example 1
Example 2
Example 3
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Internal Prestressing
Tendons are
passing through
the cross section
2.1.3 Classification 3: Linear and
circular prestressing
The term circular prestressing is employed to denote the prestressing of circular
structures such as pipes and tanks where the prestressing wires are wound in
circles or semi-circles
In contrast to the circular prestressing, linear prestressing is used to include all
other types of prestressing, where the cables may be either straight or curved, but
not wound in circles abound a circular structure
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2.1.4 Classification 4: End-anchored and
non-end-anchored
End-anchored
post-tensioned
Non-end-anchored
pre-tensioned
2.1.5 Classification 5: Bonded or
unbonded tendons
Bonded tendons denote those bonded
throughout their length to the
surrounding concrete.
Non-end-anchored tendons are necessarily
bonded ones whereby bond between the
pretensioned steel and concrete serves a
s a medium for transmitting stresses
between steel and concrete.
End-anchored tendons may be either
bonded or unbonded to the concrete; in
general the bonding of post-tensioned
tendons is accomplished by subsequent
grouting; if unbonded, protection of the
tendons from corrosion may be by
greasing or some other means.
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2.1.6 Classification 6 : Precast
prestressed
Precast:
video presentation
typically pre-tensioned structures
precasting involves the placing of concrete away from
its final position, the members being cast either in a
permanent plant or somewhere near the site of the
structure
2.1.6 Classification 6: Cast-in-place
prestressed
Cast-in-place
another term in-situ post-tensioned...
post-tensioned
cast in place prestressed concrete requires more
form and falsework per unit of product but saves
the cost of transportation and erection, and is a
necessity for large and heavy members
video presentations
first one
second one (16min)
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2.1.6 Classification 6: Composite
prestressed construction
Oftentimes, it is economical to precast part
of a member, erect it, and then cast the
remaining portion in place
precast elements may serve as formwork for
the cast in situ part; therefor, it is possible to
save much of the form and falsework required
for total cast-in-place construction
Examples of composite prestressed
construction
In Buildings
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Examples of composite prestressed
construction
In Bridge Engineering
2.1.7 Classification 7: Partial or full
prestressing
A further distinction between the types of prestressing is sometimes made
depending depending on the degree of prestressing to which a concrete member is
subject
Full prestressing: When a member is designed so that under the working load
there are no tensile stress in it, then the concrete is said to be fully prestressed
Partial prestressing: If some tensile stress will be produced in the member
under working load, then it is termed partial prestressed
BS8110 divides prestressed concrete into three classes:
Class 1 members
no tensile stresses is permitted
Class 2 members
the permissible tensile stress are kept sufficiently low
Class 3 members
the tensile stresses are restricted such that crack widths do not exceed
0.1mm for severe environments and 0.2mm for other conditions
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Comparison of partial and full
prestressing in BS8110 and EC2
EC2 statement:
An element of prestressed concrete is considered as fully prestressed if it is designed
under restricted tensile stresses under service conditions. Otherwise it is
considered as partially prestressed
Note:
BS8110 Class 1 members are conveniently referred to as fully prestressed
members; Class 2 (tension with no cracks) and Class 3 (cracks) are partially
prestressed
EC2 considers fully prestressed elements as both fully compressed elements or
elements where tension is limited to the tensile strength of the concrete;
prestressed elements having cracks are referred to as partially prestressed in EC2
2.2 Prestressing materials (1)
Reference: Allen (1992, p.15-20)
Required concrete characteristics
good quality concrete is required with:
high characteristic strength typically
since always under high compression
high initial strength
especially for pre-tensioned concrete
additives or steam curing may be used
low shrinkage
especially pre-tensioned
helped by high initial and characteristic strength
low creep under sustained load
helped by high initial and characteristic strength
typical stress-strain relationship is the same as for RC (BS8110, EC2)
will be given later
40 60 N / mm
2
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2.2 Prestressing materials (2)
Required steel characteristics
high tensile strength
long linear elastic range
low relaxation under sustained load
adequate ductility
for ultimate load
Types of prestressing steel
wire
single wires typically
2-7mm diameter
strand
composed of 7 wires spun together;
8-15mm diameter
compacted strand
drawn strand
alloy bar
12-50mm dia
usually used straight
tendon
separate wires, bars or strands
cable
a number of tendons; i.e. the complete area of
prestressing steel in a beam
2.3 Prestressing equipment
Allen (1992, p. 21-32)
equipment for pre-tensioning
equipment for post-tensioning
Slide presentation
equipment
typical applications
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2.4 Comparison of RC and PSC
Advantages v.s. disadvantages
generally speaking
when using pre-cast unites
Handout